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SEMINAR ON COMPREHENSIVE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY (JICA)

Theme of the Action Plane

Recycling Practice in DCC

Mohammad Ali Project Coordinator JICA Expert Team


Waste Management Division Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) Dhaka ,Bangladesh

Theme: Recycling Practice in DCC


Background
Major Material Recycled out of Municipal Solid Waste are Glass, Plastic, Metal, Paper and Rubber etc. A survey (2005) on solid waste generated rate and physical composition analysis found that per capita solid waste generation rate in DCC area is 0.524 kg/cap/day and the total amount of solid waste generated in DCC area is estimated at 3315 tons/day. On average 4.15% of the total waste generated in DCC area is plastic. There are mainly four stakeholders: waste pickers, primary buyer, whole sale shop keepers and the factories. Sometimes households sell the products directly to the primary buyers.

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Major Material Recycled out of Municipal Solid Waste

Glass Plastic Metal Paper Rubber Others

Structure of Recycling Market

Waste Generator

Collector

Collector/ Buyer

Buyer

Factory/ Recycle Export Domestic User

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Estimated Recyclable Materials Volume


Materials Paper Plastic Iron Broken glass Bottle (Glass & Plastic) Can (Iron & Aluminum) Others (Rubber, Bones, etc.) Total
Biswas, DCC Container Survey, 2003

Quantiy (ton/day) 210-225 130-135 90-100 40-45 20-25 15-20 95-100 600-650

A survey (2005) on solid waste generated rate and physical composition analysis found that per capita solid waste generation rate in Dhaka City Corporation (DCC) area is 0.524 kg/cap/day and the total amount of solid waste generated in DCC area is estimated at 3315 tons/day. On average 4.15% of the total waste generated in DCC area is plastic.

Paper
Old Newspaper Cardboard Clean paper Book (white & newspaper)
Household Street Hawker Retail Shopper

Wholesaler

Broker

Factory (Manufacturer)

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Plastic
Polyethylene Soft plastic Plastic Bottle
Broker Broker

Waste Picker (Tokai)

Retail Shopper (Vangari Dokans)

Wholesaler

Raw material supplier

Floting Buyer (Feriwallas) Factory (Manufacturer)

Glass
Glass Bottle Broken Glass

Waste Picker (Tokai)

Retail Shopper (Vangari Dokans)

Wholesaler

Floating Buyer (Feriwallas)

Factory (Manufacturer)

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Metal
Broker

Waste Picker (Tokai)

Retail Shopper (Vangari Dokans)

Wholesaler

Broker

Factory (Manufacturer)

Estimation Selling Price of Recyclable Materials


Materials Plastic pieces Paper Cardboard Bottle Glass Bottle Plastic Iron Can (Tin) Can (Aluminum) Broken Glass Sponge Rubber Bone
80 Tk/ 100 pic 90 Tk/100 pic. 100 Tk/100 pic. 110 Tk/ 100pic 5%-7%

Tokai
18-20 Tk/Kg

Retail Shop
22-23Tk/Kg

Wholesale
24-25 Tk/Kg

Raw materials Supplier


26-27 Tk/Kg

Profit by factory
7% -10%

5-6 Tk/Kg 7-8 Tk/Kg

7 Tk/Kg 9 Tk/Kg

8 Tk/Kg 10 Tk/Kg

9 Tk/Kg 11 Tk/Kg

8% 10% 10%-15%

22-24 Tk/Kg

25-26 Tk/Kg

27 Tk/Kg

28-29 Tk/Kg

10% 15%

22-24 Tk/Kg

25-26 Tk/Kg

27 Tk/Kg

28-29 Tk/Kg

8% 15%

20-22 Tk/Kg 60-70 Tk/Kg 2 Tk/Kg 20-22 Tk/Kg 20-22 Tk/Kg 8-10 Tk/Kg

23 Tk/Kg 65-72 Tk/Kg 3-4 Tk/Kg 24-25 Tk/Kg 24-25 Tk/Kg 11-13 Tk/Kg

24-25 Tk/Kg 75-80 Tk/Kg 5-6 Tk/Kg 26-27 Tk/Kg 26-27 Tk/Kg 15-18 Tk/Kg

26-27 Tk/Kg 82-85 Tk/Kg 7-8 Tk/Kg 28-30Tk/Kg 28-30Tk/Kg 19-22 Tk/Kg

5%-10% 10 %-12% 5%-6% 6%-8% 10%-15% 5%-8%

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Primary Waste Segregation Present & Past Practice

Previous

Present

Waste Picker (Tokai)

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Feriwalla/ Feriwalla/ Mobile waste buyer

Secondary Segregation of Recyclable Waste

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Retail Shop (Vangari Dokans) (Vangari Dokans)

Whole sealer

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Waste Segregation at different level

Different Type of Plastic Waste

Plastic Bottle (mainly drinks, mineral water, oil container) Plastic Plastic thick paper

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Plastic waste Recycling Processing

Segregated Hard Plastic

Mixed Plastic Waste

Plastic Segregation

Segregated Soft Plastic

Soft Plastic waste Recycling Processing

Segregated Soft Plastic

Washing

Different Plastic Product

Drying in Sunlight

Manufacturing

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Hard Plastic waste Recycling Processing

Segregated Hard Plastic Segregating different Hard Plastic

Shredding Hard Plastic

Drying in sunlight after washing

Manufacturing

Different Plastic Product

Recycled Plastic Product

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Plastic Industries in Bangaldesh


According to Bangladesh Plastic Goods Manufacturer and Exporters Association (BPGMEA), there are 2997 plastic industries located in different parts of Bangladesh. Following Table shows the type of plastic industries in Bangladesh.
Category Number Small 1955 Medium 980 Large 52

Out of total 2997 industries, 381 are hundred percent export-oriented.

Figure 1 shows the location of plastic industries in the country.

Waste use as alternative fuel in Brick field

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Paper waste Processing before Recycling

Paper Manufacturing Industry

Health Hazard

Segregation Site

Container Site

Dumping Site

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Waste : Food for cow

Environmental Degradation

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Theme : Recycling Practice in DCC Improving Targets for the Theme


From the survey it is clear that, materials like plastic, paper, glass, metal etc are the most valuable or profitable recyclable wastes for all stakeholder in DCC. DCC can improved recycling system and can create jobs. The practice of reuse can reduce the waste generation and also the system of recycling help to required less landfill site. Some precaution should be taken to collect the recyclable materials by waste pickers. In near future, it will appear as a very important large industry in Bangladesh. So it need to know how recycling of waste can be made more environmentally-friendly like Japan and others developed countries do and taking their experience to develop a system in our local context.

Major problems of organization faced:


At present recycling system in DCC administrative area is totally depend on an informal collation system and present system it has been identified that the system creates many problem such as:

Environmental pollution Air pollution Health ricks for waste picker Bad smiles Overall it creates a problem for the general people also.

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Objective of Action plan To develop a sustainable recycling system for DCC

Learning from Japan


Lectures/ Site Visits
Orientation progarmme Technical presentations Site visits to Sitham Environmental Center Visit to Kawasaki city Visit to Fujisawa city Visit Kanagawa clean center Suginami tenth elementary school Kawasaki municipal hospital Kyoto city, Osaka bay (Kobe offshore reclamation disposal site Izumi recycling plant Fukuoka city final disposal site Visit JESC

Learning points
Study about Japanese education, Japanese Economy, Japanese politics, Administration system, History of Japan and culture. Technical knowhow on Solid Waste Management (Technical knowledge) Study about Environmental monitoring and waste water testing. Studied about the operation of transfer stations and functioning of pet bottle recycling factory Studied about importance of incinerators in solid waste management and practiced time and motion study to understand efficiency of waste collection system. Studied about the operation of industrial waste incineration plant and different types of incinerators Studied about environmental education such as 3R and 5R at elementary school in Japan Observed a modern hospital and their waste management system including healthcare waste storage system, waste segregation ,waste treatment system and environmental safely disposal Studied final disposal site for ash waste and waste water treatment facility and construction of offshore landfill for ash waste disposal. Studied about FUKUOKA, Semi-aerobic land filling technology, leachate treatment facilities and post landfill utilization. Studied about the organization and function of JESC and observed facilities available in JESC for environmental monitoring progarmme. Studied the analysis of different important parameters of solid waste such as Bulk density, Calorific value and Dioxin analysis. Studied about operation of green composting plant including pretreatment, shredding and maintenance of windrows. (tree cutting ) Observe organic (kitchen) waste collecting system , Organic waste processing facility To observe recycling of household appliance system in Tochigi prefecture.

Green compost plant Yokohama city. Saitama composting plant Tochigi prefecture (Kanto) Eco recycling plant.

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Activity
Intensive study of the existing recycling system Develop a suitable recycling system Piloting the system in some selective ward Finalize the recycling system for DCC

Reason (role) for Taking This Theme of Action Plan


As a Conservancy Inspector I am responsible for conservancy works at ward level of DCC, Bangladesh Responsible for improving present condition of primary collection The conservancy department of DCC has idea to formalize the present informal sector of waste recycling and it is my duty to execute this programme successfully. In this regard the experience I obtained through this tanning programme can be used effectively

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Human Resources
Assignment Team Leader Assistant Team Leader Social Mobilizer Entrepreneurship Developer No. 1 1 2 1

Organization Schedule
Work Description D.C.C Consulting Farm/ NGO One CF One CF 1 NGO 1 NGO Same NGO Same NGO Feb09 Feb09 April09 April09 Start End

1 2 3 3.a

Intensive study of the existing recycling system Develop a suitable recycling system Piloting the system in some selective ward Waste segregation program School/ Institution Awareness program House Hold Awareness

Team Team Team Team Team Team

Agust08 Nov08

Oct;08 Jan08

Feb09

Jun09

Recycling Entrepreneur development/ or develop skill of Entrepreneur

Team

Same NGO

Feb09

Apri09

4 5

Finalize the recycling system for DCC Promote/ Implement the system in DCC

Team Team

One CF All NGO/CBO

May09 Aug09

Jul09 Jul10

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Financial Resources
Work Description BD (Taka)
Tk 1000,000 Tk. 1000,000

US $
14286 14286

1 2 3 3.a

Intensive study of the existing recycling system Develop a suitable recycling system Piloting the system in some selective ward Waste segregation program School/ Institution Awareness program House Hold Awareness Recycling Entrepreneur development/ or develop skill of Entrepreneur

Tk. 3500,000

50000

4 5

Finalize the recycling system for DCC Promote/ Implement the system in DCC

Tk. 5000,000 Tk. 10000,000

71429 142858

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