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Signal Analysis Back-to-Basics

Long Nguyen Application Engineer Long_nguyen@non.agilent.com

Agenda
Introduction Overview:
What is Signal Analysis? What Measurements are available?

Theory of Operation Specifications Specifications Modern Signal Analyzer Designs & Capabilities
Wide Bandwidth Vector Measurements

Wrap-up
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 2

Overview

What is Signal, Vector and Spectrum Analysis? Signal

Display and measure amplitude versus frequency for RF & MW signals Separate or demodulate complex signals into their base components (sine waves)
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 3

Spectrum Analysis

Overview

Frequency versus Time Domain

Amplitude (p (power) )

Time domain Measurements


(Oscilloscope)

Frequency Domain Measurements


(Spectrum Analyzer)
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 4

Overview

Types of Measurements Available


Modulation

Frequency, power, modulation, distortion & noise


Spectrum monitoring S i Spurious emissions i i Scalar network analysis Noise figure & phase noise Harmonic & intermodulation distortion Analog, digital, burst & pulsed RF Modulation Wide bandwidth vector analysis Electromagnetic interference Measurement range (-168 dBm to +30 dBm) Frequency range (3 Hz to 325 GHz)

Noise

Spur Search

Distortion
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 5

Overview

Different Types of Analyzers Diff tT fA l

FFT Analyzer A
Parallel filters measured simultaneously i lt l LCD shows full spectral di l l display

f1

f2

f
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 6

Overview

Different Types of Analyzers Diff tT fA l

Swept Analyzer A
Filter 'sweeps' over range of interest i t t LCD shows full spectral display

f1

f2

f
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 7

Agenda
Introduction Overview Theory of Operation:
Swept Spectrum Analyzer Hardware

Specifications Modern spectrum analyzer designs & capabilities


Wide Bandwidth Vector Measurements

Wrap-up

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 8

Theory of Operation
RF inp t input attenuator mixer
Input signal
Pre-Selector Or Low Pass Input Filter

Swept Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram S tS t A l Bl k Di


IF filter (RBW)

IF gain

envelope detector
Log Amp

local oscillator sweep generator


Crystal Reference Oscillator

video filter

ADC, Display & Video Processing


www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 9

Theory of Operation

Display terminology

Reference Level

Start Freq.

Amp plitude

Stop Freq.

Freq. Span

Center Freq.
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 10

Theory of Operation
Mixer Mi

MIXER

f sig
1.5 GHz

RF

LO

IF
f sig

f LO - f sig

f LO + f sig

f LO

3,6 GHz

f LO

6.5 GHz

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 11

Theory of Operation

IF Filter

IF Filter (Resolution Bandwidth RBW)

Input Spectrum IF Bandwidth (RBW) Display


A B C
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 12

Theory of Operation
Envelope D t t E l Detector

Before detector

After detector

Envelope Detector

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 13

Theory of Operation

Video Filter (Video Bandwidth VBW)

Video Filter

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 14

Theory of Operation
Video Filter vs. Trace/Video averaging

Video Filter

ADC, Display & Video Processing

Video Filter operates as the sweep progresses, sweep time may be required to slow down by the transient response of the VBW filter. f h fil Trace/Video Average takes multiple s eeps, sweep time o each sweep s sweeps, s eep t e for eac s eep is not affected
Trace averaging for 1, 5, 20, and 100 sweeps, top to bottom (t b tt (trace position offset for each set of sweeps) iti ff t f h t f )

Many signals give the same results with either video filtering or trace ith ith id filt i t averaging
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 15

Theory of Operation
Other Components

LO SWEEP GEN LCD Display, ADC & Video processing IF GAIN

RF INPUT ATTENUATOR

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 16

Theory of Operation
fs
0 1 2 3 (GHz) Signal Range

How it All Works Together - 3 GHz spectrum analyzer


LO Range

f LO - f s fs
0 1

f LO

f LO + f s
IF filter 6 detector

mixer input

3.6

6.5 3.6 GHz

sweep generator LO

f IF
A

f LO
3 3.6 36 4 5 6 6.5 65 (GHz)

3 (GHz)

LCD display

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 17

Agenda
Overview Theory of Operation Specifications:
Which are important and why?

Modern spectrum analyzer designs & capabilities


Wide Bandwidth Vector Measurements

Wrap-up

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 18

Key Specifications
8563A
SPECTRUM ANALYZER 9 kHz - 26.5 GHz

Safe S f spectrum analysis t l i Frequency Range Accuracy: Frequency & Amplitude Resolution Sensitivity Distortion Dynamic Range

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 19

Specifications

Practicing f P ti i safe spectrum analysis - S f Hookups to RF I t t l i Safe H k t Input


Use best practices to eliminate static discharge to the RF input! Use Do not exceed the Damage Level on the RF Input! Do not input signals with DC bias!

!
0 V DC MAX +30dBm (1W) MAX

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 20

Specifications
Description Internal Mixing Bands 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 External mixing

Frequency Range F R
Specifications

3 Hz to 3.0 GHz 2.85 6 6 2 85 to 6.6 GHz 6.2 to 13.2 GHz 12.8 to 19.2 GHz 18.7 to 26.8 GHz 26.4 to 31.15 GHz 31.0 t 50 0 GH 31 0 to 50.0 GHz 18 to 325 GHz

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 21

Specifications
Accuracy: Frequency & amplitude

Components which contribute to uncertainty are: Input mismatch (VSWR) RF Input attenuator (Atten. switching uncertainty) Mixer and input filter (frequency response) IF gain/attenuation (reference level accuracy) RBW filters (RBW switching uncertainty) Log amp (display scale fidelity) Reference oscillator (frequency accuracy) Calibrator (amplitude accuracy)
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 22

Specifications

Accuracy: Frequency Readout Accuracy A F R d tA Determined by Reference Accuracy

From the PSA Data Sheet:

(freq readout x freq reference error + 0.25%*span + 5% of RBW + 2Hz + 0.5 x Horiz. Res.*)

IF filter center frequency error

RBW Error

Span Accuracy

Residual Error
*Horizontal resolution is span/(sweep points 1)
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 23

Specifications
Accuracy: Frequency Readout Accuracy Example Frequency: 1 GHz Span: Span 400 kH kHz RBW: 3 kHz Sweep points: 1000
Calculation (1x109Hz) x (1.8x107/Year ref. Error) = 180Hz 400kHz Span x 0.25% = 1000Hz 3kHz 3kH RBW x 5% = 150H 150Hz 2Hz + 0.5 x 400kHz/1000-1 = 202Hz Total uncertainty = 1532Hz

Utilizing internal frequency counter improves accuracy to 180Hz

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 24

Specifications
Resolution

What Determines Resolution?

Resolution Bandwidth

RBW Type and Selectivity

Noise Sidebands N i Sid b d


www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 25

Specifications
Resolution: Resolution Bandwidth
Mixer
Input Spectrum
LO

3 dB BW

3 dB

Envelope Detector

IF Filter/ Resolution Bandwidth Filter (RBW) Sweep

RBW Display

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 26

Specifications
Resolution: Noise Sidebands

Phase Noise

Noise Sidebands can prevent resolution of unequal signals l ti f l i l


www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 27

Specifications
Resolution: RBW Determines Sweep Time
Meas Uncal

Swept too fast

Penalty For Sweeping Too Fast Is An Uncalibrated Display


www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 28

Specifications

Resolution: RBW Type Determines Sweep Time 8563E Analog RBW PSA Digital RBW PSA FFT RBW

280 sec 134 sec 13.5 sec


www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 29

Specifications
Sensitivity/DANL
RF Input Mixer RES BW Filter LO Detector

Sweep

A Spectrum Analyzer Generates and Amplifies Noise Just Like Any Active Circuit y
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 30

Specifications
Sensitivity/DANL

Sensitivity is the Smallest Signal That Can Be Measured

Signal Equals E l Noise

2.2 dB

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 31

Specifications
Sensitivity/DANL

Effective Level of Displayed Noise is a Function of RF Input Attenuation


signal level

10 dB Attenuation = 10 dB A i Attenuation = 20 dB

Signal To Noise Ratio Decreases as RF I Input A Attenuation i I i is Increased d


www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 32

Specifications
Sensitivity/DANL: IF Filter(RBW)

Displayed Noise is a Function of IF Filter Bandwidth


100 kHz RBW 10 dB 10 dB 10 kHz RBW 1 kHz RBW

Decreased BW = Decreased Noise D d D dN i


www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 33

Specifications
Sensitivity/DANL: Video BW filter (or Trace Averaging)

Video BW or Trace Averaging Smoothes Noise for Easier Identification of Low Level Signals g

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 34

Specifications
Sensitivity/DANL: Summary

For Best Sensitivity Use:


Narrowest Resolution BW Minimum RF Input Attenuation Sufficient Averaging (video or trace)

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 35

Specifications
Distortion

Most Influential Distortion is the Second and Third Order


< -50 dBc < -40 dBc < -50 dBc

Two-Tone Intermod

Harmonic Distortion

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 36

Specifications

RF INPUT ATTENUATOR

IF GAIN

Distortion Internal or E t Di t ti I t l External? l? Attenuator Test: Change power to the mixer


1 2
Change input attenuator by 10 dB Watch distortion amplitude on W h di i li d screen

No change in amplitude: distortion is part of input signal (external) Change in amplitude: at least some of the distortion is being generated inside the analyzer (internal) (i l)
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 37

Specifications
Spectrum Analyzer Dynamic Range

Dynamic y Range g

The ratio, expressed in dB, of the largest to the smallest signals simultaneously present at the input of the spectrum analyzer that allows measurement of the smaller signal to a given degree of uncertainty.
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 38

Agenda
Introduction Overview Theory of Operation Specifications Modern spectrum analyzer designs & capabilities Modern
Wide Analysis Bandwidth Measurements

Wrap-up

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 39

Modern Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram


Pre-amp Analog IF Filter Digital IF Filter Digital Detectors

FFT
Attenuation YIG Swept vs . FFT ADC
Replaced by y

Digital Log Amp g g p

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 40

Modern Spectrum Analyzer Block Diagram


Auto Alignment T Temp & time calibration i lib i 3 to 50 GHz Pre-amp Analog Pre-Filter Improve 1 GHz DANL -153dBm (Single Pole) 153dB to -168dBm

Digital IF Filters Digital Detectors 160 RBW filters 4.1:1 Shape factor Normal RMS 1 Hz to 8 MHz Fast sweep Peak QPD EMI RBWs Min 0.03 dB Avg Sample switching error Sample

FFT
Attenuation 2 dB step to 50 GHz FFT vs Swept RBW Digital Log Amp Faster Sweep 0.07 dB Scale Fidelity w/Max DR >100 dB Dynamic range 0 0 dB reference level error 0.0 14 bit ADC Digitally S h i d Di i ll Synthesized LO Wider dynamic range Fast tuning Frequency Counter Digital Video Filters with autoranging Close-in phase noise Fast (0.1s) Power, voltage, Dither on/off Far-out phase noise High resolution (mHz) log filtering

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 41

Modern Spectrum Analyzer Features


Built in One Button Built-in One-Button Power Measurements
Power Measurements Occupied Bandwidth Channel Power Multi-Offset M l i Off ACP f ACP fast Multi-carrier Power CCDF Harmonic Distortion Burst Power TOI Spurious Emissions Spectral Emissions Mask
GSM/EDGE cdma2000 W-CDMA cdmaOne NADC/PDC Bluetooth Tetra (Ch. Pwr, ACP) 802.11a/b (SEM) HiperLAN2 (SEM) DVB-T UWB S-DMB
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 42

Format Setups

Modern Spectrum Analyzer Features


Application Focused Internal Software (one-button measurements) pp ( )
Phase noise
ACPR, Multi-carrier Power Occupied Bandwidth (OBW) Spectral Emissions Mask Phase and Freq. (PFER) Mod Accuracy (Rho) Code Domain Power ORFS (GSM/EDGE) Spurious Emissions Power vs Time Channel power IM distortion CCDF ACPR EVM SEM Flexible Digital Demod Formats FSK2, FSK4, FSK8 MSK type1, MSK type2 BPSK, QPSK, OQPSK, DQPSK Pi/4DQPSK, 8PSK Pi/4DQPSK 8PSK, D8PSK 16QAM, 32QAM, 64QAM 128QAM, 256QAM
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 43

General purpose applications Flexible digital modulation analysis

Ext. source control Noise figure Code compatibility suite Flexible demod W-CDMA, HSDPA, HSUPA GSM with EDGE Cdma2000 & 1xEV-DV 1xEV-DO cdmaOne NADC/PDC TD-SCDMA

Power & digital modulation measurements for wireless comms formats.

Modern designs demand more bandwidth for capturing high data rate signals and analyzing the quality of digitally modulated bandwidths anal ing q alit digitall mod lated band idths Aerospace and Defense
Radar Chirp errors & modulation quality Satellite Capture 36/72 MHz BWs w/high data rates Military communications Capture high data rate digital comms & measure EVM

Who needs wide analysis BW?

Emerging communications
W-LAN, 802.16 (wireless last mile), mesh networks - Measure EVM on broadband, high data rate signals

Cellular Communications
W-CDMA ACPR & Multi-carrier Pre-Distortion - High dynamic range over 60 MHz BW to see low level 3rd order distortion for 4 carrier pre distortion pre-distortion algorithms
www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 44

PSA Wide Analysis Bandwidth


Existing Narrowband IF (10 MHz)
Pre-filter 14 bit 30 Msps Swept Results

CPU

A/D
Auto range

ASIC
Detectors Log Amp RBW filters Decimation

Demod I/Q FFT

Display Proc

Display

A/D
Swept and Stepped S LO 14 bit 200 Msps

ASIC & FPGA

I/Q Detectors Filters Decimation Resampling

Demod FFT Memory Calibration

Wideband IF/Digitizer (80 MHz)

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 45

PSA Wide Analysis Bandwidth

80 MHz Analysis Bandwidth Snapshot w/Real Time, Calibrated, Digital IQ Detection

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 46

Agenda
Introduction Overview Theory of Operation Specifications Modern spectrum analyzer designs & capabilities Modern
Wide Analysis Bandwidth Measurements

Wrap-up

www.agilent.com/find/b2b Slide 47

Agilent X-Series Signal Analysis


An evolutionary approach to signal analysis that spans instrumentation, measurements and software
PSA
Market leading performance 3 Hz to 50 GHz

PXA
X-Series

Sep 09

Price

MXA
X-Series

Sep 06

High performance 3 Hz to 26.5 GHz

Mid performance Sep 07

Expanded backward code compatibility with 8566/68 on PXA /MXA/EXA

EXA
X-Series

20 Hz to 26.5 GHz

ESA
Worlds most popular 100 Hz to 26.5 GHz Sep 09

Economy class 9 kHz to 26,5 GHz

CXA
X-Series

89601B VSA software


See through the complexity!

N9320B

Low cost

HSA
Page 48

9 kHz to 7.5 GHz Basic-performance 9 kHz to 3 GHz

Performance

Applications Available on the PXA (frequency band up to 50GHz w/ FW Rev. A.08.03)


New Applications in Rev A 08 03 Rev. A.08.03 Web-downloadable in June, 2011

N9063A Analog demod

N9062A FSP/FSU/FSE compatibility

N6171A MATLAB

N9080/N9082A LTE N9071A GSM/EDGE/ TDD/FDD EDGE E Evo

N9075A Mobile M bil WiMAX

N6158A CMMB

N6153A DVBT/H with T2


New

New

N9068A Phase noise

N9061A 865xE/EC & 8566/68 compatibility

N9073A WCDMA/HSPA/ HSPA+

N9072A cdma2000/ cdmaOne

N9081A Bl Bluetooth h

N6152A Digital cable TV

N6155A ISDB/T with Tmm ith

New

N9069A Noise Figure

N9051A* N9051A Pulse

Enhanced

N9079A TD-SCDMA/ HSPA/8PSK

N9076A 1XEV-DO

N6156A DTMB

N9064A VXA

N6141A EMC

N6149A iDEN/WiDEN/ MotoTalk

* The pulse measurement applications be upgradable in September 2011

The Agilent HSA family


Apr 2008
N9340B 3GHz HSA
Higher frequency Better performance Innovative features

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N9342C 7GHz HSA
Higher frequency New features

Mar 2011
N9344C 20GHz HSA N9343C 13.6GHz HSA

Award winning product Best-in-class Best in class specifications Unique applications: AM/FM IBOC and xDSL

100 kHz to 7 GHz (tunable to 9 kHz) Innovative task planner Built-in GPS receiver and antenna Secure erase of user data

1 MHz to 20/13.6 GHz (tunable to 9 kHz) New features include AM/FM modulation analysis Time-gated spectrum analysis g p y 11-language support

5-year contract won from US Navy


Comply with MIL-PRF-28800F Class 2

Agilent 1st wave handheld spectrum analyzer