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By H. With By Douglas Cpckerell. imagination pendent arts. In Preparation : CABINET-MAKING AND DESIGNING. Edited by W. SILVERWORK AND JEWELRY. It will consist of authoritative statements by experts in every field for the exercise of ingenuity.40 net. Spooner. $1.25 net postage. . and Diagrams by Noel Rooke. With 160 Diagrams and 16 i2mo. 12 cents additional. APPLETON AND COMPANY. Lethaby." — BOOKBINDING AND THE CARE OF BOOKS. 12 cents additional. NEW YORK. Book for Students a Text- and Workers in Metal. Handbook for Amateurs. postage. 20 Illustrations 8 collotype . the whole sphere of the so-called "detaste. Bookbinders. full-page Wilson. ^1. D. and of bindings. in TTHE -'- series will appeal to handicraftsmen the industrial and mechanic arts.THE ARTISTIC CRAFTS SERIES OF TECHNICAL HANDBOOKS. 1 A and Librarians. reproductions i2mo. Illustrations. R. By C.


.The Foundress' Cup : Christ's College. Cambridge.


. c. Appleton and Company .. 1903 . R Copyright. L 1503. LENOX AND T1LD€N FOUWPATION8.. -'y^ii fights reserved ' r c Published February. 1903 By D.THE NEW YORK P!ir^''- LIBRARY 357689 ASTOR.

so much difficulty in the to-day which have the Mechanism has destroyed goldsmith' s art. their exactitude. is everyzvhere seen in early goldsmith' s work.. however." "On Medieval Gold and Silver Work" (" VioLLET LE Duc. When. their even precision.** ** It is evident so that the value is of methods and apparatus simple as these dependent on the skill and talent of the worker who uses them.) the imitation the — y5 /J . mechanical methods develop. no dustry. is to ** One may In Art : do whate'' er one likes That one —which make — Robert Browning (<'Pippa Passes"). the only thing does like it sure takes pains to know." vol. and his energies are now directed of the cold and arid regularity of machine. ii."An those Art can only be learned in the workshop of itJ*^ who are winning their bread by —Samuel Butler (* Erewhon "). the habit of the to of intelligent personal effort on the part worker. their unintelligence. therefore. than in other branches of in- in procuring things charm of ancient work. The hand of man. more perfect than any mechanism. 172.\replace little by little that fascination which belongs is to everything shaped by the human hand\ be surprised that there less One need not. p.


and putting aside vain survivals. During the last century most of the arts. we wish to provide trustworthy text-books of workshop prac- from the points of view of experts critically examined the methods current in the shops. who have especially associated with deSecondly. and there was a tendency to look on " design " as a mere matter 9 . were little considered. are more and sculpture of an academic kind. Preface be well to state what are our general aims.EDITOR'S PREFACE In issuing this volume of the a series of it Editor's Handbooks will on Artistic Crafts. are prepared to say what is good workmanship. save painting sign. and to set up a standard of quality in the crafts which tise. in doing this. we hope to treat design itself as an essential part of good workmanship. In the first place.

true design is an inseparable element of good quality. and that. for special purpose. . is tation. in the widest sense. that ornamentation itself was rather an exuberance of fine workmanship than a matter of merely abstract lines. and quickly falls into Proper ornamentation may affectation. from design inevitably decays. and indeed. there was was usually obtained by following in a mechanical way a drawing provided by an artist who often knew little of the technical processes involved in With the critical attention production. In the third place. involving as it does the selection of good and suitable material. ornamenfrom workmanship. divorced necessarily unreal. contrivance workmanship.Editor's Preface Such " ornamentation " as of appearance. it came to be seen that it was impossible to detach design from craft in this way. and. Workmanship when separated by too wide a gulf from fresh thought that is. on the other hand. proper finish. and so on. expert — — be defined as a language addressed to the eye it is pleasant thought expressed in the speech of the tool. far more than mere ornament. we would have this lo . given to the crafts by Ruskin and Morris.

is so acute that only a very few per cent. • • • • • Work ject in the precious metals. can fairly hope to succeed as painters and series Editor's Preface sculptors is . It is desirable in every way that men of good education should be brought back into the productive crafts there are more than enough of us "in the city. of its kind. the is which dealt with in the subpresent II . as artistic craftsmen. there every probability that nearly every one who v/ould pass through a sufficient period of apprenticeship to workmanship and design would reach a measure of success.put artistic craftsmanship before people as furnishing reasonable occupations for those who would gain a livelihood. Although within the bounds of academic art. yet. far arts as we propose to happy careers may be found removed from the dreary routine of hack labor as from the terrible uncertainty of academic art. In the blending of handwork and thought in such deal as with." and it is probable that more consideration will be given in this century than in the last to Design : and Workmanship. the competition.

to compete with machinery. faults are often found for violent curva- ture of form.' Editor's Preface volume. we should rather aim at reasonableness. seems especially to have suffered from the slavish methods introduced. On this question of design it is essential to guard oneself from a merely capricious originality. perhaps. at the natural de- 12 . On the contrary. have been signs of a danger that these crafts may be victimized by glaring affectations in design and by unashamed Of the two crudeness of manipulation. and from the general benumbing of the aptitude for design which affected so many of the artistic crafts during the course of the there On the other hand. last century. which last is probably the most enervating and repulsive characteristic of the name — latter is likely to certain forms of modern Symptoms of these in a preference taste. an introduction of unrelated splashes of enamel. a striving for exaggerated elegance. vulgarities and that of the blandishments which — assume the of "new art" be by far the worse. and an endeavor to suggest ideas of luxury. that of commercial dulness. and the over-insistence upon tool marks and chemically treated surfaces.

Editor's Preface gather ideas generally applicable.traditional forms. but to velopment of pleasant. Of old the arts developed under the hand by the contact of tools and material. of blowing glass. From this point of view all ancient art is a vast encyclopedia of methods and experience. without intention to copy specific types. The London the student should frequent Gold Room and Medieval Department of the British Museum. the shape of some vessel. will have noticed how dozens of vitally beautiful forms are produced on the way to the final dulness predestined by the drawing. and the 13 ." as it is called. or of beating up metal out of the sheet. for instance. be it for silver. the general collection at South Kensington. The true method of design is always growth. it is far too customary to " design. The best compliment to workshop practise is to study the old work stored in our museums. or glass. and then to coerce the material into the preconceived form. Now. or potter's clay. and at unobtrusive finish. not rootless egoism. But any one who has watched the process of throwing a pot on the wheel.

Editor's Preface He marvels of the Indian Museum. should also Study the devices on ancient It will be found coins. be allowed to say that in both those issued we have been given the best knowledge of expert craftsmen. H I . having explored the past of the arts with which they deal. medals. for all history stands as a background to these objects bequeathed and the perfect to us by past civilizations knowledge of one thing includes the partial knowledge of many things. and seals. who. that such systematic study will not only result in the accumulation of hints for trade purposes. not for me to praise these books. W. R. . LETHABY. have been willing to give out the combined results of their experiments and study clearly and without It is but I may now reserve. but will be a true form of self-culture .

This of necessity repetition. but only to describe methods I have found to give the best results in 15 amount of but . These in most cases have been drawn from work actually carried out. The worst fault of such a text-book.AUTHOR'S PREFACE This book does not tory of the jeweler's as a practical deal with art. however. For the sake of clearness the various chapters have been written round the diagrams inserted in the text. my intention to impose conceptions of design upon the student. I would be vagueto avoid this ness. It is not. intended in the first place for students. the his- Author's Pref ace It is intended guide to some of the more simple processes of the craft. have attempted by describing the operations of each process consecutively from beginning to end. causes a certain anything is better than doubt.

And a too little while nothing is more pitiable than conscious cultivation of our poor personality. study methods. and travelers. whatever is felt to lessen our power of work in any direction must be studiously avoided and whatever helps If the student will us eagerly sought. Not only is deliberate copyism dishonest. feed his imagination on old work. perfect his skill in handiwork. may be applied to form carried out in objects of whatever the same materials. poets. yet will often give most sug- i6 . The old inventories of church plate. with such changes as the common sense of the suggest. One most valuable stimulus to the imagination is to be found in the descriptions of marvelous metal work by old writers. his personality can It will safely be left to take care of itself. attend faithfully to his instincts. though they do little more than catalogue the objects. infallibly find expression. materials. it checks the development of the student's native powers and stunts his individuality. will These methods. and natural forms.Author's Preface my own worker workshiDp. historians. No student worthy of the name would attempt to copy the designs for himself.

moreover. Another valuable aid is that given by old descriptions of methods and processes. weighing 6. hints. impossible in a limited space to treat of a limitless art. at the have endeavored to rectify this defect in the new renderings . contains many lator. and I the technical descriptions are not as clear could be wished. published by Isaac. in the year 1536: "Item. given drie's end of this book but HenTheophilus will always be full of interest to those curious in the arts of the Middle Ages. and straightway the mind begins to work on a scheme of its own. It is. made by Master Thomas Robertson. points in his rendering. 2 ly . missed as many not being a craftsman. The trans- however.^ ounces and a quarter. finer Author's Preface and a lamb behind him with an (wanting one wing) and on the left side the images of Abel and Cain. of course. treasurer of the same church. a cross with Abraham offering gestive hints for design.. up angel Murray. The treatise of Theophilus." One sees the thing through the old scribe's eyes.— ^ What could be than this from the inventory of the jewels and rehcs belonging to the cathedral church of Sarum.

in that direction its object have been achieved. coloring of gold. that the processes described in this book may help the student to acquire a tech- nique for himself If it does anything. however. I hope. such as wet and dry die-stamping. frosting. gold- lapping. however will slight. H. and electroplating and typing have too little connection with art to be considered at all. W.Author's Preface many processes. i8 .

.... VI in the — — 39 Repousse dure vior Work— Chasing— Method of — How Tools — The Behaof Metal — Work Round — The Proceto hold the CHAPTER Chasing of Castings .. CHAPTER III 33 CHAPTER IV Work Benches Best Form of Bench The Pin The Skin Tool Rack Board Sweep — — — — — .... VII a 44 Hammer Work up The — — How CHAPTER Stakes — to Make Cup Planishing — — How Bossing to 19 ..... 36 Wire-Drawing The Draw-Bench DrawPlate Tube-Drawing How to Make a — — CHAPTER V Draw-Plate .CONTENTS PAGE Editor's Preface Author's Preface 9 »5 Contents CHAPTER Introduction I 25 CHAPTER Materials position of Pickle II — Educational Value of — Com— Repousse Work Process Pitch for 29 Tools ..

Polishing Candlestick Base — — — A Simpler Form of . Use of 5 CHAPTER Candlesticks—The VIII — The Together — Scorer Socket— The Knop The . — — 97 20 .. CHAPTER Settings XII Settings tings —The Kinds — — Paved Setting Close of Stones to Use Open Setthe Stone Settings .. .. Shaft— The CHAPTER Spoons IX The Shape of the Bowl The Stem-^ The Handle or Thumbpiece Joining the Bowl and Handle— Second Method of MaBoxwood Third Method king a Spoon The Lead Matrix Ingots for Punches — — — — Handles .1 Contents / Make Base a mentation in — Base for Beaker Position — — Snarling-Irons for a Cup — Soldering the Method Interlocking Joints for Hammer Sand-bag Work Drinking Cup with a Stem — — Beakers — The Polishing — Orna— Another the . .. -87 . — CHAPTER X Silver — — 79 Silver Solder cible —The Cru— Use of Scrap Mold — Enameling — The Make Large Work— How — Ingot Solders for to Solder Ingot Molds . ... XI Sol' dering .92 Soldering —Use of Borax —The Blowpipe— Lamps .68 Fitting . . .. CHAPTER .. .

. .112 CHAPTER XV Brooches — —The The Suggestions for Design Mounting Making of Compound Twists — Joint and Catch . . . . 1 04 CHAPTER XIV Necklace for — How Designed— The Arrangement — Chain-making— Mounts — Backing — Woven — The Snap — —Another Form of Necklace — What Study — How Use your — Pendants— Design — Loop Pendant of Stones Links to Filigree Pearls the Pearls Polishing to Studies Sugges- tions for for the . for the Pendant Polishing -137 CHAPTER XVII Hair Ornaments and Combs Silver Hairpin The Skeleton Sphere Hardening the Pin in Silver to — — — A Comb — How Make Prongs — The —The Head of Comb— Arranging —The Groups Joint the the the Stones 21 . . — . Cleaning and Polishing . . — .— CHAPTER Rings XIII PAGE Contents — Hoop Rings — Making Compound Wire — The Knot Ring — — The Wreath — The Table Ring— AnForm — The Carved Ring— The Polishing Filigree other Design of Rings . . Hoop .130 CHAPTER XVI Pendants for Things to be Avoided Suggestions Design The Use of Enamel Setting — — the — Enamel — The .

187 22 .— Contents °^ Leaves ting the Pearls — The Pin — How for the Hinge — PAGE Set.183 Carving Necessary Metal — Where Carving Tools — Tempering— The — Making Wax Model — The Use of — The" Knop — The in is CHAPTER XXII the the Chisels Finishing Spiral . . to Drill Pearls 145 Bracelets Hinge Bracelet The Band The Snap The Hinge Fitting the Joints The Flexible Bracelet — The Hammered — The — — — — — and Bracelet CHAPTER XVIII Cleaning Burnishing . . 177 CHAPTER XXI Locket or Pendant Casket Bezel the —The Frame— The —The Hinge —The Back — Hinge — The Tool — Swivel Fitting Joint . . Wreathed Setting . . Gold Work Sweep the — Board —The Care of — Method of Treatment— — Drawing Hair Ornaments — The Wire — Making Grains — Leaves — — Nine-Carat Gold Flowers — Gold the Material CHAPTER XIX Ingot Alloys Solder for the Pin— Study of Old Work . . 156 • . . Loops . .168 Lis CHAPTER XX Gold Necklace with Pendant Fleurs de The Brass over the king Fleurs — Gold Matrix — Another Method of Made — Engraved Mold Lis Burnishing the Matrices .

Darkening. 200 CHAPTER XXV Hinge for Casket Drawing the Tube The Mandrel The Liner The Joint Tool — — Soldering the Joints — — The — Pin . .231 CHAPTER Coloring. Enamel Work sites — General — Requi— Cloisonne Work — — Mounting — Champleve Enamel Enamel — The Tools — Use of Gold — Limoges Enamel— Network Enamel Enamel — Deep-cut Enamel Considerations Filling CHAPTER XXIV the the Cells Solder Setting the . Polishing Cleanliness . . XXVIII Gold Work ening Gold — — or Materials Oxidizing Silver and Required Dark- — .— CHAPTER XXIII PAGE ContenB Casting— The Cuttlefish Mold— Flasks— The Loam Smoking the Mold Slate or Bathbrick Molds .193 y ^^ — — U" .Block Filing Grooves Drawing the Metal — — — the Polishing Required — — Work — A Method — Gold Work — Care of Waste— of Tools Materials CHAPTER XXVII Polishing Silver Simpler Burnishing Polishing . . . 235 CHAPTER XXIX Various Methods of Gilding — Mercury Gilding 237 23 . 223 CHAPTER XXVI Moldings The Swage . . Coloring Copper .

— A Contents CHAPTER XXX PAGE A Method of Shaping and Cutting Precious Stones Cut Stone most —The —The Cements Required— Lathe — —The Stones the Softer easily Drilling . . CHAPTER XXXIV On Old Work and Old Methods Notes on the Collotype Plates Collotype Reproductions Medieval Cups and Chalices (^Illustrations^ Practical Recipes.. 24 ..... the the in 244 CHAPTER XXXII Casting by -Wax Process Model— The Sand— Casting Waste Flasks Bedding the Mold V without — Hollow the Flasks — The Wax Mold — — Castings ... XXXIII . Engraver'^ Polishing 240 CHAPTER XXXI Piece Model — The —The Sand — —The Mold — The Making Cores — The Back Mold — The Core Model — Arranging Gates — Dryof - Molding —The Casting Flasks - Flasks Filling the the Charcoal False the ing the Mold . Glossary Index 283 ....... . Casting Third Method of Casting .. etc. . -256 262 CHAPTER On Inlaying .....

. however. Etruria. during which he was made free of the results of an unbroken tradition of craftsmanship. not only inherited skill to guide hands and eyes. work so fine as almost to appear miraculous. His work lay almost in the open air there was beauty in all his surroundings. to us is the sum of a series of small improvements in work and method. The men who iiiade these things which fill us all with wonder had. Each went through a long apprenticeship. CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION The exquisite jewelry of Egypt. 'aid up and tion of beauty to the stor who had bequeathed to him by thov gone before. their Intro- duction 25 . added by one generation of craftsmen after Each worker brought his fracanother. was the outcome of What remains centuries of development. and Greece.

the Yet Between the prehistoric fibula hammered out from a nugget of ore and the granulated cloak-clasp of Etruria and Greece the distance is enormous. Not only does the study of methods and the qualities of material enable him to give expression to an idea.Intro- duction and inspiration waited on him continually. can give adequate expression to his ideas. yet we are able to follow the line of development and almost to mark the fact that its stages. and those which are suggested by process are this invariably The healthy and rational. it is absolutely the most fruitful source of ideas. Apart from gradual perfecting of craftsmanship has been the way to excellence in the past. Each seems to have been content if he could surpass by ever so little the skill of his forbears. that tentative. As always the happiness of the worker was reflected in the work. farther the discoveries of archeology take us back into the past. hand and the brain work together. and 26 . the more clearly we see by what slow. it is the only way by which the student can attain to confidence Lacking these no one and knowledge. almost stumbling steps perfection of skill has been attained.

What is it? a rough pearl. as if each were only another form of picture-making.outcome of their partnership is a sanity of conception. and is craftsmanship plus inspiration in — . No amount of fumbling with a pencil The could ever lead to a like result. and the Intro- duction consequence all the crafts and arts have been approached pictorially. 27 . material was there in front of the craftsman. example a Rhodian earring. The reason is perhaps that the zeal of the artist has not been tempered by knowlThe reason of this again is that edge. only the methods of the painter do not always Take as the simplest apply in the crafts. which is greatly to seek in most even of the best work of to-day. and a hook. and on the material the creative Art idea engendered the work of art. even by those who practise them. for more than a century the painter and the sculptor have stood before the public as the sole representatives of the Arts. What could be more simple ? yet the cunning collocation of these elementary forms has produced a thing of beauty that can not now be surpassed. This is not wholly untrue. a tiny pyramid of beads. a skeleton cube of gold wire.

splits and cuts forms of infinite many-faceted. displaying inspiration memory . The old workman took the rough crystal of sapphire. The modern method izes the of cutting equalthe glitter color and intensifies of the gem. or emerald. and replaces that 28 . but the glitter takes away that mysterious magical quality. geometrical ingenuity and intolerable hideousness. which for the artist is its chiefest beauty. or were used as the germ of a design by the modern they are used as substitutes for design. His material is a screen and not a medium of expression. to the utmost its native beauty. or ruby. the worker of to-day hides behind the stones he uses. and polished it. that inner luster of liquid light. Stones and jewels to the early artist were means of adding emphasis to his work.Intro- duction is the rush of unconscious along channels made by a habit of craftsmanship. To the former the jewel was an added beauty to the setting to the latter the jewel is a means of hiding the setting and the workmanship. . keeping the stone as large as possible. The craftsmanship of the early workman was frank and fearless. his The gems modern workman into regular.

CHAPTER Materials II — Educational tion of Pickle — value of Process — ComposiWork it Pitch for Repousse The is student will first probably find that to Materials better at buy his silver plate already rolled to the thickness required. and build up his system of design by slow degrees out of He the results of his daily experience. and rudiments of his craft. as is. seeking to avoid these defects must begin at the beginning. one guiding principle of all true craftsmanship is this the forms used in design should express naturally and simply the the : properties of the particular material employed. the to every cultivated eye. reacted on the mounting.beauty by a mechanical sheen offensive Imro- Moreover. machine-made perfection of the cut stone it were. must learn to of handiwork rely at first as on excellence foundation of his The claim to be considered an artist. perhaps. 29 . one cause of the mechanical hardness and lack of artistry so visible The student who is in modern work. learn thoroughly the ducuon has.

alloy copper. Electrotype copper. but later on he will find that he can draw small plate care to quantities fixed in a of wire with a a drawlittle vise. should be used. In the process of work ideas are matured which would otherwise have lain dormant and useless. and sincerity which are found to a supreme degree in almost all old work. simplicity. and with and practise he can thin out small ingots of metal on a stake or small anvil any required thickness. The copper used should be of the best French or Swedish quality procurable. full The old craftsmen took ties advantage of the native qualiof their materials. They are an abomination to 'all who the best. is 30 . The design gradually acquires those indefinable qualities of naturalness. and these can only be learned by daily practise in working them. is which For cloison wire. very nearly pure. He will in way get a knowledge of materials quite impossible of attainment under any this other conditions. can be used to alloy silver and gold. copper.Materials and have the wire drawn by the dealer. such as is used for enameling. which is very pure. but in all your work avoid electrotypes.

disks. ranging from 18 to the finest. weighing about 3 lbs. backed in this way. used as a backing for work in thin sheet Much Etruscan work was silver or gold. if of good quality. yielding than lead for this purpose and It can also be gives a cleaner result. for making molds will also be useful can be roughly in which sheet metal beaten up to shape ready for chasing. and block on which to stamp up with punches It is less small beads.. or flat bars should be used. 31 ' . square. The impressed ornaments on medieval chalices were often filled and attached to the body of the work by tin used both as solder and filling. Borax should be bought in crystals. For tools the finest tool steel in round. can be used in are Materials A making silver solder. and. Brass wire of different sizes is useful for making temporary pins for joints. A block of zinc. Binding-wire of several gages.^ have any regard to the qualities which produced by handiwork. few pounds of block tin will be useful for use as a for making molds. will also be wanted tying work together while being for soldered. and leaves.

4 4 2 parts. to grind small quantity of sulfuric acid. Rosin .. Hydrochloric pickle 8 parts water. and nitric acid will be wanted for the various pickling soluThey should be obtained from tions. Nitric acid pickle A = i i part nitric acid acid and 6 parts water.. The drying the work after washing. hydrochloric acid. = i part acid and sawdust or two of best boxwood be wanted and kept in an for It is used ordinary biscuit box. a wholesale chemist. A pound will will must not be allowed to burn or the work be stained and the stain is rather difficult to remove. .— Materials A it small piece of slate on which up can be got anywhere. Pitch for repousse as follows : work is best made Pitch . » Plaster of Paris . „ 32 . . drying can be hastened by putting the box on an iron plate supported over The sawdust a spirit-lamp or gas flame. Sulfuric pickle = part and 6 parts water.

For winter work the pitch may be found It can be softened by remelttoo hard. very good ones can be made out of poker heads or the handles of fire-tongs. while a few different sized A stakes to are quite the vise for hammer work indispensable . plaster by handfuls and stir it in well. and leave it to cool. ing and adding another piece of tallow candle to the mixture. : Melt the pitch and rosin together in and when both have been well mixed and stirred. ^ inch square. two sizes. horn mallet is almost necessary for raising work. fix in CHAPTER Tools III The tools most likely to be required are For Repousse work Chasing hammers (fig.— a pipkin. light. Some boxwood sticks. Then pour it out into a box well whitened with dry whitening. for polishing will be very useful. 6). 3 Tools one heavy and one 33 . put in a small knob of Materials tallow or an inch or two of tallow candle Now add the and again stir the mixture.

. and a small set square — and —round. A bench vise. from forty to fifty. pair of slide pliers. An assortment of these. avoid the use of matting tools. A joint Two 34 tool for making or three pliers and ordinary. A small cold chisel. —round-nosed. hinges. Those which revolve on a pivot are the most useful for general purposes. flat. These you can make for yourself out of lengths of bar steel. A A A A A A set of doming punches for doming of files the metal. doming flat. set Snarling irons. Except for very special purposes. and three- a set of needle files. few draw-plates. or tools intended to produce a patterned or granulated sur7). It is far better to rely on model- ing and design for producing variety of surface.Tools Various punches or chasing tools (fig. block. set of ordinary scorpers. These can often be purchased second-hand. will probably suffice for most simple work. of engraving scorpers. such as touching up cast work. face.

sand-bag. The bottom for this.Two straight pairs of cutting shears. one Tools A saws. and one curved. Apart from the valuable experience to be gained in this way. The for this can either be bought or a its as the student desires. very little indeed that the student can not make for himself. fine piercing A of steel. will complete ments. a tool that is made for a particular purpose is almost always In fact. a pitch block with leather collar to keep the work in made A place. jeweler's frame saw and square bench stake. and a blowpipe and some form of spirit-lamp with a good of large flame. tools the list students' requireas The_student should as possible make himself? many is for This all particularly the case with drills. which should be one of the ordinary Swiss centrifugal drills drills. and dies and punches of is kinds. there 3S . slips which can be of a flat-iron will do equally well A few of boxwood for making punches and for light mallets will be found very useful. repousse tools. A drill stock.

so that there struck is no spring in the board when Underneath the hammer. CHAPTER Work Benches Best IV Pin The Skin — form of Bench —The — Tool Rack— Board Sweep Work Benches The best bench for the worker is " the French or jeweler's bench. around the a bow of is the semicircle. the with board." which consists (fig. but the latter have this 2(> .— I I Tools better self than one than that is bought. catch the filings. a small wedge-shaped piece of wood called " the pin " is inserted to form a rest for the work when filing or engraving. to leather sheepskin nailed form a receptacle for the filings of gold and silver and to hold the tools while workMany jewelers prefer tin trays to ing. 2) of a hard beech board with a semicircular hole cut out of the front to receive the body of the worker when seated. while it the pleasure of having made for onefor more compensates the trouble. The bench should stand very firmly and be fixed to the floor. In the center of this bow.

On the right-hand side of the bow the 37 .disadvantage. the bench is that work dropped from likely to Work Benches more be injured on the tray than if it fell into the skin.

sufficiently near to the edge to enable the flame to be directed toward the center of the semicircular space.Work Benches flame ranged (see arranged for the blowpipe should be ari. which shows a bench five workers). Fig. If gas be used ordinary bench blowpipe is fixed for the fig. 2. If a lamp be 38 .

CHAPTER V Wire-Drawing The Draw-Bench Draw-Plate Tube-Drawing How to make a Draw-Plate — — — Wire is made by drawing short rods of metal either by hand or by means of a Wire- Drawing 39 . a sufficient quantity has been gathered. the sweep should be burned in an iron tray to remove any trace of organic matter. will allow for catch the precious metal it may contain. on the floor underneath the bench you may have to a movable grating of wood any stray filings. and to prevent those which fall from being trodden The bench and into the floor and lost. who. after making an assay. the resulting ash well tried over with a magnet to remove any bits of iron wire. the floor underneath must be swept every When day and the sweepings preserved. arranged so that used Work Benches the tools can be reached with the least Fixed possible loss of time and temper. and the sweep sent to the refiners. There should be a rack at the side of the bench for tools.— it would naturally be placed in the same relative position.

3. 40 .WireDrawing Fig.

If the rods are small in section and the quantity of wire required is also small. 3) through the successively 'pousse Dra?'' diminishing holes in a draw-plate (fig. 4). 41 . it will be better to use a draw-bench. Do this with the next hole. has to be very much reduced in size. and the next. but the principle of the operation is the same in both cases. the draw-plate can be fixed in a bench-vise and the rods drawn through by hand.draw-bench (fig. If the wire stance of the rod. To do this. or if there is a large quantity to do. until you have drawn it . strong enough come through to stand the Rub the pull of a hand-vise. —when — it has down to care to the required size. taking anneal it frequently as each drawing naturally hardens and compresses the subFig. rod with beeswax and draw it through the plate the rod will be found thinner and longer. first hammer the end of the rod taper so that it will come through the hole nearest in size to the diameter of the This taper tip must be rod. 4.

. so on until the desired size is attained.WireDrawir-^ng Small tubes can also be drawn in this Cut a strips of sheet metal. 5). then draw the metal through the hole. or the student can The 42 . boxes. lockets. Hollow tubes of any section can be drawn by using draw-plates with holes of the required section. and If the tube is not large in caskets. The burnisher helps to keep the metal true as it folds round it while being drawn through the hole. student will find this very useful in the preparation of tubing required for hinges of brooches. strip of metal of the length and thickness you require. and way out of . . diameter all the work can be done in the vise and without a draw-bench. The rough tube which results from this operation is annealed and drawn through the next smaller hole. and the breadth roughly thrice the intended diameter of the tube cut the end taper and with a hammer form it into anneal it and a sort of gutter lengthwise oil it or rub it over with a little beeswax inside and out and put the taper tip through the wide end of the hole which most nearly fits insert the tip of a pointed burnisher under the hollow of the trough of the metal and into the back of the hole (fig.

'jpousse Fig. 5. 43 .

— quality CHAPTER Repousse VI of Procedure- Work— Chasing— Method How to hold the Tools— the Behavior of Metal —Work in the Round— The Chasing of Castings Repousse work is modeling in relief produced by working with hammer (fig. and nothing can make up for the loss. he cuts a nearest strip from a sheet in stock which is The effect on the work is deto the size. plorable.. shops is the dependence of the workmen on machine-made things. then punching graduated holes with a taper punch of the required section filed up out of bar steel and properly hardened. There are very few things necessary in the workshop which a student can not make The curse of modern workfor himself.Wire- . The taper must be very slight or the edge of the hole will be too sharp. 6) and punches (fig. first softening stead of compressing it. The chief beauty— the given by human handiwork is absent. 7) on the back of a sheet 44 . make flat Drawirving draw-plate out of an old it. Rather than melt an ingot and roll a small piece of metal for himself to the exact size he needs. and will strip the metal inhis own file.

be obtained either by beating down ground of the ornament. The term is also used for finishing up the The required relief surface of castings. or by punching out the back and afterward finishing on the face. Repousse Work Fic. be obtained by laving the sheet 45 .of metal fixed on some yielding material. 6. may the If the it may relief required is very slight. Chasing is work on the face of the sheet.

delicate to admit of this. gradually. take rounded punches and beat down the ground of the ornament according to your A Get the relief intention. carbon paper. higher relief the metal must be laid on a composition of pitch made as already described. punch the a fine -pointed outline is delicately pricked through to the surface of the Or. in even so that punches 46 the resulting furrow . tracing of the pattern is secured to the metal by bits With of wax at the corners. The metal is warmed and laid upon the pitch block (fig. The tallow makes the thick Othe ^T\ •^'l Q 0© O f% Fig. 7- ^. and more will be required in winter than in the summer. or on a piece of I H fl VJ ff I) BH ^ \L ' For cork matting.Repousse Work of metal on a block of lead.^ composition more yielding. the design may be transferred with This done. if the work is too metal. let the blows be guide the force. a piece of soft pine. 8).

This makes the metal yield more freely (^l"^^^^^^ . At on Work frequent intervals warm the metal the surface. remove it from the pitch. and anneal it by making it red hot.makes a continuous surface and follows Repousse the form you may desire to express.

A is done much time will be spent in cor- recting defects which avoided. 9 will be found very useful for modeling the surface. Any chaser will show this in a moment. Unless this must be avoided until the or the metal will tear. is might have been Endeavor from the first to hand the appended diagram it clear.Repousse Work few shaped as in fig. acquire the right method of handling the hammer and holding the punch. The punch held between the thumb and the first 48 is none at lo) will make . In case (fig. and the lines from the tracer clear and unbroken. last stages. The student should practise until the trace of the punch on the metal is smooth and even from beginning to end.

patience. afterward almost unconscious. A practise make action. work may be done almost For this work punches.and second finger rests fingers. In high relief work the . shaped somewhat like the tip of the 4 49 . and many back. at first difficult. the top of the third Repousse on the metal little as a pivot will and this Work guide. io. relief is pro- duced by alternately working on the back and front driving the ground down from the front and the form out from the With care. annealings. Fig. in the round.

It may be found. fine silver. Brass. leaving a small hole in the back or where it will least be seen. Small objects birds. animals. The student should be ever alert to seize the suggestions of decorative treatment of the metal which constantly arise led into care can be while his work is in progress. Fill the inside with pitch. however.— Rqxjusse Work relief thumb. Solder the two together. in the way described farther on. fine and sovereign gold. are most useful for getting the from the back. This must be done by putting in small pieces and warming the object over the lamp. that the pitch boils over and therefore that the object — — 50 . This is especially true of copper. and rounded faced punches for the work on the front. The behavior of the metal is more instructive than any teacher. These must be made by the student himself. even the best. little figures may be done in repousse by making the bodies in two halves. Avoid the use of matted or grained surfaces except in cast work. is much less tractable. In all repousse work the main thing is to realize that metal is plastic. and with forms or spread over surfaces like so much hard wax. Work in the Round.

Holes are drilled out cleanly. and chased to the required surface. and the surface modeled over with matting punches. warming the metal from time to time. filed down. the marks of the seams are removed by small chisels. size 14 if the to be small to 16 if the cup 51 Hammer Work . Vents and other defects in the casting are remedied by soldering pieces of solid metal to make good the deficiency. You must take soft pitch and with a metal spatula or the flat end of a chasing tool press the pitch into the hollow. The rough productions and the pour which is left where the metal ran into the mold are first sawn off.— not be filled up properly. the object is then warmed and fixed to the pitch-block. Castings are chased as follows. will Repousse then Work Hammer Work How to make a Cup The Stakes Planishing How — for CHAPTER Vn — — Bossing — SnarUng-Irons — Ornamentation — Base Cup — Base —Another Method Beakers—The Use of Sand-bag — HamBeaker a — — up a to make Soldering the in Position Polishing a for mer Work — Interlocking Joints for Drinking Cup with a Stem Take cup is a sheet of metal. and pegs of metal screwed in.

Hammer Work .

take a round-headed boxwood mallet side of the Now Fig. This rough cup or shallow bowl must now be hammered into shape with a hammer shaped as in fig. 13. Then begin on the inside and with the round-faced hammer. Cut out a circle the diameter of which is a little larger than the contour of the cup. increasing the radius of the succeeding circles by ^ inches. 12. the smallest about an inch in diameter. as m fig.IS fairly large. 12 on a stake shaped m 53 . Take Hammer Work the compasses and lightly scratch on one sheet a series of concentric circles. These circles are to guide the hammer strokes. and keeping the elbow close to the side. beat and beat the metal into a rough cup shape by beating it into a cup-shaped hollow a wooden beating-block.

with the box mallet. springy. peat this. Care must be taken not to stretch the metal unduly . that the cup has become uneven in shape this can be remedied after heating by beating it out again from the inside. is The work 54 then continued and is . taking care to leave the thickness Fig. using the hammer from Rethe wrist and not from the elbow. while doing this. still using the same stake. It may happen of the brim untouched. beat on the outside from the innermost circle outward.Hammer Work round ill circles. into the cup-shaped depression on the beating-block. 13. taking care to keep the blows in concentric circles to feel larly until' the and and to work regumetal begins to take shape Then anneal it. and.

The form a cup beaten out of one piece. it must be planished by using a hammer with a polished face. by- face.almost wholly done from the outside. These suggestions of form should always be noted and worked can naturally will often when the work in hand or frankly adopted as they arise. making the diameter of the circle equal to the whole 55 . regulating the inclination of the hammer can drive the metal in any direction. still keeping the blows in circles. turning the cup round with the left hand. but it be found that the shapes taken by the cup during the progress of the work are much more interesting than those we set out to do. After done this leaves the surface and bright and covered all over with This method produces brilliant facets. out. either is done The beaker form (fig. metal to the required size. Cut out your 14) or the beck-iron. 15) is produced by the use of different stakes (fig. carefully true be varied at will. shaping of the cup is completed. on a stake When also polished for this purpose. thickening the rim or the bottom or the sides of the cup as the may be necessary. skilful Hammer Work A hammerman at this stage.

Hammer Work .

15.Hammer Work Fig. 57 .

thing of this section after a short time. Hammer Work length of the (fig. I 5a. The recurved edges must be driven outward on the stake with the mallet 58 . on this drive the metal away from you by regular strokes of the rounded edged Keep the circles of blows hammer. profile line you propose 15A). 16. concentric and the blows even in force. The metal will probably assume some- FiG. Make a central circle the size of the base of the beaker and place the tip of the curved stake against this line Fig..

is part of the The Use of the Snarling-Iron. beaker or the inside cup The may be body of the decorated with from (fig. and the long arm of the snarling-iron struck This smartly with the hammer at A. the other adjusted beneath the cup which is to be raised. Fig. produced by using snarling-irons (fig. causes the point of the snarler to strike against the inner side of the cup with nearly the same force as the original S9 — . These are cranked punches Z17). resumed before raised Hammer Work described. 15). 14) and the work of the hammer until the general shape has been It can now be planished as attained.(fig. The cup held in position with the left hand. 17. shaped with ends of different form one surfaces . arm of the Z is fixed in the vise.

Hammer Work blow. by the use of the hammer. zigzags. and with care almost any amount of relief can be obtained. it can be filled with pitch and fixed on a pitch-block or on a sand-bag and completed from the face with chasing tools. chevrons. any one of these absolutely elementary forms. This method is employed whereever it is impossible. But as the metal is not supported by pitch. the variation — — 60 . and the operation of raising must be more gradual. Whatever ornament Ornamentation. must not set them out too exactly trust rather to eye and hand. owing to the depth of the cup or bowl. to the shape you require. and have planished it and made its shape true. may be made to produce the most delightful variations of surface. When you have brought the cup. to use the hammer or a tracing tool. You will produce the pleasantest effect. which not only deadens the force of the blow but holds the metal up against the blow. repeated rhythmically on the surface. you require must be such as expresses or Spiral emphasizes the forms of the cup. Lozenges. or combinations of these. lines or flutes or ribs. much less force must be employed.

from which escape seems — U almost impossible. with a crescentshaped punch cut for the purpose. where the hand grasps it. will look dignified. be the less tempted to follow the vagaries of Art NouveaUy that corrupted compound of uneasy vermiformity. It is the art of the 6i undying worm. . and material precious.from geometric accuracy reveals the the meanest cup with a narrow wreath of strictly formalized leaves and flowers bordered above and below by broad band of plain surface. rich. mere punch marks done from the inside. a good and then enriched below. and encircled from the outside. with a chequer or continuous patterning of chevrons done by traced lines from the outside. and imbecility. make rings of petals round one of these punch marks as a center always using as suggestion the effects produced naturally by You will then the tools you employ. slickness. or you may. Or you may workmanlike. and it is the human touch which makes trace of the Hammer Work A raise a snarling-iron row of largish bosses with the and trace concentric lines round them and powder the surface with small bosses. human worker.

rounds. Or you may put the dome on pitch and shape it with repousse punches. his spirit and festation in his work the thing he loves. without active in for few are is imagination — only love Nature or Art —then A of beauty whether he will find the will its manibe shaped to man's work is the m way for himself. are always best. worker has really any imagination it. and hollows. The student must not forget that those these suggestions of design are only which have arisen in my own experience. you will take a circle of metal bottom as much greater in radius than the of the cup as you wish the projection You will then of the molding to be. taking care to The simavoid too much elaboration. rough with hammers on the stake in the you used for the cup.Hammer Work If it be desired to add a base to the beaker. They are not to be taken as the only If the possible means of decoration. with plest good broad surfaces to catch the light and reflections when polished. chamfers. mirror of his mind. dome to it up it get the finishing hollowed wood-block afterward shape. The joint between 62 the base and the cup .

taking care to support the cup so that it does not get bent out of shape when hot. tie the two together with clips of strong binding-wire so that they can not slip about. Hammer Work leaving a broad fillet all round. scrape the joins well on the base and on the cup. Any refinement of outline can now be given. paint both with borax and water. the base The flat center of must be cut away with the saw. and charge the joint with paillons of solder dipped in borax. as the heat will have taken all the stiffness out of the metal. Let each be well pickled in diluted sulfuric acid. and the base made true on the .may now be made. It must next be stoned with a piece of Water of Ayr stone to take away the outer film of oxid. Unless this is done you can not get any proper polish or show the real color of the metal. The same must be done for the rim. and solder with the large blowpipe and footbellows. any roughness about the joint filed clean. It will now be necessary to replanish the cup on the stake. The cup should be pickled again until quite white and frosted looking. See Chapter XI on Soldering. 63 .faceplate or upon a piece of plate-glass.

press the cup sur- mouth downward cool. and do without the it The first method is howpitch-block. then hammer it out on the beck-iron to any curve you please. taking care to smear the inside with oil or with whitening and Warm water beforehand. always keeping much Turn up but less the hammer blows rings before. hori- zontal base as round the cup make the solder to the base a ring of plain. fill the cup or a wreath of leaves. a conical tube workmanHke. or twisted wire the exact size of the bottom of This steadies the the body of the cup. and polished as before. of metal and solder the joint carefully. half-round. next in concentric . The cup can be planished. with melted pitch. the pitch on face the block. on the melted and put a weight on the top until or. filed true. what is simpler. and let it cool. In- stead of planishing you may prefer to add bands of zigzags or waves or moldings If so. body on the base and makes it easier to tie the two together for the final soldering. 64 . you can lay on a sand-bag.Hammer Work There a IS yet another It is method of making easier beaker. Then sketch on ever the most secure.

will then remove the cup from the pitch. you wish to raise a rounded band around the cup near the Trace a line above and below brim. you do not want the lines to show inside and firmly if you do. round the cup. 1 8. Hammer Work You Fig. warm it slightly in the blowpipe flame.the ornament and outline lightly if it with a tracer. on the block. the distance apart all being the width of the molding. and press it well The space between the pitch side. for example. Then rewarm lay the the its cup on into the pitch. and take out the pitch. If. two traced lines can then be beaten out with rounded punches to the projection 5 65 .block.

Hammer Work


Other projections which may

be required lower down within the cup must be done with the snarHng-iron,










the cup

would be











finish as before.

Hammer Work

Another kind of joint which may be used in metal jugs or vases, or in any case where the joint does not matter, is the interlocking





Cut out the metal

required, ^ inch longer than is necessary for a butt joint, giving thus a lap of ^ inch, and divide each of the edges to be joined into an equal number of spaces not more than ^ inch nor less than ^ inch ; cut these with the shears a little more than ^ inch inward and scrape



both sides clean.


the alternate lappets of

metal up and down on Fig. 20. each half, fit the two flushing the together and solder firmly, The resulting tube or joints thoroughly. cone can now be hammered into shape and planished almost as if it were in one


Hammer Work

19 shows a

cup on

a pillar-like

The cup would



above described, and the base would be made as if it were a beaker. The raised moldings on the stem (fig. 20) would be done with the snarling-iron and chased up from the



and moldings on the cup would all be done from the inThe cup and side. base would then be

soldered together as In the bottom of the cup you before. might place a small panel of the vine




in fine

in a silver

through wine a little cup looks as if done




—The —The — The Knop — The — Form —A








of Candlestick


FiRST take

a disk of silver or copper, 10 inches in diameter, beat it into



Silver Knop.

CandJesticks a

before described. This is to socket of the candle. Next make the shaft, which may be six-sided and tapering. Take a piece of metal of







and draw upon

it one face of the tapering shaft, and then, using each side of this face as one side of the two neighboring faces, mark them out also (fig. 23) with a cutter made out of a file by bending the tang


right angles


24), the

end being

sharpened to a chisel
point, the edge run-

ning lengthwise. Cut
the two inner angles until you have cut half through the metal, bend the sides
to their proper angle,


with silver solder. other half of the

and flush the angle Repeat this for the shaft, and tie and

solder the halves together.




visible joins clean

and smooth.



the boss


27) out of 10 gage

by making

a cup,

mouth gradually over on with the hammer shown
in fig. 25.

and then drawing the the curved stake






anneal it afterward. Boss out with a snarling-iron few shallow circular a bosses around the knop. Now fill the knop with pitch, and draw on the

bosses whatever




might, for example, conventionalize the symbols of the constellations
nearest the




Now make


dish with a circular rais-

ing in the center, to form
a base for the shaft; beat



a flat saucer,


and beat round

the edges other circular
place whatever

on which you will you wish, i.e. symbols of the seven planets as being congruous with the first suggestion. Now make two circles of twisted square wire,




being right, the other left-hand

circle just fitting outside, the other just fitting inside the rim of the guard-dish, and solder them to this edge






the circular raising you will solder

a six-sided bearing-plate,

and just within

the edges of this bearing-plate you will
solder a line of strong square twist.


space enclosed must exactly


the base



of the shaft, which will be strengthened by a band of thick metal, surmounted by a ring of twist, and just above the bottom edge a second row of reverse twist arranged to fit exactly over the twist soldered on the

on the guard-dish. To make the base, take a piece of No. 12, and beat it up into a cup with a flat bottom and tapering The rim of this slightly hollow sides. cup will of course be the bottom, and the edge should have a broad flat beading


long enough to project at least ^ inch above the edge of the smaller cup. and solder the shallow cup to the knop. I large enough to let the hexagonal shaft through to the proper height (see fig. Cut a similar hexagonal hole in this. The socket for the candle is a simple cylinder of No. 8. and having two rings of twisted wire soldered round the upper edge. round it to strengthen it. and then dome up a shallow cup of 14 metal to cover the bottom of the knop. Next clean the knop in pickle and slip it into place on the shaft. and after bossing them out from the back. You have now to fit the whole together.. fill the base with pitch and chase them up from the front. You may arrange a few sprays of flowers round this base. First cut a hole in the knop (see fig. 25) the edges true. 27) raised Candlesticks now • Fig. and turn up a band of metal about ^ inch broad to fit the shaft file 73 . take them apart. 26. and when it fits the shaft and the knop properly.

Candlesticks Fig. 27 74 .

and about i inch Tap a screw on the outside diameter. and screw If there be any movement the nut tight. its You can now fasten this in small screws Beat out a shallow cup out of 14 copper ^ inch deep. end of a piece of ^-inch German silver wire about I inch longer than the shaft. it means that the bearing surfaces do not place on the shaft with or rivets. fit each other.Solder two rows of underneath the knop. These plates are to prevent movement when the whole candleYou will now stick is screwed together. the be filed away. Fit need a screw nut and a washer-plate. 75 . square twist with a plain flatted wire between to the upper edge of this band. whole can be polished with oil and pumice and finished with rotten stone or crocus. to cut plates of thick metal. and the inequalities must When everything fits. the latter can now be slipped into position and riveted Candlesticks A firmly there. similar but smaller band having been fitted to the upper part of the knop. and after drilling a hole the size of the center rod. size 14 or 16. and on the other end solder the shallow cup you You will now need have just beaten out. to fit them inside the top and bottom of the shaft. all the parts carefully together.

and arranged spirally round the boss. Then fit it on the top and carefully hammer the edge of the saucer down This until it grips the edge of the cup. You will now need a boss to cover the meeting of the upper joint and lower portions of the candlestick. beginning at the bottom. beating then.— Candlesticks but do not remove the hammer marks. and the work is complete. up a This is made either by deep cup as before described. 76 . When the shapes are true. it after filling with pitch. and darken the whole surface with a weak solution of sulfid of ammonium in hot When water. chase a wreath of olive or laurel or vine leaves. and turn the edges over a stake with an edge to it. one larger than the other for the base. makes the top of the candlestick. the smaller one for slightly with a leather : the top. Then wash it dry. it is all clean put it together finally. make a shallow saucer-shaped cup a little larger than the top circle. or over the edge of a hammer held in the vise. and again polish and a little rouge. drawn carefully from nature. Another form may be made thus Beat up two deep funnel-shaped cups out of 14 copper.

77 .Candlesticks Fig. 28.

a little larger than the other. 29. 78 . and then fit it into its place. The candle-socket is Fig. one. has its edges .Candlesticks When can beat you have got the relief you after down the ground. as described before. may be made by beating up two cups . 29). and the socket fitted lightly over the cylindrical head of Another boss the central shaft as before. and fasten the two together with a central rod and a screw-nut. and a false beaten down carefully into a rim bottom is next soldered in. beaten up out of a cylinder. its top edge expanded and turned over (see fig. and removing the pitch pierce the openings through with a sharp tracer.

This makes a very simple Candlesticks and sturdy-looking candlestick. annealing the You may find metal from time to time. top out wedge-shaped with a hammer on the anvil. true it up on the rounded stake with a planishing Then take a piece of ^th hammer. ingot like a spread the 79 . say lo gage.— — spread out and turned over the lip of the smaller bowl. the shape of the bowl (fig. as described for the top of the candlestick. have got it nearly into shape. square wire or a strip of thick plate a little longer than the handle you propose and thicker. CHAPTER Spoons IX The Shape of the Bowl The Stem The Handle or Thumbpiece Joining the Bowl and Handle Second Method of Making a Spoon Boxwood Punches The Lead Third Method Ingots for Handles Matrix — — — — — — — — a piece of silver. 30) and beat it avoid the ugly modern shapes out with a boxwood mallet into a suitable First take it Spoons mark on — When you hollow in the beating-block. or you may cast a thick taper Then gradually big nail.

Spoons .

symmetrical way you may You now solder the coils to each other. You will now have to fix the bowl and handle together. away the crack with from spreading. anneal the metal again and coil the diagram 31). the twigs will up as on fig. Fig. a squarish projection at 6 81 . parts as shown in Anneal it well. 31. leaving. 32). 30. however. if so a triangular file file . and further strengthen the joins by adding grains or groups of grains at the various points of junction. neatly.that as the metal extends it will crack at Spoons the edge. it out a little prevents the crack you have spread more. and hammer them carefully into long When you have done this taper twigs. or in any please. take a chisel and this When into divide the wedge (fig. and bend the cut portions outward (fig. Hammer the end of the handle taper.

the strain put upon the spoon in polishing will soon tear the bowl and 82 it .Spoons the very end of the handle. This is to give a broader base for the attachment of the bowl. Unless the end of the handle spreads out over the bowl where joins.

33. done planish the bowl upon a rounded stake.handle apart. file a narrow strip of about -j^th thick and i^th wide and tie it firmly to the handle Take iron with wire. You can bowl and handle together with binding-wire and solder This the two together. same with the handle. Another way is to cast an ingot of the 83 The work . flatten out the projection fan-wise and it to fit the bowl. Do the Fig. so that the iron projects beyond the spoon end of the handle by more than the length of the bowl. both to harden the metal and to correct any alteration in shape that may have come about in tie now the the soldering. can now be stoned and polished with pumice and oil. When you have tapered square Spoons the handle nicely. finishing up with rouge.

have a mold of pour melted lead. when it is perlittle the whole near the fire fectly dry. Another way of preparing the bowls is to take a good-sized piece of boxwood 34) and carve it into the shape of the convex side of the bowl. 84 . and fill up round the edge (fig. is that it is more wasteful of the metal. Place this mold upon the anvil. An impression of this is taken in modeling wax. but if you preserve the lemel with waste can be almost suf- ficient care. of the cast with a Dry thin plaster. 23)then shaped up with the hammer and the file. Tie this edging tightly round the cast with binding-wire. or in an oven until every trace of moisture has disappeared. the plaster-cast into a square block. after the ingot has been passed through the rolling-mill once or twice to consoliThe objection to this date the metal. bend up a piece of thin sheet metal so that it makes an edging almost an inch high above the top surface of the cast (fig. Over this cast or mold. the entirely- recovered. 35). and Trim a plaster cast made from the wax. and you will the concave side of the spoon.Spoons rough shape of the bowl and shank toThe whole spoon is gether (see fig.

Spoons wood punch drive the metal into the mold.and a piece of lo-gage silver on the With repeated blows on the boxmold. and the crinkled edges 85 . annealing as will . often as may a be necessary. You now have rough shape of the bowl the superfluous metal must be cut away.

and the end thinned out Fig.Spoons hammered out smooth upon a rounded stake with a small tapping-hammer. in the rolling-mill. The finishing can be as done with the hammer on the stake before. not be afraid of leaving the hammer marks where they are seen to have been necessary to produce the shape But the they will always look beautiful. 35. is more it is foolish. Do to make a bad form look than reprehensible 86 — well. modern vice of putting in hammer marks . good deal of hammer work in the preparation of the handle can be avoided A by making the ingot more nearly the shape and size of the finished work. . It can be flattened.

36.— CHAPTER X — The Crucible — Use of Scrap — The Ingot Mold — Enameling Make Ingot Molds Large Work — How Silver Silver Solder Solder Solders for to It is best always to make your own solder. and is moreover cheaper to make than 87 to buy. . Solder Fig. Silver It will help to use up small scrap silver.

leaving an opening in front and on Then with the gas blowpipe the top. Care more heat than . it. 2^) with a little borax. and put more coke round clay crucible Fig.Silver Solder For ordinary work take two parts of and one part of fine brass cut small. 37. Place the crucible carefully in the coke on the furnace. gradually increasing the force of must be taken not 88 the blast until the metal to give is fused. and put them in a small firesilver cuttings (fig. and foot-bellows direct the flame on the crucible.

spelter or is If fine brass can not be obtained. Fine silver Alloy copper . The lows : range of solder may i be as fol- No.050 . . or the zinc in the and the subsequent fusibility of the solder impaired. Solder Have well ready an ingot mold (fig. i o o I 5 o For a large piece of work requiring many solderings the successive solderings may be safely done by using a more fusible solder for each operation. . and leave to cool. grs. When you can roll it through the metal rollers down if to size 6 it thinner you want for metal gage.: absolutely necessary. 7 parts fine silver to of fine brass. fine good pins will do equally well. dwt. is Silver brass will be oxidized. or very small work. pour the fluid metal into the cool mold. 37) greased . very hard solder for use in enameling made as follows A oz. >> I.

and place one on each side of the U. it bend long file up (fig. Take piece of square iron wire. Then take two of thick sheet iron a little larger U. possible to do How have to Make got Ingot Molds. into the a shape of U 38).wire.Silver It is. Solder so much care in the arrange- ment of the joints and in the regulation it of the flame will make with only one solder. the edges true. — If you one be a not an ingot can mold easily made. and tie the whole together with binding. These nicks low the air al- to escape the metal when is be- ing poured in. Ingots of pieces than the 90 . and on one of the side file U cross nicks with a 3-square file. however. rarely necessary to use precaution .

39.Silver Solder B Cr Fig. 91 .

39. B. parts of the metal to be joined must be absothe that is. although the process itself is exceedingly simple. CHAPTER Soldering— Use of Borax Soldering Soldering XI —The Blowpipe Lamps The art of soldering with the fusible alloys given above is one which is much written about and but very rarely described. lump of borax crystal grind up a little with water on a small piece of slate. First. It demands only care and scrupuThe lous cleanliness of all the materials. 92 . and C). narrow ingots for wire. By using narrow ingots you can cast slips of metal which can be afterward drawn down into wire through a drawplate fixed in a vise (see chapter on Wire-Drawing).— Silver any size Solder can be made by varying the thickness and contour of the iron enclosing wire. Several forms of ingot are given in the diagram (fig. You will need broad ingots if you wish to roll plate. A. take — . scraped bright lutely clean solder itself must be clean also. Take a .

the pieces of metal havof borax. space should be left for the metal to run along the joint by capillary attraction.a slip of solder. but on filing or putting any It strain on it the joint immediately falls to pieces. the joint is then moistened with a brush charged with borax solution 93 . snip off a number of tinyThese panels bits or panels of solder. and bound together as described with iron binding-wire. must be taken here not to bring the edges of the metal too closely together. is therefore important for silver fitted soldering that the closely. or else the solder when fused will run along the lengthwise down one angle instead of entering the joint. cut a number of slits Soldermg end. . are both painted over with a solution of borax by means of a camel's-hair brush. ing been scraped clean along the join. by a few cross-cuts. and then. so that they are completely covered by a thin coating Next. are then dipped in the borax. work should be Enough but not too closely. When this happens the work looks as if it were perfectly soldered. When the two pieces of metal are fitted. The pieces are now to be tied together in their Care proper positions by binding-wire.

a 94 . heating it gradually and evenly. warmed in the flame of a blowpipe to drive off the water in the borax. flame is directed over the whole work. 40A.Soldering the little chips of solder are then placed fairly closely is at intervals along the joint. join has got thoroughly well heated. When this is dry a stronger then gently The work Fig. taking care that no part of the metal except that When the near the joins gets red hot.

brisker flame may now be directed upon Soldering using the blowpipe be very careful always to direct the flame toward the worker and downward. so that he may readily see the heat he is the bits of solder. giving and the heat the work requires. If the work has been brought up to the proper heat. metal has been allowed to grow cooler 95 . the solder will immediately flush and run along the joint. When Fig. 40B. filling it in Wherever a portion of the every part.

with fans and small bellows. generally are only suitable for small work. 40A) and the oil lamp (fig. Soldering can be done either with the gas flame and mouth blowpipe. and the work must be cooled. 40c. 40c). as almost all old work was done. with the again until Fig. The spirit lamp (fig. foot-bellows and hand blowpipe. the joint there be imperfect. a stronger solution much used is half and half of each and then the operation begun — — all the joints are full. as the amount of heat required But a for work of any size is very great. the metal cleaned by being dipped which is a mixture of one part into pickle hydrochloric acid and ten parts water . 40B). on a charcoal fire.Soldering will than the surrounding parts. 96 . or. with an oil lamp or a spirit lamp. with the mouth blowpipe (fig.

use stones that are cut by Eastern The Oriental has an eye for lapidaries. only in the case of the oil Soldering lamp more care is needed to keep a good flame and to avoid smoking the work. and has no foolish fears The stones rejected of so-called flaws.very great deal of work can be done with the spirit or oil lamp. It is most important to acquire freedom in the use of the blowpipe. by the jeweler are almost always well worth the attention of the artist. so that the setting will hold In choosing stones to cut into facets. Settings Select . set. color and form. CHAPTER Settings XII — The Kinds — Setting the Settings Close Settings of Stones to use Open Settings Paved Stone — — — are avoid those that those that if you can are rounded or cabochon cut do so. 7 97 . See that those you buy have a fairly level bed for the setting. and to this end the student should practise with two one for large and one sizes of blowpipe — for small work. and that the stone is well beveled. Both are very easy to manage.

open or The Settings may be closed setting is a box. rubbing ? J . over. closely to the contour of the stone. it fits closely over the stone you have fitted the band 41). size 5 Setting. to allow for filing level and • p Fig. closed. This method is common in Indian and Persian of the metal. file When the juxtaposed 98 I . To Make a Close silver. strip bend the round so that (fig. French or German work. and a close setting set in a large open-work as in early setting of branches and leaves. are then work.Settings when it is rubbed over. — Cut or 6 metal gage. of claws. or a circlet Or the two may be combined. The open setting may be a mere rim without a bottom. a band of somewhat wider than the intendedheight of the setting. 41. cut off the superfluous metal. the upper edge of which is rubbed over the stone. In incrusted work the stones are let into recesses carved out below the surface The edges of the opening drawn up to the stone by careful work with punch and burnishers.

dip the borax. and when the borax has ceased boiling direct Fig. Settings and paint the in joint. If it has flushed the tip 99 25?689 . and lay joint. 42. warm it in the flame. cut a it paillon of solder.ends true. 4 1 a) take the borax brush . The solder should run almost immediately. on the Then put the setting thus charged on the wire mop or on a piece of charcoal. tie the setting round with fine binding-wire so that the ends meet (fig. 41 it A. and the of the blue flame on the joint setting.

bearing for the stone can be made by fitting a concentric but narrower band The stone is now supported inside this. and the work of rubbing over The edges of the is made much easier. or 8. and you will have a box which just takes the stone. if the work is properly done. is When the joint file complete. 43).Settings the joint. the setting may be cooled and true by tapping it round with a light hammer on a taper steel mandrel made an old steel cotton-spindle makes (fig. and a little larger all round than it. Settings 100 . all round. This. 6 filed flat. 42) an excellent mandrel and the bottom edge Then take a piece of silver. gives the If desired. according to the use to which you intend to put the setting. setting are then filed true. scrape the surface clean. tie the setting on with binding-wire (fig. and set a few paillons — — round the joint and proceed as before. and the whole made clean and workmanlike. a simplest form of setting. off the superfluous metal. the superfluous metal at the base cut away. and anoint the surfaces to be joined as before.

collets. 45). the stone small must fit and form the setting into leaves or claws.can be ^. or crown settings. but this will be described in a later chapter. taking care first to block out the main forms. made by taking a strip of thick metal (lo gage). and cut away the metal inside the top Fig. bending it a little smaller than Then the stone. The outer surface of the claws. take a sharo graving-tool. necklaces . Or the drill may be used to produce lOI . and soldering as before. edge so teenth as to leave the ledge about a file six- down in which Then take a (fig. clasps. always remembering to leave enough metal at the top to hold the stone. or leaves may be carved with the round gravers to whatever shape is desired (fig. Settings Open are settings. or what- ever you wish. wet the point. 44). 44.rouped together and united by filigree-work to form brooches.


perforated patterns below the line of the in fact, there s no end base of the stone to the variety of forms which ma/ be pro;




in this


The main




secure the stone firmly in its place unless this is done in the first shaping of the

can not be done properly afterSettings.



— These



scorpered out of the solid metal.


one which has been much abused, but




yet capable of






** of the stone is marked on the plate, the ground



away with


cut scorper


the stone just


border round 102

You then cut a 46). the stone, sloping away out-


as wide as you wish, keeping this When border highest next the stone. the remainder of the





and stoned poHshed, the




while the metal

place, and held there burnished up against it

This work requires great care (fig. 47). and patience, for if not properly done the This stone will quickly become loose.

method can only be applied

to the harder





Figs. 48 and 49 show a paved stones. setting used in the center of a ring, with
tiny pierced fleurs-de-lis in the angles.




Hoop Rings The Knot Ring

— Making Compound Wire — — The Wreath—The Table Ring — Another Form— The Carved Ring — The Design of Rings



simplest form is a hoop of flatwire or a band of metal coiled









forms. pleasant-looking ring


may be made




a piece of half-round



about -j^th inch wide, solder two fine wires lengthwise down each side of it, then weave this into a knot leaving At an opening in the center (fig. 50). every one of the crossings of the knot solder a tiny bead of silver made by 104
silver wire

cutting off snippets of metal and running them up into beads on a piece of charcoal ; then take a small stone, a garnet


or an opal or a chrysoprase, and set it Fit the setting inside in a close setting.
the opening in solder

the knot (fig. 51), and there, taking care to leave room

rubbing the setting over the stone. the band of the same compound wire, and solder two V-shaped bands to it as wide apart as the width of the knot then solder the knot in between these, arranging the arms of the V's so that they run in with the lines of the knots ; cover the joints with beads, either single or grouped three, four, or five together, or with single beads flattened out on the stake, then pickle the ring, stone it with small bits of Water of Ayr stone, or slips of slate, or with pointed slips of boxwood dipped in pumice powder and

Then make






on the

lathe with the

scratch brush,


after setting the stone

on the buff with rouge.
can vary this pattern to almost 105



any extent by using different sections of wire and different arrangements of the knots and beads; e.g.^ the central wire instead of being round can be flat with hollow notches filed out of each side before the side wires are soldered to


knot can be made more complete by interlacing thinner wires in and out of the others, or you can add twigs and leaves in
the interspaces.







a wire of the to be,

thickness heat the

you require the twig end in the blowpipe


it in the borax, then direct the The wire will blue flame on the tip. quickly melt and run up into a bead (fig. 52). As soon as the bead forms, plunge the wire into water, and after flattening on the stake you can file it into whatever shape you please. Groups



of three or five of these soldered together and the leaves joined at the tips by tiny beads look very well (fig. 52) when combined with knot work of flat wire. Another form of ring is the filigree




Take any
a setting,


irregular stone
filigree wire,

and make


or fine

in the rollers (see fig.

55) will

do as well, up the wire in-

to a simple wreathed symmetrical pattern.


take a piece

of modeling wax not modeling paste, corrodes the that

tmg upright

the — ....

setJ and





Have arrange the wire wreath round it. ready some flattened beads, group them into simple patterns with the wreath (see fig.), and press ever so lightly into the

54 shows another form of table

Then mix with a pearl center.) a small quantity of fine plaster of Paris and place a good body of it over the

whole group






and when 107


quite dry and hard

remove the wax





found fixed

in the plaster.

Remove the plaster with brush from between the joints and around the setting, but do this without Dry disturbing the pattern in any way. the plaster thoroughly in an oven or by the fire, then paint borax on the setting and over the crossings of the wire, and everywhere you wish
to solder.



Ions in the necessary
places and play the flame over the whole gradually so that any chance moisturemay If be driven off. this is done too suddenly the plaster


fly into


You will

then direct the flame on the setting and the wreath until the solder has run Then turn up a ring out everywhere. Take of a strip of silver and solder it. a coil of wire twisted from right to left and another twisted from left to right and a length of plain wire a size or two Boil out the band in dilute acid, larger. io8

using very small paillons of solder.coil the plain wire round it. to the edge table ' ^yj^M'frf^^**' j give tie strength. strengthen the junction of the These ring with the table (fig. or a flatted bead. and after tying it — — on with solder to it fine wire. and arrange branch pieces of flatted wire or so as to double rows of twist wire. boil it out. and their junction with the ring should be covered with a shield cut out of thin metal. branch pieces will go from side to side of the ring behind the filigree. clean it a little pickle. or a group of grains thing is like a flower. 109 . also the setting and Take a piece of flatted wire the filigree. as if much is used the coils of twist will When the bare ring is be filled up. the middle Rm-^s of the band and solder wires coil the twisted on either side of it and solder them. finished in thus far. twisted wire or ordinary round wire passed once or twice through the rollers and bend it to the outline of (fig. that the joint The main must be covered. this p^^^ ^^^ Then to the ring with wire and solder the two together. 53). or a knot of twist wire. ^^) the table of filigree.

no . 57). ^6). — of this kind. the display of workmanship is only the upper area of the first joint of the finger. na ^'*^- It is best thereto fore build 56. up using a the effect on the ring itself. all ornament should be confined mainly Many things look well in to that space. and all must As the field for pleasant to the touch. You will out what effect is best if you remember that every design must stones soon find the ring principal features the junction. little hard wax to hold the pieces of silver and whatever you may use together. have three proper. or hammer a cast bar into the rough form . a sketch which look ridiculous on the finger. you will first cast an ingot of the shape you require (fig. rungs The junction of the branch pieces with the table of filigree will then be strengthened by round grains soldered in. It is important to remember in all ring designs that there must be no spiky projections be rounded and smooth.. and the bezel. Many old rings were carved out of the To make a ring solid metal (fig.

and a small afterward cut away the groundwork with Then. water-color with a brush.then anneal the metal. Outline the ornament or the figure with round-edged tracing-tool. and have ready a few chisels of various sizes made by sharpening a few tracers on an oilstone. Remember always as you please. This is a rule which should never be neglected . with ordinary a rounded chisel. chasing tools. have a bit of the natural foliage near never do anything in you as a guide the way of ornament without reference to nature or without having made a careful detailed study of the plant or form you intend to use. enough to do to overcome the technical difficulties without having also to puzzle your head over the form. and put it on the Then sketch on the design in black pitch. you must learn the form before III . 57. you can model the surface of the leaves and twigs or the figure as Rings Fig. You will have quite much to .

When you have modeled the wreath or the knot as much as you wish. Avoid sprawling lines and twigs be well knit together. and the manner of the translation . diameter. You must not imitate but translate. you can then carve the remainder of the band with a running wreath or a chevron. and all pendants should I 12 I . All art is translation from one state into another. File and scrape the inside smooth polish with a ringstick.— Rmgs you can use it. and charged with rouge. let leaves reveals the quality of the artist. . CHAPTER XIV Necklaces — How Designed—The Arrangement — Chain-making — Mounts — Woven Links — Backing The Snap — —Another Form of Neck— What Study— How Use your — Pendants — Design — Loop Pendant — Cleaning and Stones Pearls Filigree of for the Pearls Polishing to lace to Studies for Suggestions for the Polishing Necklaces Necklaces should be designed on a circle of 4^-in. or with a graver hollow out symmetrical cuts all round the band. let all the lines lead the eye to some central point. which is a taper rod of wood covered with chamois leather.

Have ready the stones you desire to use. the You will find that mere symmetrical arrangement of the stones round the circle will suggest almost instantly any number of methods of treatChoose what seems the simplest. and then arrange for the chains and loops which will be needed to link all up together. Make a few flattened beads. way to secure a good effect of chain-work is to coil best up the links yourself. and twist up your wire to form knots or wreaths round the stones (fig. No pendants be arranged on radial lines. ment. Avoid the use of shop-made chains they spoil the eflfect of the most carefully devised necklace. and some flattened wire or rolled twist. should go beyond the semicircle or they will hang awkwardly on the shoulder when worn. This is done by taking a piece of flattened 8 113 .. in diameter. Necklaces Cut a circle out of thin copper or brass 4^ in. and then sketch out the design which suggests itself when you have arranged the stones according to their pre- ciousness and color. The only chain possible to use is that called Venetian chain. but The even that is not quite satisfactory. 58).

. 58.Necklaces 114 Fig.

wire. which would be impossible were 115 . Coil round the mandrel very and regularly until you have used as much wire as you require (fig. or in a hand-vise if be thin. and fix the mandrel Fig. which may be simple or Then take compound as described for rings. with the edges rounded off with the file. and its size is regulated by the size of the links you desire. This is to serve as the mandrel. the wire. and secure it at each end with Necklaces a few turns of binding-wire. Heat the whole with the blowpipe on the wire spirally closely the mop until the paper is charred away. in a bench vise if the wire to be coiled it is thick. You can now withdraw the mandrel from the coil. Wrap a strip of thin paper spirally round the mandrel. 59). oblong in section. 59.

section and slightly larger. as may be necessary Fig. to give contrast to in the like first series. 116 . circular.g. keeping this cut as clean as possible. e. With a jeweler's fret- saw cut off the Hnks lengthwise down the spiral. 62) separately on the mop. 6o.Necklaces the paper not used. You then loop the two together in such lengths as you may need for connecting of the necklace the various features and you must solder each link (fig. and saw these apart will manner. taking care by . simple or compound. You can then coil on another mandrel of different. another kind of wire.

and up with a rounded doming-punch. 117 . to fit the I backs of the pearls. work of (figs. either on the lead-block or on the doming-block. wreath 6ia). f the pearls are ir- regular in shape.— using a small blowpipe and a small flame to confine the heat to the link you are soldering. whichever you prefer. Having fitted each pearl with a back. dome them or 6. Necklaces pleasant effect can be produced by setting A rough pearls or stones in background of wire a filigree (see - fig. take small size 5 pieces of silver. you can either file away the back until it can hardly be seen from the front. and set them round the If you choose rough pearls metal circle.you must shape the metal backs with rounded punches on lead. It or pearl blisters. 60) or leaves and twigs 61 and must be made as follows: Take the stones you have selected. make either close or open settings.

63) and soldered. . with wire bent into a rippled shape (see Having made the fig. with the wreathing lines of the loops and backgrounds of the stones or pearls.Necklaces or you can keep the edge well file it to the front and or you into symmetrical shapes. as shown in the diagram. simple surfaces. can border it with twisted wire or Fig. and F^«' ^3- loop the links 118 all together. arrange them round the metal circle largest keeping the best and or pearl for the center. backs for the pearls or the settings for the stones. as described above. Bend up some flattened wire into woven knots. This is not only to strengthen the work. but to give the necessary contrast of broad. 62. and solder the cups or settings on the wreath.^ Then make long interwoven loops of wire with naturally — stone circles or squares or groups of beads sol- dered at the crossings (fig. Then make oval links. 64).

These. and the connecting loops must be smooth. should consist of links. repeating the forms of the links in the central portion these will afterward be joined together very pretty by small subsidiary links. 66). look very sparkling and pleasant when polished. link is made with groups of grains or beads soldered on both sides of the link (see fig. or it may be a small group of figure-work. alternately with loops coiled up out of flattened wire. This can either be made out of a group of pearls or stones with a tiny panel of repousse or enamel in the center. They must all lie flat. A Fig.You will need a pendant for the center. Take a piece 119 . if the student is advanced enough to do this. These grained loops must be so arranged that the points are not likely to stick into the skin or to scratch when the necklace is worn. 64. This . The catch must next be made. Necklaces You will now make the chain.

file the angles until it is nearly oval in you may pass a piece of round wire through section. oblong in section ^ in. center of this the other end will file at you a notch half-way across the tube. so that it fits round the mandrel closely. or the This the 65). is to serve as (fig. mandrel Bend a slip of No. On one end you will solder a bit of the same size metal and a ring on the . rolling-mill. 5 metal ^ inch wide. and in this notch solder a narrow strip of silver. leaving a slot between the tube and 120 . and solder the join.Necklaces of brass wire 4 or 5 inches long. broad.

5 metal at right angles on the end. body of the snap this must be soldered on the end of the tongue. A tiny slip of silver is now prepared which will just fit in the slot already filed in the . up true 121 . solder a plate of No. having linked one part on each end of the necklace and soldered the joins the whole is complete. file the it will fit sides of the slot neatly and truly/ until the tongue slips in quite easily and springs up and holds the catch in its place and does not wriggle about. this is to take the Necklaces In the center of the strip you will file out a notch dividing it entirely. . it You will then file and clean when. the catch. and solder the two together at the opposite end to the This is the tongue of right-angled plate. and if not.the edge of tlie strip tongue of the catch. Now try if the catch. then take another slip the same width as the first. and you must leave a space between the end plate and the end of this is last slip or tongue. and also the end of the tube for about |-th of an inch. Then take a slip of silver as wide as the tube and half as thick. so that when it pushed into its place the tongue may spring up and catch behind the slotted end plate of the body of the catch.

leave out. using a little stale beer as Next wash it out in warm a lubricant. you can not be too painstaking put in everything you see. 122 . for metal-work. Necklaces You will dilute acid until then boil out the whcle necklace in it comes out quite white. He seeks forms typical of his subject and yet suitable to his material. it is important that all the natural forms you employ should be generalized that is to say. with rouge to a brilliant surface. a garland of roses. You may wish to make a necklace entirely of silver. and fruit. buds. you must avoid slavish imitation of accidental forms or the minute details of the In your studies be as minute as growth. time you may burnish bits of the orna- ment. flowers. set the stones. the loops. while you can not study too closely the method of growth and the characteristic shapes of the leaves. water. and particularly the flatThen repolish the whole tened beads.. But when you translate these studies into work. Afterward polish the silver-work with the scratch-brush. and rub the settings At the same over with the burnisher. you please. The artist is known as much by his what he omits as by what he puts in work. learn to . We will suppose it is to be Now.

See how large you can make the panels. Take a piece and outline the shapes of the panels. mass of leaves we have large and small For bossy forms. our necklace the simplest way is to arrange the rose boughs in a series of panels of Now. In these panels the roses and buds will be in high relief.for our immediate purpose a rosean assemblage of more or less symmetrically arranged masses of leaves. so that when the whole is polished the roses and buds will shine out brilliantly as jewels. size 8. the leaves and branches in lower and flatter relief. require. 66 and 67). the roses and the buds. as before. is Necklaces bush pierced repousse. and how many you may of silver. each leaf being a symmetrical group of five Relieved against this subsidiary leaves. alternately square and roundish (figs. Take your bit circle. the panels afterward con- nected by loops andbeads. and lay it on a' of paper or on a sheet of wax rolled out. and sketch on it the main branches and mark the position of the 123 .

When you have done this. Keep the drawing of the leaves clear and accurate and decided. and then punch out the smaller group of buds. either open or partly closed. clean Then lay each panel on it and pickle it. after heating the pitch. Lay the metal face down on a thick piece of cork or cork-matting and punch out these roses from the back. distributing them carefully so as to get a sparkling effect. the leaves and branches.Necklaces bosses of roses. then outline the roses and draw the petals on the bosses. and soon the tiny 124 I . when you have done all and then you can to the repousse. wormlike roots. take the silver off the pitch. Then. Then with a sharp tracer outline the spaces to be pierced. keeping the arrangement as symmetrical and as simple as possible. lay the metal down after oiling You will now outline the under surface. coiling branches. which will probably be the whole of the ground. Avoid curly leaves. its face and file away the ridges made by the outlining tracer. and squirming forms.

slightly so between the joints. tack the back and front together in two or three places round When the the edge and in the center. ornament. leave a narrow fillet to be filed away afterward. and before cutting away the waste metal round the edge coil up some rings out of 14 wire and solder them on the back plate in contact with the panel where they are reIf these rings are simply soldered quired. 125 ground out with a Do not saw too closely . well and see that under and into the all solder flushes the joins. press the joints closely together wherever the metal has been warped by the heat.scraps the ornament light. You can then pierce the drill to the and fret-saw. size 4 or 5. of the ground will drop out and will show clear against the Next take a piece of silver for the Necklaces all back of the panel. clean the whole in acid and recharge with borax and with enough but not too much solder. dome it up very that it may press against the When it backs of the twigs and leaves. fits scrape the surface all over and tie the two securely together use plenty of borax . a little larger round than your panel. solder has run. or wherever the joint may have Then been imperfectly fitted or secured.

The latter will be the least difficult. or you may prefer to put a nightingale singing in the middle of a bower of leaves (fig.Necklaces against the panel they are apt to pull off after a certain these panels amount of wear. 126 . will the catch. but should have somecentralpoint of interest. this must not merely be an elaborated panel. These may be either roses with a few leaves. You may either read " The Romaunt of the Rose " and take thence whatever suggestion most appeals to you. after pick- be ready to be stoned and a polished. or boughs twined up into closely knit bosses. you will require loops or links which carry out the design of the main panels. When make the circlet is completed. 68). If you wish to make it pendant for necklace. as the former supposes a knowledge of the figure. To loop up together. and the whole. you will ling.

— — pad. as many sketches as you can. which could be made very interesting. and it must be a good deal larger than the size you propose to make the bird anneal it. in Then fasten the same domed punch again annealing. sketch the outline the reverse way. with head thrown back and his throat Make throbbing in an ecstasy of song. graybreasted bird against the sky and leaves. and after take a boxwood or horn mallet 127 . Take an opera-glass and find the spot most frequented by the birds and least frequented motionless and watch sit by humans them while they sing. If you have not seen one before.watch one in singing. and beat the vise. or standard if left from the tool. you will never forget the first sight of the little brown-backed. To Make the Nightingale. size 8 of fine silver if you are going to enamel.though you might make a little gateway Necklaces with towers to the garden of the Rose. and when you get home take a piece of silver. There numberless woods and copses near London which the nightingale may be heard and seen at almost any time of the day. and with a rounded doming-punch boss out the metal as much as you can on the cork . — First are go and happily .

or a little less. of metal. and shape the bird carefully with chasing and re-. The two can then be filed and fitted together. pousse tools. taking care. cut away the ground and solder a piece of metal over the opening. be made double. When the wreath is complete you can tie the bird in its place and solder it to the 128 . and make the bower of leaves or branches within which the bird is to be set.Necklaces the metal still further round. driving the metal gradually round behind the back of the bird. if there be no other escape for the air. You must keep it wreath-like and clear and simple in outline without any spikiness or too It should great irregularity of surface. the metal. until the rough relief is as high as the thickness Reanneal through the body of the bird. When you have modeled the surface as you wish. You at will find it possible to get the for a body quite opening in the round save narrow the back. the pattern on the back being developed from that on the face. size 6. lay it on the pitch. and pickled and soldered. to drill a small hole where it will least be Then you will take another piece seen. taking care that you do not crack it in the process.

probably find that six loops of flat wire enriched with twist soldered round alternate links. loop the whole necklace It to see the eff^ect. you can sharpen up the modeling of the leaves. and any irregularity must be corrected by lengthening or shortening links wherever necessary. You will probably find that a second drop or subordinate pendant the bird. temporarily together should hang in one even curve. and make the whole clean and workmanlike. and after fastening the bird and wreath on the wax. 70). Necklaces You will be sufficient 69). 69.bough you have prepared for it. with a rose boss in the center of the six links. or the pendant will twist about and will Then not hang truly. cut away superfluous solder. will (fig. When the work is clean you can then take a rounded graver and a cement-stick. The wreath can be hung to the necklace by one or two chains or loops. leaves 9 Make a in is needed beneath pear-shaped group of and roses two halves (fig. The loops must be fairly broad and not too long. 129 . Fig.

surface gets as dark as CHAPTER XV Brooches — Suggestions for Design Making of Compound Twists Catch Brooches — Mounting—The and —The Joint Brooches should be kept rather small. get into the setting or the effect of the stone may be entirely spoilt. them together with a loop at the this by means of three or seems as complete as you put it all in the pickle and Stone quite white and clean. wash it clean in hot water. five links to the wreath.Necklaces solder top. 70. and dry it in It will look staring the sawdust. as and be designed on the same principles 130 . and polish it by hand with a wash-leather and a little rouge. Fig. When can make it till it leave carefully and polish on the lathe with the scratch-brush and stale beer. Then wash clean with soapsuds and hot water. When the you wish. ^j^^ unpleasantly white and bright. and hang it all it. This defect can be removed by brushing it over with a hot solution of ammonia sulTake care that it does not fid in water.

and if possible somewhat concave. The is subject shall be a running stag bearing the this moon in his antlers. Her symbol is a : Brooches — stag." But only one way of looking at the subject the student must choose his own. and affected art is bad art. however. We will suppose you have a moonstone which you wish to set. We will suppose you make him standing with his head and antlers thrown back. What is personal to one may be an affecta. The back.pendants. that you choose to do a stag. or you can use the antlers as part of a setting. Having made the drawing of the stag as you wish. If I were doing it I should probably reason in this way " The moonstone suggests Diana. take a piece of silver of suitable size and gage. 8 or lo if for high relief. like a moon rising behind trees. 6 or 7 if for lower relief Fit your design within some simple set form. 131 . Make a drawing of a stag running. or square. however. Choose some poetical subject suggested by the stone. an oval. or standing sidewise with his head thrown back or turned toward the spectator. a circle. should always be smooth. Suppose. and tion in another. You can either set the stone behind the antlers.

a length of smaller wire. pass it through the flattening-roller or hammer it into a ribbon. When the repousse is done. is not pierced. After the back and front are tacked together. 5 silver sufficiently large to leave a :^-inch margin all round. size 12. make and if the ground is a back as described If it to be pierced. double it and twist up tightly from right to left . Make it the its and fit into is place carefully. twist another piece 132 . boil it clean. and either bursts the back off. This is to let the air escape. drill a couple of small holes. or draw a piece of round wire through Take a draw-plate with oblong holes.Brooches beat the stag out in setting set in for the stone relief. arrange the horns so that they will take the setting of the stone. You will now require a border. and if the stone to be the background. one at each end of the horizontal diameter a little within the places for the joint and catch. and see that the stone is placed nicely in relation to the rest of the enclosing space. Take a round wire. otherwise the imprisoned air expands. about 4 in the metal gage. or distorts the front by bulging it out in its weakest place. for the silver necklace. dome slightly a piece of No.

copper wire. and solder as a frame. and it will be ready to receive the joint or catch. the size of the silver wire before it was flattened. clean. Take a piece of thick. You can then remove the copper wires and replace with the silver twists. The latter has the more sparkling effect. Brooches you can solder there. using small paillons to fill and taking care not with solder. wire in the vise and one end in a handvise or a pair of slides.Take two lengths of from left to right. file the to do. Instead of doing this you can make a circle of small stars. half-round wire and bend it into the shape of a C with a long tail (CL) . it up the twists Now boil. and twist the whole until the spiral is as close as you wish it. and afterward round your panel solder it in position on the brooch near. then file the bottom of the tail flat. and tie one on each side of the silver ribbon with iron bindingThen fix one end of this compound wire. and after them in them here and tying their place. 133 . or you can make a number of groups of grains and solder them round. but it takes much longer When the border is made. surplus metal from the back and round the edge. either in repousse round the panel.

5 and solder it at one side 134 . a larger each way stout (fig. and solder a short length. take another piece of No. on a slip little of No. about fth inch long. 72). about size 12 in the metal gage. Take the hinge for the pin. Upon the flat side of this you will solder another and shorter length of tube (fig. 71). When the two fit perfectly.Brooches must make Next you but not actually on the edge. File out of the center of the first tube a space wide enough to take the tube on the end of the pin (see fig. a 5. 73A). Then take piece of and run the end up Flatten into a good-sized bead (fig. a piece of fine tube. silver wire 73). the bead and file it into shape as shown.

If you have a close setting. 73A) so that the two lengths of tube are in the angle Brooches MM Fig.of the bottom joint (see fig. The flat end of the spring of the pin. The last piece helps to make of an L. the pin catch being is bent down under the held in place by the elasticity of the metal Pins (fig. and the stone set. the pin catches against this . 73. The filed when true in up dered ^'°- and place. clean. 74). can be sol- 74- The whole can now be boiled out and scratch-brushed. and have more spring in them. it is best to 135 . ''''• ^^^ made of 9-carat gold are very much better than silver pins. joint. they are harder.

75). 75.Brooches a piece of white foil greater brilliancy. narrow setting of thin silver and file the edge either wavy or scalloped or serrated. You will then turn up You a Fig. and solder it in behind as shown (fig. Another way of setting stones in the background of back the stoLe with it to give any panel is to beat out a hollow from the back into which the stone exactly fits. 136 a . will then pierce out all of this except narrow piece just sufficient to retain the stone firmly. This forms a subsidiary setting.

137 . and the foliage or branches in the background must be made to lead up to the setting as the cul- minating point of the whole jewel. scalloped. or serrated edges of the setting bent over the wire and burnished until the stone is Brooches set quite firmly. large or sprawl- Pendants Points. projections. bent to the curve of the setting. and the wavy. not make the is soldered in or upon At the same time you must work look as if a hole had been made in the casually in. and roughnesses The lines of the should be avoided. The metal and a stone dropped setting must be frankly made to look like a setting. is.and when all is complete the stone can be dropped into its place and a piece of round wire. The advantage of this that the work on the background can be carried round the setting without any of the awkward joins which are almost impossible to avoid when a separate setting the ground. can then be fitted in behind the stone. CHAPTER XVI Pendants sign —The Hoop —Things —The Use to Suggestions for Debe Avoided Setting the Enamel of Enamel PoUshing for the Pendant — — — Pendants should not be ing.

and in spite of everything. and follow their methods. After you have made the setting for the stone. arrange a 138 structure of the head . at once suggests things Any other method is permisof the sea. My method of design is to make each jewel enshrine some story or symbol. to its leg- endary history. The design now suggested is merely a peg on which to hang the technical description. follow whatever inspiration is given him at all costs. some point of interest within the The' back should be made interesting as well as the front. draw the fish on the silver. you ideas suggested by it. to its qualities. no take an aqua-marine less than the color. make studies offish. or to the For example. the name itself. He must sible if the student is sincere. avoiding grotesque or extraordinary pay great attention to the bony and the set of the Look at any Japanese drawings of fins. . I try to make the ornament allusive to the gem. fish you can get hold of. Lay your stone or stones on a bit of silver. and draw fishes swimming from the stone as a center forms . spirally to or .Pendants ornament should tend toward the center or to outline. boss the whole well out from the back.

You it all can have in enamel like a sea. you must arrange for the back. Put a range of spiral curls rather high in relief all round to make a frame. A fial modern ship a is still as beauti- a thing as men make nowadays. and let the tip of the spirals lip over the bodies of the fish so that they are encircled Pendants by waves 76). or you can put a silver ship with sails on sailing enamel waves. drawing of the Take and care it that fills panel and chase it until it If is as complete as you can make it. (fig. you intend to put an enamel sea.hollow for the setting of the stone and fairly deep hollows between the fish to be filled with enamel. and careful it you should make one. and let the outlines of the fish be fairly undercut to give good hold for the enamel. you must prepare a sunken ground wherever 139 raise . When is the repousse finished. well.

Shake Then off the surplus. then paint the back of each plate. with gum traga- canth and water. and grind it up fairly fine. Nothing looks worse than enamel melting away into modeled work without a line to frame it and keep it in its proper place in the comEnamel is not a kind of paint position.Pendants the enamel to come. take the ground greens. which can be applied anywhere . Choose two or three good rich enamels. add a tiny drop 140 . The modern tendency to cover large surface with enamel vulgarizes the material. and dust the backing (see chapter on Enamel Work) all over. wherever there is to be enamel in front. and employed in small quantities. and wash it well till all milkiness disappears . making it look like so much colored varnish. and leave to dry. ranging from dark to pale sea-green. the ground and the back of the metal also is to be scraped quite clean and bright all over. and wherever the enamel comes. so that the silver itself frames the enamel. as a means of hiding inferior work it must be treated as a precious material. and this without any corresponding advantage. You will then clean the metal by boiling out in acid. and the edges Is of the ground must be undercut.

and cool slowly in a sand bath or in front of in the muffle until the the stove. file away 141 . and. mark the outline all round with a point. a wave-like line. silver. because everything for the sea. you can remove any irreguof surface with a corundum file and water. as it were. must lead up to that.of left gum to each mixture. When larities cool. Take a piece of lo silver. and solder the whole to the plate you have sawed out. and when it fits solder the ends together. You will now have to arrange the fitting of the two together. 5 the outline. narrow band of No. re-fire to get all smooth and bright. so that you have. then saw out the center leaving only a band |-th than the inch wide. leaving projections where loops come. a little larger outline of the pendant. If necessary. File the setting into in a similar way. remove from the furnace. fill in the spaces Pendants shading the greens from dark at the edge to light at the center. Then fire carefully enamel flows smooth and shining. after soldering two Cut it a bend round strong loops to the central plate. making the lightest green a little darker than the central stone. a Treat the other side skeleton setting.

and chains. and. a little knop act as a spreader for the suspending to sug- You may make the knop 142 . Do this with the back also. grain the point over with a circular movement until the rough head of the pin is well rounded. fit and. after rubbing the edges of the setting over with a burnisher. fixing the front in place. and make the whole smooth to the touch and pleasant to look at. Make taper pins of silver wire the setting the holes. Take a fine drill. drill a hole here and there through the setting and the relief. You will now need to make the loop.Pendants surplus metal. and take a small graining-tool (fig. 77) or a hollowheaded punch. insert the pins and press them firmly home. the to hollow of which is not larger than the head of the pin. Cut them oflF close to the setting. This fixes the pin firmly in to its place.

the silver must be fine silver and you must solder on the back with 1 8-carat gold solder other solder is apt to be destroyed in the firing. stretched Pendants can either be cut away or it can be enIf enamel is amelled in different blues. the ends together. . The Take loop a is made of a thick 8 or 10. — Take flushed care that the joins solder. all soldered on the back plate. fig. and solder piece of metal. coiled rings for the bottom. and a loop like this _3L_ ^^^ ^^^ top loop. No. file up the for and clean and stone ready polishing. Beat it up from a bit of 7 or 8 silver. You can see them any day about the bridges on the Thames. Take a pair of round-nosed pliers and bend it as in fig. downward drooping wings. 78A. shaped as in rounded doming-punch and hollow it well out from the back (fig.gest the Draw a sea-gull with outair. and solder the bird on a back of No. 78c. 783). used. cut it away with a metal saw. If you prefer the pierced ground. are all well for up with Provide suspension loops. 5 thickness. underneath you can place The ground a band of curling waves. Cut the ground away again and whole true. Have ready the coiled 143 .

The enamel portion can be polished with putty powder the all the together. After correcting any inequalities. make them double. and solder them to the loop (see 780). solder loops top and bottom. 144 . solder them together. fig. chains then scratch-brush and beer. and fix a grain between the two for the sake of strength no less than for appearance. Make chain loops as before described. They maylittle be shells or coiled fishes. beat and little up four bosses. and afterward finish with rouge. it how solder Fig. and then loopthewhole up temporarily see to hangs. 78. polish with and a little water.Pendants rings.

lightness is obtained either by using very thin metal. and solder the two halves together to make Leave a hole -| to ^ inch a complete ball. taking care not then to drive the punch in too deeply . and free from sharp ^^J^^^ ^^ The required angles or roughnesses. and wet the . file the edges level.— CHAPTER XVII Silver Hairpin The Hair Ornaments and Combs Hardening the Pin A Comb in Skeleton Sphere How to make the Prongs The Joint Silver The Head of -Jie Comb Arranging the Stones — — — — — — — — The Groups of Leaves Setting the Pearls — How — The Pin for the Hinge to Drill Pearls other ornaments for the hair Hair Ornalight. Let us take the simplest first. and press it into the pitch then take a fine tracer and trace spiral lines round the dome. Then warm silver ball the pitch-block. 2 or 3 silver. or by building up the design out of wire or filigree. Combs and must be very Take a rounded iron doming-punch and beat out two half-domes out of No. 145 . and make a long pin for the hair. wide in the center of one of the halt-domes and a smaller hole opposite this and fill it with pitch.

This done. and put a grain of silver in each angle (see fig. together solder a small bead at the Then solder this on top. the top of a tiny piece of round wire like a column. cut a piece of stout silver wire 6 inches long and file it into a taper pin . solder the two and crosswise. Next take two about rings of inch in diameter. very ^ slightly. or simply a series of Next rounded spirals.. smallest size you can and solder it into the hollows between the ribs. solder the chased ball on the top of this pin so that the end of the pin projects wire. narrow rib take twisted wire. 80) then solder a tiny half- dome of the silver on . either Combs with a between each pair. the get. Hair Ornaments and with otAer punches chase the surface into rounded spiral ribs.

pin pass through both at the top and the Cut the remaining rings in half. or whiting and water this will prevent the solder from melting and the rings from falling to The skeleton sphere can now be pieces. . . . Repeat this until you It is have a skeleton sphere. . strengthened by a row of tiny half-domes and groups of six grains alternately the . just large enough to let the J ^ ^- 8o.the top of the large ball and the skeleton Hair Ornaments and ball and pillar on the top of this again. diameter. „ Fig. 8i) you must put a ring of fine wire to cover the joint Where dome Combs and make Now a neat finish. bottom.. take a piece of silver wire and coil it on a mandrel. about a dozen times. it is better to cover the part already soldered with loam and water. better to finish soldering at the top of the sphere before proceeding to the other pole and when soldering the other ends. junctions you will solder two small rings of flat wire. 147 . and solder a half-ring in each angle. Saw the rings apart and solder two At the together as before described. h inch in . the pillar meets the half (fig.

. ing to solder.Q j-j^g center of each rib. and having coiled up a number of small rings of fine wire or fine twist. beginning at the Protect the half not being soldered top. pickle. have ready a number of small beads of silver. and put a grain in 148 . and finish solNext make six small hollow dering. and slip another ring on the pin to make a collar Before proceedunderneath the spheres. and solder the rings round inside measure.width of each half-dome and flower being ments and exactly the width apart of the ribs. join is made. You will now solder the skele- ton sphere in its place. and slip the completed ball into its place on the pin best. spheres of No. find the point at a which and there solder collar it looks of wire on the pin. make two and tie stout rings ^ inch them opposite each other where the pin and sphere meet. When the upper with loam or whiting.Hair Orna. the outsides of the balls. 2 metal. Qj^g wires within the top and bottom rings. clean away the loam or whiting and boil the metal clean and white in Scrape the joint bright. Then protect the rest of the work with loam or whiting as before. and let all the flowers and small half-domes be soldered to Next file away the crossingeach other. Solder Combs |.

To Make a Comh. 10 ordinary gage. and mark simple out three- or four- 149 . Take a — a strip size of silver. alternate twist and plain. or simply of circles ofwire. and loop three balls on each loop as shown in fig. circle.every alternate ball. Then solder a ring on Hair Ornaments and the top of each and make lengths Combs six of fine chain as described for necklaces. Next hammer the pin carefully on to a bent stake make it hard and springy. large and small. The whole can now be cleaned and polished. 79.

The pearls should marines and pearls.pronged ments and fig.Hair Orna. 83. Draw a piece of fine tube. be of irregular shapes. Combs comb. 150 M . The pattern must not be too regular. Then make strong twigs of thick wire hammered taper and soldered together in a simple interlacing pattern embracing the settings. 82. about inch in diameter. and sol der a length along the back of these prongs as at a in fig. Fig. 83. as in the lower portion of Leave a space of at least threequarters of an inch before you begin the Then saw out the prongs and file prongs. make settings for the aquamarines. and drilled so First that they may be mounted as roses. This was an arrangement of aqua84). as de scribed before. and solder them on a back-plate hammered up into a domical section. up the edges clean and smooth. A You make will now require to to get a the top of the comb. best The way is few clear stones and arrange them into apleasantpattern. with different shaped bosses of metal and wreaths of filigree (fig.

84. ments and When the main stems are soundly Combs Fig.nor must the stones be of equal size or Hair Ornacolor. take silver wire and make leaves as before described. and solder them to- . soldered.

ing fixed the position of the roses. and polishing has been Havcompleted. you can now arrange the groups of leaves order on the in stem. having filed it up smooth. and solder a calyx on the tip of each principal twig. leaving enough of the twig to pass through the pearl and be riveted or grained over when the pearl is be done when all the fixed. 78. The of each leaf should be tanto the main curve (fig. 85). and solder them.Hair Ornaments and Combs gether in groups of five. soldering. using loam or whiting to protect This will the center line joints. on you stout sheet-silver shaped as at b in fig. or strong clips of bent iron 152 . cleaning. calyx or skeleton setting for each of the pearl roses. gential When all the leaves have been soldered will need to strengthen the bottom plate both for the attachment of the hinge and to bind up the settings for the stones Take a piece of into a connected whole. tie it firmly with wire. with grains beThen make a tween each pair of leaves. and.

and the tang of the comb tie to- ^53 . 86. because it is almost impossible to file the joints of the hinge perfectly true and square without the joint tool. the solder has flushed well in and around ments and Combs every joint boil the work clean in acid. but not the best.— When Hair Omathe body of the comb. and then. and wire. and solder a tube of the same size as before into spaces into each file the groove tube to receive the projections in the other. way of making it is is an easy one. as described for the casket hinge. 86). to then file a groove with a rounded file along the bottom edge of the projecting tongue. If you wish to spend more time on the work you can make the hinge in short lengths. having slipped all the parts of the hinge the joint the head on a brass pin filed to fit. three above and two below (fig. This Fig. There should be not less than five joints .

Then heat the setting of . one end and after heating draw it out into a long thread. file a shoulder it just where on the other end of the pin comes through the hinge. then just ments and tack the tubes three to the tang and two Combs J. the whole is stoned with Water Ayr stone and has been polished. and.gether with the hinge between . having drilled the other ball. and solder a one to the end of pin (fig. is When the the comb pin will be finally fitted together securely riveted over the ball.Q j-j^g j^g^^ . When of In fixing the pearls you will need to use shellac to cement them to their settings. Next make two hollow balls. 87) which exactly fits the hinge. you may set the stones as before described. When the parts are tacked. take the work apart and solder it all firmly.Hair Orna. — — ^jj-l^ ^ finy panel of solder do not flush the solder or you will spoil the whole hinge by running the solder As a precaution you into the joints. in the gas flame. Take a stick of shellac. should paint the inside of the tubes and the faces of the joints with a little rouge and to each water.

holding the setting and the pearl. 88. To do this you will need a holder. 88 and fixed in a hand-vise . and the instrument is complete. ^55 . and wind a little of this thread Hair OrnaWarm the pearl. not been drilled. one in each hand. Combs and run a little of the shellac in the hole then. a graduated series of holes is drilled through the two contiguous halves. It Fig. slip the collar until the pearl is firmly held. over the flame. a slip collar is made. nients and of shellac round it. you must drill them. slip the pearl over the peg while the cement is liquid . the inner edges of the holes are then slightly countersunk to prevent injury to the pearl. Put the pearl you wish to drill in the pair of holes that most nearly fits it. consists of a strip of brass bent as in fig. when it is cold you can rivet the If the pearls have peg very carefully.. each stone.

to 7 inches in circumference. specially valuable the peg may be keyed This is done by drilling a hole and on. . and a very tiny wedge of metal inserted the peg is then cemented and The pressure on pressed into the hole. even if it only goes If the pearl is half-way into the pearl. is needed in doing this or the pearl may be split. drawn. making it larger at the bottom than at the The peg used is made of two halftop. the two ends are then slightly filed away. a well-made peg well cemented will hold quite well. 56 . There is no need to drill the pearl right through. round wires put together and soldered to the cap. the wedge drives the two halves of wire outward and the peg can not be withCare It can only be drilled out.— Hair Ornaments and You Combs can now drill the hole without danger of injuring the pearl or your own fingers. CHAPTER Bracelets XVIII Bracelet — The Hammered the Joints — Bracelets Bracelet— The Fitting Band— The —The Snap —The —The Hinge Hinge Flexible Bracelet Cleaning and Burnishing BRACELET sizes range from 6|.

Solder on each bend a short piece of silver the Mark 157 . the diagram. so that the tips of the ends will just reach the extremities of this line. When you have stretched it out to at least two inches longer than the circumference required. Anneal the metal thoroughly. take a sharp chisel and i^g-th divide the fan-shaped ends as shown in Fig. next open out the strips of metal and regular taper. and anneal out the right lengths of the bracelet. and flatten it out to a square section in the center and fan-shaped and feather-edged at the ends (fig. hammer them into a more Do this to both sides. anneal it. and bend the ends to a sharp angle. 89.Take about a short length of thick silver wire Bracelets inch in diameter. again. 89).

round-nosed pliers bend up the (fig. the square bench stake. and the ends butt cleanly together. and flattened with the 90) Fig. With a pair of smooth. say a chryso- 158 . curve is perfect. and file up the ends true and clean. 90. When has been done to both sides. take a small jewel. making the band of the bracelet just the right length. taper twigs into simple scrolls and connect them with each other by means of large beads made as before described.Bracelets thickness of the bracelet. bend the band round with two pairs of strong pliers into the shape of a flattened circle. To avoid marking the metal you must hammer on this make thin copper or brass shields to slip When the over the jaws of the pliers.

set and This done. the other This will cover the half standing free. and all roughnesses removed from every part of the work with the Water of Ayr is stone. so that it can be slipped over The the hand without difficulty (fig. 91). This work will. and the surface afterward decorated with chasing-tools. final polishing given. or a garnet.prase. It now ready and the polishing. junction of the ends and yet give the metal play. ^S9 . stoning. setting for it. of course. Make a box and solder the setting on Bracelets one side of the band. be done upon pitch. Fig. the stone can be for whitening. an opal. outside of the bracelet may be hammered into a rounded or softly beveled section. 91. The inside of the bracelet must be scraped and filed clean and smooth and rounded. so that one-half of the setting will be on the band. When.

— sheet brass a 92). and cut a narrow slip of No. silver wire and make two ovals to fit Fig. Bend the band to fit the outside of the oval rings. Solder the closely over the brass pattern. tie the band and the nngs 160 . 6 or 8 sheet-silver as broad as you This can be wish to make the band. two ends together.Bracelets unless can you wish to oxidize the work. Make Cut an a Hinged Bracelet. the is whole To ellipse finished. decorated in repousse with very simple patterns of symmetrically arranged dots or a simple running pattern. This is to serve as guide when bending the band of the Take two lengths of square bracelet. of the size required out of stout (fig. 92. which be done as described elsewhere.

and another — a length just to fit inside this tube. Bracelets and solder the whole soundly together. length of thin silver tube as wide as the thickness of the bracelet edge. with a space between them each piece being a third as long as the short II 161 . com- fortably into Now cut off a — length of the larger tube a little longer than the depth of the bracelet band. 93. and enlarge its this with the needle so that the larger tube will slip place. You have now to make the hinge and snap. file. bracelet. 93). This makes the band of the bracelet. and halve it lengthwise with the framesaw. Drill hole through the edge wires of the Fig. Into one half solder two lengths of the small tube. Draw a To Make the Hinge or Joint.firmly together as in the diagram (fig.

See that the joint in the tube lies across the edge of the bracelet as in fig. and solder it without giving too much heat.wire.Bracelets joint —and Into the center of the other half solder another piece of tube filed to fit exactly between the fig. and with in place binding. 95. into the tie it Scrape the outside of the tube quite clean. Put some small panels of solder on each side of the tube. first two (see 94). or the solder may flush into the joint and spoil the work. 162 . Fit these two halves of the joint together after painting each with water rouge and prevent them from sticking togetherwhile being a little to soldered bracelet.

File the fig. file the lower slot B.hwise id down the joint. for the spring for | "^[^ ^^^ ^^* ^/cX« ^ I the a fit lower the bottom take it plate of the snap. and can be hinged up temporarily with a brass peg. p^^ g you now file notches le band of the bracelet . Solder the end of it to the bottom plate so that the edge nearest the back-plate is separated from the latter by a space exactly the thickness of the at D 1 (fig. The snap is made by cutting two strips of 8-gage metal. The 96. The snap-plates can now be soldered 163 . and saw the through on the opposite side. one for the back. strip For this latter to of 8.File the ends of the tube flush with the edge of the bracelet.or 9-gage silver. the form at upper space plate. and one for the face of the Bracelets snap. is face into |— I . the jracelet will come in two. 97). and solder it at right angles to the back-plate(seefig. spring-plate strip filed is a narrow ^ fit of the to same metal the groove C. 98). The p.

but it is not safety-chain absolutely necessary. smooth. and the snap is complete. a lining-plate. spring-plate through the slot C. Fix the snapplate carefully it. loop may be soldered on each side Fig. for the attachment of the if you wish. being soldered inside each half of the bracelet (figs. made of a strip of silver. All the constructive enrichment of the band as. can now be soldered in position. in it place. and release the snap by pressing the point of a file or a knife upon the tie rouge and wire. first The plate should be soldered in position. and solder the back-plate of the snap to the proper half File the joint clean and of the band. and a slot filed at C to admit the thumbpiece of the snap.Bracelets to the Other end. with Scrape the back of the snap-plate and the end of the bracetie binding-wire let which abuts on this round the whole bracelet. A 99. . a panel of filigree- A — 164 . 100). for instance. The thumbpiece. B. 100.

Make similar 102. say twenty. otherwise the bracelet may not snap or close properly. slip off the coils of and with the saw cut off the loops one by one until you have Boil the rings clean. Solder them all together. wire. 10 1) on a level piece of charcoal. a paper -guarded Take a silver anneal wire. a good number. about 20 gage. These are the ornamental loops to the chain of which the flexible part of the bracelet will be made. foliage. a number of these a links. Make number with groups of three small grains added in the intersections of the circles (fig. and 165 .work. How to Make a Flexible Bracelet. and coil it round mandrel. or set stones —should are be Bracelets done before the joint and snap made. and solder a half-dome in the middle and a grain in the intersections of the circles. and arrange them together (see fig. 5 silver. Take a mandrel of flattened iron or brass wire. 102). Make a number of small half-domes — out of No. coil a strip of thin paper round it. it.

up the whole 6^ inch length easily. 103. able to loop a. be The Fig. now be You will 103). group done should be in one piece. one to hold the snap and the other for the catch-plate. the three central ornamental links can be !(•>(•): looped together also 1 8 (fig. or gage silver. is 104. and with them loop the first made links in groups of three and solder each link .Bracelets after the paper flattened or half-round wire. This done. make the two end panels. Saw these Hnks off. leaving a clear line the center for the joint. You can do them in repousse out of 8pair of little rabbits.«!)(«=s#® Fig.as shown in fig. boil out and . or you can make the bracelet with a single row of ringedloops. would look well. A squirrels in a bower of leaves. 104. and the relief fairly should high. down When it the modeling 166 complete. gage or 20.

and file up clean. and solder the slotted catch-plate centrally on one and the snapplate to the other. scratch-brush with beer. 167 . each half the proper the loops of the chain-band . and brighten the it domes of each loop with clasp can also be a burnisher. and clean in pickle. File out a slot in the fit the two together. may mention that springs of catches made made in 9-carat gold last longer than those in silver. the back-plate of the clasp. the traces of pickle by boiling it in Polish it on the hot water and soda. When the thumbpiece has been added. the panel in two. solder on stout These should links of wire.Saw solder on a back of No. except fiDr the loops. be circles and soldered firmly to Fig. 105. 105). fig. position for Mark on boil move Then reout. and each loop further strengthened by soldering a grain of silver on each side of it (see Now loop it all up together. The be gone over with the burIt nisher with well to great advantage. 6 metal. the Bracelets catch-plate side and clasp is complete.

needs very much more care on the part of the workman. Used precious material thin it gives a beauty quality unattainable by other means. To work The in solid gold to waste needlessly. and malleability. the sweepings of the floor underneath the work-bench must all be carefully preserved for refining when a sufficient quantity has been The material should always be obtained. so that value. on — used.— CHAPTER XIX Gold Work The Care of the Material Board Sweep Method of Treatment Alloys Hair Ornaments The Ingot Drawing the Wire Making Grains Leaves Flowers Gold SolStudy of der Nine-Carat Gold for the Pin Old Work — — — — — — — — — — — — Gold Work account of the greater of the material. lemel. by its very ductility of the solid. polishings. For enameled panels i68 . invites this method of treatment. not filed up out Gold. it gives its utmost decorative be built up out of thin sheets or wires. cost GoLD work. of the gold to be used depends on the nature of the work. Board sweep. and it is the one most used The work must in all the finest is periods.

it is alloyed with varying quantities of copper and silver. the greenish color silver by itself a two together gives the alloy almost the . perhaps. if alloyed with copper only. both for working and appearance afterward. but on account of its ex. To give it hardness. while the ordinary — But gold of trade jewelry is i8-carat. but beyond 12-carat the alloy looks much more like silver than gold. be allied with silver down to 12-carat.. this.Gold Work treme softness it will not stand much wear. and is very ducFor repousse gold may tile and kindly. but it is very pleasant to work. is not pleasant in color. is naturally that which is most The viz. Yet it is as remember that the addition of small quantity of gold to silver gives a richness of color which can not be obtained in any other way. even 169 . is much harder to work. If it is alloyed with silver only the alloy is paler in color than gold. original color again. nearly fine gold next best is 20-carat. and is liable to crack if used for repousse work. and the effect of it is not. 22-carat. much better than well gold-washed to a silver. The best alloy.fine gold is best. Copper by itself gives the gold a red color.

onehalf. of fine gold. of this. add two grains of fine silver and two of alloy copper. and after annealing draw it down with the draw-plate until you get it to size o.Gold Work will suppose you wish to make a pair of hair ornaments in 20-carat gold. . Coil it up and anneal it carefully on the mop boil it out in hydrochloric pickle. and some small for berries. will First you buy from any of the merchants i oz. narrow draw 1 06. in all i dwt. and snip off short lengths. You will . /. e. Next run the ends into beads. i6 bullion grs. and to every dwt. it out on the anvil into a square wire. some large for leaves. melt in and a ingot. hammer the tip taper. When cool. Put cast it in a crucible with a little it borax. Take lo dwts.

ball the size of the proposed ornament. smaller beads up dome 109). now need solder. a piece of sheetinto a Now iron half Fig. as this until you have In you want. and direct the flame till on each joint as in suc- cession the whole has been soldered. add 5 grains of fine silver. a size or Make two rings of two larger than that used for the twigs and leaves. 52). roll it out thin. plain wire. Take two or three dwts. lay stake (see tiny panels of solder over each junction. 107). and cut it up into tiny panels readyfor soldering.. 108. This 171 . and between them solder a ring of twist wire. and melt on the charcoal block with a little borax flatten the resulting button of alloy with a hammer. Take the prepared bits of wire. Gold Work of the alloy you are using. group them on either side of a central stem (see fig. like manner make Do many groups groups of the (fig. flatten the larger beaded ends into leaf shape with a few taps on the square bench fig. to every dwt.

Between each pair of rings you must now solder a group of three grains. no). Round the edge of the base put a double row of twisted wire to enclose the upright rings. tie them all in position with bindingsolder them to the stem. solder this on a ^^ . domed slightly on the top of the tube up Next coil solder the gold bead. and solder a grain in the angle between the ring and the bead and in the angle between the ring and the base. small strip of metal into a tube about 3^th inch long. six rings of fine twisted wire. band must be soldered to a of flattened wire. . circle of size 2. Bend up a half solder the two together. but take care not to use too 172 . enough to fit just large in between the hollow bead and the base. wire. lengths of wire or bits of scrap gold. the wire being bent You will next dome up a ball of gold in two halves out of size i or 2 when the metal just fits the doming-block.Gold Work is for the foundation This circle circular band round the edge. take a file and file away the superfluous metal and having made an air-hole in one edgewise. 109. and to the hollow bead and the base Make grains out of small (see fig.

Gold Work boiled out clean. two others and the top and bottom rings. Have ready a numboil the work clean. this heat. about two grains of silver solder to each pennyweight of the original solder. as a precaution against melting. and solder one in the angle between the twigs and the bottom. While soldering these it may be well to paint the parts not to be soldered with a paste of loam or whiting and water. take the groups of leaves. as much of the first solder as you think you may require. when or you will melt the rings. ber of small grains also boiled clean. If this is not done. Tie and the large ring already made on You can the iron ball with binding-wire.much This. now arrange the groups of leaves and berries in their places between the boss Each group must touch and the ring. The solder itself should run more easily than that used for To secure this. When the soldering is complete. I lO. using this both for ap- 173 . the work will not be strong. or pipe-clay and water. and add to it a piece of silver solder. forms the central boss of the whole ornament.

Gold Work pearance and strength (fig. and the first part of Fig. solder them together as in fig. but with a boss of coiled twist-wire in the center instead of . 7^ grains each of copper and silver to 174 . again boil out clean. knop complete. is The the to next for hair. Take in the proportion of 9 of gold to 7^ of copper and 7^ of silver. and having made three circles of wire. iii). size 22. to make pin the attachment It should be of 9-carat gold. Fig. trefoil must now be soldered to the back of the bottom ring. 1 14 shows the the work complete. e. like that you made tral it for the cen- boss. that first described. Take of a short length tube. and tap with a female screw file up the ends true and solder it to the center of the three rings. /. This done. 113 shows another arrangement for This the bottom of the filigree dome. 112.

work intended for wear should be smooth and pleasant to the touch. 175 . and solder a segment of wire to make a complete This strengthens circle (see fig. the effect must be built out Design is the language of small details. 106). draw the ingot out into wire. melted it. In all jewelry work. pared (see File fig. away all roughFig. The work can now be stoned and polished with pumice. crocus. or they will catch All in the hair and cause inconvenience. Next make a hinge the end of the pin. and cast the ingot. Cut off a piece double the length of the pin. size 18. centerportion of the joint solder a male screw to fit the female already prefig. will make i dwt. of Having weighed out Gold Work your alloy. and rouge. but most of all in gold work. 113. . bend it in the center. 1 14). out of a small tube as described for the brooch hinge (see On the 74).grains of fine gold 9-carat gold alloy. no projectness ing points must be left.

so will your Design can not be power of design.Gold Work from your work. and open up Do not attempt to ideas for future use. texture. Etrus- you learn in skill can. tiful The beaupatterns Hinfrom evolved by Arab. expression of your personality in terms One of the material in which you work. but study the principles of contrasted line. the It is separated from handiwork. has only to look at any piece of early gold work. Persian and doo Fig. A 176 . and as your handiwork grows. artists the simplest elea ments. Egyptian. Indian. offer world of suggestion to the young craftsman. Mykenean. or Anglo-Saxon. copy such work. grasp of the method of building up all work out of thin sheet. 114. will help you to apply these principles for yourself. to realize what rich effects can be prorepeti- duced by tion. and form.

1 6). pierce out the shape with the saw. and file it up to the shape of the pendant (fig. Take cement stick (fig. which is merely a short taper handle of wood with roughened end. it of brass large enough and Gold Neck^^" "'"" and having lace with ' ' Pendant carefully transferred to the outline ot your pattern. 115). lump 1 Ar or good-sized engravers > Fig. the cement while warm is pressed into any shape required by rolling it on a cold iron plate 177 .CHAPTER XX Gold Necklace with Brass Gold over the Another Method of Making Fleurs de Matrix Engraved Matrices Lis — — Mold — Burnishing Pendant Fleurs the de Lis — The Take thick a piece enough for the pendant. ^ cement is warmed in the flame of the blowpipe or spirit lamp and fixed on the roughened end of the stick. lie. omitting the a 1 of course rings and loops for suspension.

and with a rounded burnisher press and rub the gold over the brass shape. with the point of the burnisher you can drive the gold into the angles. Cool it in water. When the firmly you have got the shape very nearly. and press on the cement until it sticks (fig. and when cold take a piece of 22 gold. and you will find the work easier. 117). Reand finish the shape completely. cement down round the edges with a wetted steel spatula.sprinkled lace with with ^hg water cement from y^i\\ pj-ggg sticking. and refix it with its other Now 178 . Take the brass model. actly half remains exSmooth the posed. warm and press it into the cement so that exit. warm it gold. ii6). anneal it well. Anneal the gold frequently at first. prevent the to In this case you the iron so Pendant warmed cement on that you get a level top (fig. clean it well. size 2. move the brass mold from the cement.Gold Neck.

and file up the edges until the two fit perfectly together (see fig. 1 1 7. You will Fig. cut l^^e with away the surplus metal from the outside Pe"^^"^ with the shears.Repeat the burnishing Gold Neckface upward. and the ornament. 115). and boil them out. process with another piece of gold. now need to strengthen the two halves of may not get crushed out of shape after being fastened together. so that they 179 . Take snippings of silver or short lengths of silver wire curved to fit the hollows at the back of each half.

sizes will be made in like manner. fitting the edges very closely to each other or the solder will not Remember that in gold flush properly. If you wish for more elaborate forms you can model the shape in wax. clean. 180 . having made the plaster matrix. or. if tie the two halves together with binding-wire. the solder runs along the surface and not into the join. You can now rub the gold over the type metal cast in the same way as over the brass model . Any irregularities in the mold can be removed by chasing the surface with repousse fit work you can not work. fine too closely. and rub the gold into it instead of over it. 4 grains of fine silver to each This done. on the contrary. you can take a zinc cast of it in <a sand mold. make a cast in type metal. When all the joins are soldered the work can be filed up and The smaller the hanging rings fixed. of scrap. made by adding panels of 6 grains Pendant ^f f^^^ silver to every dwt. or. and having made a plaster matrix. boil the work dwt. of fine gold.solder lace with i them in place with g-carat solder. in silver if the work fits too well.Gold Neck. tools. you use the scraps and filings from the 22-carat.

either to the mold or the metal. and studied closely from nature. and then filed off true. seen by oiling the metal and taking frequent impressions in wax or modeling Into this mold the thin sheet paste. gold can either be rubbed or beaten in with a hammer and a strip of lead (see The lead prevents injury fig. and with it hollow out a matrix of the form you The surface of the ornament require. and by spreading out under the blow. and having hammered the surface with "endant carefully to make the metal uniformly dense and tough. i8i . or based on some form which you have found by experience looks well in work. silver is used it can with care be hammered solid into the mold. take a scorper. In all these methods it is well to remember that the forms must be clear.Another method piece of brass large is to take for a thick Gold NeckJace enough your pur- pose. 1 1 8). can be further modeled up with rounded chasing tools to almost any degree of fineThe effect of your work can be ness. forces the If fine gold into all parts of the mold. There must be no under-cutting or the work will not draw from the mold when you have beaten it in.

Gold Necklace with

The plan of engraving matrices in brass was one extensively used in old work.
of the elaborate necklaces shown room of the British Museum are made up of simple forms produced in molds like those just described, then



the gold









Solder three

of wire Gold Neckstrong loops to 'ace with

the backs of these bosses, make some lengths of chain and a snap, and loop the whole together as before.







longer, and the side ones

ishing lengths from the centre.


small half balls of thin gold, solder backs to them, and put a ring of twist round the join. Fix two loops opposite
to each other


now be

dants the necklace.

on the backs. These will linked up between the penand the main bosses, completing

Locket or Pendant Casket

—The Frame—The —The Hinge —The Back— Hinge The Tool — Swivel Loops
Fitting the


The student would be well advised to attempt this first of all in silver, as these
lockets are

Locket or Pendant



by no means easy to make. and the hanging require very

great care.


a piece




wider than the


depth of

the pendant





Locket or

Pendant Casket

the shape of the outline in fig. 1 20, and solder the two ends firmly together. Next

two plates of back and one for the and solder them to

size front,


one for the





File the surplus metal from the edges



the center line


the sides of the





Fig. 120.

frame, and saw the box apart lengthwise You have now two halves 1 21 a). (fig. which exactly fit each other. Mark the sides, which should come together so that

you may readily fit the two in the place. Next take a strip of No. 5, a


deeper than the sides of each half locket,





exactly within the locket,



in place (fig.




Locket or Pendant

form the bezel on which the lid fits, and by which the lid is held
firmly in place.


boil the


clean and



the two todrawn a short

length of small tube from which to make the hinge, with a small round file or a joint file make a deep groove along the line of the It should be as joint (fig. 122). deep as possible, so that the tube may not project and spoil the outline

Fig. 121 a.

of the pendant. Cut off three lengths of the tube, so that the three together just fill the space provided for the hinge. File the ends of these short lengths true and Mark square in the joint-tool (fig. 120).




the position of the center one, and after taking apart the two halves of the locket,
solder the



of tube in


on one half of the locket and the The other two lengths on their half.

Locket or Pendant

loop can

now be

soldered on.

It can be

either a plain or a swivel loop.


swivel loop


as already de-

scribed in the chapter on Pendants, only

instead of having the small rings at the

bottom a hole is drilled up through the point of the loop and a wire, beaded at one


12 2.

Fig. 123.



slipped in, and bent over to form

ring below the loop

ring should be soldered.


This 123). swivel and

the hole must be painted with a little rouge and water, so that the solder may not run and make a solid instead of a Stones may be set on the swivel joint. front and the front panel cut away, leaving An enamel panel can then a narrow rim. be fixed in from the back, as described in

the chapter on Settings.


Carving in Metal


Making the Tools Tempering Model The Use of the Chisels The Spiral Knop The Wreathed

—Where Carving Necessary — The Wax — — — —

Small figures, wreaths, sprays, and animals and birds, can be very As carved out of the solid metal. tioned in another chapter, where the be enameled, it is is to necessary that it should be carved out of a material


Carving ^^^^^



perfectly even in

texture or the enamel will The tools required fly off.
are exceedingly simple.



few chisels of variefiis sizes made out of^^ort lengths of bar steel, a chasinghammer, and a few files and ordinary repousse tools will alone be necessary.

Fig. 124.



the Tools.

— Cut

off a few 5-inch lengths of square bar steel of different sizes and different widths ; soften

the ends by heating them to a cherry red. File the ends Let them cool gradually.


Carving Metal


of each


a blunt bevel



Fig. 125

(see fig. 124 shows an enlarged view

of the cutting end of the
the vise and

Fix each in

off the square edges along the sides and the top, so

that the tool will be more comfortable to the hand. It will be well to have one or two made with a rounded bevel like a gouge, and one with a rather sharp beveled edge for occasional use. Having got them filed up

shape, and the sides top made nice and smooth with emery-cloth, harden each byheating it to a cherry red and dropping it




into a bucket of cold water.

They will now need tempering. First brighten the metal at the cutting edge by rubbing it on emery-cloth. Then hold the tool in the flame until the first pale straw color comes. Have ready a vessel of cold



soon as the color appears,


the tool





have been treated, you will be ready to begin to work. Take your lump of silver or gold, hammer it well all over to make it more 188


you may take the work out of the vise and put it on the pitch-block. Before beginning. Oval matting-tools. with a slightly rounded surface. it is useless to spend too much 189 .It is well dense and uniform in texture. With smooth punches and tracers you can get almost any degree of fineness of work. get down to the surface of your model. taking which rests At this stage upon the work (see fig. however. the work is to be afterward enameled. out the principal masses with the gougeDo not be too eager to shaped chisel. it is wise to take the precaution of making a model in wax of Block the subject you intend to carve. and realize the form care always to drive the chisel along the line of the bevel more completely. Use the chisels now and then to remove any metal which by repeated working has become too hard to yield to the tracing-tool. Carving in Metal can go over the work. with the smaller chisels you tail. to have the metal longer than the object you wish to carve. so that you can hold it in a small bench-vise while carving. will be found very useful for this. It is better to get the action and movement before attempting modeling in deThen. 124 c). If. and work it up with repousse tools.

See that branches or twigs stretch from each line of the spiral to the lines above and below it (fig. Next.gage . Sprays of leaves and flowers or knops of leafage can be very easily produced by this method in the following manner. after wetting the tip of the tool and cut grooves lengthwise along the twigs. so that the spiral growth of the twig is emphasized. Take a piece of silver. 1 6 .Carving m Metal time upon surface modeling a great deal must be left to be done in the enameling. 190 . Now spiral draw with a fine brush and Indian ink twigs the and the masses of leaves. Take your gravers. 126). Suppose you wish to carve a spiral knop of nut leaves. Fig. begin with the round scorper. This is in order that the knop may be strong With a drill and a fret-saw pierce all over. 126. beat it into a dome of the size anddepthofyour Anneal knop. out the interspaces. the metal.

How to Carve a Wreathed Setting. 129) of twigs. bend the metal up to fit the stone. say 16.A scorper cut the groups of leaves Carving Metal with a flat in show their overlapping. fig. Cut this shape out with the shears. see that the various 191 wavy spiral . as center draw circles as On the into make a semicircle. With a small gouge you can now vein the leaves and so as to add any necessary finishing touches twigs. Mark Fir ^^i^^^. a Draw on this (fig. the sides till they meet. form is that required to make the setting. join the The enclosed last point to the center. base Set out these on the larger segment. to the still The knop may it be finished up further by putting upon the pitch and add- ing any refinements of detail you may desire. 1 • (fig. Produce this point From shown. and divide it any number of equal parts. and solder the edges. and while keeping the design very open. — fine stone will often look well conical a wreathed setting carved out of thicksheetmetal in ^ ° out the section of the setting at A.127 128. 1 27).

192 .Carving in Metal ^^'i-X"^ Fig. iz8.

Place the skin over the warmed and cement. heads. well down upon the skin-covered surface. and shape it with a wetted thumb and forefinger just to fit the setting. as before described. so that you can not see what you are doing. also warmed. The will ^'^- '^9- cement will press the skin out through its the holes in the setting. Pierce out the interspaces with the drill and saw. You can now carve the work with scorpers. such as reliefs to set and sprays of foliage. Then take an engraving-stick and a piece of gold-beater's skin. warm the cement on the stick. keep it firmly in and when cold place. birds. 13 193 .— \ \ branches and leaves are well knit together. press ti Carving in Metal the set- ng. the skin all CHAPTER Casting XXIII —The Cuttlefish Smoking the Mold — Mold — Flasks —The Loam Molds Casting Slate or Bath-brick Very in rings small castings. Unless is used the cement is apt to spread over the metal.

Casting can very easily be done in cuttlefish bone. Fig. which must not be anywhere undercut. Lay the pattern. Press the two faces together. • Take them apart.. 130. re- 194 . fit absolutely close. so that you may get a perfectly clear impression. leaving plenty of room between for the pattern. and press the two halves of the mold carefully and firmly. 130). Choose a clean and perfect specimen cuttlefish. and rub each face perfectly flat. in the space between the pegs. so that they etc. Insert three small register pegs in one face (fig. cut it in half.

131. 132). leading radially outward (fig. wire piece (fig. make a funnel-shaped channel for the metal. 131). Make a little pit in a of charcoal large enough to take the gold or silver you wish to melt.move the pattern. also channels for air-holes. tie ^95 . and tie Casting the mold up with binding- FiG.


the charcoal to the top of the mold, so that the pit comes opposite the channel
or " pour."


another channel from

the hollow in the charcoal to the channel Now put your gold or in the mold.
the it with borax to aid the fusion, and when the metal runs into a clear shining molten globe, tilt the mold

the charcoal, melt

blowpipe, adding a

so that the metal runs in. and the task is complete.




Casting in Sand.

— For


work you

need a pair of casting flasks, fine casting sand or loam, some black lead and French chalk in powder, and a muslin bag full of pea-flour to dust over the patterns and the surfaces of the mold. Casting flasks are two equal-sized frames

of cast-iron,


of which




carrying pegs which

into holes in cor-



first is

called the

on the other frame. peg side, the second

the eye

Lay the eye side flange side. downward on a perfectly flat, smooth Within this, rather near to the board.

funnel-shaped entrance to the flask, the will pattern will afterward be laid. suppose it to be a piece of relief work with It should be well rubbed over a flat back. with black lead, so that the sand may not


stick to


some handfuls of the molding sand and loam, wet the mixture with water sprinkled over it, just enough being used When you have to make the loam bind. mixed loam and sand thoroughly, press it down and beat it well into the mold with
a mallet.


Strike the upper surface level

with a straight-edge, and, having placed a bit of board upon the mold, turn it over Dust the surface of eye side upward. the mold with finely powdered brick dust. This is to prevent the two surfaces of the

mold from





which must be well brushed over

with black lead,

mold on the

upon the surface of the center line, but not too near



If the patthe opening into the niold. is placed too near the opening the weight of metal above the pattern will not

be sufficient when it is being poured in to force the liquid metal into all the crevices On the other hand, it of the matrix. must not be too far away or it may take more metal than you happen to have at your disposal. Take the pattern, press it half-way into the mold, dust the whole surface of the pattern and the mold with
fine brick dust.


place the peg side

in position, press the

loam very



by hand, and then beat it well in with Take the peg side off", blow the mallet. away loose particles of sand from each side, and very carefully remove the pattern. The mold must now be dusted with powdered charcoal or pea-flour, or smoked with a burning taper, and the pattern once more placed in position, the two halves
pressed firmly together, so as to take the Loosen final impression of the pattern. the sand over the pattern with a knife, and then drive it home again with reRemove peated blows with the mallet. the pattern, make the pour and a few air-channels leading away from any prominent part of the pattern, so that the


can escape when driven out by the The molds inrush of the molten metal. should now be put over a gas-burner to dry, which must be done very thoroughly. When it is quite dry melt your metal in a good-sized crucible, and while the mold The is warm pour the metal quickly in.





can be


up and

chased as


you wish.
described are only

The methods


useful for comparatively

rough work to
a fine

be afterward chased.
faced cast



required, or






model, the


must be made as described XXXI. and XXXII.


of slate,

may be made bath brick. The forms desired can very easily be hollowed out of Bath brick, howany of these materials. ever, will only serve for a few casts, while
for simple objects
steatite, or

the others will last for a long time. There are several interesting specimens of these molds, with examples of the work pro-

duced by them,
the British

in the

medieval room of





Work— General — Work— — Mount— Enamel — Champleve Enamel — The Tools — Limoges Enamel— Net— Use of Gold Enamel — Deep-cut work Enamel —



the Cells

ing the





use of enamel in jewelry is to add It should not be and color. used in large masses or the effect will be heavy, and the most valuable quality of enamel, which is preciousness, will be The colors used should be pure lost. and brilliant and few in number. As a general rule each color should be separated from its neighbor by a line of metal, and be also bordered by a line of metal. That is to say, where the enamel is used to decorate a surface it should be enclosed in cells, made either by cutting them out of the surface with gravers and scorpers, or by raising the walls of the cells from the back, or by soldering flattened wire bent to shape edgewise to form the cell


or cloisons the cloisons form a kind of network which encloses the enamel in its meshes and carries the metal con:


struction through the design.




and sheen of the metal outline harmonize the different colors with each other, and
give a greater brilliancy of effect than can be obtained by any other means. The color of the metal, in fact, is a valuable ground




of this method are

great, but in those very limitations lies the

strength of the student.

The scheme must

be completely thought out, the outline must be clear, and the color clean and Nothing can be left to chance. pure. Many valuable hints can be gained by a careful study of Indian enamel work that of Jeypore in particular is full of suggestEnamel may be used iveness and beauty. as a background for set stones, or an effect of color made the motive of a design, but in all cases care should be taken to secure a clear metal outline. For translucent enamel pictures themetal but in outline can not of course be used this case the whole picture should be small enough to set as a jewel. The burnished edge of the setting then takes the place of
; ;

the metal outline.
for personal

Large plaques of enamel are unsuitable ornament. If enamel is to be used on small figure subjects, the figures 20I



should either be beaten up in the round from sheet, or carved out of solid metal. Enamel rarely stands on cast work, partly because of the inequality of texture of the metal, and partly because the metal is so It will hold for full of minute air-holes. but sooner or a time, especially if soft later will fly off in the form of tiny flakes. This can in some measure be prevented by stabbing the ground of the enamel with a sharp graver, so that little points of metal are left sticking up all over the These hold the enamel fairly surface. well, but you can never be sure that it will not flake off just where it will most be The best grounds for enamel are seen.

fine alloy copper, fine silver, fine gold,


22-carat gold.

The various methods of enameling will probably be familiar to most students, through Mr. Cunynghame's recent work It will therefore be unon the subject. necessary to do more than to treat each process briefly, and refer those who may desire fuller information to that work.


following things will

be found useful china mortar and pestle. small agate mortar and pestle.



Work ground glass about 12 inches square. and with a good-sized burnisher rub it into a Draw a piece of gold-wire very flat dome. A muffle-furnace. A A — foot will do. rounded hematite burnisher. to hold the enamels. made by bending up the sides of a square that at 5 lbs. the size of a shilling.A A A A nest of covered palettes as used for slab of Enamel water-colors. Some bindlarge A ing-wire. to the of rolled sheet-lead A A corundum file. few pieces of sheet iron. — How make — Take to • a Brooch a piece of 22-carat gold. crucible. Bend it into a ring a little Solder the ends than the disk. or. A good strong painter's palette-knife. a in Cloisonne Enamel. A long-handled pair of tongs. made of ^-inch tube. small flask of hydrofluoric acid. of the wire together in the flame with 203 . size 4. for small work. through an oblong-holed draw-plate until it /1 1 * is smaller about size 10. Cloisonne. few wide-mouthed glass bottles with corks. lead trough to use with this acid. 6-inch dipping-tube.

then charge the work with snippets of 1 8-carat solder and tack the wires in their places. and solder the ring so that the makes a rim Have ready some flattened gold wire. 204 . but if they are not soldered. Now. 133). suppose opal for the ground. dip it into borax water. both disk and ring it Work clean. Get a sec- tion of the design done in this way. blue for the dividing rays up each color separately in the small agate mortar. wash away the milky portion of the enamel by pouring clean water over it until . the gold back is thick. bend the wire edgewise into the shape required . Some enamelers do not solder the cloisons. and a few of the main cloisons and the outer ring are soldered. and when it is like fine sand. Boil the work out and proceed until the panel is complete (fig. It is not necessary to flush the joints fully. having chosen your enamel. and having decided on your design. drawn several sizes smaller than the first. and place it in position. when the enamel is fired again the cloisons may Still if float about and get out of place. to Make plate. the remainder can well be left to be fixed by the melting of the enamel.Enamel I 8-carat solder. green for the grind leaves.

205 .Enamel Work Fig. 133.

superfluous water with bits of clean blotting-paper. and crystal- Work with a small spatula fill each cell or cloison with the proper color. having the center bossed up to fit the Paint this over underside of the brooch. and dry Now. wash the grit away with a little hydrofluoric acid and water (use India-rubber finger-stalls for this work. and having dried the enamel on an iron plate heated by a spirit lamp or a Bunsen burner. and 206 . You will now make a support out of a square of thin sheetiron. When this happens. them in like manner. and remove the dark of oxide which has formed on the enamel fuses. acid to surface. place the work upon the support. fill the other cells. repeating the process until the cells are full. a little borax added. taking care that no grains of color get Drain away the into neighboring cells.. place it in the muffle for about a minute until the boil in dilute scale Take it out. is clear. sparkling. Enamel the residue line. with loam or whitening and water with When it is dry. You will find that the enamel on fusing has greatly shrunk in volume refill the cells with the same enamels as before and refire. smooth the whole surface with a corundum file and water.

a Enamel Work Make it with putty on a soft buff. You can now fire the work again. with small half-domes of thin gold soldered on at intervals. The joints and the soldered 207 . frame and a setting for it out of 20 or the frame would be a piece 22-carat gold of flat wire or a strip of No. just enough to glaze the surface. and a pin out of 9-carat gold. In the angle between the edge of the flat ring and the upright face of the setting you this you will fix may nately with solder a row of small grains alterlengths of plain wire thus or double rows of right and left hand twist in short lengths. possible to solder the ring which takes the joint and catch on the back of the brooch before the cloisons are soldered on. the enamel center can be set and the edge burnished over evenly It is quite all round. 7 gage bent polish — round flatwise into a flat ring and soldered.take care not to get any of the acid on your flesh). 3 or 4. On the thin band. to fit the enamel panel. When the frame and pin have been polished. size No. and after picking away the scale of oxid. The catch and joint can now be made of 18carat gold.

Enamel Work Fig. 208 . 134.

but if the last-named method is used for the catch it must be soldered with i8-carat gold solder. if the work be small enough. Champleve Enamel How to Make a Take a piece of fine Buckle in Enamel. 14 209 . Before setting to work on the silver it will be well to make one or two trials on copper.rim are protected from the heat by whitening or loam. slightly. The pattern you devise had better be a simple one for That given above you the first attempt. silver. and mark out upon it the Dome the center size of the buckle. 134). needed lest the joint or catch should drop Enamel Work The latter way is the simpler looking. silver solder eats holes in the metal when heated in the muffle. will probably find fairly simple to cut and yet elaborate enough to give you plenty of opportunity for arrangements of color. the whole thing is then put Great care. The brooch can also be made in fine silver. and make a flattened border round the dome (fig. and the possibility of an imperfect setting is avoided. or. size 15. however. Fix the metal either on an engraver's block with cement or on an off in the muffle. on an engraving stick. — — ordinary pitch-block. is in the furnace.

the thumb and forefinger. palm. the deepest part of the cut being next the outline and a little within it. or a few moments' instruction from a practical engraver. half-round. make a sloping cut round the borders of the parts to be sunk. then remove the central portions with a half-round ^'°' '^^* scorper. 135. flat. and go all over the ground with a rocking side-to-side motion of the tool. of the tool The is point guided by the thumb.Enamel Have sizes ready a few scorpers of different Work and shapes (see figs. and driven by the pressure of the A little practise. and pointed. will soon put you in the right way. and makes enamel hold 210 . 136). then take a straight scorper. First wet the tip of the tool. and a good Hold the scorper blade between oil stone. and the handle in the hollow of the palm. making a zigzag cut thus t • This roughens the the ground.

however. pattern cleanly cut you can now fix the bars which are to carry the belt. or with a specially hard alloy of silver and copper composed of 211 . 136. When enamel will hold you have got the whole Fig. Work and if the sides of each cell are slightly undercut the quite well. this surface has a mechanical look which is rather objectionable.— better than on a smooth surface. If trans- Enamel lucent enamels are used. and solder them firmly with 1 8-carat gold solder.

Enamel Work Fine silver .

and let it dry. and sprinkle the enamel which results from the washings over the back from a pepper-pot or teastrainer shake off the superfluous enamel. washed in hydrofluoric and water.obtained by usingclear flux as the first layer. and adding the colors only after the first or in some of the cells a ground firing of flux can be laid. and bits of gold foil. How to Make a Pendant in Limoges Take a piece of thin Swedish or Enamels. covered over first with a thin layer of flux and then with a thin layer of green or a fine red. Enamel Work flux. and the whole afterward polished with rouge. Now take the color you 213 . The cells will need refilling and refiring until they are full. The surface can now be filed smooth with a corundum file. French copper of the size required. Paint the back of the plate with gum and water. refired. Next pickle is it in dilute nitric acid until the metal perfectly clean. tragacanth dry waste . pricked full of holes (with a bunch of fine needles set in a cork). can be laid on the . With a burnisher rub it into a slight dome shape. and turn up the edge very slightly all round by burnishing it over the edge of a round-peened hammer fixed in a — vise.

and cut out leaves. and refire. mix a tiny drop of tragacanth with the enamel. Press the enamel down evenly and smoothly all over with a stiff palette-knife. and dab it over the face of the When the whole plaque with a brush. Enamel Work have selected for the foundation. old linen rag. surface is evenly covered. and painted with loam or whitening as before described dry the enamel over the spirit lamp. cover each with a thin layer of flux. repair the holes with fresh enamel. prick it all over with the needle. You will now take some silver foil. as many as you need. Wash the surface clean. and fire it.. grind and wash clean. take away any superfluous moisture with a bit of blottingpaper or a piece of clean. and a piece of gold foil large enough for the rose . dry. Take cold cool slowly. fix them in their places on the plaque with a little tragacanth. Now 214 . put it in a china-color saucer. Have ready an iron cradle or support domed to fit the underside of the plaque. let it smooth enough when held over to reflect it. and when repair any faults in the surface by cleaning the metal in pickle and by rubbing down with a corundum file. and it fire in the muffle or in the crucible until is the surface it the palette-knife out.

Next take a piece of stout silver or gold wire. spray can now be outlined carefully and firmly with a fine-pointed miniature brush and shell gold. Next take some cloison wire. to form the temporary ground. as a panel in a necklace.cover each leaf thinly with green. effect of slight modeling by laying the enamel on the rose thicker at the top of the petals than at the bottom. but it must Enamel Work The not be too thick or it will flake off. and This is burnish the surface quite bright. Get a flat sheet of aluminum bronze or platinum about lo gage. or a center for a buckle or clasp. or the particles of gold will sink into the enamel and the outline disappear. which you can buy. or make by drawing round wire through a draw-plate with oblong holes in 215 a metal . — In this Network Enamels or Plique method the enamel when finished has no ground. The work can now be set either as a pendant. How to Make a Jour. but by is supported network within the substance of the enamel. much. This outline can be fixed It must not be fired too by being fired. and the You can get the rose with red enamel. and bend it into the shape of the enclosing line of this proposed panel.

and. ally. finished work on the sides of the cloisons bright. and driving a hardened taper steel punch of Larger the right size through the steel. You can make a draw-plate out of a piece of an old flat file by heating it red hot. or the fish. Take tied great care to have the whole well together (fig. holes can be made by driving the punch in still farther. or whatever pattern you may wish. where possible. Take the wire and bend it up to form the outline of the leaves. and solder the outlines together. frame. You now have the Boil it out and scrape skeleton design. and the cells where the enamel is When all the cells refire. other. mill. and again driving the punch through to the required distance. or the hole can be made smaller by beating the hole down with a rounded hammer. lay the the burnished plate. the stems. and fire Let it cool graduin a fairly quick heat. 216 .Enamel Work or the wire can be drawn through a square hole and flattened in the rollingit. fill up deficient. the The strength of the work when depends on the thoroughness with which this is done. fill the cells with ground enamel well washed. The leaves should touch each 137).

Enamel Work 'mmm Fig. . 137.

and fill in the spaces with enamel mixed with a When done. if they are of gold no protection Place the whole in sulfuric is necessary. fix it upright on a support cut out of thin sheet-iron. — /'. very little gum tragacanth. Hold the network panel upright. and the released. and when the enamel is complete paint the face over with two or three coats of varnish to protect the cloisons if they are of silver. the e. crocus and water. about ^th of an inch across. The enamel may then can be peeled off. one part of the acid to one acid and water of water. and give the bronze a few sharp blows. If the be polished as before described. Fire it quickly in a very strong fire. openings in the network are small enough. with work on the Work the enamel upward. so that the enamel runs like water in It must be cooled carefully. above methods can be dispensed with. the spaces. and when it is as thin as thin paper. and finished with rouge on a enamel will be polished buff. The copper will be dissolved away. 218 . and can be emery and water. with If you have no aluminum bronze or platinum use a sheet of copper about size 5.Enamel are completely full lay the table.

but more result labori- ous. take a piece of hardish as at modeling-wax and make a model in very A 219 . In this work the forms are carved or modeled below the surface of the metal. on your design. The pit is afterward filled up with enamel. leaving the cloisons slightly Enamel Work thicker. 137). or the enamels may crack away from the cloisons and the effect spoilt. freedom the and life of the methods just described. and would do either for a brooch or a pendant for a necklace. at the bottom of a shallow pit. How to do an Intaglio or Deep-Cut Enamel.^38. and filing afterward.and not taken away from the heat too suddenly. fired. as it were. A panel like fig. This it does them down away with the need of solis der. Another way is to cut out the spaces with a piercing-saw. suppose a leaf pattern (fig. and the — lacks ^'°. the carving is deepest the enamel is darkest Having decided in color. 138 would look well in a skeleton setting. and vice versa. and then ground and polished level Where with the surface of the metal.

and with spit-stick outline the design then cut the design deeply round the edges within this line. the modeling is as complete as you can make it. and the flowers carved to suggest them as nearly as possible. 139.. make mold from This Paris. if for a leaf. which IS a scorper ground with two cutting edges at an angle to each other as a . . and your intention. on an engraving on a pitch-block. put the enamel in and press When 220 . the metal. Thus. Enamel low a relief. and the surface of it everywhere bright. A^^ mm IJlllllllllllil the finest plaster of give you a good idea of the depth of your cutting. 139. . The stalks would be deep grooves. . When it the outline Work definitely expresses is clean. they Tj can be trued up with a iustifier. The sides of the sinkings must be kept upright if they have become irregular. 1 • 1 in fig. or you will soon cut through Fix a piece of to the other side. B and C are the cutting edges. ^ riG. cut nearly to the size and stick or shape you require. . the cross-section of your cutting would be thus Vw'. Copy this in silver or copper the metal should not be less than i6 in will — gage.

The lines of the engraving can be afterward filled in with etching-ball or thick black paint or shoemaker's heel-ball. transIf lated into a shaded drawing in color. can be etc. the relief is. hands. . Small figure-panels in raised gold or silver can be produced by first doing the work in ordinary gesso on a piece of Fine silver or fine smooth. and the enamel filt and polished. farther with pointed bur- This. is then annealed. rolled to the thinness of common note-paper. as it were. the backgrounds and draperies alone being deep cut and enamit . candlesticks. complete as the gesso original it can be fixed on the pitch-block. the faces. eled. and burnished over the relief in the same way that a schoolboy makes the foil copies of a shilWhen the metal impression is as ling. hard wood. altar-crosses. when enameled back and front.down when fired. They can be strengthened so produced. and the modehng still carried nishers. fine An work etcher's dry-point in the is useful for hair and features.. you do figure-work. can be set in a frame and fixed Panels for in a bracelet or a pendant. and feet can be left in metal and afterward engraved in line. gold. 221 .

can not be done if there is much undercarefully cutting. The thin metal is then rubbed and burnished over the type-metal and frequently Or the annealed during the process. Almost any composition with a resinous base which sets hard would. reverse of the model may be cast in typemetal or pewter. stir it well. in higher relief can be done by taking a cast in type-metal from a model in wax. Figures serve the purpose equally well.Enamel W/jrk with cement composition. of the setting which is inch deeper than to enclose them ^ or would be necessary for the enamel itself When everything is ready for setting the enamels. into and when with cold. pour it into the setting. warm its the enamel place . 222 . however. slightly. melt some rosin in a pipkin. and the thin gold or This. of course. burnish the edge of the setting over the enamel and clean it methylated spirit and a soft rag. silver rubbed into it. and add to it about half its bulk of plaster of 1^/ backing Make the wall :|^ Paris or powdered whitening and press it .

142). it over inside and out with a little beesTake a steel mandrel. which is a wax. Take of the strip as shown in to fig. 141. sheet with the dividers. say size 6.CHAPTER XXV Hinges for drel the Joints —Drawing —The — The — The Pm Casket Liner the Tube Joint Tool —The — Man- Soldering Hinges for a strip of metal. thrice ^^^"^^ wider than the diameter of the proposed hinge. 144). it This is the end taper. in the vise a make will slip Now fix block of wood one inch wide in which you have made a few graduated semicircular notches (fig. one end until it is a rough tube-shape (fig. 143). running one leg of the dividers down the edge as a guide Snip off the angles ai: one end (fig. 223 . and with the end of the hammer beat the strip of metal into a hollow gutter lengthwise Bend it still farther round at (fig. Suppose the hinge to be ^th of an inch in diameter. 140). and anneal it in the fire or While it is still hot rub blowpipe flame. the width of the strip of Mark this off the metal would be |. so that into the hole in the draw-plate.

Hinges for Casket length of poHshed steel wire. Place the taper end in the rough tube. file the end taper (see fig. as thick as the inside of the proposed tube. 145). and squeeze the 224 .

holes in the plate without the mandrel. . Hmges for Now fix the draw-plate in the vise. and draw them by hand through successive holes until metal becomes a tube which Now place the the mandrel. so that the tube first Anneal just fit inside. mandrel and tube together through a slip suitable hole in the draw-plate. Casket 146). and solder a half tube to File away the outside each (fig. The tube is now comIt can be made plete. 147). still smaller if necessary by drawing it through the Fig. and draw it out either by hand or with the draw-bench.metal round the mandrel at the end (fig. and draw the tube and mandrel together until the the nearly fits latter fits fairly tightly. saw the large tube in two halves lengthwise. Now put of the the reverse end into a mandrel hole in the plate which exactly fits it. little In like manner draw another tube a larger in diameter. draw-plate on the draw-bench. 15 225 made will both tubes . 141. and take two strips of metal as wide as the edge of the casket and as long.

144. 147. Fig. 143. 145. 226 . Fig.Hinges for Casket Fig. Fig. 'wmz. 146. Fig. Fig. Fig. 142. 148.

quarter of each semicircle (figs. not forget to clean the work in The hinge is 227 .V^J^iO into /^rv p pj^_ ing to the greater length of the hinge . the length of the casket an unequal number of small spaces from ^ inch to one inch. 151). Take the two halves apart. halves of of solder tack the alter- nate lengths to one side Fig. Fit the two the hinge together. and with a small panel 150). 1 50. and lay the short lengths of tube along the groove close together (fig. and the joints flat in the joint-tool (fig. cut the smaller tube into corfile or less 149- responding lengths. 148 and Hinges for Casket Divide 149) to allow for the lid to open.andsoundly solder each length of tube in its place. taking care not to run the solder into the joints between the tubes. accord. Do pickle after each soldering. 149). of the hinge (see fig.

153. is however. 151. made carefully fitted on the lid of the box. The groove must be trumpet-shaped. This must be done file 228 . be fixed until the casket other- FiG. the smaller end being the exact section you wish the molding to be. (see 152) with movable dies (see 153 and 154).— Hinges for Casket now ready for the pin. this you will need a swage-block figs. Moldings —The CHAPTER XXVI Swage-Block — Drawing the Metal Filing the Grooves Moldings poR fig. which may be a piece of brass wire drawn to the proper size and sHpped into place. The pin must not. filed The work may now be true. wise complete. In the upper surface of one of the dies a groove of the shape of the molding you require as in fig. and each half and soldered into its place up clean.

Moldings 1 ..

screw slightly. Now cut a strip of metal slightly thicker and wider than the proposed molding. pass one end through the groove you have made in the swageblock. annealing the metal from time to timeuntilyou have made the as molding complete and as thin P^^ ^^^^ as you wish. Now the swage-block in the the drawvise. and by filing the lower sur230 . take tongs and pull the strip through with a steady movement. Having annealed it.Moldings with great care. as the smallest mark will show on the molding. Pass the strip through the swage again and turn the ly into the mold. By modifying the section of the groove in the swage. pressing the metal more closeRepeat this. and screw the plain block down so as to press slightly on fix the metal.

will be found sticks. A ring-stick. that no face Moldings part is undercut. a round. hollow moldings of almost any section can be produced. crocus. provided. scratch-brushes. will complete what is necessary for most kinds sticks of polishing.of the upper swage-block. — useful for polishing the insides of rings. tapering leather-covered rod of wood. Polishing —A CHAPTER XXVII — Materials Required — Simpler Gold Work — Care of Method — Polishing Silver Burnishing — PoHshing Work Polishing Waste — Cleanli- ness of Tools The materials required will be polishing Polishing which are flat strips of wood covered on one side with chamois leather one for use with oil and pumice and one for rouge and water. few mops. pumice-stone. For a very brilliant polish the method 231 . of course. — Silver work is polished in several ways according to the degree of luster desired. Polishing Silver Work. rottenof charcoal. together with stone. and a leather A buff. and a small quantity of jeweler's rouge.

and all marks of the tools and files. is most brilliant. Internal angles. working with a circular motion to avoid scratching or grooving the metal. or marks of any kind. you can add a little crocus to hasten the process if you wish. The final polish is given with jeweler's rouge and water. polish again with fine rottenstone and oil. and 232 . narrow grooves. and the work washed in hot soap and water to remove all traces of grease. This done. A more work lows then : — rapid method. The work must be wiped clean from time to time to see that the surface is being evenly polished. and shallow lines. are stoned with thin slips of slate.Polishing IS as follows After the work has been pickled or boiled out clean in dilute acid. is as folThe work is stoned as before and scratch-brushed on the lathe. used for ordinary or for polishing repousse. scratches. when properly car: — ried out. the whole visible surface is carefully stoned over with sticks of Water of Ayr stone. but the result. The object of stoning is the removal of the film of oxid produced by heat. The surface is next more finely polished with charcoal and oil . taking care in each process to avoid lines. This process is laborious.

put a olive a little — finely powdered pumice it into a shallow vessel.. The process of Polishing Gold Work. and rub over the whole work. polishing gold work is very similar to that The work is silver. is scraped over with the scraper. little soap and water used with the tool makes it work more easily. surface of the metal. bosses. sunk lines.sprinkled from time to time with stale beer. after being carefully whitened in pickle. as might be expected. Indian workers The simplify the process still further. ribs. first described for Then boiled out as before and stoned. the work. Moldings. the oxidized surface at the bottom of the hollows will remain as whitish patches scattered over . most carefully. cleaning out crevices. or projections from the surface can be brightened still further by burnishing with a smooth burnisher. but unless both scraping and burnishing are most carefully done. and mix into a paste with — skewer do — dip oil. etc. and afterward vigorously burnished with agate and hematite burnishers . If this be not done. will look rough and Polishing A unfinished. Take a boxwood polishing-stick or a slip of any hard wood will the point in the oil and pumice.

In time this defect is removed.Polishing the Otherwise polished surface with a disfiguring effect. the hollows get filled with dirt. the work mav be scratched and spoiled when most near completion. and the work looks more interesting. the reflected light from the bottom . Unless this be done. When ess is you have gone over the whole surface with the oil and pumice. The burnishers. and kept wrapped up in chamois leather when not in use. 234 . the case of both gold and silver work. and In completed with rouge and water. of the hollows when polished often makes the work look richer and more full of color. the polishings and scourings of the metal should always be kept and refined to recover the precious metal which has been removed in the process. It is better not to rely on the result of time besides. mops. and polishing-brushes must all be kept perfectly clean and free from dust. the proccontinued with oil and crocus. The burnishers should be occasionally polished on the buff.

The ammonium sulfid is what is mpst generally used. a pale straw color . The work may be exposed to the fumes of sulfur. q^j^ ^^^. monium sulfid.— CHAPTER Coloring. Oliver and 11 J T^u1 his but the process can be hastened. barium sulfid.j^ can be done by oxidizing the surface with any of the compounds of sulfur. and it gives a range *^ color from pale^lden straw through deep crimson to purple and The depth of the color debluish black. and 1 • Time will always remedy ^'. always looks unpleasantly white Darkemng. varying its action.p-^''^'^^"^ glaring. etc. pends on the strength of the solution and the length of time the metal is exposed to to polished silver. such 1 1 this. or it may be washed with solutions of any of the chemical compounds of potassium sulfid. XXVIII Work — Darkening. The make sulfid — a simplest way of applying it is to hot solution of the ammonium not too strong. polished. or Oxidizing Silver and Gold Darkening Gold Materials Required — Coloring Copper Silver work.. when newly whitened and Coloring. amas sulfur.

. Copper can be darkened ammonium sulfid or by by the and if brushed over while warm with a stiff brush and a very little pure beeswax will 236 . . this in the or Oxidizing C*l A 1 r>^^j\j^ Gold Work open air if possible. . of 9.. ..Coloring. as the odor disengaged is most offensive then brush ^ ^ a little of the solution over the work you Watch closely until to darken. then swiftly wash the work in clean water. -^ . 15 carat can be darkened by heat alone. giving it a much richer. gently with a chamois leather the film of oxid is removed from the projecting portions of the work. The chemical must not be allowed to penetrate behind settings or the brilliancy dry Neither of the stones will be spoiled. If the surface be now rubbed it. older appearance. and desire . Alloyed gold can be darkened in the same way. . 12. will give about the proper strength. .either heat. . . only it is necessary to warm the metal until it is almost too hot to handle Gold or the sulfid will not act upon it. Do Darkening.. should it be allowed to remain on the hands or they will be badly stained. and often takes the most beautiful shade of purple if the heating is arrested at the right moment.. you perceive the color you wish for.

P^'^™"8 polish the 1 1 • ^- ^i Oliver and y^^^^ This looks unpleasant and incomplete. A CHAPTER XXIX Methods of Gilding — Mercury Gilding — Cold Gilding Mercury gilding is done by means of an amalgam of gold with mercury. and is not merely a thin skin more or less adherent. because the gold is carried into the surface of the metal.. and when the crucible reddens in the mercury. and then polishing it in the ordinary is recipe for this way. difficulty can be obviated by first slightly gilding the whole work.keep it is its luster and color unchanged for a Coloring. . long time. and stir it into the gold with an iron rod until you have a Empty the crucible into a pasty mass. Take 8 parts of mercury and one part Put the gold into a small of fine gold.. and when finished the work 1- In gold work of any intricacy Darkening. crucible and heat it on the forge with a blowpipe. Gilding pour 237 . and is still the best. It is the oldest way of gilding.°^^. sible to r mner portions ot tne q^^ ornament. often difficult and sometimes impos. given at the end of the book.

Because this excess of mercury contains a portion of gold it should be kept separate. Some workers mix nitrate the amalgam and the of mercury together. Next dissolve mercury .Gilding bowl of clean water. and squeeze out the remainder of the uncombined mercury. Take a small scratch-brush of brass wire. and spread it carefully and evenly over the whole surface to be gilded. Boil out the objects you wish to solder. and dip the The object to be gilded in the mixture. first method is 238 . and dip the work in the solution of nitrate of mercury. and then take up a small portion of the amalgam. it with the sides of the This is to get rid of the excess of mercury. it Then take the amalgam. and keep it in a stoppered bottle for use. and remove all grease with hot soda. shake the mixture well. and wash the amal- gam carefully by kneading thumb and finger against the vessel. and used when you wish to make amalgam again. probably less wasteful. in pure nitric acid in the proportion of lo parts of mer- cury to 1 1 of nitric acid dilute the solution with 20 times its mass of water. place in a bit of chamois leather. dip it first in the solution.

The washings and every particle of the ashes should be carefully kept because they 239 . and rub the ashes with a bit of damp leather over the surface. Dry you and burn the ashes. rags. and polish with the The work should on the coals. work appears spotty. Continue this until you see the gold-color appear then wash the object well. laid not be but in an iron pan or on When the an iron plate over the coals. and burnish the surface with a highly polished burnisher. and evaporate as before.. carefully preserving the Thoroughly clean the object wish to gild. mercury has evaporated rub the object with a soft brush. Another method in a is to soak linen rags solution of chloride of gold. Then hold the work over a charcoal a glass Gilding brazier placed in a fireplace with This enables screen across the opening. drop a little strong nitric acid on the spots. afterward plunge the whole object in weak pickle (5 of water to one of acid). and then touch the defective portions with fresh amalgam. scratch-brush and a little stale beer. or If the with rouge and water on the buff. you to see the progress of the evaporation without the danger of inhaling the vapor of mercury.

be shaped either with the corundum file and water. you will need a metal catch-pan. with a tiny tap soldered in the bottom. which will collect the drip and the water which flies from the The stone to be shaped must be wheel. peridot. or with emeryIn wheels fixed on a polishing-spindle. Gilding contain minute quantities of gold which can all be recovered when desired. people use cane for this purpose being flexible. opals. fixed on the end of a rod of wood about turquoise. as may thick as a pencil and 8 inches long. it is less likely to jar the Many 240 . CHAPTER XXX A Method of Shaping and Cutting Stones —The the Softer Precious easily Stones Drilling Required Polishing graver's Lathe Cements — — most Stone Cut —The —The En- Shaping and Cutting Precious The softer precious stones. To protect yourself from being splashed. Other methods are given in the Appendix.. the latter case it will be necessary to have a water-can. hung over the emery-wheel in such a way that a drop of water may the wheel at frequent intervals fall on while you are grinding. chrysoprase. such as moonand stones.

end of and mold the cement closely round cement. well . When the stone can be pressed against the wheel cool. Warm a lump of ordinary and mold on the end graver's cement. A fine surface can be given on a wheel of finer grain and the stone polished on a leather buff with fine emery and water. opals often are. water. also into the slightly warmed. the latter is pressed against the Shaping and Cutting Precious wheel but a piece of common fire-wood will it do just as well. This 241 made of 16 finely sifted wood ashes. and shaped to whatever form you please. 155). 155. and press the the it stone. with the finger. finishing up on another buff with putty powder and Fig. as. for example. the end again. Stones of the stick with a wetted finger to a roughly conical Warm shape (fig. it may be well to use what is called soft cement for fixing the stone to the is polishing-stick.Stone when . If the stone is very tender.

yet in such a way that it may be pressed gradually against the edge of the wheel as the latter slowly cuts its way through It is useless to attempt to the stone.Shaping and Cutting Precious kneaded into melted suet until the re- Stones quired consistency is obtained. tained by cutting out a disk of soft iron and using it as a circular saw. and the block firmly secured to the table of the polishing-lathe. is fastened 4 inches away from the butt. Stones can be slit by using a bow made ^^^ ^^ ^ tapered rod of ash about 2 feet The wire long strung with iron wire. The defect of the A small iron disk a is that it. so that the latter may be used as a handle. anointed with emery. it for cutting turquoise opal matrix to does enough. worked stone steadily The and with be slit should be cemented to a block of wood instead of a stick. This wire. as it as a saw. The advantage easily ruin a good stone. with oil and A lapidary's slitter is merely a larger emery. of the methods just described is that they 242 . it is difficult to get well clean cut with or if Still. quicker result is obcuts very slowly. disk used horizontally. The least hurry may hasten the process. is used Much patience is needed. patience.

some of the harder stones can be shaped with oil and emery. lathe-head is a simple pillar of iron or brass. By using small wheels of thick copper screwed on the spindle of the polishinglathe. and polished on similar wheels of tin. taper knobs of different sizes. in engraving seals. and with Shaping Cutting care can be made to produce very good results. and the cut Small is given by means of diamond dust. The drills and cutting tools are fixed in this tube with melted tin or lead. For drilling stones. are used. The drills themselves are small' tubes of iron.and are within the reach of any one. with variously shaped ends. as it revolve is important that the drill should This with great speed and steadiness. tube working in tin bearings. with a small wheel revolving in a The axle of the wheel is a steel slot. and tiny wheels. a drilling or sealengraver's lathe-head will be needed. It must be remembered that ^^^^°"^' native workers in the East do their work with tools even more rudimentary than these. followed by leather and 243 . rods. with diamond dust to give a cutting surface. the final polishing being done on wheels of wood or with fine emery.

large enough to hold the model and give plenty of room for the pour of the metal. Next take a pair of casting-flasks. Hampstead sand. cut the stones for you quickly than you could. which 244 .Shaping and Cutting Precious Stones putty powder but. who . it is better to get hold of an intelligent lapidary. Suppose it necessary. will much more CHAPTER XXXI Piece-Molding The Model— The Casting-Flasks —The Sand Filling the Flasks Making the Mold The Charcoal The False Cores The Back Mold The Core of the Model Arranging the Gates Drying the Mold — — — — — — — — — Piece- Molding Work that is undercut. to make a piece-mold cast of the symbol of St. and fill it with fine casting-sand made very slightly moist. The sand must be such as will bind well under pressure. if any considerable amount of work is required. can only be cast by piecemolding or by the waste-wax process. or in any way complicated. and take a cast of it in plaster of Paris. Luke designed as one of the feet of a cross First make your model or candlestick. Lay the lower or eye portion of the flask on a flat board. for example. in wax or clay.

so that when you make the spout or pour for the metal there may be a good weight of Yet it must metal above the model. done. lay a stout board on the top. because the metal will have cooled in its passage the sides of the flask. a small quantity very useful for this pur- Piece- Molding pose. and drive the sand well in by evenly Again distributed blows of a mallet. not be too far away or you will be in danger of getting a spongy cast. The sand must be well rammed with a mallet into the flask. strike off the superfluous sand. take a metal spatula or modeling-tool and excavate a hollow in the sand just large enough to receive lay half the thickness of the model the model on its back in the hollow. strike off the excess of material with a straight-edge. and lay the model to be cast well within the flask. model. so that every part of it into the tion of the . 245 . and adding a few more handfuls of sand. or the mold is Having fixed the posimold.is naturally fine mixed with is of loam. and with some very fine sand fill in underneath the model. and great care should be taken to compress the sand well against when it may drop out This turned over.

156). taking a little 246 . and blow away here. and. all that does not to You will now proceed now make model Awith a little finely powdered French chalk. brush this well into the surface. and brush the superfluity away with the camel's-hair mop. These are movable portions of the molds so arranged as to avoid the Again dust the undercutting (fig.Piece- Molding well supported until. is — — . adthe false cores. in fact. you have taken a partial impression of the surface. Now dust some finely powdered brick-dust from a rough canvas bag a bag made of sacking or nailcloth will do perfectly well for this with a camel's-hair mop. such as gilders use.

B). 156. 156. both to let tap the sand all over evenly. 247 . and sand up into a bloclc with sloping the With a small malsides (see fig. or modeling-tool cut away the sand along (see the line you have chosen for the seam F). Piece- Molding drive it home and also to consolidate and Then with the flat steel spatula shape it.fine sand. pare the surface of the block fig. press it carefully with the fingers huild into the interstices of the form.

156.Piece- into a regular and even shape. and flask 1 half of the in 57). You will now have to make the mold for the upper part of the head.0. and replace the core on the mold . 248 . lift it carefully away. until you see that the core has separated slightly from the model. and dust the molded surface with finely powdered from a coarse muslin bag. This you will will do in the back-mold. tap it gently Proceed in like but firmly home again. but not too vigorously. charcoal manner with (see fig. 158) into the block. Place this upper Having position. a fork Now stick Molding made of two thick strong needles wood or pointed wires inserted in a slip of hard (see fig. I the opposite side of the model ^6. and having laid the flask on a flat board. tap the under side of the board smartly. which be made in the peg half of the flask (see figs. C).

157 and shake out the sand which 249 . and then fill the whole mold with ordinary casting-sand and ram it well into place with the mallet handle and afterward with the head of the mallet. With a spoon or a spatula scoop out two shallow hollows in what are now the upper faces of the false cores. press some Piece- Molding of the finest sand over the top of the head of the model. D. 156. shows the section of the back-mold) and also a mold of the top of the animal's head. leaving the model and the false cores resting in the upper half of the mold.dusted the false cores whole upper surface of the and the under mold. Now dust charcoal over the impression of the head and replace the upper half of the flask. Strike off the superfluity as before. thus completing onehalf of the mold. Now lift the peg half away. Carefully turn the whole mold over and lift the under half free from the model. as before again pile on sand and drive board and the mallet. and you will have the impression of the false cores (fig. This is to give a regisit and down with the flat and to enable you to place the false cores in their proper positions when the ter mold 159). is Now taken apart (see figs.

. 159.Piece- Molding Fig.

dust before. because the charcoal by itself can not resist the flow carries away the The latter of the metal.— you had previously beaten into the under moid. and With a knife loosen replace the mold. incorporate the sand and the charcoal facIf this be neglected the cast will be ing. all Piece- Molding the sand nearly fill and again pletely in down to the bottom. if If you intend you wish it to make a : solid castwill to be hollow you need a core made thus You place will take a piece of iron wire. and ram the mold com- The object of this is to full. and replacing the frame in position on the upper flask. now complete save for the vents and the pour. and fill up the frame as it well Again lift off the mold. about against ^ inch diameter and it i inches long. ing. fine edges and surfaces. carefully press fine sand over the back of the model. and instead of a smooth cast you get a The mold is rough and ragged one. in the mold the and upper part of the head of the bull in a little groove scratched in the surface as shown 251 . the new impression with charcoal. ram home. then fill in with the ordinary sand. dust the mold over with brick-dust as before. poor.

having removed the model. Now open the mold. between your thumb and finger. and from the opening left between the false cores fill to half its depth with fine sand the place occupied by the model. This . off the upper half. close the mold Lift and turn it over. replace the false cores in their position. i6o). and use it as if it were modeling-clay. Wind it round with a length of thin in the figure.Piece- Molding take a longer piece of to reach nearly to the bottom of the case and to project 1 inches beyond the head of the bull. pressing it into its place against the sides of the mold with Take the sand up a modeling-tool. space with the sand. and. Now pile on a little more sand to make up that portion of the model which projected above the false cores. and paint over the whole wire with stiflF This makes the sand adhere flour paste. pressing it carefully into place. Now lay the core wire in position. just long enough copper wire to give the sand a better hold. the and press down mold on this. so model of the bull is the other half of that the complete built up in sand around the central wire 252 (see fig. Now thick wire. and carefully fill the remaining carefully. to the wire.

- Piece Molding Fig. . i6o.

For silver. and that will depend on the metal you as use. It will now be necessary to 254 . for bronze or brass it should be rather more than ^. depth of the paring fixes the thickness of the metal in the cast. it may. above. be a little less than ^ inch.Piece- Molding done. cut away the surface of this core The to an even depth of nearly -^ inch.

On ones for spaces. fx 1934 The tool is held as de. and laying small portions at a time in the incisions. using small rounded punches to drive the soft. take fine gold or fine silver wire drawn a little larger than the thickness of the line. sheet metal. metal. you can inlay with dentist's gold. or riveting hammer The work requires into the incisions. decoration of iron and There are 263 . Damascening which gold and is a similar process in silver are applied to the steel.o. only in this case the ground of the space must be carefully roughened all over by digging the pointed scorper firmly into the metal. and have engraved it. When scribed for engraving or carving. or tapping. spongy metal into the recesses of the engraving. so that it raises points which give a key to the inlaid If the surfaces are not very large. 163. you have drawn the pattern on your work. filled The broader surfaces be by pieces cut out of the Fig. you will Inlaying tap the gold or silver gently with a small. much will patience.

burnish it in with the agate or blood-stone burnisher. The worker's hand traveled 264 . is In the spaces the gold hammered into engraved out. by then be brightened. The third and cheapest way is to roughen the ground . CHAPTER XXXIV On Old Work and Old Methods On Old Work and Old Methods What most impresses the student of all old work of the best periods is the clear shining sincerity of the worker and his patient skill.On Inlaying three principal first methods of work. This operation must be repeated until there is a sufficient body of gold to give The whole work can the required effect. polished. which gives the best and most durable result. though naturally the most costly by far. or finished in any way you please. and thin gold or fine silver hammered on the points and dents made by the tool hold the gold in place. In the next method the ground within the spaces to be covered is roughened with the point of the scorper as above. cross lines cut with the graver and. laying gold leaf on the space.

scurrile talk. it is ' To know aught is a merit.' to learn of Nor let any one delay them of whom Solomon saith. ' Cellini is not a case in point.— lovingly over every part of the work. to his work on " Divers Arts. ' Whoso increaseth knowledge increaseth work. down and how sweet and pleasant it is to be occupied in works of divers utility. it I mind how much honour and there ling is perfection in avoiding idleness." more clearly shows us " Most dear brother. moved by sincere love I have not delayed to insinuate to thy : On Old Work f]J . 265 . Moreover his art has It is in most cases meretricious been greatly overrated. In the words of a certain orator. " For it is clearer than light that whoso seeketh ease and levity giveth occasion to unprofitable stories. which perhaps accounts for his immortality.' because the diligent in meditation can understand what growth of mind and body proceedeth thence. Theophilus. witness to the spirit of the worker. and in trampslackness and sloth . giving a kindliness of aspect enduringly attractMore than this. a fault not to desire to learn. he in the true sense of the word. the preface by the eleventhcentury monk. was an amazing blackguard.^ What that spirit was. it bears a touching ive. curiosity. At the same time.

understand. in another place. who regard- eth the humble and quiet man working in of the Lord. and beheld a little chapel full of divers colours of every variety displaying the use and nature of each. sacrilege and perjury. desiring to be an imitator of this man. drew near to the porch of Holy Wisdom. Having with unseen footsteps quickly entered therein. bawdiness.On Old Work and Old Methods wine-bibbing. I filled up the aumbry of my heart with a sufficiency of all things. theft. working with his hands the thing that is good. and silence. obedient to the precept of the blessed Apostle Paul. Theophilus thus admonishes the worker " Whatsoever thou art able to learn. that he may have to give to him that needeth. homicide. " By the Spirit of Wisdom thou knowest that all created things come of God. and having proved all by the eye and hand. I commend them without envy to thy study. brawls. ' But rather let him labour. and having tried them one by one by diligent experiment. or devise in the Arts is ministered to thee by the grace of the sevenfold spirit. which things are pernicious in the eyes of God.' " I. in the fear : — 266 . fights." Again. drunkenness. and the like.

govern what. thou shalt moderate the price of thy reward. aught but by the gift of God. and giving thanks 267 On Old Work and Old Methods . and in what manner thou workest. confessing. why. Spirit of Understanding thou acquirest capacity of mind in what order. nor dost thou think to have. thou revealest faithfully to those earnestly By the Spirit of desirous of knowledge. not beginning aught with slackness thou dost carry it through with all By the Spirit of thy power to the end. variety. how much. and that of which thy mind is full thou dost utter boldly in By the Spirit of Piety thou dost public. and proportion thou mayest avail to apply By the thyself to the different work. working and teaching openly. and through pious consideration.By the without Him there is nothing. By the Spirit of the Fear of the Lord thou art mindful that thou canst do nothing of thyself. but with humility. but believing. Spirit of Counsel thou dost not conceal the talent conceded thee by God. or to desire. Fortitude thou dost shake off the torpor of sloth. for whom. lest the vice of avarice or covetousness creep in. Knowledge conceded to thee thou dost dominate with thy genius by reason of the fullness of thy heart.

moreover. whatsoever thou or may be. with his pen. is his description of making casts of handles for a chalice by art the lost wax process. " Take wax and form handles thereof. The wax being 268 . howwishest. was a thorough craftsman." This most delightful person. for example. so that when they get hot thou mayest pour out the wax. Here. and model on them dragons. who was at the same time skilled. again coat evenly over all. or beasts.On Old Work and Old Methods whatsoever thou knowest. so that all the hollows of the modelling may be filled up. Afterwards put these moulds near the coals. When they are dry. place a little wax. " Then take well-beaten clay and cover a finger. ever. and in like manner a third time. this thou wilt fix to the handle with a warm tool. thou dost ascribe to the Divine Mercy. or leaves in whatsoever way thou On the top of each handle. And he described his work as only a good workman could. or birds. up each handle separately. rolled round like slender candle. as long as the little the upper end being somewhat larger. and knew intimately what he wrote about. This is called the 'pour'.

but if more or less. there be 4 ounces of silver." There is no reason why this process should not be applied by any student toThe one thing needful to insure day. in his description of molds for stamped work " Iron stamps may be made of the thickness of one finger. and pour success is to get a loamy clay. and without flaw or fissure In this face thou wilt on the upper face. then in proportion to the weight. example. the width of three or four fingers. Again. them firmly up. which will not shrink or crack too much when the is mold is fired. addIf. and one finger long.: poured out. engrave with the scorpers in the same way 269 . Otherwise the process identical with modern practise. stand On Old Work and Old Methods in the silver at those places where thou pouredst out the wax. glow like coals. When they shall have cooled. They must be sound. and with files and scorpers ioin them to the chalice. break away the clay. then melt the silver. place them wholly in the fire. for ing to it a little Spanish brass. turning the mouth of the moulds by which When they the wax ran out downwards. Taking the moulds out of the fire. add a quarter of an ounce of brass.

and little birds. and hold it evenly on the iron with the pincers.On Old Work and Old as for seals. place a thick piece of lead over the silver. beasts. and with care. broad and narrow borders of Methods 164). strike strongly with the hammer. so that the lead may impinge on the thin silver and drive it so forcibly into the sculpture that every trace of it may be clearly seen. deeply. and having laid the silver over the sculpture. so that when one part has been struck up 270 . This done fix thou the silver plate over any border. and much thinner than for repousse work. or dragons. metal. " If the plate be longer than the mould draw it from place to place. but moderately. They must not be engraved too flowers (see fig. and having laid the iron upon the anvil with the sculptured side uppermost. Then thou thinnest out silver as long as thou needest . and thou dost with powdered and with a cloth dost polish it with chalk scraped over the clean it charcoal. with necks and tails coiled together.

give a very rich effect. gold or silver are used to decorate bowls of precious wood. they make therewith phylacteries or reliquaries and little shrines of the saints. as described above. birds. and so on. for pulpits. until On Old Work the plate has been filled up. the lead is laid over it. and in whatever places When the the work may be needed. the image of the Lamb standing in the midst of the bowls. and beasts are also made. The image of the crucified Lord is also engraved in iron. for shrines for the bodies of the saints. and polished. useful This work art enough when thou making ^ .another is may be struck. The image of the Lamb of God is also carved in iron. and hammered until the pattern is visible. on the iron. gilt side down- wards. being fixed on the rest of the ground of the bowl. and the figures of the four The impresses of these on Evangelists. which. An image 271 . Thou laid canst do likewise with copper similarly Being thinned. Images of little fishes. l borders for altar tables. the four Evangelists ranged about in the shape of a cross. and being stamped on silver or gilt copper. relief is suitable and slight it is easily done. for the covers of books. gilded.

Images of kings and knights are made in the same way. is a model of clearness : " Iron punches are made as long as the finger. and tapering to the other (see fig. 165). can be seen in the shrine of the bell shown on Plate V. being stamped out of Spanish brass. the description by Theophilus of the cutting punches. with which. Again. These being stamped in gold or silver on gilt copper give the greatest seemliness to those places on which they are fixed by reason of their delicacy and elaboration. their use." Nothing could be clearer or more pracThe result of the process tical than this. They may have borders in the same metal in which little beasts or birds or little flowers which are not fixed together but soldered with tin. and other images of any form or sex. thick at one end.— On Old Work and Old Methods of the Majesty is made in like manner. and the employment of the results produced. basins whence water is poured on the hands are ornamented in the same manner as cups are ornamented with the stamped work in gold and silver. The delightful flower borders on the face of the shrine are all produced in the way described. They may be filed 272 .

(fig.. so that the may be uppermost and the tinning underneath having taken which punch thou pleasest. and made little On Old of convenient bigness. The smaller ends Work and Old are afterwards case-hardened. beat it out thin . Then flowers are engraved out of the smaller ends in such a way that a cutting edge is left Methods round the border of the flower copper is polished on the upper face as described above. then. or round. : i8 273 . three-cornered. Thin laying thick lead on the anplace thereon the silver or gilt copper. silver or gilded vil. is thinly tinned on the lower with the soldering bit used for soldering windows. lay the carved end on the silver. the shanks of which thou wilt make thus Mix two parts of tin and one of lead together. the sharp edge of " When thou hast stamped out all the silver keep the flowers by thee they will be the heads of nails. and strike gilding with the hammer so that the design may appear and be at ^ the same time cut out by the punch (see fig. square. i66). i66).

and draw it through the drawplate. it 1 66." The beaded wire so beautiful in its slight irregularities. The other end is fixed in a wooden handle. placing side it Fig. and when cold snip off a length of wire according to the length thou desirest for the nail. upon the tinned so that in it it of one of the stick. lift it little flowers lay may up and iron . dip the end of the wire in the wax. the hollow of the heated hold there until the metal runs.* holding the slender iron in the left hand. 274 .On Old Work and Old Methods and long. thyself a slender iron. little Then sitting near the furnace suit- able for this work. and immediately remove it from the fire. and. which is broadened out at one end and hollowed a little to receive the head of the nail. and in the right the tin wire rolled up like a ball. before which stands a copper vessel full of melted wax. so that thou hast a very long wire Afterwards make for not too slender. seen in Anglo-Saxon ^ Resin would do just as well as wax. the broader partbeing heated. about 6 inches long.

And this upper iron is of the same size and length as the lower. and is pierced with two holes. finger. was produced by the beadingtool which Theophilus describes as follows " There is an iron instrument called the beading-tool. 167. 275 .— brooches as well as in many of the Greek ornaments. and is somewhat thin. The lower part is as broad and as thick as the middle : On Old Work and Old Methods Fig. which receives the two pegs of the lower. and out of the upper face rise two thick pegs which fit into the upper part of the iron. In it are two spikes by which it is fixed to wood below. which consists of two irons. one above and one below. one at each end.

167. the more one compares the work of the past with the work of the present room 276 . in the next grains as large as peas are formed third ^j jff ^j p i i Mi^ lj } -^ and in the Fig. It is like stepping from the close atmosphere of a cramped workto the freer air of a new world. and so on smaller. grains are when formed as large as small beans. 168. and he will find that he is brought into touch with sources of suggestion and ideas of the utmost value to him in his work. In fact.. In the large grooves place thou gold or silver rods beaten out long and smoothly round. and the upper iron is smartly struck with the horn mallet while the gold or silver rod is turned round with the other hand. like lentils. 168). and in both faces thou wilt groove out several rows of little pits in such a way that when the irons are joined together a hole may appear (see figs. They Work and Old Methods must be joined very closely with the file." Let any student or worker try for himself any of the methods given by Theophilus. On Old so that they can be joined together.

and. Japanese. as many think. and. their alloys. his will express that personal note which sooner or later will win him a place in the work choir of artists. inexpensive. perhaps more astonishing than all. Let the worker be faithful signs. yet not one of them is pracThe Japanese as a race are tised by us. work is the outcome of de- On Old Work ^ ^^ hence its thin and meager aspect. incessant in study. one realizes that there is a whole world of new methods and new materials for study. lays. if we look their at the work of their the in- with patinae. and incrustations. their many kinds of groundwork. sincere in his craft. by wild struggles after originality. the more one is convinced that the design in the past was the outcome of work. the rich effects they will produce with an incredibly small quantity of gold or silver. but most beautiful. They lead but to the eccentric and the morbid. to himself. This meagerness may not be remedied. To-day the cart is placed before the horse. Again. unconsciously but surely.day. any one of these worth a lifetime of study. more sensitive than any other to the suggestive beauty of things called common 277 . their beautiful cast work.

wood -grain ground. itself is Their workmanship no less perfect. each metal. In their metal work. or is the work of some more than human artificer. They show a a love of surface quality not even knowledge and dreamed of by the Western workman wallowing in the trough of commercialism. the toad's -back ground. millet seed. A water-worn pebble. Everything they do reveals that intimate inherited knowledge which comes of centuries of study of the nature and properties of the materials used. the su278 ." and many others. The once its foil and quiet emphasis. not merely with an eye to beautiful color in the metal itself. a strangely marked stone. In Japan. fish -roe ground. at is allied with some other. very names of their surfacings reveal an intensity of observation unknown to us " pear-skin ground. stonedimpled. entirely the result of native or alloyed.: On Old Work and Old Methods by the heedless Western. but for the color and quality of the film of oxid produced by time or chemicals. are wrought and polished and added to until it is difficult to say whether the work is human intention or is the product of some kind of natural magic. as indeed everywhere. Their alloys are made.

the same quiet perfection of work. ribbed. Thesideviewof the Elfred jewel is (fig.- gold work. or beaded wires laid side by side. or little coils or shapes of wire soldered on the surface. and filled up with tiny grains almost in the Etruscan or Greek manner. while the Anglo-Saxon . 1 69) one illustration of this. into the repetition of forms made up variously twisted. Yet the design of any itself. there is the same unhesitating skill.preme test of good workmanship was that every tool - On Old Work and Old stroke should be complete in itself and need no retouching. Whether we lookatbroocheSjbuckles. or necklaces. This holds good even when applied to art so widelydifferent as Methods Anglo-Saxon PP.*. in jewel resolves almost every inof stance.

Italian art one can trace the methods perby Greek invented.On Old Work and Old Methods brooches and buckles in the collotype plates show other very beautiful examples of the rich results produced by simple means. and described in a former chapter. the extraordinary persistence of primitive methods of workmanship and design even down The method of to the present day. in early French 280 art. among other things. and dies are all primitive methods of enduring utility. some beautiful examples of . All through Etruscan. while the influence of Greek art can be seen even to-day in the work of the Persian and Indian goldsmith as well as in those of early Ireland and Anglo-Saxon England. producing grains. is still used by every goldsmith in the world so also the The various patterns of twisted wire. Comparative study of the goldsmith's art shows. discovered probably by the first gold worker. Roman. artificers. molds. Again. if not fected. new art. the terms in the artist's vocabulary. They are. use of punches. and it would be just as impossible to invent a new language as to discover new methods of work or a . as it were.

use of material leads to right ideas. there is On Old Greek love of clearness. but of untried methods not new design. that the right . that it seems rather the handiwork of angels than of men. of them.which are given the in Plate VIII. It is a spiritual refreshment even to look at such things. not of new forms. of firm outThe work is line. but hints of new expreshe will learn what is indeed the sions sum of the whole matter. so clean. . and Work and Old Methods the student can not spend too much time in the study He will always find suggestion. so airy and bright. and spirited form. 281 .


work. The third a similar pierced setting applied to a bit of emerald crystal roughly polished.NOTES ON THE COLLOTYPE PLATES Plate I. but obviously made under the influence of Greek or Etruscan traditions. Shows a Group of Personal Jewelry from South Kensington Museum. The second shows a pierced setting for a pearl attached to a — Notes on Collotype rough piece of emerald. The first three specimens on the plate are earrings of Roman workmanship. The gold is fine gold. The first shows the use of filigree and twisted wire and simple methods of using rough-cut precious stones. The fourth Object is a piece of late Spanish it shows a beautiful way of using seed pearls. but 283 . and as a piece of craftsmanship is very near akin to the first three. and the workmanship of the whole exceedingly simple. yet exceedingly efi^ective.

found at Taplow. brooches are magnificent examples of the value of repetition and rhythm in design. i. The hand is also enameled. found at Abingdon . Plate III. The attention of the student is particularly directed in the case of the Abingdon plate to the rich color of the original. The Ring of Ethelwulf is a good example of the common-sense design.— No. Anglo-Saxon Brooches from No. i and 3. but where a broad ring would prevent the finger from bending he has narrowed it down to a simple band. Gold Brooch the British Museum. A Gold Belt Buckle very fine example of the use of corded wire as a contrast to 284 . to the sumptuousness of the design which is yet almost rudimentary in its simplicity. Plate II. i. cloison inlay. and to the extreme ingenuity of the craftsmanship by which the thin coils of compound wire are twisted into almost realistic presentments of serpents. Silver These Brooches found at Faversham. and gilt and enameled.— Notes on Collotype Plates The vine leaves are scorpered out of thick sheet silver. The craftsman has taken all the space he could on the top of the finger.

and the It would be figures are in cast bronze. 2." The beautiful little panels of scrollwork were impiessed in stamps carved out of iron or bronze. difficult to find a more romantic or more The crystal sphere on suggestive design. showing the richness produced by concentrie rings of tiny scrolls enclosed by plain and twisted wires. Plate V. found atDesborough. The small brooches are fourteenth-century inscribed brooches of English workmanship given to show the beauty of severe and simple forms. Plate IV. Northamptonshire. and the fine effect produced by simple coiled wire. This surface affords ^ A Notes on Collotype "^^^" an ideal foil for is of AngloSaxon workmanship. Perhaps the most 285 . which the crucifix rests makes the whole work look quite magical. Plate ^l. silver and precious stones gives an admirable illustration of several of the methods described by Theophilus in his book of " Divers Arts.—The Gold Cup of the Kings of France and England. —The Necklace the red garnet inlay. It is given as an example of the use of uncut stones. The Shrine of the Bell of This shrine of bronze and Conall Gael.— Gold Brooch found at Dover No.

An example of the beauty of absolutely simple craftsmanship. An English Gold Brooch^ fourteenth century^ set with pearls. and emeralds. An exrated — ample showing shaped settings for pearls. Plate VII. yf Gold Ring. It given to show that all work to be decoby enamel should be simple in form. French Brooches of the A 13M and 14M centuries. an example of pierced and carved work.— Notes on Collotype Plates beautiful piece of gold work as it in the world. how- convey no suggestion of the wondercolor and splendor of the original. and carved and pierced dragon bosses as a contrast to the stones. the value of filigree surfaces as a contrast to the watery sheen of precious stones. is. Gold Ring. 4. Plate VIII. 3. Roman. model of built-up design. 5. cabochon sapphires. A No. built up of strands of thin metal united by a repousse boss as ornament. the second carved The first is an example out of the solid. No. ful is can. good ever. No. No. The photograph. The first built up out of thin sheet metal. claw settings for the stones. 2. Russian Pendant^ illustrating No. i. A A Roman Ring of Gold^ coiled up out of thin wire and soldered into a solid band. 286 .

A 287 . Ciborium in copper gilt set with jewels and panels of enamel. see this brooch and Plate IX. Chalice. At the back of the brooch study it is a beautiful border in niello. and the beauty which may result from the arrangement of rigid Italian. This German workmanship cross is. carved work. chalices A French thirteenth-century This illustrates the decoration of by impressed work described by ^ Theophilus. fourshapes within such spaces. Plate XI. splendid example of the value of clearly defined spaces. Every student should for himself. cast work. There is hardly a process which has not been used in its Twisted wire of every demanufacture. — Plate X. beaten work. as it were.— — of the use of leaves made as described in Notes on Collotype Plates The settings are the chapter on Rings. stamped work. and enamall unite to make a most beautieling As a study of compression in ful whole. design it could hardly be surpassed. gree of complexity. simple cones of thin sheet metal wrapped round the stones. a resume of the whole goldsmith's art. teenth century. teenth century^ A Processional Cross^ fif.

j^g right use of enamel. i — . An example of the decorative value of inscriptions. Plate XII set with in silver gilt. four^. No. No. of the use of coiled and beaded wire. A Most emeralds. of the 1. This shows the possibilities of work in thin sheet metal. Brooches. Plate XIII. Given as an example of enamel. Necklace in opals. and a Ring by the author. Plate XVI. Plate XV. and pearls by the author.— — Notes on Collotype Plates Pastoral St offin copper gilt. of the stones in the necklace were cut and poHshed by the method described in Chapter XXX. Holy Mother and 288 . and the right use of enamels.— T^^ Elfred Jewel. Pendants. In gold and jewels and enamels. Italian. Norwegian Bridal Crown . teenth century. A Shrine i?/«|-. Plate XIV. enclosing an image Child.

Enamel. 3.I. 4. in Silver Gilt. 2. i6th Century Spanish Pendant.) . and Pearls.— I. Roman Earrings. (South Kensington Museum.


3. 4. Anglo-Saxon Brooch.— I. Anglo-Saxon Ring. Anglo-Saxon Brooches.II. found at Laverstock. 2. (British Museum. found near Abingdon.) . found near Favershara.


) . (British Museum. Anglo-Saxon Belt Buckle. Ang-lo-Saxon Brooch found at Dover. found at Taplow.gz?rr^-''iwn III I. 3.


IV.— Anglo-Saxon Necklace and Brooches. 14th Century English Inscribed (British Museum.) .


1THF NE. J ..w York! PUBLIC r-'^'"^"^^^! ASTOR. S. LCNOX AMC TILDliN FOONQATl-.

-Shrine of the Bell of Conall Gael.) . (British Museum.V.

O.T>OSS.n7HVoO. .

VI . (British Museum.) .-Gold Cup of the Kings of France and England.

I .

(British Museum.) . English Gold Brooch.'^-'a VI I. -I. 3. 14th Century. S. z. Rings. 4. Roman Gold Russian Pendant.


Brooch. French Gold (South Kensington Museum.) . 13th Century. French Gold Brooch. 14th Century.VIII. z.— I.

— Processional Cross. (Villingen. .IX.


X. -French Chalice. (South Kensington Museum.) . 13th Century.

RY' -I ..

^'>-s» XL— Ciborium. in Copper-Gilt.0^ ^ _* ---i.) . W^-. (South Kensington Museum.


) . Italian.— Pastoral Staff. (South Kensington Museum.XII.

1 .yORK PUBLIC LID: -v ASTOfi. L TILDe:n LENCX ANC kjjndatioms.-.?THENEV.


-Norwegian Bridal Crown.) .XIII. (South Kensington Museum.

'HK .

XIV.— Front View of Alfred Jewel.) . (Ashmolean Museum.

-I^l^-^'^^ATJci .

set with Rubies. and Pearls. in Pale Gold.XV. with Enamel. Rubies. and z. Pearls.— I. 3. Belt Buckle. (By the Author. in Pale Gold. Sapphires. with Beryl and Sapphire. Emeralds. Pendant.) . Gold Ring.


and Front View of the Lid of a Shrine Ringr. Pearls. set with Emeralds. . in Gold. The Lid is hinged and forms a Cover to an Enamelled Panel of the Holy Mother and Child. z. Sapphires.— I. (By the Author. Opals.) Necklace.XVI.

are given as suggesThe section to the tions of form. Bennet Brothers. The student is referred to " Old Cambridge Plate " (published by the Cambridge Antiquarian Society) for further beautiful examples of silver- work. right of Plate I is that of the Foundress' cup given in the Frontispiece. taken from Night" ingale's " Church Plate of Wiltshire (published by Messrs. 21 321 .The following sections of medieval cups and chalices. Salisbury).

322 .

3^3 .

3^4 .

3^5 .


be covered with a film in (From •' The Jeweller's Assistant Gold. I . will.PRACTICAL RECIPES Contact Gilding. stirring it the mixture the while. and continue boiling for two or three minutes. Gee. of chloride of gold dissolved in a little water. or paint it on with a brush. common Recipes Boil the water in salts an enamel saucepan. after which add slowly a solution of 2 dwts. Stir well with a glass rod. little When required it for gilding take a of the liquid and heat then nearly to boiling-point. . when it few moments. . salt. thoroughly cleansed. Gilding Metal or Bronze. and conWhen you think it sufficiently concentrated dip the object to be gilded after it has been pickled clean. Working b — the Dissolve equal parts of sal-ammoniac and cor- rosive sublimate in strong nitric acid. With mixture make a solution of centrate the solution fine gold by evaporation. 2 oz. after a and immerse it in the solution. water. i Practical carbonate of potash. clean zinc. on a piece of bright. i^ oz." G. The solution will blacken it . oz. —Take of yellow prussiate of potash. When boiling add the one by one.) Greek Gildingfor Copper. Allow to cool and preserve it in a stoppered bottle. of gold. i quart. place the article.

—Take the gold will appear. Iron. and when completely liquid stir in yellow ocher or red ocher in fine powder in a sufficient quantity to color the mixture. to a corre- You will now apply the first layer of gold leaf and burnish it on lightly. ammonia. in (From '* The Jeweller's Gold. that with rotten -stone in the same way.Practical instantly if it be strong enough. Melt best pitch in an iron Cement for Engravers." by G. the work can be burnished. finally burnished bright until the last leaf of gold has been laid on and the vv^ork is cold. The work must next be exposed to a gentle heat and If you wish to make the another layer applied. Pour it out on a smooth oiled stone or marble slab. sponding heat. until it takes a bluish tinge if be copper.) Assistant in Working Fire-Gilding for Steel. chloride of mercury and dissolve in nitric acid. Scrape the copper or iron with the scraper and burnisher. Gee. use two leaves of The work must not be gold at each operation. when Grecian Gilding. — After rubbing it down with the corundum and after file take a small rod of tin or pewter. or Copper. articles. grind the surface of the 328 . vessel. and expose them to just enough heat to volatilize the This done. and finish with putty powder and a buff stick. mercury. To gild silver brush the composition over them. This done. stone. it anointing with fine tripoli or rotten- enamel evenly with Next take a stick of limewood and use this. it be it steel or iron. heat equal parts bi- Recipes ^^^ object to redness. another way. — warm the object. and dilute with water. — To Polish Enamel. coating of gold extra strong. if . add small portion of gold chloride of chloride.

I part copper and silver Melt the together. fine Practical copper. dry scrape the portions next to the part to be unThen soldered and paint it all well with borax. been added. . just give enough heat to melt the solder. which are not to be unsoldered with a mixture or loam and water to which a little common salt has — When This will protect them. silver. and Or if this be remove the part with the pincers. — Fine gold. Gold. i part . Recipes add the gold. impossible owing to the nature of the work. before unsoldering fix a stout lift it iron wire to the part to be removed and off in that way.Good Solder for . To Unsolder a Paint those joints Piece of Work. and when well mixed fine 2 parts. 329 .


fixed brass back. used in enameling. — round. the filings of precious metal swept from the work-board. and tapering . the washings and wastings of ground enamel used to coat the backs of enamel plaques. Also. Beck iron. beating out sheet metal from the back into rough approximations of the form required. used for Basse taille. any combination of different metals by fusion. softening metal by making cooling slowly. a saw made of dividing metal. it red-hot and Backing. and kept for refining. the coating of enamel on the back surface of enameled plaques. or modeling of the subject is given by the different The enamel naturally appears depths of cutting. the other has a flat upper surface. slender.GLOSSARY Alloy. Back-saw. low cut carving in metal beneath the level The drawing of the surface. Also. Annealing. base metal added to silver or gold to give hard- Glossary ness or color. darker over the deeper cuttings and vice versa. . Bossing up. Board sweep. a thin ribbon in a of steel. such as a clock-spring. a T-shaped anvil or stake used in hammer The arms of the T are long one is work.

Cire perdue. in the case of carbuncles. or flattened surfaces of hardened steel. used for enlarging holes and the insides of tubes. the waste. concave. Cloison. used to hold small objects while being engraved. The model having been enclosed in sand rammed closely round it. used for polishing by compression. bloodstone. The back then ground tallow flat. the surface of metal away until it is evenly rounded and smooth to the is touch. Chasing. a natural or artificial mixture of fine loam also the double and sand. handled tools with points. an enclosing ribbon of wire. a. agate. or. . Cement stick. the upper end notched and covered with cement. Cabochon. which. makes a trough into which enamel is melted. used to make molds for casting. a short taper handle of wood.Glossary Broche. the surface being afterward ground smooth and polished. made of pitch or resin and powdered brick-dust. a method of cutting precious stones without The surface of the rough stone is ground facets.wax process of casting direct from the original wax model. tapering prism of steel with sharp edges. being sol- dered edgewise on a metal ground. Stones cut in this stones. taken by molten is melted away and its place metal. Casting-sand. Champleve. surface modeling of metal with hammer and punches. highly pohshed. way is are also called " drop " There cabochon. or hematite. a process of enameling on metal in which the ground of the pattern is cut away with scorpers into a series of shallow troughs into which the enamel is melted. which is naturally like two simple cabochons put back to back. knobs. Burnishers.

steel. into bone ash. a block of compressed bone ash with a cupshaped depression. . the heart of a mold for casting hollow objects. Draw-plate. brass. small tweezers. for making hollow balls out of Doming punches. used in gold and silver. which. and adjusting them. of thick iron wire bent to various shapes. is used to draw wire through the drawplate held against stops fixed at the other end of be in a the bench. a cube of metal with hemispherical depressions of various sizes in the sides. etc. used with doming punches sheet metal. bits bits Crown setting. used for melting metal. used for picking up stones. a muffle for purifying is The precious metal its wrapped the up in seven or eight times weight of lead. Cramps. a vessel of fireclay or other refractory material. Crucible. used to hold work together while being soldered. and used for drawing wire. of solder.. Glossary- sewn or together. acting on a broad strap attached by a strong iron loop to a pair of pincers called drawtongs. low bench with a winch at one end. carrying the impurities with Doming-block. Corn tongs. an open setting with rebated points to hold the stone.Collar y a ring made of riveted several layers of stout leather. Core. Cupel. used to support the pitch-bowl. so called because they were formerly stamped with the sign of the cross. a flat plate of steel pierced with a row or rows of graduated holes. made in the hollows of the doming-block. and when melted the lead runs away it. or boxwood. They may Draw-bench. punches with sets to fit globular heads.

object. used when filing. and pea-flour. the removable section clearly arranged Flask. sal-ammoniac. handle. that edge of a precious stone which is fixed in the setting. Flaunching. the hole or channel arranged in a casting mold for the access of the metal.Glossary Face-plate. False core. borax-glass. and from flaking away from the metal. or to aid to give a key to the film prevent it in the liquefaction or purification of metals when are necessary to melt them. soot. Flux. flour and charcoal. chamfer on the edge or side of any Flinking. saltpeter. an to draw out of a casting mold from a piece of undercut work. carbonate of soda. any material used to protect the surface of metal from oxidation when exposed to heat. the process of stabbing with a sharp-pointed graver the surface of metal which Its object is is to be enameled. iron frame used to contain the sand while being rammed round an filing a object to be cast. powdered glass. a setting with perforated sides for a stone or a panel of enamel. a square of thick steel plate with the surface ground perfectly level. Facing. Gallery. used for rounding the heads of pins used in fixing parts 334 . Girdle. borax. French chalk. of glass. to test the truth of the work. a hollow-headed punch with a wooden of work together. Gate or get. These powdered charcoal. Graining tool. common salt and sulfiir. the operation of giving a smooth surface to a casting mold by dusting on a finer material. The facings most generally used are powdered charcoal.

in the making of chains. are file cuts. Knurling tool. It with rounded edges on is used for making fixed in a grooves for hinges. Mandrel. the dried foot of a hare. a flat strip of steel which Joint tool. the filings and scraps of precious metal collected in the skin of the I is carefully preserved and." filings). Also. when work-bench. The ends of a tube when secured at the apex of the triangle by the screw can be filed quite true. Justifier. a block of metal. a fatty. Knop. Lemel (French "Limaille. is melted and the metal refined for subsequent use. . ocherous earth used in casting. any bulbous projection on a shaft or pillar of a cup or candlestick. Loam. and in the base in the thickness ot the metal is a thumbscrew. a small steel wheel with a concave edge pitted with tiny hollows. Hari s foot. or wire-drawing. a scorper with two cutting edges at right angles. etc. used either for tube-drawing or for coiling wire.of scorper or small chisel for cutting on the surface of metals. enough has been collected. a kind lines Graver. Joint file. used in cutting bearings for the stones. a flat plate of steel handle and point oi pierced with a triangular hole. steel When fitted in a slotted handle and run backward and forward along a wire soldered on a plate it produces a row of beads. Glossary or remelting. a rod of metal of any section. Ingot. cast into a convenient shape for rolling. the tapered rod of steel used in making rings. used as a brush to dust away gold and silver filings from the board. generally rectangular. the triangle is The toward the handle.

it can be taken to pieces. Panel. generally beech. and the mold reformed for casting. a snippet of solder. casting 33^ . granulated end. revolution. the wedge of hard wood. Perloir. used to hold work up against the file. powdered brick-dust or bathbrick. The acids used are nitric acid. tool. Mop. fixed in the bow of the jeweler's bench. the mother-form or mold for cast work. a snippet of solder. Odd side. a chasing punch with a concave tip. Piece-mold. a tangled boss of fine binding. ' Paillon. Pickle. when the mold is complete. the model removed. called false cores. a mold for in undercut work. becomes rigid by rapid against The edges are then smeared with rouge and the object to be polished pressed it. This solution is as strong as necessary for general use.wire fixed on a wire handle and used to support small articles Matt while being soldered with the mouth blowpipe. so arranged that. used for making a grained surface on metal. made removable sections. used for removing the films of oxid and sulfids from the surface of metal.Glossary Matrix. and a very ordinary mixture is half acid and half water. used for making convex beads on the surface of metal. hydrochloric acid. Also. solutions of various acids in water. used to sprinkle on the face of a mold. Parting sand. Pin. a contrivance for polishing number of disks of calico fixed to a made of a wooden spindle. the temporary half of a casting mold arranged false to support the model while the cores are being made over it. and sulfuric acid. it When put on the polishing lathe. a repousse punch with a flat.

the slender rod of a similar air-channel wax arranged to when melted out of the in piece-molds. Plique h jour. for a plate of metal slightly domed and same prepared enameling. Also. in a waste- wax mold make mold. with curved and variously shaped ends. inlet Pour. Planishing. smooth-faced hammer and an anvil. the method of beating out sheet metal from the back with hammers and punches. giving a smooth face to a beater's cup or other object in sheet metal by the same means. a channel scraped out of one surface of a piecemold to allow^the escape of air. wax molds the rod of wax arranged to provide a similar channel when melted out of the mold. channels for the entry of In wastemetal into various parts of the mold. Also. Plaque. Repousse. transparent enamel which.Pitch-block. 22 337 . a block of as wood covered with metal in pitch. in the same for way that a stained-glass window mold is strengthened. gets its strength from variously folded ribbons of metal within the thickness of the enamel. Rifles. used Glossary a support for repousse work. Riser. Runners. the gate or the metal to run into a for casting. the plate when coated with enamel. giving a plane or level surface to a sheet of metal by the use of a broad. a flat circular with sand. being without metal backing. Also. bag of leather used for bossing up metal upon. used up the surfaces of castings and for cleaning up any surface for which an ordinary file files for filing can not be used. filled Sand-bag. or chasing.

etc. a for scraping clean edges and surfaces to be soldered and for cleaning up work generally. a taper mandrel of steel on which rings are made. a chisel-shaped punch used in outlining for repousse work. Used Smooth. to the variously curved bars with rounded. a tool made from an by sharpening the point on a stone to a three-sided pyramid. bulbous. small hand chisels of various shapes. a modified draw-plate. from the bench stake. the blow of the hammer near the fixed end. made in removable sections held in a frame by a screw. Treblet. Snar ling-irons. and the size of the wire or molding can be regulated by the screw. They are of many forms. arranged in the contiguous surfaces of two blocks. a spring-catch for a bracelet or necklace. Stake. Snap. the refiise from the floor of the jeweler's workshop which is collected. or spoon-shaped ends. a square block of iron faced with steel.Glossary Scorpers. fine cut file for finishings. 338 . Sweep. Swage-block. Used The holes are for drawing wire or moldings. burnt. upright in the floor makes an excellent stake. used to old file engrave metal. long Z -shaped levers fixed in a vise and used for bossing out the surface of vessels They act by rebounding from from the inside. Scraper. Tracer. a small anvil. and the metallic residue melted and refined for use in the same way as lemel. used a vise for beating when fixed in A poker fixed up cups.

I NDEX 339 .


for ring. 316 Alloy copper. 264 . Index ascening. sawdust. 156 . 53. tin. 56 35. for fillings. Band for hinged bracelet. 181. 182 . 235 Annealing. 33. 199 Beaded wire. for. 35. Bench Bench 110 stake. 157. pattern for. 57. slitting stones. Bossing up. 53 Beck-iron. 275 1 160. 41 233 Agate mortar. 53 Bow saw for Boxwood punches. casting. 170 bronze for network Block Amalgam enamels. 160 Barium sulfid for oxidizing. use of. 76.1 1 INDEX Agate burnisher. for. 3 202 . 32. 202 Alfred's jewel. 94. in Boil. gold proportions Aluminum 169. flexible. 272 molds 232 165. use of. 163 . 182 Beer used in polishing. 3 Blowpipe. for molds. 159 molds." 265 Back mold. snap stone for. 31 Borders in stamped work. for Brass gold work. darkening silver. Beating-block. hammered hinged. 55 sizes of. 96 Board sweep in gold work. for gilding. Borax. Bracelet. for. 274 Beading-tool. Beakers. 270 242 . 58 Bearings for settings. 184. decorated with stamped for stamp for spoons. . 235 Basins mallet. 34 Bezel for casket. 160. silver. 279. 232 Beeswax. 248 Backs for 117 pearls. 177. 85 for polishing. 237 sulfid. 168 Ammonium use of. 55. 31 . used in dam- Beehive coils for gold work. 35 vise. in enamel work. in polishing. sticks Bathbrick work. 215 of mercury and gold. 156. Binding-wire. 00 scroll ends 158. removing. how to make. 47 212 Book of " Divers Arts. in enameling. for enameling.

203 Cloisons. use of in polishing. 97 Candlesticks. 231 Crown settings. 30. . 248 Darkening silver. in enameling. 219 Dentist's gold. 242 Cire-perdue process of casting. care of. of leaves for. 193 bracelet. for brooch. 240 265 for Cement backing 222 . 239 Circular saw for precious stones. twisted wire border for. in enamel. polishing soft 241 Cement stick for cutting stones. how to make. fittmg and soldering. 261 use of. 48 132 . loi Crucibles. catch subject for. 321 Cutting precious stones. 190 Carved settings for stones. 263 how to make. best kinds to darken. for use with polishing Crocus for polishing. outlines for. 20 Catch-pan lathe. gold. medallion setting for. 200 Burnishing. use of. pearls in. 136 Brooch pins. Corundum file. Core casting. 235 Deep cut enamels. eling. 42. for use in stones. skeleton setting 227 Casket. Copper. 193 Catch. 256 Casting small work. 240 Cutting punches. 204. 1 78 Chain loops for flexible 165 Chains. prongs for. 202 Cup forms. 236 30 . 203 for 1 enam- necklace. 268 264. 272 Cuttlefish molds. 132. 33. 234 256. 34 Carved knop. Combs. 152 of. enamels. 235 Collets. Cellini. 183 Casting flasks. pendant. in wax. 245 . 1 of. 149 152.3 Index Brooch. 43. for. relation of. use of. tools for. groups hinges 150. for 50 setting the 154. 233. 130. design for. for. uses of. 187 Casket hinges. 178. 196. Chisels for metal carving. 187 Chloride of gold for gilding. joint Chasing tools. 1 3 i design. 98 Cabochon. how to make. 231 . 215 Close settings. 241 . Damascening. 212 Cunynghame's book on enamels. j . 209 Burnishers. 45. 133. 133 . . 263 Design and handiwork. 153 . 1 1 Chalices. 187. pearls in. how to make. 191 Carving in metal. I 133. 134. how 244 sand. Cloisonne enamel. 231 Cloison wire. 1 01 Coloring metal. Chasing. 209 Charcoal. 135 Buckle in Champleve enamel. 68 Cold chisel. 2:^3 . 176 . 45 30. 321 Champleve enamel. in casting. back for.

274 of.Diamond dust. Gilt nails. 176. cast- Hand vise. 34 Dragon borders. 203. in cutting Enamel. Hematite 138 burnisher. 155. Etruscan. 243 35 Drill stock. type-metal Enamel work. Engraved glio lines. 168 . stones. intaglio. 213 Gold grains. solder to be used in enamel work. French work-bench. Mykenean. locket. 244 Handiwork and design. 196. cloisonne. 210 . 244 Flower borders in stamped work. how to make. general rules for requisites for. in 170 . enameled. 142 Grains of gold. molds for. 200 202 . 202 enamels. color 237 make. 43 260 High-relief figures. . Filigree 246 rings. for enameled gold Index Doming-block. 221 cores. 30 use of. 115 French chalk. 40 Draw-plate. how to make. 222 Hinge for a casket. 243 Gesso models panels. for. Enameling solder. zinc molds 180 Grained links for chain. 193 Gold foil in enamel work. 212 . 272 Frame saw. 155 how done. dangers of use on cast work. Eg)p- washing. 3 5 Electrotype Emery wheel. 170. 239 Gates in a casting mold. 212 Engraver's lathe head. use of. 145 Hammer work. in inta- 172 Grounds for enamel work. high relief. 261 343 . 35. protection for solder in. 213 233 False Fish. how to darken. care of material. 203 dan. 107 to draw. 171. 34. 209 Gold work. characteristics of Anglo-Saxon. 41. 36 Friction gilding. necklace. 243 how to make. 160 Holder for drilling pearls. Drills. alloy for. 223 . Gold-beater's skin. 270 Draw-bench. 222 . 236. how to make. 221 Gilding processes. of. gold. 1 69 use of. for comb. 219 metal border 140 . 172 . silver. 119 Graining tool. 41. 255 Gelatine molds in casting. for. 34 Doming punches. 89. use of. 145 Flasks for casting. 202 . how to produce. 176 Hair-pin. how to polish. 240 copper. 216. use of. 51 Hampstead sand. 180 . use ing. solder. in fitting pendant. 177. 152 Hinged bracelet. in 223 Drilling stones. 43. how Hair ornaments. 206 Enamel brooch. hair-pin. 233 . covering metal. use of scorper in. Gum tragacanth. 183 . use of. how to Gold alloys.

269 5 256. silver. 203 . engraver's. 228 1 74 . 201 Modeling wax. in Greek work. 79 for woven for necklaces. 73. strengthening. how to make. ing. 243 Lead. 98 Ingot. for. 187 Metal outline. 168 Lifting needles. 240 Lapidary's slitter. work. 344 . in en- 248 to amel work. wax. "5 Materials. setting. 86 trough for hydro- Necklace. 257 Jeypore enamels. 277 drawings of fish. 271 . in epamel. how to make. 34. 118 carved ring. for 199. 104 pegs for pearls. 201 Joint for bracelet. how done. 271 271 Mandrel. . 34. j 29 engraved. 67 Iron stamps. 100. how to draw. . Hydrofluoric acid. gold. 181 Leaf settings for pearls. wax model 220 197 Locket or pendant casket. for spoon handle. bathbrick. 268 for crucifixes. 1 12. 199 acid. 237 Metal-carving tools. Horn mallet. 180 Matting tools. for Matrices. gold 138 . pre- Incrusted work. 244. . use and value of. 1905 carved. 161 j for brooch. 122. small work in gela- British tine. Iron supports for enamel plaques. 177. fluoric acid. 242 Lathe head. Inlaying. gold. dipping tube for hydrofluoric slate. 203. for Agnus Dei. 224 . 190 Knot rings. Lapidary work. 33 Hydrochloric pickle. Justifier. 177. 106 Lemel. 213 Links. in 179 32. 135 Moldings for gold hair-pin. 117 Leaves. Molds. use of. for for tube-drawchain-making. for four Evangelists. 181 . Ingot molds. Key work. 199 261 . 256 Moonstone brooch. rose panels for. 1 3 1 . 206 Japanese craftsmanship. 199. 219 . zinc. for gold work. in casting. 75. Interlocking joint for hammer wax casting. mold for spoons. 129 Lost (or waste) use of. stamped work. 182. 134 Joint tool. use of. to make. 51 Mercury gilding. steatite. 203 . brass. how pare. . how to make. 206 Limoges enamel.Index Hollow ornaments in gold. 90 262 enamels. Museum. Intaglio no Loam. 183 Loops for nightingale pendant. 227 220 156 Knop. use of.

arrangement of stones . gilding. with or without temporary copper backs. 55 47 118. 100 Panels in raised gold for enameling. 231 Rings. casket. 234 j a quick meth232 of. use of. . 122. 33. for 177. circular. 44 Paved settings. Ring casting. 122 248 dering small articles. loop for. 219. Polishing. loi Oriental stones. 1 Precious stones. 180 of. 183 back for. 237 Paillons. use of. 198 Pearls. hollow. 215 Pliers. 32 H3 Index catch for. 138. chain for. matrix for type-metal Network enamels. for stone-cutting. settings for. key Rotten-stone for polishing. in sol- polishing. Needles. Potassium use darkening silver. 231 Pendant. 139. to slitting. for 126 . 1 50 j drilling. 232 pegs for. Plaster of Paris. gold necklace.123 in. fitting Runners and 259 141 . 95 Old work and methods. 288. Plaster cast. Pitch-block. to make. 35. 327 Repousse tools. Pitch. for repousse work. 35 Sand casting. etc. 143 . Oxidization of silver. how strengthen. Oil lamp for soldering. no. in Platinum. 235 in 97 Ornament. 79 artificial. stick. in 211 design of Piece-molding. Sand-bag. Norwegian crown. 143 345 . 107 lifting. 243 shaping. 34 215 . 117. carved. 244 brooch. silver Rouge necklace. 244 Saw. 134 pendant. 148 . preserving of. 231 sulfid. 231. how to use. polishing. 233 materials 32 for. use of 242 Scorper. 102 Pea flour. 127 Nitric acid pickle. stones for. practical. . 196. Prongs for 243 . 210 . 139 various patterns of. use of. Sea-gulls. 314 refuse od of. use of. design for. pearl filigree. Plique a jour enamel. 34 Repousse work. 240J 242 combs. 60 Ornaments. 138. for polishing. 264 Open settings. how 155. 156 the enamel into. 218 Nightingale pendant. 34 . 196. how made. Quicksilver. and links for. 113. 221 in Recipes. enamel Pins for in. 215. Planishing.. balls to hair-pin. 1 20 . use enameling. Polishing sticks. 104 to drill. risers.

45. 199 Zinc molds. 104. Sulfid amels. 180 Venetian . 269 Spirit lamp for soldering. 107 hair-pin. 191 Shears. Table filigree ring. 269 Steatite molds. bracelet. 89. 79 Stag as subject for brooch.1 Index Seal engraver's lathe. for of potassium for oxidi- enamel. 213 193 foil. 92. 256. 36 Wreathed circlet for nightingale pendant. compound 109. 186 139 Skeleton sphere for . 1 3 Stakes for hammer work. 234 Waste-wax process. 34. 191 . Stamps. for polishing. use of. zing. Silver use of. flexible 163. 120 Snarling-irons. 33. Spanish brass. 87 Silverwork. for castings. Sulfuric pickle. 201. . 127 Wreathed settings for pearls. 35 Ship as a subject for a pendant. 206 in polishing. 33. . 39 Wire. (1) THE END 346 f-t y . 36 er's. 34 with a bow saw. 268 Tools. 133 twist. 108. Slitting stones Waste. Swage block Sweep. "3 Washing polishing. 59 enamel. 232 Wax for modeling. 235 32 for moldings. 199 slips for work. 242 Snap for bracelet. 39 229 Swivel loop for pendant. 54. wreathed. 48 Translucent enamels. 31 180 . for for necklace. 219. 207. for gold work. for 243 network encloisonne Sulfid of ammonium 235 for oxidi- zing. 76. 97 . chain for necklaces. 147 Skin. in Limoges Tube-drawing. Soldering. goldbeat- Theophilus. 268 Water of Ayr stone. loz. 305 Slide pliers. iron. Settings. 94 Spoons. . solder. 171 212 Wire-drawing. 117 how to carve. 214. pearls. to polish. 87. 166. 42. 56 Work-bench. for paved. 232 Villingen processional cross. to darken or oxidize. . 154. 256 Solder for enameling. 265. 231 Slate molds. jeweler's. 235 . 224 Type-metal molds for gold enamel.






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