We sincerely acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude to our project guide Mr. Vinayak for the guidance and encourage he gave us for the preparation of this project without him the project would have been difficult. We are highly obliged to Mr. Arun Chopra, H.O.D.(Elecronics) for his noble spontaneous and timely help that carried out us throughout our endeavour and finally made a grand success. We also thank the staff of our electronics department for all the cooperation and friendly treatment given to us during project. We are also thankful to our colleagues and all those have extended the necessary help during the course of our work .


Engineering is not only a theoretical study but it is a implementation of all we study for creating something new and making things more easy and useful through practical study. It is an art which can be gained with systematic study, observation and practice. In the college curriculum we usually get the theoretical knowledge of industries, and a little bit of implementation knowledge that how it is works? But how can we prove our practical knowledge to increase the productivity or efficiency of the industry? Don’t take the chance of becoming victim of burglary, which is often accompanied by violence. Protect our family and valuables with this security system that will let us rest our head knowing that should anyone trying to break into our home, an alarm will go off and the police will be alerted immediately. The circuit is able to count whenever the light is blocked and it maybe applicable to many fields. Adding some small components may use the circuit as burglar alarm, or to count key presses.



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In designing some precious things security is of prime importance. Security is becoming essential day-to-day due to increasing theft. Security should not be expensive then the think to be secured. This project guides us with a low cost security. To protect our house or any precious things from thieves or

trespassers for designing any thing new security should be viewed first. This project gives us a security system, which insures safety and security very conveniently. It is simple as it wcrks on a simple laser beam and a proper mirror arrangement around the thing to be secured. By networking the laser beams through reflections of mirror and by blowing the alarm if any one crosses the beam and indicating “security in danger”. In this circuit a counter is activated when a continuously supplied light is been blocked. It uses a counter IC CD 4033.An LDR enhances the counting process.This circuit an be used for various applications such as to count products going over a belt, and for counting persons passed at a point etc The project is done as a prototype and its Real one can display a three to ten digit numbers and can count unto thousands. The system convenience comfort of the user it uses the most advance technology. Innovation quality assurance and reliability are silent features of system.

The past method of security included of Burglar Alarm The details of these system are as follows BURGLAR ALARM In this system invisible radiation like ultra violet rays or infrared rays fall continuously on photodetector. When burglar crosses the path of beam, the current in photodetector is cut off. The relay in the circuit is set in such manner as to be operated due to this break in current and it starts the ringing of an alarm bell. 1) Burglar Alarm using Photo conducting cell :Here is simple circuit, which uses photoconductive cell LDR (light dependant resistor). The LDR is made up of cadmium selenide or cadmium sulphide. Its resistance is very high when it is dark and its resistance falls

considerably when it is illuminated. This light dependent properly of LDR is used in construction of Burglar alarm system. When LDR is illuminated by light from the resistance of LDR drops to few ohms and transistor emmiter base junction in forward biased. This make the transistor to go in saturation and sufficient current flow through the relay coil


+Vcc Bulb AC LDR Relay R2 R1 Bell Circuit Diagram of a Burglar Alarm AC Supply But when light from bulb is interrupted by burglar the LDR resistance become very high. 2. 6 . The current through relay coil is not sufficient and relay current operate the bell and hence an indication of alarm. The between in relay ckt will not work . This small voltage is insufficient to forward bias the base emitter junction of transistor.this current is sufficient to actuate the relay. The base emitter voltage is very small. Stating that there is some one to interrupt the light. The transistor is in cut off state. Burglar Alarm Using Photo emissive Cell.

2) This security system cannot cover a large area under security. The plate current increases and sets the relay. the grid becomes less negative. But as soon as some intruder or burglar breaks into house and on entering comes in way of invisible beam. 4) Security system is applicable for limited purpose only. Hence bell B does not ring. in plate circuit of which there is relay which works burglar alarm. the relay is not operated. 3) Circuit Design is typical. Disadvantage of security :1) This security system is Costly. The bell starts ringing and will continue ringing till the relay is reset. The photo electric or photo emmisive cell forms part of grid circuit of triode.We shall consider here the automatic burglar alarm. Burglar alarm can be also be built with the help of LDR in conjunction with 555 timer. As long as light in incident on cell the electrons keep the grid of triode more negative and hence. 5) Numbers of Batteries Required to run the system is more. 7 .


1 IC 555 :IC 555 is a timer IC. The internal block diagram of IC 555 as shown below.2.2. 2) Comparator C1 and C2 3) Flip – flop ( Rs – FF ) 4) Reset circuitry 5) Discharge circuitry 6) Output buffer 9 . VR Sk Threshold (6) 2/3Vcc R Q2 C1 R R + _ C2 R 100 Ω Q1 (1) GND S FLIP FLOP Q Out put (3) Buffer Reset (4) Control Voltage (5) 5K 1/3Vcc trigger (2) 5k Discharge (7) The internal block diagram consist of 6 main parts. 1) Resistor divider network. It is important in consumer and industrial applications.

10  .  The timing can be externally controlled by applying voltage to terminal 5.The block diagram consist of two comparators that drives the set (S) and reset ® terminal of a flip flop which is in turns controls the ON and OFF CYCLE of the discharge transistor Q1.  The capacitor value is about 0. the output of C1 changes and this in turn changes the state of flip-flop and O/p goes high. The comparator reference voltages are fixed at 2/3 Vcc for C1 and 1/3 Vcc for C2 by means of voltage divider made of 3 resistors. This changes the state of the flip-flop and the O/p of flip-flop is low.01 uf. The reference voltage is applied to control the timing.  On the negative transition of the pulse applied to the trigger terminal and when the voltage of the trigger terminal pass through Vcc/3  The O/p of C2 comparator changes.  On the other hand. which reset the flip-flop externally. when the voltage applied at the threshold terminal of the comparator C1 goes positive and passes through the reference 2/3 Vcc.  If no such control is required then it is bypassed by a capacitor to ground.  A separate reset terminal is provided for the timer.

 The over rinding effect when terminal is less than 10. isolating the reset terminal from the flip-flop and transistor Q1.  When reset terminal is not in use.  The output of flip-flop is Q1. connected to Vcc. 11  . the output stage is low and when set. the capacitor charges and when Q1 is on.  A capacitor is connected between discharge and ground.  Transistor Q2 acts as a buffer.  When the flip-flop is reset. which sets the FF.4 V. which is the O/p stage.  When Q1 is off. This reset voltage applied externally over ride the effect of the O/p of lower comparator. the output is high. capacitor discharges through it.

There are two ways load can be connected to O/p terminal either between pin 3 and ground (pins) or between pins3 and supply voltage and Vcc (pins) Pin 4 Reset : The device 555 is reset ( disabled by applying is negative pulse to this pin when the reset function is not in use. GND Trigger O/p Reset IC 555 +Vcc Discharge Threshold Control volt The function of various pins is as following Pin 1 Ground :.Control voltage :.The O/p of timer depends on amplitude of external trigger pulse applied to pin Pin 3. by imposing a voltage on 12  . The pin diag. In other words. is as shown below.C. O/p :. Pin 5 :.An external voltage applied to this terminal changes the threshold as well as trigger voltage.PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 555 IC 555 is a 8 pin timer I.All voltages are measured with respect to this terminal. Pin 2. the reset terminal should be connected to +Vcc to avoid any possibility of flash trigerring. Trigger :.

which in turn switches. When not used. the pulse width the output waveform can be varied. On the other hand.01 uf capacitor to prevent any noise disturbances.this pin or by connecting a potentiometer between this pin and ground. Pin 7 : Discharge : The pin is connected internally to the collector of transistor Q1. the control pin should be bypassed to ground with a 0. the O/p of comparator C 1 goes high. When the voltage at this pin is greater than or equal to 2/3 vcc. Q1 is Off and acts as an open circuit to the external capacitor connected between pin 7 and ground. When the O/p is high. Pin 8 : Vcc :. Pin 6 : Threshold :. when the O/p is low. shorting out the external capacitor 0 to ground.The supply voltage of +5v to 18v is applied to this pin with respect to ground (pin 1) 13  . Q1 is saturated and acts as a short circuit. The output of the timer low.This is the non-inverting terminal of capacitor C1 which monitors the voltage across the external capacitor.

To achieve a duty cycle of less than 50% a diode can be added in parallel with R2 towards the capacitor. This bypasses R2 during the high part of the cycle so that the high interval depends only on R1 and C1.hence the name "astable". It can also be used to flash lamps and LEDs. This type of circuit could be used to give a mechanism intermittent motion by switching a motor on and off at regular intervals. In the astable mode. The output continually switches state between high and low without without any intervention from the user.555 Timer Operating Modes The 555 has three operating modes: Astable mode An astable circuit has no stable state . 14  . called a 'square' wave. and is useful as a 'clock' pulse for other digital ICs and circuits. the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values of R1. R2 and C: [7] The high time from each pulse is given by and the low time from each pulse is given by where R1 and R2 are the values of the resistors in ohms and C is the value of the capacitor in farads.

is given by 15  . A visitor can push a button to start a model's mechanism moving. his type of circuit is ideal for use in a "push to operate" system for a model displayed at exhibitions.Monostable mode A monostable circuit produces one pulse of a set length in response to a trigger input such as a push button. The output of the circuit stays in the low state until there is a trigger input. hence the name "monostable" meaning "one stable state". which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage. The output pulse width of time t. and the mechanism will automatically switch off after a set time.

R is in ohms and C is in farads. Taking the Trigger input low makes the output of the circuit go into the high state. high and low.where t is in seconds. This type of circuit is ideal for use in an automated model railway system where the train is required to run back and 16  . Taking the Reset input low makes the output of the circuit go into the low state. has two stable states. See RC circuit for an explanation of this effect Bistable Mode (or Schmitt Trigger) bistable mode or what is sometimes called a Schmitt Trigger.

it will either trigger or reset the bistable. A push button (or reed switch with a magnet on the underside of the train) would be placed at each end of the track so that when one is hit by the train. thereby reversing the direction of the train. The output of the 555 would control a DPDT relay which would be wired as a reversing switch to reverse the direction of current to the track.forth over the same piece of track. 2) DC – to DC converter ( Chopper circuit ) 3) Wave form generator. Monostable. 17  . Application of IC 555 1) A stable. Bistable Multivibrator.

4) Techometer – ( for speed measurement ) 5) Temperature measurement. or photo sensitive device and LDR has high resistance under dark condition and low resistance when irrediated by light. 7) Voltage regulator. 18  . 2. 8) Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) 9) Schmitt trigger ( sine to square wave generator ) 10) Ramp Wave generator.2 LDR :LDR is a semiconductor resistor whose resistance decreases ( conductance increases) when irradiated it is also known as photo resistors. 6) Analog frequency meter.2.

According to this theory of sandwitching the layer there are two basic types of transistors. N-type material is sandwitched and if two outermost layer are of N-type material then in between these two P-type material is sandwitched.Application of LDR :1) Used as photo electric counter like meters. 2. 2) Resistance under light of intensity 1000LUX : 100 to 300 r . It means if two outermost layers are of P-type material present then in between this two. 3) Permissible voltage 100V peak. 4) Capacitance < 10 pF.2. Transistor consist of two P – N Junction formed by sandwitch pattern of either P type or N – type material between a pair of opposite type semiconductor materials. 19  . ON-OFF switch etc.3 TRANSISTOR Transistor is developed in ‘P’ and ‘N’ type semiconducting materials from the same crystal by adding corresponding impurities. Specification :1) Dark resistance > 10 mr.

P. We have used the ‘’N – P – N type transistor’’ details are as follows N P N The symbolic representation of N. 20  . E B C Block diagram of N – P – N type trans.(i) N – P – N type transistor (ii) P – N – P type transistor.N.

e. holes ) present in middle. of electrons are injected from emitter and starts to flow towards the base is lightly doped hence it is having minimum no. more and more no. Cu. Operation :Transistor consist of 3 layer of semi conducting material i. The electrons of N – type region are energized and starts to move towards the opposite charged particles.e. of holes. (IE) combination of holes and electrons take place at base this electron go through the holes towards base terminal they constituted small value of base C/N I B. rest of maximum no of electrons comes to collector C/N Ic) this Ic then flows through 21  .e. P – type region forward bias is given to N – type material. The electrons cross over Junction J1 then start to combine with the hole present in P-region the no. of holes are comparatively low hence minimum no. N – P – N forward bias (VBE) is applied in between the emitter and base of the transistor. of electrons come in collector region. next N – type section ) reversed bias VBC is applied to N – type region it exert attraction power of electron and so more no. The movement of electrons in emitter constituted the emitter. ( i.Circuit details :The forward bias VEB is applied to Base – Emitter Junction of the transistor and reverse bias VCB is applied to Base – Collector – Junction. of electrons combine with this holes and rest of electrons cross over the Junction J2 and collected at the terminal collector ( i.

specific resistances in Ω m . towards terminal emitter ) so the resultant emitter C/N is the combination of collector C/N ‘IB’ Hence. use for making heat. The cross sectional area and length of the wire i. IE = IB + IC The unit of resistance is ohm the resistance can be also express as R = ρ  /A Where ρ  .e.e. wire wound resistor have different values depending upon this specific resistively of the wires. Because C/N carrying capability of wires the size of resistor changes depending upon the wattage Resisters Fixed 1) Wire wound 2) Carbon 3) Film Adjustable 1) Wire wound 2) Trapped wire wound Potentiometer 1) Wire wound 2) Carbon 22  .cross sectional Area in m2 A Classification of resistor :Resistor are made in many shapes and size. The direction of flow of Ic and IB are same ( flow of Ic and I B are same ( i.length in m .the external circuit towards emitter the base C/N IB flowes through external circuit.

2.4 CAPACITOR Capacitor can be define as a property of electrical circuit that can apposes the change in voltage. C = q /V = Where q = charge v = voltage or Where c= ε E 0A d Coloum b Voltage A = Area in cm2 ε = Dielectric constant. The unit of capacitance is farad named after the Michael farads. 23  . Capacitor storage the energy in the form of electricity and releases it. When used in the circuit current. Dielectric constant in medium while permits the establishment of lines of forces between oppositely charged plates. Capacitance an electric field is developed between two charged plates within the space between plates energy stored in the capacitor is in this electric field. Any two metal conductor when separated from each other by a dielectric constitute. d = Distance in cm.2.

wherever necessary. 24  . The laser torch used for these security purpose is 3v. The direct C/N resistance has a controlling effect in amount of C/N that flows when a certain voltage is applied according to ohmslow I = V/R 2. 2.e.2. 220 r.2. 1 Kr.6 RESISTANCE :Different resistance of + 4. 12 V essential for circuit to run. rectifier etc. They are mounted properly 1 PCB.2.7 ADAPTER :As direct supply from switch board cannot be given to circuit. Adapter is close circuit which consist of step down transformer. adapter is used to step down supply voltage and bring it to desired volt i. 47 Kr and 3.7 Kr.5 LASER TORCHE :Laser torch is used for radiations of laser beam which is imposed on mirrors arrange systematically whose reflection surrounds the house and then reflected towards LDR.There are two types of capacitor used 1] POLISTER 2] ELECTROLYTIC 2.3 kr are used in circuit as per the requirement in opposition to flow of current.

which provides a noise whenever security is danger. 200 ohm): A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under control of another electrical circuit.10 FLEXIBLE WIRES :Flexible wires are most important as a complete circuit. The most important purpose is conduction. the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close 25  .2. Speaker is a device which converts varying electrical signal into a proportional sound signal.2. 2. Flexible wires are used for connection purpose. These are insulated wires and has a low current carrying capacity and soldering metal is used to solder electronic components on PCB with the help of soldering. 2.2. On a PCB can only be obtained from wires. 2.11 Relay (12V. In the original form.9 MIRRORS :For reflecting laser beam combination of plain mirrors M1 through M4 is used to direct the laser beam around the house to form a net.2. They are used as per current capacity. Flexible wires may have single or multi-strength of metal.8 SPEAKER :Speaker is used for siren purpose.2.

When the current to the coil is switched off. in a broad sense. • Operation: When a current flows through the coil. this is to reduce noise. it can be considered. the armature is returned by a force that is half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position. Relays are manufactured to operate quickly. It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit. the resulting magnetic field attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. In a high voltage or high current application. The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. this is to reduce or many sets of contacts. to be a form of electrical amplifier . In a low voltage application. Usually this is a spring. 26  .

which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. This "shading ring" creates a small out-of-phase current. Form B contact is ideal for applications that require the circuit to remain closed until the relay is activated.If the coil is energized with DC. a diode is frequently installed across the coil. By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device. 27  . the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. or change-over contacts. a light-emitting diode (LED) is used with a photo transistor. which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might cause damage to circuit components. It is also called Form A contact or "make" contact. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC. the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. Normally-open contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated. a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation. It is also called Form C contact or "transfer" contact. Normally Closed (NC). Form A contact is ideal for applications that require to switch a high-current power source from a remote device. Change-over contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and one normallyclosed contact with a common terminal. It is also called Form B contact or "break" contact. Normally-closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated. To achieve electrical isolation. [1] The contacts can be either Normally Open (NO).

3 WORKING OPERATION OF SYSTEM Receiver Unit and its working Description :. The transistor acts as a switch to RESET.4 of IC 555 is RESET.In receiver unit we have used IC 555 in A stable multi vibrator there is continuous ON/OFF of pulses. LDR CIRCUIT DESIGN OF RECEIVER UNIT 28  .2. PIN No. The LDR voltage is given to base of transistor. According to which Speaker the RESET period is varied. ON this pin we have given O/P of transistor 547.

Thus IC 555 gets RESET pulse. The resistance of LDR become large. Thus the O/p of IC 555 gives Low or zero voltage and speaker remains open. In this mode. Working Working of IC 555 when used on Astablemode Astable Multivibrator The Figure shows the astable mode of IC 555 with the wave forms. It is reseted by switch. capacitor charges towards Vcc through RA & RB Untill Vc = 1/3 Vcc At this point comparator C1 changes the state and capacitor starts discharging through RB This continues until the Vc = 1/3 Vcc At this stage comparator C2 changes the state and the capacitor again starts charging and so on. As any thief crosses the LASER beam is interrupted. This gives base pulse to transistor.Working :When LASER beam falls on LDR through mirrors. the resistance of LDR is negligible. 29  . This makes ‘OFF STATE’. The O/P goes HIGH or maximum. The speaker gets close and sound is produced.

7K 1K LDR NPN 547 100µ F 17K Speaker 3.1K 4.01µ F 30  CIRCUIT DESIGN WITH RESPECTIVE VALUES .01µ F 0.3 K 0.

. D = TC ×100 T …………… (3) ………… …………. (6) D= RA + RB ×100 ……. Vc =2/3 Vcc ∴ 2/3 Vcc = 2/3 Vcc l − e −1c /( RA +RB ) + Vcc / 3 ∴ Tc = (RA + RB)C.Consider that the capacitor is periodically discharged and charged between 2/3 Vcc and Vcc/3. (2) [ C ] During the discharging time 0 ≤ t ≤ TD. Vc = 2 / 3Vcc l − e −1/( RA + R1 + ) + Vcc / 3 ………………. (4) (5) ………….C …………….e-t/RBC At t = TD. [ C ] (1) at t = Tc. During the Charging time 0 ≤ t ≤ Tc.. RA + 2 RB …… (7) 31  .693 RBC Total Time. We have Vc=2/3 Vcc.693 (RA+RB). the voltage across capacitor Vc equals. T=TC + TD T = 0./n(2) ∴ Tc = 0..693 (RA + 2 RB) C Duty Cycle. Vc = 1/3 Vcc ∴ 1/3 Vcc = 2/3 Vcc e-TD/RBC ∴ TD = RBC/n(2) ∴ TD = 0.

d = duty cycle fo = frequency of astable m.C RB must lie between 1 KΩ < RB < 3. bypass capacitor C1 is connected between pin 5 and ground (Pin 1).4(1 − d ) f o .5 MΩ Where.C sec 32  . (1 − d ) 4) To prevent noise disturbances.693 (RA + RB). 3) Calculation of RA : RA = RB (2d −1) RA must lie between 1 KΩ < RA < 3.Steps :1) Assume value of capacitor C for Astable Multivibrator lies between 500 pF < C < 100µ F 2) Calculation of RB :RB = 1. C2 = 10µ F 6) Charging Period. C1= 0.3 MΩ .v.01 µ F 5) To eliminate unwanted voltage spike in the output waveform a bypass capacitor C2 of the value 10µ F is connected between (Pin 8 and Pin 1). Tc = 0.

7) Discharging Period. A B %D = R + 2 R ×100 sec A B (R + R ) 10) Frequency fo = 1.693 (RA + 2RB). T=0. TD = 0.C) sec 8) Total time period.693 (RB.C sec 9) Duty Cycle.44 H ( RA + 2 RB ) C Z 33  .

4) Loose connections due to dry soldering should be corrected.2. After this an obstracle is brought in network to test performance and certainly it is observed that horn blows this signal guides us with reliability of model and indicates about the danger and abouts us regarding security. This also guide us with that how security can be obtain conveniently and chiefly. Testing working of MODEL You Testing the security system first Laser torch is “ON” and a Laser net work in formed using mirrors as discussed before. 3) Check IC on IC tester. 2) Check all resisters and capacitors using multimeters. 34  .4 TESTING Testing of fault For any fault found in the circuit following procedure should be adopted. 1) Check LDR if its Faulty replace it.

Speaker Power supply Laser torch LDR Receiver uint Laser net MODEL SKETCH OF SYSTEM 2. 3) The operation is very easy 4) It has simple in design. 5) Large area can be secure by this system very easily.5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages :1) It is cheap and economicl 2) This security system is very reliable. 35  .

12) It ‘require’ less space for erection (installation) 13) It has good future scope.6) This system is also applicable for many purpose such as guarage. Eyelsight 3) Disturbance in mirror can also blow the horn 36  . 7) It has quick response 8) Maintenance cost is very low. society. 11) It is more reliable and effective than manual security. 9) It can use at any condition or atmosphere. Disadvantages :1) In this security system there is disadvantage of a visible laser ray’s which can alert the theif . 2) Laser ray’s are harmful for Retina i. 10) Easy to control.e. industries. bank.


its voltage is above 1V and IC5 has a low output at its pin 1.2 CIRCUIT EXPLANATION The circuit is using an op-amp LM 311. which drops below 50 ohms when light beam falls on it.The counter count 1 for each high going pulse. set using a 47k pot) with the level at pin 2. its voltage drops below 1V and IC1 output at its pin 1 becomes high. The sensor circuit formed using LDR1 activates counter 4033.2 kilo-ohms in daylight.3.LDR1 has a resistance of 2. When light is falling on LDR1.The 4033 encodes the count to display number in seven segment display CE c5611 38  . (An LDR of nearly 2cm diameter has been used in this circuit.) Comparator LM311 (IC1) compares the level set at pin 3 (nearly 6V. When no light is falling on LDR1. The output from the Op-amp is given as the clock for seven segment counter 4033.

Op-amp  4033 -3 -1 seven segment driver counter  RESISTOR  10k  47k  1k  470Ω  VARIABLE RESISTOR  47k -1 -1 -3 -1  LED -3  LDR -1  Seven segment display CE c5611 -1 39  .3 COMPONENTS LIST  ICs  LM 311.3.

40  .1 LM 311 General Description The LM111. LM211 and LM311 are voltage comparators that have input currents nearly a thousand times lower than devices like the LM106 or LM710. Power Supply  9v Battery 3. COMPONENTS DETAILS 3. switching voltages up to 50V at currents as high as 50 mA. they can drive lamps or relays. Further. Their output is compatible with RTL. They are also designed to operate over a wider range of supply voltages: from standard ±15V op amp supplies down to the single 5V supply used for IC logic. DTL and TTL as well as MOS circuits.4.

LM211 or the LM311 can be isolated from system ground. 40 ns) the devices are also much less prone to spurious oscillations. Offset balancing and strobe capability are provided and outputs can be wire OR’ed. Features  Operates from single 5V supply  Input current: 150 nA max. The LM311 has a temperature range of 0°C to +70°C. Although slower than the LM106 and LM710 (200 ns response time vs. The LM211 is identical to the LM111.Both the inputs and the outputs of the LM111. over temperature  Offset current: 20 nA max. the positive supply or the negative supply. The LM111 has the same pin configuration as the LM106 and LM710. over temperature  Differential input voltage range: ±30V  Power consumption: 135 mW at ±15V 41  . except that its performance is specified over a −25°C to +85°C temperature range instead of −55°C to +125°C. and the output can drive loads referred to ground.

2 IC 4033 CD4033BMS consists of a 5 stage Johnson decade counter and an output decoder which converts the Johnson code to a 7 segment decoded output for driving one stage in a numerical display. A high RESET signal clears the decade counter to its zero count. Antilock gating is provided on the JOHNSON counter. e. The CARRYOUT (Cout) signal completes one cycle every ten CLOCK INPUT cycles and is used to clock the succeeding decade directly in a multi-decade counting chain. The seven decoded outputs (a. The counter is advanced one count at the positive clock signal transition if the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is low. d. This device is particularly advantageous in display applications where power dissipation low and/or low package count is important. Counter advancement via the clock line is inhibited when the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is high. c.3. b. The CLOCK INHIBIT signal can be used as a negative-edge clock if the clock line is held high. g) illuminate the proper segments in a seven 42  . thus assuring proper counting sequence. f.4.

segment display device used for representing the decimal numbers 0 to 9. The 7 segment outputs go high on selection. Features • High Voltage Types (20V Rating) • Decoded 7 Segment Display Outputs and Ripple Blanking • Counter and 7 Segment Decoding in One Package • Easily Interfaced with 7 Segment Display Types • Fully Static Counter Operation DC to 6MHz (typ.) at VDD =10V • Ideal for Low-Power Displays 43  .

volume controls on audio equipment). in a joystick. Instead they are used to adjust the level of analog signals (e. 10V and 15V Parametric Ratings • Schmitt-Triggered Clock Inputs • Meets All Requirements of JEDEC Tentative Standards No.• “Ripple Blanking” and Lamp Test • 100% Tested for Quiescent Current at 20V • Standardized Symmetrical Output Characteristics • 5V. 13B. If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper). it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. for example. “Standard Specifications for Description of “B” Series CMOS Device’s 3.g.4. Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers. and as control inputs for electronic circuits.3 VARIABLE RESISTOR A variable resistor or potentiometer (colloquially known as a "pot") is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. For 44  . Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt).

The resistors can conduct current in both the directions.example.4 RESISTOR A resistor is an electrical component. The resistors are mainly used for two purposes. which has been manufactured with a specified amount of resistance. 45  .4. a light dimmer uses a potentiometer to control the switching of a TRIAC and so indirectly control the brightness of lamps 3. Thus the resistors may be connected in an electric circuit without concern for lead polarization.

R4. Since the power rating is proportional to the square of a current. R3. R2. The power rating of a resistors is given by the maximum voltage is can dissipate. the resistance will burn out. If the current exceeds the safe value. The actual value of the resistors may be either greater or smaller than that of he indicated value. by a factor given by the specified tolerance. Here uses four carbon composition resistors R1. The size of these resistors varies with the power rating. The resistors are specified in terms of their resistance values. Thus resistors with the specified tolerance. there for current must not be higher than its safe value. tolerance. These states carbon composition resistors with power rating of 1Ωor less are widely used in electronic equipment 46  . power rating and thermal stability. with out excessive beating.R5 are ¼w.namely controlling the flow of electric current and providing desired amount of voltage in electric or electric circuit.

ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices. but modern versions are available across the visible. and are increasingly used for lighting. 47  .5 LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962.3. with very high brightness. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device.3. The LED is based on the semiconductor diode.[2] early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. When a diode is forward biased (switched on).

The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed. and Boeing plans its use in the 787. and greater durability and reliability. faster switching. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. Airbus uses LED lightning in their A320 Enhanced since 2007.[3] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. 3. they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources. improved robustness. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2). smaller size. However.releasing energy in the form of photons.6 LDR 48  .4. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection. longer lifetime. while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology.

A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic.A photoresistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell is aresistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity.. thereby lowering resistance. It can also be referenced as a photoconductor. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency. lower energy photons (i. added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band. A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band. and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap. 49  . photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons nough energy to jump into the conduction band.g. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor. e. Extrinsic devices have impurities. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities). there will be extra electrons available for conduction. also called dopants. since the electrons do not have as far to jump.e. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor. longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. silicon. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity.

an expanded version of this is used in many ways. if all 50  .3.7 Seven segment Display One common requirement for many different digital devices is a visual numeric display. Individual LEDs can of course display the binary states of a set of latches or flip-flops. However. for fancy displays. To this end. One possibility is a matrix of 28 LEDs in a 7×4 array. we want a display of some kind that can clearly represent decimal numbers without any requirement of translating binary to decimal or any other format.4. we're far more used to thinking and dealing with decimal numbers. We can then light up selected LEDs in the pattern required for whatever character we want. However. Indeed.

and many household appliances already have such displays. In this experiment. 51  . We've all seen seven-segment displays in a wide range of applications. this becomes a bit expensive. Clocks. The result is known as a seven-segment LED. A common technique is to use a shaped piece of translucent plastic to operate as a specialized optical fiber. we'll look at what they are and how they can display any of the ten decimal digits 0-9 on demand. if that is needed). digital instruments.we want to display is numbers. watches. The seven bars are laid out as a squared-off figure "8". to distribute the light from the LED evenly over a fixed bar shape. This requires just seven LEDs (plus an eighth one for the decimal point. A much better way is to arrange the minimum possible number of LEDs in such a way as to represent only numbers in a simple fashion.

3.5 LAYOUT 52  .

6 ARTWORK 53  .3.

Mawale 4) Electronics for you July 2001 5) OP-Amp Ravindra Chaudhari 54  .P. Ramakant Gaikwad 2) Electronics and component Madhuri A. Joshi 3) Linear integrated circuit Prof.REFERENCE 1) Linear integrated circuit. N.

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