We sincerely acknowledge with deep sense of gratitude to our project guide Mr. Vinayak for the guidance and encourage he gave us for the preparation of this project without him the project would have been difficult. We are highly obliged to Mr. Arun Chopra, H.O.D.(Elecronics) for his noble spontaneous and timely help that carried out us throughout our endeavour and finally made a grand success. We also thank the staff of our electronics department for all the cooperation and friendly treatment given to us during project. We are also thankful to our colleagues and all those have extended the necessary help during the course of our work .


Engineering is not only a theoretical study but it is a implementation of all we study for creating something new and making things more easy and useful through practical study. It is an art which can be gained with systematic study, observation and practice. In the college curriculum we usually get the theoretical knowledge of industries, and a little bit of implementation knowledge that how it is works? But how can we prove our practical knowledge to increase the productivity or efficiency of the industry? Don’t take the chance of becoming victim of burglary, which is often accompanied by violence. Protect our family and valuables with this security system that will let us rest our head knowing that should anyone trying to break into our home, an alarm will go off and the police will be alerted immediately. The circuit is able to count whenever the light is blocked and it maybe applicable to many fields. Adding some small components may use the circuit as burglar alarm, or to count key presses.



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In designing some precious things security is of prime importance. Security is becoming essential day-to-day due to increasing theft. Security should not be expensive then the think to be secured. This project guides us with a low cost security. To protect our house or any precious things from thieves or

trespassers for designing any thing new security should be viewed first. This project gives us a security system, which insures safety and security very conveniently. It is simple as it wcrks on a simple laser beam and a proper mirror arrangement around the thing to be secured. By networking the laser beams through reflections of mirror and by blowing the alarm if any one crosses the beam and indicating “security in danger”. In this circuit a counter is activated when a continuously supplied light is been blocked. It uses a counter IC CD 4033.An LDR enhances the counting process.This circuit an be used for various applications such as to count products going over a belt, and for counting persons passed at a point etc The project is done as a prototype and its Real one can display a three to ten digit numbers and can count unto thousands. The system convenience comfort of the user it uses the most advance technology. Innovation quality assurance and reliability are silent features of system.

The past method of security included of Burglar Alarm The details of these system are as follows BURGLAR ALARM In this system invisible radiation like ultra violet rays or infrared rays fall continuously on photodetector. When burglar crosses the path of beam, the current in photodetector is cut off. The relay in the circuit is set in such manner as to be operated due to this break in current and it starts the ringing of an alarm bell. 1) Burglar Alarm using Photo conducting cell :Here is simple circuit, which uses photoconductive cell LDR (light dependant resistor). The LDR is made up of cadmium selenide or cadmium sulphide. Its resistance is very high when it is dark and its resistance falls

considerably when it is illuminated. This light dependent properly of LDR is used in construction of Burglar alarm system. When LDR is illuminated by light from the resistance of LDR drops to few ohms and transistor emmiter base junction in forward biased. This make the transistor to go in saturation and sufficient current flow through the relay coil


Burglar Alarm Using Photo emissive Cell. The between in relay ckt will not work . The transistor is in cut off state. The base emitter voltage is very small. 6 .this current is sufficient to actuate the relay. 2. This small voltage is insufficient to forward bias the base emitter junction of transistor. Stating that there is some one to interrupt the light. The current through relay coil is not sufficient and relay current operate the bell and hence an indication of alarm. +Vcc Bulb AC LDR Relay R2 R1 Bell Circuit Diagram of a Burglar Alarm AC Supply But when light from bulb is interrupted by burglar the LDR resistance become very high.

Hence bell B does not ring. 5) Numbers of Batteries Required to run the system is more. Burglar alarm can be also be built with the help of LDR in conjunction with 555 timer. in plate circuit of which there is relay which works burglar alarm.We shall consider here the automatic burglar alarm. As long as light in incident on cell the electrons keep the grid of triode more negative and hence. The bell starts ringing and will continue ringing till the relay is reset. the relay is not operated. 2) This security system cannot cover a large area under security. But as soon as some intruder or burglar breaks into house and on entering comes in way of invisible beam. 4) Security system is applicable for limited purpose only. 3) Circuit Design is typical. The plate current increases and sets the relay. the grid becomes less negative. The photo electric or photo emmisive cell forms part of grid circuit of triode. 7 . Disadvantage of security :1) This security system is Costly.


2. 1) Resistor divider network. The internal block diagram of IC 555 as shown below. VR Sk Threshold (6) 2/3Vcc R Q2 C1 R R + _ C2 R 100 Ω Q1 (1) GND S FLIP FLOP Q Out put (3) Buffer Reset (4) Control Voltage (5) 5K 1/3Vcc trigger (2) 5k Discharge (7) The internal block diagram consist of 6 main parts.2.1 IC 555 :IC 555 is a timer IC. It is important in consumer and industrial applications. 2) Comparator C1 and C2 3) Flip – flop ( Rs – FF ) 4) Reset circuitry 5) Discharge circuitry 6) Output buffer 9 .

 The timing can be externally controlled by applying voltage to terminal 5.  The capacitor value is about 0.The block diagram consist of two comparators that drives the set (S) and reset ® terminal of a flip flop which is in turns controls the ON and OFF CYCLE of the discharge transistor Q1. The reference voltage is applied to control the timing. 10  .  A separate reset terminal is provided for the timer.  On the negative transition of the pulse applied to the trigger terminal and when the voltage of the trigger terminal pass through Vcc/3  The O/p of C2 comparator changes.  If no such control is required then it is bypassed by a capacitor to ground. which reset the flip-flop externally. when the voltage applied at the threshold terminal of the comparator C1 goes positive and passes through the reference 2/3 Vcc.  On the other hand. This changes the state of the flip-flop and the O/p of flip-flop is low.01 uf. The comparator reference voltages are fixed at 2/3 Vcc for C1 and 1/3 Vcc for C2 by means of voltage divider made of 3 resistors. the output of C1 changes and this in turn changes the state of flip-flop and O/p goes high.

 This reset voltage applied externally over ride the effect of the O/p of lower comparator.  When Q1 is off.  A capacitor is connected between discharge and ground.  When reset terminal is not in use. the capacitor charges and when Q1 is on.  The over rinding effect when terminal is less than 10. the output stage is low and when set.  The output of flip-flop is Q1. the output is high. 11  . isolating the reset terminal from the flip-flop and transistor Q1. connected to Vcc.  Transistor Q2 acts as a buffer.4 V.  When the flip-flop is reset. capacitor discharges through it. which is the O/p stage. which sets the FF.

Pin 2. Pin 5 :. is as shown below.C. O/p :.There are two ways load can be connected to O/p terminal either between pin 3 and ground (pins) or between pins3 and supply voltage and Vcc (pins) Pin 4 Reset : The device 555 is reset ( disabled by applying is negative pulse to this pin when the reset function is not in use.All voltages are measured with respect to this terminal.The O/p of timer depends on amplitude of external trigger pulse applied to pin Pin 3. by imposing a voltage on 12  . In other words. Trigger :. GND Trigger O/p Reset IC 555 +Vcc Discharge Threshold Control volt The function of various pins is as following Pin 1 Ground :.PIN DIAGRAM OF IC 555 IC 555 is a 8 pin timer I.Control voltage :. the reset terminal should be connected to +Vcc to avoid any possibility of flash trigerring.An external voltage applied to this terminal changes the threshold as well as trigger voltage. The pin diag.

this pin or by connecting a potentiometer between this pin and ground.This is the non-inverting terminal of capacitor C1 which monitors the voltage across the external capacitor. the pulse width the output waveform can be varied. When not used. the O/p of comparator C 1 goes high. When the voltage at this pin is greater than or equal to 2/3 vcc. shorting out the external capacitor 0 to ground. Pin 7 : Discharge : The pin is connected internally to the collector of transistor Q1. When the O/p is high. Pin 6 : Threshold :. Q1 is saturated and acts as a short circuit.The supply voltage of +5v to 18v is applied to this pin with respect to ground (pin 1) 13  . The output of the timer low. Pin 8 : Vcc :.01 uf capacitor to prevent any noise disturbances. when the O/p is low. On the other hand. the control pin should be bypassed to ground with a 0. Q1 is Off and acts as an open circuit to the external capacitor connected between pin 7 and ground. which in turn switches.

14  . and is useful as a 'clock' pulse for other digital ICs and circuits. called a 'square' wave.555 Timer Operating Modes The 555 has three operating modes: Astable mode An astable circuit has no stable state . This bypasses R2 during the high part of the cycle so that the high interval depends only on R1 and C1. This type of circuit could be used to give a mechanism intermittent motion by switching a motor on and off at regular intervals. In the astable mode. the frequency of the pulse stream depends on the values of R1. R2 and C: [7] The high time from each pulse is given by and the low time from each pulse is given by where R1 and R2 are the values of the resistors in ohms and C is the value of the capacitor in farads.hence the name "astable". The output continually switches state between high and low without without any intervention from the user. To achieve a duty cycle of less than 50% a diode can be added in parallel with R2 towards the capacitor. It can also be used to flash lamps and LEDs.

hence the name "monostable" meaning "one stable state". The output of the circuit stays in the low state until there is a trigger input. his type of circuit is ideal for use in a "push to operate" system for a model displayed at exhibitions.Monostable mode A monostable circuit produces one pulse of a set length in response to a trigger input such as a push button. is given by 15  . The output pulse width of time t. which is the time it takes to charge C to 2/3 of the supply voltage. and the mechanism will automatically switch off after a set time. A visitor can push a button to start a model's mechanism moving.

where t is in seconds. has two stable states. high and low. Taking the Reset input low makes the output of the circuit go into the low state. R is in ohms and C is in farads. This type of circuit is ideal for use in an automated model railway system where the train is required to run back and 16  . See RC circuit for an explanation of this effect Bistable Mode (or Schmitt Trigger) bistable mode or what is sometimes called a Schmitt Trigger. Taking the Trigger input low makes the output of the circuit go into the high state.

A push button (or reed switch with a magnet on the underside of the train) would be placed at each end of the track so that when one is hit by the train. 17  . 2) DC – to DC converter ( Chopper circuit ) 3) Wave form generator. thereby reversing the direction of the train. Application of IC 555 1) A stable. The output of the 555 would control a DPDT relay which would be wired as a reversing switch to reverse the direction of current to the track. Monostable. it will either trigger or reset the bistable. Bistable Multivibrator.forth over the same piece of track.

or photo sensitive device and LDR has high resistance under dark condition and low resistance when irrediated by light. 2.2 LDR :LDR is a semiconductor resistor whose resistance decreases ( conductance increases) when irradiated it is also known as photo resistors. 6) Analog frequency meter. 8) Voltage Control Oscillator (VCO) 9) Schmitt trigger ( sine to square wave generator ) 10) Ramp Wave generator.4) Techometer – ( for speed measurement ) 5) Temperature measurement. 18  .2. 7) Voltage regulator.

Application of LDR :1) Used as photo electric counter like meters. According to this theory of sandwitching the layer there are two basic types of transistors. N-type material is sandwitched and if two outermost layer are of N-type material then in between these two P-type material is sandwitched. 4) Capacitance < 10 pF. ON-OFF switch etc. It means if two outermost layers are of P-type material present then in between this two.2. Specification :1) Dark resistance > 10 mr. 19  . Transistor consist of two P – N Junction formed by sandwitch pattern of either P type or N – type material between a pair of opposite type semiconductor materials. 3) Permissible voltage 100V peak.3 TRANSISTOR Transistor is developed in ‘P’ and ‘N’ type semiconducting materials from the same crystal by adding corresponding impurities. 2) Resistance under light of intensity 1000LUX : 100 to 300 r . 2.

(i) N – P – N type transistor (ii) P – N – P type transistor.N.P. E B C Block diagram of N – P – N type trans. 20  . We have used the ‘’N – P – N type transistor’’ details are as follows N P N The symbolic representation of N.

of holes. of electrons combine with this holes and rest of electrons cross over the Junction J2 and collected at the terminal collector ( i. rest of maximum no of electrons comes to collector C/N Ic) this Ic then flows through 21  . P – type region forward bias is given to N – type material. of electrons come in collector region. The movement of electrons in emitter constituted the emitter. The electrons cross over Junction J1 then start to combine with the hole present in P-region the no. The electrons of N – type region are energized and starts to move towards the opposite charged particles. next N – type section ) reversed bias VBC is applied to N – type region it exert attraction power of electron and so more no. N – P – N forward bias (VBE) is applied in between the emitter and base of the transistor. of electrons are injected from emitter and starts to flow towards the base is lightly doped hence it is having minimum no.e. ( i. Operation :Transistor consist of 3 layer of semi conducting material i. holes ) present in middle. of holes are comparatively low hence minimum no. Cu.e. (IE) combination of holes and electrons take place at base this electron go through the holes towards base terminal they constituted small value of base C/N I B.e. more and more no.Circuit details :The forward bias VEB is applied to Base – Emitter Junction of the transistor and reverse bias VCB is applied to Base – Collector – Junction.

specific resistances in Ω m .length in m . The cross sectional area and length of the wire i. Because C/N carrying capability of wires the size of resistor changes depending upon the wattage Resisters Fixed 1) Wire wound 2) Carbon 3) Film Adjustable 1) Wire wound 2) Trapped wire wound Potentiometer 1) Wire wound 2) Carbon 22  .the external circuit towards emitter the base C/N IB flowes through external circuit. wire wound resistor have different values depending upon this specific resistively of the wires.e. towards terminal emitter ) so the resultant emitter C/N is the combination of collector C/N ‘IB’ Hence.cross sectional Area in m2 A Classification of resistor :Resistor are made in many shapes and size. use for making heat. The direction of flow of Ic and IB are same ( flow of Ic and I B are same ( i. IE = IB + IC The unit of resistance is ohm the resistance can be also express as R = ρ  /A Where ρ  .e.

Capacitance an electric field is developed between two charged plates within the space between plates energy stored in the capacitor is in this electric field.4 CAPACITOR Capacitor can be define as a property of electrical circuit that can apposes the change in voltage. 23  . C = q /V = Where q = charge v = voltage or Where c= ε E 0A d Coloum b Voltage A = Area in cm2 ε = Dielectric constant.2.2. Capacitor storage the energy in the form of electricity and releases it. The unit of capacitance is farad named after the Michael farads. Dielectric constant in medium while permits the establishment of lines of forces between oppositely charged plates. Any two metal conductor when separated from each other by a dielectric constitute. When used in the circuit current. d = Distance in cm.

wherever necessary.3 kr are used in circuit as per the requirement in opposition to flow of current.7 ADAPTER :As direct supply from switch board cannot be given to circuit.2. The direct C/N resistance has a controlling effect in amount of C/N that flows when a certain voltage is applied according to ohmslow I = V/R 2. The laser torch used for these security purpose is 3v. They are mounted properly 1 PCB.7 Kr.2.6 RESISTANCE :Different resistance of + 4.There are two types of capacitor used 1] POLISTER 2] ELECTROLYTIC 2. 1 Kr. rectifier etc. 12 V essential for circuit to run. 220 r. 24  .5 LASER TORCHE :Laser torch is used for radiations of laser beam which is imposed on mirrors arrange systematically whose reflection surrounds the house and then reflected towards LDR. 47 Kr and 3.e. Adapter is close circuit which consist of step down transformer. adapter is used to step down supply voltage and bring it to desired volt i.2. 2.

2. 200 ohm): A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under control of another electrical circuit. On a PCB can only be obtained from wires. 2.9 MIRRORS :For reflecting laser beam combination of plain mirrors M1 through M4 is used to direct the laser beam around the house to form a net.2. 2. Flexible wires are used for connection purpose. They are used as per current capacity. In the original form. These are insulated wires and has a low current carrying capacity and soldering metal is used to solder electronic components on PCB with the help of soldering. the switch is operated by an electromagnet to open or close 25  . 2. Flexible wires may have single or multi-strength of metal.8 SPEAKER :Speaker is used for siren purpose.11 Relay (12V. Speaker is a device which converts varying electrical signal into a proportional sound signal.2. The most important purpose is conduction. which provides a noise whenever security is danger.2.2.10 FLEXIBLE WIRES :Flexible wires are most important as a complete circuit.

26  . It was invented by Joseph Henry in 1835. it can be or many sets of contacts. to be a form of electrical amplifier . in a broad sense. Usually this is a spring. the resulting magnetic field attracts an armature that is mechanically linked to a moving contact. • Operation: When a current flows through the coil. this is to reduce arcing. In a high voltage or high current application. the armature is returned by a force that is half as strong as the magnetic force to its relaxed position. but gravity is also used commonly in industrial motor starters. this is to reduce noise. Because a relay is able to control an output circuit of higher power than the input circuit. Relays are manufactured to operate quickly. The movement either makes or breaks a connection with a fixed contact. When the current to the coil is switched off. In a low voltage application.

a light-emitting diode (LED) is used with a photo transistor. Form A contact is ideal for applications that require to switch a high-current power source from a remote device. Change-over contacts control two circuits: one normally-open contact and one normallyclosed contact with a common terminal. Normally Closed (NC). a diode is frequently installed across the coil. a solid-state relay is made with a thyristor or other solid-state switching device. It is also called Form B contact or "break" contact. the circuit is connected when the relay is inactive. It is also called Form C contact or "transfer" contact. [1] The contacts can be either Normally Open (NO). Normally-closed contacts disconnect the circuit when the relay is activated. It is also called Form A contact or "make" contact. By analogy with the functions of the original electromagnetic device. This "shading ring" creates a small out-of-phase current. Form B contact is ideal for applications that require the circuit to remain closed until the relay is activated. which increases the minimum pull on the armature during the AC cycle. If the coil is designed to be energized with AC. or change-over contacts. to dissipate the energy from the collapsing magnetic field at deactivation. a small copper ring can be crimped to the end of the solenoid. the circuit is disconnected when the relay is inactive. 27  .If the coil is energized with DC. To achieve electrical isolation. which would otherwise generate a spike of voltage and might cause damage to circuit components. Normally-open contacts connect the circuit when the relay is activated.

PIN No.2. LDR CIRCUIT DESIGN OF RECEIVER UNIT 28  .3 WORKING OPERATION OF SYSTEM Receiver Unit and its working Description :. According to which Speaker the RESET period is varied. The LDR voltage is given to base of transistor. The transistor acts as a switch to RESET.4 of IC 555 is RESET.In receiver unit we have used IC 555 in A stable multi vibrator there is continuous ON/OFF of pulses. ON this pin we have given O/P of transistor 547.

the resistance of LDR is negligible. Working Working of IC 555 when used on Astablemode Astable Multivibrator The Figure shows the astable mode of IC 555 with the wave forms. This gives base pulse to transistor.Working :When LASER beam falls on LDR through mirrors. The resistance of LDR become large. Thus IC 555 gets RESET pulse. It is reseted by switch. As any thief crosses the LASER beam is interrupted. capacitor charges towards Vcc through RA & RB Untill Vc = 1/3 Vcc At this point comparator C1 changes the state and capacitor starts discharging through RB This continues until the Vc = 1/3 Vcc At this stage comparator C2 changes the state and the capacitor again starts charging and so on. This makes ‘OFF STATE’. In this mode. The O/P goes HIGH or maximum. The speaker gets close and sound is produced. Thus the O/p of IC 555 gives Low or zero voltage and speaker remains open. 29  .

01µ F 30  CIRCUIT DESIGN WITH RESPECTIVE VALUES .01µ F 0.1K 4.7K 1K LDR NPN 547 100µ F 17K Speaker 3.3 K 0.

RA + 2 RB …… (7) 31  . [ C ] (1) at t = Tc. Vc =2/3 Vcc ∴ 2/3 Vcc = 2/3 Vcc l − e −1c /( RA +RB ) + Vcc / 3 ∴ Tc = (RA + RB)C.. D = TC ×100 T …………… (3) ………… …………. We have Vc=2/3 Vcc..e-t/RBC At t = TD. Vc = 2 / 3Vcc l − e −1/( RA + R1 + ) + Vcc / 3 ………………. the voltage across capacitor Vc equals.Consider that the capacitor is periodically discharged and charged between 2/3 Vcc and Vcc/3. During the Charging time 0 ≤ t ≤ Tc. Vc = 1/3 Vcc ∴ 1/3 Vcc = 2/3 Vcc e-TD/RBC ∴ TD = RBC/n(2) ∴ TD = 0./n(2) ∴ Tc = 0.693 (RA+RB). (2) [ C ] During the discharging time 0 ≤ t ≤ TD. (6) D= RA + RB ×100 ……. T=TC + TD T = 0.C …………….693 (RA + 2 RB) C Duty Cycle.693 RBC Total Time. (4) (5) …………..

Steps :1) Assume value of capacitor C for Astable Multivibrator lies between 500 pF < C < 100µ F 2) Calculation of RB :RB = 1.C RB must lie between 1 KΩ < RB < 3. 3) Calculation of RA : RA = RB (2d −1) RA must lie between 1 KΩ < RA < 3. bypass capacitor C1 is connected between pin 5 and ground (Pin 1).4(1 − d ) f o .v. (1 − d ) 4) To prevent noise disturbances.01 µ F 5) To eliminate unwanted voltage spike in the output waveform a bypass capacitor C2 of the value 10µ F is connected between (Pin 8 and Pin 1). C2 = 10µ F 6) Charging Period. d = duty cycle fo = frequency of astable m.3 MΩ . C1= 0.693 (RA + RB).5 MΩ Where. Tc = 0.C sec 32  .

693 (RB.693 (RA + 2RB).C) sec 8) Total time period. T=0.44 H ( RA + 2 RB ) C Z 33  .C sec 9) Duty Cycle.7) Discharging Period. A B %D = R + 2 R ×100 sec A B (R + R ) 10) Frequency fo = 1. TD = 0.

This also guide us with that how security can be obtain conveniently and chiefly. 2) Check all resisters and capacitors using multimeters. After this an obstracle is brought in network to test performance and certainly it is observed that horn blows this signal guides us with reliability of model and indicates about the danger and abouts us regarding security. 4) Loose connections due to dry soldering should be corrected. 3) Check IC on IC tester. Testing working of MODEL You Testing the security system first Laser torch is “ON” and a Laser net work in formed using mirrors as discussed before. 34  .4 TESTING Testing of fault For any fault found in the circuit following procedure should be adopted.2. 1) Check LDR if its Faulty replace it.

3) The operation is very easy 4) It has simple in design.Speaker Power supply Laser torch LDR Receiver uint Laser net MODEL SKETCH OF SYSTEM 2. 35  . 5) Large area can be secure by this system very easily.5 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES Advantages :1) It is cheap and economicl 2) This security system is very reliable.

bank.6) This system is also applicable for many purpose such as guarage. 7) It has quick response 8) Maintenance cost is very low. Eyelsight 3) Disturbance in mirror can also blow the horn 36  . Disadvantages :1) In this security system there is disadvantage of a visible laser ray’s which can alert the theif .e. 10) Easy to control. society. 11) It is more reliable and effective than manual security. 2) Laser ray’s are harmful for Retina i. 12) It ‘require’ less space for erection (installation) 13) It has good future scope. industries. 9) It can use at any condition or atmosphere.


its voltage drops below 1V and IC1 output at its pin 1 becomes high.The counter count 1 for each high going pulse. The output from the Op-amp is given as the clock for seven segment counter 4033.LDR1 has a resistance of 2. set using a 47k pot) with the level at pin 2.2 CIRCUIT EXPLANATION The circuit is using an op-amp LM 311.3. When light is falling on LDR1. its voltage is above 1V and IC5 has a low output at its pin 1.) Comparator LM311 (IC1) compares the level set at pin 3 (nearly 6V. which drops below 50 ohms when light beam falls on it. The sensor circuit formed using LDR1 activates counter 4033.2 kilo-ohms in daylight. (An LDR of nearly 2cm diameter has been used in this circuit. When no light is falling on LDR1.The 4033 encodes the count to display number in seven segment display CE c5611 38  .

3 COMPONENTS LIST  ICs  LM 311.3.Op-amp  4033 -3 -1 seven segment driver counter  RESISTOR  10k  47k  1k  470Ω  VARIABLE RESISTOR  47k -1 -1 -3 -1  LED -3  LDR -1  Seven segment display CE c5611 -1 39  .

Their output is compatible with RTL. LM211 and LM311 are voltage comparators that have input currents nearly a thousand times lower than devices like the LM106 or LM710. they can drive lamps or relays. 40  .4. COMPONENTS DETAILS 3. Further. switching voltages up to 50V at currents as high as 50 mA. DTL and TTL as well as MOS circuits. They are also designed to operate over a wider range of supply voltages: from standard ±15V op amp supplies down to the single 5V supply used for IC logic.1 LM 311 General Description The LM111. Power Supply  9v Battery 3.

The LM111 has the same pin configuration as the LM106 and LM710. Offset balancing and strobe capability are provided and outputs can be wire OR’ed. over temperature  Offset current: 20 nA max.Both the inputs and the outputs of the LM111. The LM211 is identical to the LM111. Features  Operates from single 5V supply  Input current: 150 nA max. The LM311 has a temperature range of 0°C to +70°C. LM211 or the LM311 can be isolated from system ground. and the output can drive loads referred to ground. over temperature  Differential input voltage range: ±30V  Power consumption: 135 mW at ±15V 41  . Although slower than the LM106 and LM710 (200 ns response time vs. the positive supply or the negative supply. except that its performance is specified over a −25°C to +85°C temperature range instead of −55°C to +125°C. 40 ns) the devices are also much less prone to spurious oscillations.

thus assuring proper counting sequence. g) illuminate the proper segments in a seven 42  . Counter advancement via the clock line is inhibited when the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is high. The counter is advanced one count at the positive clock signal transition if the CLOCK INHIBIT signal is low.2 IC 4033 CD4033BMS consists of a 5 stage Johnson decade counter and an output decoder which converts the Johnson code to a 7 segment decoded output for driving one stage in a numerical display. c. f.3. e. The seven decoded outputs (a. The CARRYOUT (Cout) signal completes one cycle every ten CLOCK INPUT cycles and is used to clock the succeeding decade directly in a multi-decade counting chain. This device is particularly advantageous in display applications where power dissipation low and/or low package count is important. d. Antilock gating is provided on the JOHNSON counter. The CLOCK INHIBIT signal can be used as a negative-edge clock if the clock line is held high. b.4. A high RESET signal clears the decade counter to its zero count.

Features • High Voltage Types (20V Rating) • Decoded 7 Segment Display Outputs and Ripple Blanking • Counter and 7 Segment Decoding in One Package • Easily Interfaced with 7 Segment Display Types • Fully Static Counter Operation DC to 6MHz (typ.segment display device used for representing the decimal numbers 0 to 9. The 7 segment outputs go high on selection.) at VDD =10V • Ideal for Low-Power Displays 43  .

10V and 15V Parametric Ratings • Schmitt-Triggered Clock Inputs • Meets All Requirements of JEDEC Tentative Standards No. in a joystick.4.3 VARIABLE RESISTOR A variable resistor or potentiometer (colloquially known as a "pot") is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. Potentiometers are rarely used to directly control significant power (more than a watt). Potentiometers operated by a mechanism can be used as position transducers. Instead they are used to adjust the level of analog signals (e. and as control inputs for electronic circuits. 13B. for example. volume controls on audio equipment). If only two terminals are used (one side and the wiper).g.• “Ripple Blanking” and Lamp Test • 100% Tested for Quiescent Current at 20V • Standardized Symmetrical Output Characteristics • 5V. Potentiometers are commonly used to control electrical devices such as volume controls on audio equipment. “Standard Specifications for Description of “B” Series CMOS Device’s 3. it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat. For 44  .

4 RESISTOR A resistor is an electrical component. The resistors can conduct current in both the directions. 45  . which has been manufactured with a specified amount of resistance. The resistors are mainly used for two purposes.example. Thus the resistors may be connected in an electric circuit without concern for lead polarization.4. a light dimmer uses a potentiometer to control the switching of a TRIAC and so indirectly control the brightness of lamps 3.

by a factor given by the specified tolerance. R3. tolerance. The resistors are specified in terms of their resistance values. Here uses four carbon composition resistors R1. R2. R4.namely controlling the flow of electric current and providing desired amount of voltage in electric or electric circuit. The actual value of the resistors may be either greater or smaller than that of he indicated value. The power rating of a resistors is given by the maximum voltage is can dissipate. Since the power rating is proportional to the square of a current. there for current must not be higher than its safe value. These states carbon composition resistors with power rating of 1Ωor less are widely used in electronic equipment 46  . The size of these resistors varies with the power rating. the resistance will burn out. Thus resistors with the specified tolerance. power rating and thermal stability. If the current exceeds the safe value. with out excessive beating.R5 are ¼w.

47  . with very high brightness.3. ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. electrons are able to recombine with holes within the device.3. Introduced as a practical electronic component in 1962. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices.[2] early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light. When a diode is forward biased (switched on). The LED is based on the semiconductor diode.5 LED A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. and are increasingly used for lighting. but modern versions are available across the visible.

they are relatively expensive and require more precise current and heat management than traditional light sources.4. However. An LED is usually small in area (less than 1 mm2).releasing energy in the form of photons. and Boeing plans its use in the 787. longer lifetime. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy gap of the semiconductor. faster switching. while their high switching rates are useful in advanced communications technology. improved robustness. Airbus uses LED lightning in their A320 Enhanced since 2007.[3] LEDs present many advantages over incandescent light sources including lower energy consumption. Current LED products for general lighting are more expensive to buy than fluorescent lamp sources of comparable output. and greater durability and reliability. The compact size of LEDs has allowed new text and video displays and sensors to be developed. 3. They also enjoy use in applications as diverse as replacements for traditional light sources in automotive lighting (particularly indicators) and in traffic signals. and integrated optical components are used to shape its radiation pattern and assist in reflection.6 LDR 48  . smaller size.

added whose ground state energy is closer to the conduction band. silicon.A photoresistor or light dependent resistor or cadmium sulfide (CdS) cell is aresistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity. A photoresistor is made of a high resistance semiconductor. e. thereby lowering resistance. If light falling on the device is of high enough frequency. Extrinsic devices have impurities. A photoelectric device can be either intrinsic or extrinsic. since the electrons do not have as far to jump. It can also be referenced as a photoconductor.g. The resulting free electron (and its hole partner) conduct electricity. An intrinsic semiconductor has its own charge carriers and is not an efficient semiconductor. If a sample of silicon has some of its atoms replaced by phosphorus atoms (impurities). longer wavelengths and lower frequencies) are sufficient to trigger the device. lower energy photons (i. 49  . photons absorbed by the semiconductor give bound electrons nough energy to jump into the conduction band. there will be extra electrons available for conduction.. also called dopants. This is an example of an extrinsic semiconductor. In intrinsic devices the only available electrons are in the valence band.e. and hence the photon must have enough energy to excite the electron across the entire bandgap.

for fancy displays.7 Seven segment Display One common requirement for many different digital devices is a visual numeric display. an expanded version of this is used in many ways.4. we want a display of some kind that can clearly represent decimal numbers without any requirement of translating binary to decimal or any other format. One possibility is a matrix of 28 LEDs in a 7×4 array. However. Individual LEDs can of course display the binary states of a set of latches or flip-flops. Indeed. We can then light up selected LEDs in the pattern required for whatever character we want. we're far more used to thinking and dealing with decimal numbers. if all 50  . To this end. However.3.

we want to display is numbers. The result is known as a seven-segment LED. we'll look at what they are and how they can display any of the ten decimal digits 0-9 on demand. digital instruments. to distribute the light from the LED evenly over a fixed bar shape. In this experiment. if that is needed). this becomes a bit expensive. and many household appliances already have such displays. Clocks. The seven bars are laid out as a squared-off figure "8". This requires just seven LEDs (plus an eighth one for the decimal point. We've all seen seven-segment displays in a wide range of applications. A common technique is to use a shaped piece of translucent plastic to operate as a specialized optical fiber. 51  . watches. A much better way is to arrange the minimum possible number of LEDs in such a way as to represent only numbers in a simple fashion.

5 LAYOUT 52  .3.

6 ARTWORK 53  .3.

Joshi 3) Linear integrated circuit Prof. Mawale 4) Electronics for you July 2001 5) OP-Amp Ravindra Chaudhari 54  .REFERENCE 1) Linear integrated circuit.P. N. Ramakant Gaikwad 2) Electronics and component Madhuri A.

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