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2003). Similarly. Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 2 . 2003). Berrens et al. Dr. 2002. Our study showed few differences across methods. Dr. mostly selected from opt-in Internet access panels (Terhanian. Bert Weijters Introduction: Do online panel samples really differ? With an estimated share of 13% of market research spending. Smith. 2006. 2004. On the other hand mail and telephone surveys have reached maturity as data collection methods (Cobanoglu. For national studies an often heard argument is that online surveys lead to biased results due to incomplete coverage because only online consumers are reached.. Simsek and Veiga 2001. Social class. In comparing online versus traditional methods most of the existing research focussed on “online” as an innovation and assessed the operational dissimilarities or differences in response rates. Niels Schillewaert. Malhotra & Birks. 2001). the increase in mobile phone subscribers who have “cut the cord” and no longer possess a fixed telephone line or the increase of voicemail and caller ID screens on phones (Duffy. 2003 in the domain of organisational psychology). Warde & Moreo. Taylor. Consumption and Life Style Differences between Modes of Data Collection Summary This paper assesses the external validity of research results from an online internet panel compared to mail. 2003. Thompson et al. response speed. while personal and telephone interviewing moreover have the disadvantage of being relatively expensive for reasonable sample sizes (e. Prof.E -r es earc h & co ns ul t i ng Social Class.g. 2005. Gunter et al. Terhanian & Bremer. Esomar. and if there were they could be found in telephone research. telephone and paper & pencil samples.g. also see Ployhart et al. By Prof. anonymity and confidentiality or design format parameters (e. product consumption and usage as well consumer values are analysed for differences. Truell 2003. We should therefore wonder whether discussions of downgrading online panel methods compared others are not out of place (at least in Western Europe). Telephone surveys have become more difficult to administer due to e. Kristof De Wulf and Dr. costs. Annelies Verhaeghe. 2000). Deutskens et al. online research is still growing rapidly and the advantages have been well documented (e. 2001). postal surveys are labour intensive and time consuming. We provide concrete evidence to the often unsubstantiated debate that online data are not as externally valid.g.g.
Framework The link and method comparison in terms of social class. Terhanian & Bremer. One may wonder to what extent different data collection modes generate differences in social class. values systems have become very popular in marketing management decision making and segmentation (Wagner and Wedel 1995. most marketing matters relate to an interplay of social demographics. Next. especially considering the fact that online panel members seem to be more affluent. 1990). higher social classes are believed to engage themselves more in theatre attendance. product usage and psychographical variables. 2004). 2. achievement. ESOMAR has introduced guidelines for socioeconomic class measurement as a useful and uniform tool for researchers to frame and compare research samples (Esomar 1997). sport activities and items related to health and beauty (Meyers-Levy and Tybout. While each method has its (dis)advantages and some methods are mandatory for specific research objectives (e. Marketers hope these explain additional observed consumer action compared to the pure demographic and/or socioeconomic variables and they provide an illustrative realistic view of consumers lives and principles. Terhanian & Bremer. a main characteristic of different social classes is that they tend to hold different values from other social classes (Mitchell and Greatorex. mail or Internet panels? Are consumer profiles really different or is it not worth debating about? Our study will try and help answer these questions. Middle-class consumers tend to focus more on individualism. We assess differences in results from an integrated perspective based on a comparison of social class. In fact. 1. Lindeman and Verkasalo 2005). These classifications for segmentation are believed to have an impact on spending and social context (Wicken.Individuals signing up for online panels seem to be younger. In the current situation where Internet research has become an established method – next to the traditional ones – the discussion often boils down to whether the various methods generate different or equally good results or if they are equivalent in terms of external validity. more urban. van Staveren and Dinning. social class differences have implications for marketing decisions and therefore need to be controlled for. Lower classes are described as valuing family and friendship more. To the best of our knowledge these interrelations have not been studied before. 2005). The actual choice practitioners make between research methods is in fact often based on feelings.g. Smith. life style and product usage is important for marketing researchers as it may shed light on the fact if a choice of data collection procedure is really important. 2005. better educated and have higher income levels (Knapton & Myers. 2005). donations to good causes. Socio-economic classification. travel. Consumer life styles and value systems occupy a central role in social life and influence people’s perceptions and behaviours. investment in art. Consumer values. 1989). lower educated and more blue collar workers while telephone participants are more often professionally inactive and people from an online panel tend to come from bigger families (Schillewaert & Meulemeester. 2005). Still. Clearly. Finally. more established research methods are also under pressure as mail survey respondents appear to be older. personal taste and preference or even company politics or sheer habits. Also. But does it really matter whether we study product consumption and adoption. prestige schooling and membership in private clubs (Kapferer and Laurent. self-accomplishment and social recognition. 1984). We will check whether and which disparities there are between the different data collection methods in terms of social class. Ravetllat 2002). product adoption and consumer values. 1985). differences were found showing upper class preferences for food. To give some examples. better educated and more affluent (Knapton & Myers. purchases of books. Also. Consumer values Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 3 . As for the exclusion of people with only a mobile phone from sampling frames we have indications that these people are younger and have a relatively lower income (Duffy. Consequently. research indicates that quota sampling or data weighing based on social-demographics alone may still generate behavioural and psychological differences (Duffy. 2004). brand preferences or life style values via telephone. organoleptic research requires personal interviewing) many marketing research topics can be studied using different alternative data collection methods. higher social classes find social engagement and self-expression more important. Middle classes are said to spend a greater proportion of their food budget on take-out or at more upscale restaurants (Capon and Davis. Smith.
Scoring high on excitement (fun and enjoyment) positively correlated with owning home entertainment products. are more likely earlier adopters of technology. A set of start addresses was generated using the same procedure as for the mail sample. from an online web panel and via a random walk procedure. an equal selection from all three groups was ensured. 2003). A list of addresses was selected from the white pages. a random mail procedure was used. An identical survey was conducted via four modes of data collection. 2002). The survey pack contained an accompanying letter with the motivation of the study and instructions for completion as well as a prepaid return envelope.and life styles can be used for identifying target markets. Mail. To assure that not only people who have a public fixed phone number had a chance of being sampled a constant digit was added to the generated house numbers (+2 if the house number was 1 or 2. 20% of the respondents was aged between 15 and 34 year. valuing self respect. It seems that panel members are generally more active than respondents in the other modes. The response rate was almost 15% and generated 256 responses over a data collection period of 7 weeks. via telephone. This procedure can be considered as a recruitment method that approaches an almost a perfect probability sample (De Pelsmacker and Van Kenhove. Differences in adoption and product usage may also appear between different data collection methods. We will assess if there are differences in product adoption and usage such that managers can rightfully chose those methods that suit their products or markets best or at least realize the limitations of their research. Also. both consumer values and social class are linked to product adoption and usage indicating the intertwined nature of our framework. Random walk. In total 2. The sample contained 46% males and 54% females. In total 384 surveys were distributed and 208 completed over a period of 5 weeks – producing a 54% response rate. 2003). During sampling. In order to avoid population frame errors. 47% between 35 and 54 year and 34% 55 year or older. Buelens. 1999). Data collection All respondents were recruited from the same geographical region based on a telephone zone within Belgium. Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 4 . These are supposedly linked to product usage. As appears from the description above. Methodology 1. -2 if the house number was 3 or higher). Interviewers departed from a random start address and walked from house to house following a random but predefined procedure (detailed procedure available upon request). tend to eat out more and travel more in comparison with consumers surveyed via other data collection methods (Baker. All participants took part in the same price contest in which they had a chance of winning a DVD player in return for their participation. The minimum age for participating in the study was 15 years. Respondents were recruited by mail. Online survey respondents tend to be more political active. A study comparing work related values between classical and internet surveys found that individuals that completed the internet survey scored higher on self-development and assuming responsibility (Mestdagh. In total 21 cities belonged to the area which was subdivided in 3 group sizes depending on the number of inhabitants. 3. Hence for marketers it is important to know if there are deviations in the value system of people recruited via different market research methods. 2001) shows that scoring high on social values (security. This may lead to different consumption patterns. positioning a brand. sense of accomplishment and self-fulfilment lead to a greater adoption of convenience goods. hence ensuring a complete population frame it terms of street names. Curtice & Sparrow. sense of belonging and being well respected) has a negative impact on the adoption of sport and exercise products and luxury products. Lehman and Narayanan. Little research has tackled this issue so far. We will test whether these differences hold in a more general marketing setting. sport and exercise products and pets. identifying how to communicate with target groups as well as gain insights into why a target group acts the way it does. result conservation and self-enhancement are related to consumer innovativeness (Rogers 1995. The mail and random walk were probabilistic samples. the online web panel and telephone methods were non probabilistic samples by definition due to limited coverage.000 addresses were mailed. We assumed that the telephone white pages contains all street names of a selected geographical area. Product adoption and usage. A recent study (Crofman. Steenkamp et al. For example.
Data were collected via the opt-in Internet access panel of XL Online Panels (www. 50% aged between 35 and 54 and 33% 55 year or older.I. The division can be found in table 1 and 2. a CD-player and a portable computer.V. E2 to E3 (see table 2 and 3).E.E.E and the amount of consumer durables owned. more than 2 PC’s. Terminal education age was calculated based on the age of the respondent when graduating from his/her highest education and eventually the number of months completed in a current education. 20-21. using the current Esomar classification of terminal age. Since the original list was no longer in accordance with the current market reality. Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 5 . 2. T. Consequently. Nowadays. Belgians are even compelled to go to school until they are 18.I. These were calculated by counting how many durables a person owned out of a set of 11. 15 to 16.E. Their social class was based on the terminal education age of the M.V. 35-54: 19%. This procedure defines social class of the Main Income Earner (M. Telephone. 14. Measurement Respondents were asked questions about their socio-demographic profile. 25-34 : 17%.. 2. C1. invited by e-mail containing a general explanation of the study and a link to the web survey.E. a drying machine. the variable was categorised in 5 categories: older than 20. 15-16). The telephone sample consisted of 44% males and 56% females. A complete version of the survey is available upon request. a DVD recorder.I. This procedure results in eight social grade categories from A over B. Call backs were made to non-answers and appointments scheduled in case of inconvenient timing. In order to keep response opportunities similar across methods no reminder email to non-respondents was sent.xlonlinepanels. The durables used were a Plasma T. Next. A list of random telephone numbers was generated and dialled. (portable or fixed). a G.). 14.P.com). current occupation of the M. the next family member celebrating his or her birthday was invited to participate.D. 3. This variable was than again classified in an ordinal variable containing 6 categories (5+. the original Esomar classification procedure is based on the terminal age of education of the M. 17 to 20.I. Quota on gender (50% male – 50% female) and age (15-24: 14%. The determination of social class differed for non-active M. Therefore.E. we also calculated a new classification adapted to the current Belgian educational system (younger than 16.. 1. it was replaced by an updated version including newer technologies (e. 0 or no answer). the sample is not random from the regional population. First. a digital camera. Two small modifications were made to the original Esomar procedure. people who are unable through work through illness and people who are temporarily not working). 45-54: 16 %. technology adoption and values. If a person under 15 answered the phone. D. The list of current occupations was classified in 7 categories according to the standard Esomar classification leading to the variable current occupation of the M.000 panel members were selected from the same geographical region. 55-64: 13%. 24% of the respondents was 15 to 34 years old. While this procedure enhances the probabilistic flair of the data collected.g. 65+: 21%) were used during recruitment of the panel sample. older than 21).I. 16-17. 44% 35 to 54 and 32% older than 54 year.A.V. and the number of consumer durables owned.S. The incentive used here is in line with the general incentive policy of XL Online Panels. resulted in too small groups of the lowest socialeconomic classes. Socio-economic class.The random walk sample counted 48% males and 52% females. a credit card. In total 403 completes were obtained after attained. adaptations were made concerning the list of consumer durables owned. E1.I. In total 148 telephone interviews were conducted with a response rate of 12 % over a data collection period of 5 weeks. and MP3-player.E. houseman / housewives. a P. 1819. replaced by Plasma T. Socio-economic classes were calculated according to the Esomar guidelines (Esomar 1997). younger than 14. 18% of the respondents was younger than 35. 3. but the current division is somewhat outdated since it contains a lot of age categories under 18 (13 or younger.I. 4. C2.) in terms of three variables: terminal education age of the M.’s (student. resulting in a response rate of 21% after 1 ½ week. consumption profile. Online panel. retired people. Second. In many European countries education is compulsory until the age of 16 (in Belgium since 1935).
not at a desk but travelling or in a service job (E 11) Farmer or Fisherman (E 12) Profession Business proprietor. other management with responsibility for 6 employees or more (E5) Middle management.E. director or top management with responsibility for 6 employees or more (E1) General management.'s Esomar procedure 20+ 17-20 15-16 14 14 - Adapted procedure 20+ 20-21 18-19 16-17 16 - 5+ A A B C1 D 4 A B C1 C2 D 3 B B C1 C2 D 2 C1 C2 E1 E1 E2 1 C1 C2 E1 E2 E3 0/NA D D E2 E3 E3 Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 6 . owner of company OR owner of a shop. owner of company OR owner of a shop.I. other management with responsibility for 5 employees or less (E6) Self-employed professional (E2) Employed professional (E3) Employed position.Table 1: Social Class Dimensions General management. craftsman. working mainly at a desk (E8) Employed non-manual position. craftsman. other self employed person with responsibility for 6 employees or more (E7) Business proprietor. housewife (E13) Supervisor and skilled manual worker (E14) Other (unskilled) manual worker (E15) Student (E10) Retired (E16) Unable to work through sickness (E 16) Unemployment or temporarily not working (E16) Lower education Lower secondary (ASO/VSO) Higher secondary (ASO/VSO) Lower secondary technical/profession Higher secondary technical/profession Higher education University Post university (Master after master) Highest education MIE Tabel 2: Social grade matrix Actively employed M. other self employed person with responsibility for 5 employees or less (E9) Responsible for ordinary shopping and looking after the home.E. 6 + 7 B C1 C2 D D E 12 B C1 D E1 E3 E8+9 C1 C2 D E1 E2 E 11+ 14 C1 C2 D E1 E2 E 15 D D E1 E3 E3 Non actively employed M.I. director or top management with responsibility for 5 employees or less (E4) Middle management.'s Esomar procedure 20+ 17-20 15-16 14 14 - Adapted procedure 20+ 20-21 18-19 16-17 16 - E1+2 A A B C1 D E3+5 A B C1 D D E 4.
self-direction. namely net family income. We also measured two constructs often used in market research to predict product adoption. wisdom. security for the family. being moderate Obedient. the adapted Esomar classification revealed no significant differences between the samples. order in society and return favours Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 7 . A composite measure of the early adopter profile was calculated using the average of the different items. honest. loyal to friends.87. drinks and snacks. The adoption and usage of a variety of products and services were measured: household appliances. using the smallest (telephone) sample as a base.g. being able to influence people and events Enjoy life. Consumer values. consumption of foods. DVD-recorder. mobile (smart)phone. It refers to the trade-off between preserving a status quo and the certainty that conformity to norms provides (high on conservatism) versus following one’s own intellectual and emotional interests (high on openness to change). ambitious. freedom. private label versus brand buying. navigation system. Similarly.12 for young males in the postal survey respectively young females in the random walk survey. conformity. The dimensions can be understood as two fundamental issues individuals need to deal with. namely a consumer’s general early adopter profile and their brand sensitivity. city boarder. The first topic that was investigated was the socio economic profile of the respondents in each sample (see Table 4). The second dimensions is called Self-Transcendence versus SelfEnhancement and describes the divergence between doing good for other people (high on selftranscendence) versus focusing on individual outcomes and personal interests (high on selfenhancement). being humble. data were reweighed on age and gender in order to match national population census data. Consumer values were captured using the Short Schwartz Value Survey (SSVS) (Lindeman and Verkasalo 2005). The first dimension is called conservatism versus openness to change. Our data did not reveal significant differences. competent. The 10 values can be mapped into a quasi-structural structure with two dimensions. χ²-crosstabulations and one-way-anova tests were used in order to assess significant differences between data collection methods. benevolence. self discipline and politeness National security. an excited life and having a challenge Creativity.53 and 2. curiosity and choosing your own goals Being broadminded.V. Significant differences were assessed using p-values ≤ 0. being responsible Respect for tradition.). The early adopter profile scale was based on the innovation theory of Rogers (2003). The scale showed good psychometric properties with a cronbach’s alfa of 0. security. equality. stimulation. Brand sensitivity was measured by calculating the share of brands consumers would buy (versus the number of private labels) when performing 10 purchases across 5 different product categories. etc. social justice. When looking at the original Esomar classification.Product adoption. Next. forgiving. countryside). Schwartz’ wellknown value system defines a set of 10 motivationally different types of personal values recognized across cultures: universalism. The samples were also reweighed for sample size in order to neutralise eventual significant differences between methods caused by sample size. we found significantly more respondents in the mail sample coming from the country side and less from the city agglomeration than in the other samples. achievement. credit cards. Previous research has shown good reliability and validity and that the values of the SVSS can be mapped on a circle identical to the theoretical structure of the values systems (Lindeman and Verkasalo 2005). The null-hypothesis used was always that there was no significant difference between data collection methods in terms of the variables tested. Although the selection procedure controlled for region effects (city centre. When testing for differences in terms of main responsible for purchases in the family we also found no differences between the different data collection methods. spoil oneself and pleasure A varied life. The maximum weights applied were 2. tradition and hedonism. consumer electronics and digital media (e. we found no differences between the different data collection methods. respect parents and older people. 1. having authority and social power Being successful. number of holiday travels. internet and e-commerce behaviour and digital T. power. world of beauty. Socio-economic profile. being one with nature and environmental protection Being helpful. peace on earth. Data analysis & Findings While the deviations in terms of age and gender from the population were not extensive.05. As a validity check we looked at a second indicator of social economic situation.. Table 3: Short Schwartz Values Power Achievement Hedonism Stimulation Self-Direction Universalism Benevolence Tradition Conformity Security Being rich.
05.Table 4: Socio-economic profile per data collection method Data collection method Telephone (A) 0% 26% 35% 29% 6% 4% 65% 35% 22% 44% (B) 34% Mail (B) 3% 23% 40% 24% 7% 3% 69% 31% 17% 19% 64% (ACD) 28% 14% 20% 28% 4% 6% 0% 0% 28% 14% 48% 4% 7% 27% 10% 21% 9% 18% 8% 6% 0% 27% 10% 30% 18% 14% Random walk (C) 0% 33% 36% 20% 9% 3% 68% 33% 19% 44% (B) 37% Online Panel (D) 2% 24% 40% 22% 9% 2% 65% 35% 21% 38% (B) 41% Total 1% 27% 38% 23% 8% 3% 67% 34% 20% 36% 44% Montly net income Less than 500 euro 500 to 1500 euro 1500 to 2500 euro 2500 to 3500 euro 3500 to 5000 euro More than 5000 euro Yes No In the city centre At the city boarder On the country side Main responsable for purchase I live… Social class original Esomar procedure A B C1 C2 D E1 E2 E3 Aggregated A B C D E A B C1 C2 D E1 E2 E3 Aggregated A B C D E 24% 13% 27% 22% 8% 5% 1% 1% 24% 13% 49% 8% 7% 21% 11% 30% 7% 15% 11% 2% 4% 21% 11% 37% 15% 16% 26% 17% 22% 25% 6% 2% 1% 1% 26% 17% 47% 6% 3% 23% 17% 22% 14% 15% 7% 1% 2% 23% 17% 35% 15% 11% 28% 16% 23% 26% 5% 1% 0% 1% 28% 16% 49% 5% 2% 25% 13% 27% 11% 17% 5% 1% 1% 25% 13% 38% 17% 7% 26% 15% 23% 25% 6% 4% 1% 1% 26% 15% 48% 6% 5% 24% 13% 25% 10% 16% 8% 2% 2% 24% 13% 35% 16% 12% Social class adapted procedure Letter in parentheses indicates the column that is significantly lower with p-value ≤ 0. Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 8 .
Also.2. Finally. There was no significant difference in terms of amount of long vacations.87) I am often on the look for information on new consumption products In magazines and on television. there were no major differences in Table 5: Product usage and adoption the adoption of CD players. MP3 players.79 - - Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 9 .63 2.78 2. In other words. Both consumption and usage goods were investigated. We found a significant higher adoption of PC’s in the panel and telephone sample in comparison with the mail and random walk sample. When checking usage of a range of fast moving consumer goods. the telephone sample differentiates from the other samples: significantly less telephone respondents have an income and health insurance but possess more often travel insurance as well as investment products. the panel sample possessed significantly more digital camera’s than the mail sample. we assessed how many had an internet connection. (specialty) beer. I will tell others what I think of it I regularly try out new food products. salty snacks and deep fried potato products. We found no significant differences in terms of consumption except for the telephone sample. Furthermore. Product usage and adoption. no significant differences were found in product usage between random walk. again the telephone sample deviated from the mail and random walk sample making significantly more short vacations than the other samples.98 (A) 2. car type and brand. When looking at vacation frequency. random walk or postal mail one reaches “mobile only’s” also. Data collection method Telephone (A) 93% 96% 41% 94% 91% 93% 69% 32% 55% 0% Mail (B) 87% 98% 38% 90% 82% 89% 65% 41% 52% 0% Random walk (C) 90% 97% 34% 93% 88% 89% 68% 42% 54% 0% Online Panel (D) 89% 95% 43% 93% 86% 94% 76% 47% 60% 1% Total 89% 96% 39% 92% 86% 91% 69% 40% 55% 0% Possession equipement Deep fryer Deepfreeze Senseo coffee machine Microwave oven Traditional oven Washing machine Dryer Electric toothbrush Wok None of the above Total early adopter score (alfa: 0. This group of respondents showed consistently lower consumption for a series of product categories (except for sweet snacks). the telephone sample significantly exceeded the random walk sample. using panel. The fixed phone line penetration between online panel and traditional methods is similar. when conducting telephone research based on white pages one does not reach one out five citizens of national populations. Overall. DVD players. Of the consumers with a PC at home. When looking at Laptop adoption. Credit cards. we examined the phone adoption. because I like change and do not like to stick to the old ones I find getting to know new products exciting I usually try new products before other people I know - Early adopter profile - 2. portable or fixed GPS. no significant differences were found in terms of adoption of household equipment.76 2. When considering the adoption of financial products. PDA’s and plasma televisions. I am always interested in information about new products People around me regularly ask my advice about new products People value my opinion concerning new products When I have tried a new product. Clearly. among the online panel group more PC’s were also connected to the web. Logically. postal mail and online panel of coffee. Finally the adoption of different technologies was assessed.
22 7.Brand sensitivity Consumption frequency Type current car Average number of brand products (across five product categories) Coffee Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Pet food Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Spirit Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Regular beer Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Special beers Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Ready to eat meals Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Deep fried potato products Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Salty snacks Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Sweet snacks Never Rarely Occasionaly Often Very often Top 2 Compact hatchback 5D Hatchback 5D Estate car Smaller luxury saloon car 5D Smaller luxury estate car 7.02 7.07 7.32 7.16 15% 8% 13% 12% 52% 64% 57% (B) 6% 8% 8% 21% 29% 28% (BCD) 31% 34% 7% 0% 7% 26% 21% 35% 9% 10% 18% 36% (BCD) 30% 24% 6% 4% 10% 45% (CD) 28% 23% 4% 1% 5% 41% (CD) 23% 23% 11% 3% 14% 28% (CD) 24% 31% 12% 6% 18% 19% 20% 30% 18% 14% (BC) 32% ( C ) 15% 21% 11% 4% 4% 9% 7% 11% 29% (A) 45% 74% 41% 3% 9% 18% 29% 47% (A) 14% 37% 37% 8% 4% 12% 16% 33% 32% 16% 4% 20% 14% 32% 41% (A) 11% 2% 13% 34% (CD) 42% 21% 2% 2% 3% 30% 25% 38% (A) 7% 1% 8% 18% 29% 41% 10% 2% 13% 16% 26% 40% 16% 3% 19% 13% 19% 6% 8% 4% 8% 11% 10% 23% 49% 72% 55% 2% 4% 11% 28% 40% 11% 30% 46% 10% 3% 13% 18% 24% 32% 19% 7% 26% 9% 29% 43% (A) 15% 5% 20% 24% 47% (A) 24% 4% 1% 5% 23% 28% 35% 12% 2% 14% 12% 32% 40% 14% 2% 16% 13% 30% 39% 15% 2% 18% 11% 22% 6% 9% 3% 9% 8% 10% 22% 51% 74% 46% 4% 6% 13% 31% 44% 13% 33% 39% 12% 5% 16% 21% 30% 31% 14% 4% 18% 13% 30% 41% (A) 12% 5% 17% 25% 41% 28% 5% 1% 6% 20% 30% 36% 13% 2% 15% 9% 29% 42% 16% 4% 20% 11% 25% 38% 20% 6% 25% 13% 14% 8% 6% 2% 10% 8% 11% 22% 49% 71% 50% 4% 7% 13% 28% 40% 16% 33% 39% 9% 3% 12% 20% 27% 32% 14% 6% 20% 18% 30% 37% 11% 4% 15% 32% 40% 24% 4% 1% 5% 28% 26% 33% 11% 2% 13% 17% 28% 38% 13% 4% 17% 15% 25% 37% 17% 6% 24% 13% 19% 8% 7% 3% Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 10 .
83 (B) 6% 1% 1% 2% 2% 7% 1% 15% 17% 4% 5% 9% 2% 8% 6% 2% 8% 3% 6% 0% 5% 13% 2% 11% 16% 93% 90% 80% 87% 25% 77% 67% (A) 28% 22% 19% 30% 10% 52% 3% 6.06 2% 3% 2% 1% 7% 10% 1% 18% 8% 2% 4% 8% 3% 9% 5% 3% 11% 6% 4% 0% 5% 14% 6% 13% 8% 92% 89% 83% 82% 30% 76% 62% (A) 29% 23% 22% 36% 8% 45% 0% 6.85 34% 21% 15% 9% 6% 4% 11% (BC) 43% 31% 21% 2% 2% 1% 2% 4.40 Possession financial products Amount of short hollidays Amount of long hollidays Technology possession PC Portable computer Digital camera CD-player MP3 player / i-pod Credit card DVD player / recorder Portable GPS Fixed GPS PDA Plasma TV None of the above 80% (BC) 42% ( C ) 60% 90% 36% 71% 65% 7% 8% 13% 8% 5% 64% 32% 55% 82% 29% 65% 63% 11% 9% 4% 10% 5% 64% 25% 60% 81% 31% 66% 61% 14% 10% 8% 6% 3% 74% 34% 62% 85% 32% 67% 66% 12% 9% 9% 8% 3% Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 11 .18 6% 1% 2% 1% 7% 8% 1% 19% 14% 2% 3% 10% 2% 7% 6% 2% 8% 7% 6% 1% 5% 10% 3% 15% 13% 91% 87% 77% 79% 33% 73% 60% (A) 25% 24% 14% 31% 15% 44% 3% 6.54 28% 31% 19% 12% 6% 1% 4% 34% 43% 17% 4% 1% 1% 0% 4.51 88% (BC) 37% 73% (B) 88% 34% 67% 74% 16% 9% 10% 7% 1% 5% 1% 2% 1% 5% 8% 1% 15% 14% 2% 4% 9% 2% 8% 6% 2% 9% 6% 6% 1% 5% 12% 4% 12% 13% 92% 89% 79% 83% 32% 75% 57% 31% 25% 19% 32% 11% 48% 2% 6.81 35% 29% 21% 9% 4% 1% 2% 43% 40% 12% 3% 1% 1% 0% 4.Brand current car Large luxury saloon car Large luxury estate car Medium off-road (4x4) vehicle Large off-road (4x4) vehicle MPV Small MPV Coupé / sportscar Other I do not have a car Audi BMW Citroën Fiat Ford Mercedes Nissan Opel Peugeot Renault Seat Toyota Volkswagen Volvo Another brand I have no car Current account Savings account Car insurance Fire insurance Travel insurance Civil liability insurance Income and health insurance Investements Shares Bonds Mortgage loan Personal loan Retirement saving plans None of the above Average number of financial products 0 1 2 3 4 5 More than 5 0 1 2 3 4 5 More than 5 Average number of travels (short + long) 4% 0% 3% 1% 3% 8% 2% 7% 17% 2% 4% 8% 1% 7% 6% 2% 10% 7% 6% 1% 5% 10% 4% 11% 17% 91% 89% 76% 85% 42% (B) 73% 41% 41% (D) 32% 22% 31% 11% 50% 3% 6.74 34% 26% 19% 11% 5% 2% 4% 39% 40% 15% 4% 1% 1% 1% 4.77 38% 25% 19% 14% 2% 1% 1% 34% 45% 13% 5% 1% 1% 1% 4.
29 -0.10 0.15 Tradition 0.95 -0.22 -0.26 Power 0.19 Safety 0.16 Power 0.13 -1.03 -0.03 0.12 Tradition -0.01 0.15 -1.15 -1.12 -0.04 -0.18 0.27 -0.22 0.40 0.01 -0.75 -0.75 -0.26 -0.08 0.11 Safety -0.45 0.12 Comformity 0.15 -0.08 -0.26 -0.05 0. Consumer values.22 -0.65 Online panel 0.45 0.03 Achievement -0.05 -0.58 77% 8% 15% 0% 17% 83% 93% 7% When comparing early adopter scores the online panel group showed a significantly higher score in comparison with the other samples.04 -0.08 0.16 Comformity -0. 1994.35 -0.03 (BC) 75% 3% 22% (A) 1% 2% 98% (ABC) 98% (C) 2% 4.16 -0.08 0.16 Power -0.14 Universalism -0. First.15 0.07 -0.25 71% 9% 20% (A) 0% 23% (D) 77% 91% 9% 4.55 -0. 1992.15 -1.13 -0. The spatial relations for each data collection method display a similar circular and ordered structure in line with findings from previous research (Figure 1) (Schwartz.11 Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 12 .04 0.16 Hedonism -0.29 0.01 -0.13 0.03 -0.12 -0.Telephone PC at home Average number of technologies Fixed phone and mobile phone Only fixed phone Only mobile phone No fixed phone and no mobile phone No PC 4.14 Stimulation -0.06 0.15 Stimulation -0. Brand sensitivity on the other hand was not found to be significantly different among data collection methods.00 -0.25 0. the structure of the value system needs to be replicated for each research method after which the value structures can be compared to one another.04 -0. 1992) as input.35 -0.78 88% (BCD) 12% 0% 0% 19% (D) 81% 91% 9% 4.23 Tradition 0.14 Universalism -0.15 -0.95 -0.17 -0.55 -0.14 Stimulation -0.15 -0.16 -1.05 0.26 Comformity 0.16 -0.12 Comformity 0.07 0.08 Safety -0.35 -0.26 -0.15 -1.75 -0.04 0.13 -0.35 0.95 -1.05 0.04 0.08 -0.07 0.03 0.65 Random walk 0.19 0.35 T-P T-R T-PA Self-Direction 0.35 PA-T PA-P PA-R Self-Direction 0.65 0.75 -0.11 Safety -0.18 0.04 0.35 -0.40 0.11 -0. Mail 0.14 -0.25 0.08 0. Lindeman and Verkasalo.45 0.08 0.03 0.04 0.27 -0.15 -0.12 Hedonism 0.13 -0.95 -1.26 0.22 0.06 Hedonism 0.04 Benevolence 0.42 0.01 0. Our last research question focused on testing the Schwartz value system between research methods. Multi-dimensional scaling represents all consumer values simultaneously in a multidimensional space with the distances between the points reflecting the (dis)similarities between the values per method separately.03 Benevolence 0.03 Benevolence 0.17 -0.55 -0.16 0.14 0.07 -0.12 Hedonism 0.35 -0.42 -0.11 0.07 -0.17 Universalism 0.04 Achievement 0. 3.65 0.16 Achievement -0. The procedure to do so consists of two steps.12 -0.45 0.11 Telephone 0.03 -0. 2005).05 0.25 0. The first step to examine the two-dimensional structure of consumer values consists of conducting a series of multi-dimensional scaling analyses (factorial correspondence procedure using SPSS) per data collection method using the Pearson correlations between the importance ratings of the values (Schwartz.15 -0.16 0.25 0.55 -0.10 0.35 R-T R-P R-PA Self-Direction -0.14 0.12 -0.00 -0.12 Universalism -0.07 Stimulation 0.14 -0.23 Tradition 0.35 M-T M-R M-PA Self-Direction -0.13 Power -0.26 72% 8% 20% (A) 0% 25% (D) 75% 90% 10% (D) PC PC with internet connection Yes No 5.17 Benevolence -0.03 Achievement -0.05 -0.
35 Total -1.09 0.26 0.221 -0.33 -0.25 0.When investigating the different mappings.25 -0. To test hypotheses about the effect of a nominal antecedent on the Schwartz value system (here data collection method).13 0. however.13 0.01 0.32 -0.51 Mail (B) -1.37 (A) 0.47 Online Panel (D) -1.34 0.26 0.26 -0.14 -0.20 0.25 -0.06 0.62 0.59 0.16 0.41 0.02 0.30 0.61 (D) Random walk (C) -1.13 0.16 0.55 (A) -0.05. 1 In order to eliminate scale and response style effects all value responses were standardized at the individual level: stvali = VS i − X VSi σ VS with: stvali VSi i : standardized value for respondent i : original value score of respondent i : mean score of all values for respondent i : standard deviation of all value score of respondent i X VS i σ VS i Subsequently.17 0.42 -0.46 0.19 (BCD) 0. First.29 (A) 0. The vertical axis represents (1) the mean importance of a value dimension for one data collection method minus the mean importance of an alternative data collection method (panel A of Figure 2) or (2) the average deviation of a data collection method compared to other methods (panel B of Figure 2). Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 13 . In order to compare the differences in the value structures between the different data recruitment methods.14 0. we recognize the two classic Schwartz dimensions: Conservation versus Openness to change and Self-Transcendence versus Self–Enhancement. we arranged the values on the horizontal axis according to their theoretical structure and order.28 0. we followed Schwartz’ (1992) proposal to compare the sinusoid curves of the value attribute scores and their pair wise differences.05 0.27 0. the technique of sinusoid curve comparison implies that mean differences in the importance attributed to each value dimension are studied according to the circular order of values.16 -0.46 0.48 Schwartz values Power Achievement Hedonism Stimulation Self-development Universalism Benevolence Tradition Conformity Safety Letter in parentheses indicates the column that is significantly lower with p-value ≤ 0.29 -0. significant differences between the mean consumer value scores of the different sample methods were assessed using one-way anova tests with Bonferroni post hoc tests (see Table 6).52 (A) -0.38 -0. Therefore. these mapping can not be used.30 0. Table 6: Schwartz values mean score per data collection method Data collection method Telephone (A) -1.23 -0.32 0.23 0.
This may be explained by the increased internet penetration over time. not accidentally peripheral computer and internet technologies.95 -1.03 0. telephone research often generates a lower consumption goods profile. Explanations for these findings are more speculative Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 14 .12 Stimulation 0.14 -0. Telephone respondents are more focussed on achievement compared to all samples and less on benevolence and conformity compared to the traditional methods.07 0. online panel data largely generate the same results compared to traditional methods in terms of consumption and product adoption. The more people have access to the web. where a couple of years ago online samples were biased towards the more affluent these differences have rubbed out (at least in Western economies) (Schillewaert and Demeulemeester.25 0.05 Average value deviations -0.09 0.02 -0. It appears that. especially compared to mail respondents.65 Mail Random walk Online panels 0. Discussion and conclusion With this paper we added concrete evidence to the ongoing and often unsubstantiated debate about the external validity of online research. The noticeable difference is that online panel members seem to attach less importance to safety in life.35 Telephone Mail Random Walk Online Panel Self-Direction 0. An individual online panel member possesses more technologies on average.’s are not significantly higher.15 -1.V.11 0. Duffy. Finally. GPS.08 Achievement 0.14 From these analyses it is apparent that little differences in values were found between the mail. but per focal technology the overall penetration is only higher for PC’s and digital cameras.06 Universalism 0. 1991) or that online respondents are used to dealing with barriers and safety issues on the internet.07 Hedonism 0. random walk and online panel data. we could no longer replicate findings from earlier studies that online samples generate people who are more frequent travellers or are more technologically advanced (Baker. none of the samples generated different socio-economic profiles. Curtice and Sparrow.12 -0.75 -0. In October 2003 52% of the Belgians had access to the Internet while in April 2006 the internet penetration in Belgium was 65% (BIM XV.0.15 -0. While our mail sample was a little more rural. 2006). If there is one research method that does generate some small differences it is the telephone sample.04 0.02 -0.12 -0.36 -0. Albeit for only three value dimensions the telephone sample did generate significant differences with the other three data collection methods.11 0.35 -0. PDAs or Plasma T. Other technologies such as mp3players.23 0.03 -0.02 0.08 -0.45 Mail Random walk Online panels Mail Random walk 0. 2005). Smith.18 Comformity -0.25 0.01 0. Similarly.02 -0.20 0.55 -0.04 0.17 -0. While our panel sample generated a higher dispositional early adopter profile (index 108) and an online panel member possesses somewhat more technologies (index 118) these differences can be explained and remedied. 2005).18 0. The higher early adopter profile can be due to the fact that panel members are more often solicited to provide their opinion on novel products of all kinds and are as such people with a high intrinsic motivation towards market research.15 -0. 2003. Hence.17 -0. We may expect similar tendencies to produce in other countries with high internet penetration (soon). a more advanced banking and travelling profile but also a higher penetration of PCs and laptops.13 Safety 0. While not entirely consistent.01 Power 0. This is in line with previous research that showed that people from rural areas where security seeking (Schopphoven.06 Benevolence -0.02 -0. In case researchers want to remedy these small differences we suggest applying a reweighing in terms of dispositional early adoptership and the number of technologies possessed. the more the internet population becomes a blueprint of the general population.16 0.08 Tradition -0.08 0. Since many research participants are more willing to provide their opinion or help companies they have a more positive dispositional early adoptership. Schillewaert and Demeulemeester 2005.22 -0. there are indications to assume that panel members are a little less concerned about security and safety values. Terhanian & Bremer.14 0.
suggestions. Dr. or by cooperation with InSites Consulting customers.insites. a Vlerick MA degree in marketing management and a Master degree in Psychology (Ghent University). it essentially offers you applicable insights on specific marketing research subjects.S. Bert Weijters is an assistant professor of marketing the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School.+32 9 269 15 00. Annelies Verhaeghe is R&D consultant at InSites Consulting. market segmentation and the diffusion and adoption of innovations. He has also contributed to more than 20 academic and business conferences.but perhaps the coverage errors due to the inability to reach “mobile only’s” and a higher proportion of people still owning a fixed phone line may explicate these differences. Industrial Marketing Management and International Journal of Market Research. branding and marketing communication. Also in terms of consumer values telephone respondents seem a little more snobbish as they peak in terms of achievement. This study was presented at the ESOMAR Panel Research Conference 2006 The authors Prof. Our white papers result from research data collecting by InSites Consulting itself. In addition to his responsibilities at InSites Consulting.g. At this business school. by cooperation with third parties (e. She also holds a licence in Experimental and Theoretical Psychology from Ghent University. Journal of Business Research. All in all. traditional concept testing. Copyright InSites Consulting 2007 15 .eu . While the socio-economic differences are not statistically significant they seem to confirm this interpretation as telephone respondents had the largest groups of the highest social class (E). He is business unit manager of “Traditional research via the Internet” and sector manager of Fast Moving Consumer Goods. He is also a member of the executive committee of the European Marketing Academy and is an active member of the Belgian Marketing Foundation. Niels Schillewaert is cofounder and managing partner of InSites Consulting and Associate Professor in Marketing at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. aiming to provide you with relevant and up-to-date marketing (research) insights that are based on scientifically grounded methods. Should not the choice be based on the research objectives at hand and objective criteria such as project cycle time.. His PhD dissertation discusses response styles in consumer research. Kristof is chairman of the Competence Centre Marketing and he is in charge of the Vlerick Brand Management Centre and the Vlerick Loyalty Management Centre. While each white paper has a scientific flair. He holds a PhD in marketing (Ghent University). Therefore one can wonder whether the discussion of downgrading one method compared to the other is not out of place these days in Western Europe and the U. but are less concerned about benevolence and conformity. Journal of Marketing Research Theory and Practice. customer satisfaction. however. Kristof De Wulf is a co-founder and managing partner of InSites Consulting. Kristof is also associate professor of marketing and partner at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School. e-marketing and adoption of innovations. His research interests are online market research. His other domains of interest are consumer behaviour. please do not hesitate to visit us at www. she follows the latest trends within (interactive) online market research. She graduated with great distinction from the Masters in Marketing Management programme (former SLM) at the Vlerick Leuven Gent Management School and got the award of ‘Best student Marketing 2005’. in a crisp format and lay-out. For additional questions. InSites Consulting R&D White Paper series Through its R&D department. universities or business schools). looking at the number of variables tested and the statistical differences found we may conclude that all data collection methods generated rather consistent results in our samples. Niels’ research has been published in the International Journal of Research in Marketing. or further readings. InSites Consulting regularly publishes white papers related to various methodological and/or marketing content issues. As R&D consultant.eu or contact us on info@insites.
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