You are on page 1of 10

I.!

I~ II ilO1fi1~'t ~ <ffir~ ~,~~~~ ~ ~
~~~ ~

:

'i.~,
~
~

~ <ffir~,

~,att<f-~

~ ~9ft ~

~.

:>j(GtOiC<1I 1

~

~<ffir ~HI~~IC<1l, ~~~, ~~ "11~1~~1 ~ ~~. ~
.~~ ~ ~ ~ 9j1'em

W~
~I
..~ ~~ ~

lItr<f ~I "ifI <rnf ~
-

"ifI

c:<Ff ~
~, '~'

<I$fI ~
Ql ~ ~

<1S~ -

9j~~I~IC<1'~
(}R ~~

~ '~"

~"ifli ~

C?Wt
~

'ffl~~~1 ~ <rnf ~
~(}R,

~'!'I~\t¥3lofGJ10i ~ om ~
~

"\5II~WIOi = ~"
~ ~ :>j~

~ct
~~

\5I~WI<i~ ~I

\SI<1II\SIM> ffir ~ ~ < \5IIGtc<lI~ ~
<fC:>j~?

~,
<rnf ~

~
~ ~~.~~

~~
Ql ~

~"lIc;tR \5IRf ~

1~

~

m ''ffi'' 0fI';r m
~-~"lfilC<1I~

<ut~

~

fif.:Ii
~ ~~

(spatial direction) ~

~

~ <ut~ ~ "l1~~Cdfl,m ~~,

~

~

~

~~

<m~

~

~I

~~,~~<ffir~~~,~~~1\WfI~~~~

~~~,
~
\S~

~~
9ft ~"ifI

~f.rof~f5tnr~,
~ <ti~

~~
'"1I'-"ifI
C~

~M>~,~~~f\5:>jC~:>jC~,~~~~~~~
(Ingalls, 1951:9) I ~~

~
~

~
f.f~1

~_~~~~~,~~~-~~ffi-~
. ~~f.fl~~~~?··

1 <!SRi

~

~

~,

<!SRi ~

"ifIM> ~~

~ ~, 00 ~

~

"""i~I¥I~~~
:>jlC~qC't~~ c9f$f

~

~. <qC'1C~~ .~9fiG
~
~

"ifI ~

~ ~!)

<rnf

\S"31lfrn

"ifI,

~rol~lro

(~,
C~

~~

~ ~

~ ~

~

-n ~

<lS~ ~

- f»C'if, ~~

~<R ~ ~

~9ffif
~

Oi<IJOiJIC~~

~~

~~"iflI~~~~~~w.n~~~.~I~

~

~~ ~

cW, ~
\S

PM ~.~
~l

_

~

~~

~

~~C~I.~C~~~-~~~~~~c.rnm

~~

f.rct ~

C~Ci7I\5lo{;?~.~ C<1't-J ~~
~ftl!iI!4I;t1 ~

~~~ ~ ~ ~ ~.~~'1t~-I.~.~~Gffit~~I~~
~ott ~, ~ ~ ~~

~~H"'I'6m
1

<ft'l ~

.'6~~
~

m, ~ ''1fi1''111&ll~, ~

---------.~-.-

~~~¢t~~~~,~~~'~~~ ~,~, ~ ¢t ~.~
~~('IIi<!i~~1

~
m~~<tt~,
~

~
~~
~?

~9f<fi ~ ~~,

Q1A~,

~

W'I

9fP'1V'ltdf~~
"I!)t<f? ~~

~

<it ~-I

~

~~
"I!)t<f ~

f9fi
~ ~ (~)

m~
~ ~ ~~

OIl~
t'St"ltGt"l I!I~

~

~~I.
~~
~~

~-!'I"'ffl~~
: ~~

~
~ ~~~,

~
~

(0iM) ~

~~~~
'~~~~~I~~~~~?~~~ ~?

1~~~~~Wi~m,~~<it

~II

~~~-~~~<q~~

m~
.1'

e!<fIlf-~~~-~~

c~~~~~
<rof ~ ~

t~

~

(n1:rative

community) 1

c.~
: ~
\!1~ ~

C"l<t>"1\9fC~ ~

~f:fP'f ~
~I ~ ~
~~'6~

1

~~

m~
~-C~

lfl1J

~I'~

~

CIr£I~C<l"lrn C"tfi1t ~ c<t>I"I<t>11!)1f<lI!fJI"ItJI'!t ~ t'I!l'I ~,
~

~
~ ~
~

~~

1~

r.<fi1' ~~

~

~,

~

~ ~
~

~ ~.I
<rof ~I

~
\!1~

w-u 1,'1m
<!f<t> ~~~

~~I C"11"l1C"l"1 ~

'I!l'I

~f~~~~
~ ~ ~
'itt~1 ~~

~~"ll_~~~~~~

~
~.~

~~
~~

~
~

~

c~
~I ~

f.If'<ta'lt1 ~
(~~

~ ~~~o

f.If~ 3fu) ~
1

~~-rn ~
~
16l1C"l15"l1{l

9jJI'!tI\S~ ~,~~~~I

~

'<flVrn ''<1<iJ'' ~
~ ~ ~

~
~l:fC"1t~ ~~ ~
\!1~ ~

~
~.~,

"9ftfJf"t ~ <If'I£CSSi'!t ~ ~ C~I

f.lf~
~ W{"'l1~I6lm'6~

"l<lJ"1JltJ1'!t ~

( r) W{"'l1~QT ~W ~

c~

~~
~9f1Ut
~,
~~

~
~
'~
~ \!1'ffif ~

Rrn~ Rrn c'if"C"l
'"ft~ ~"9f
<rol I" <rol ~~

Wfl ~ lft~ ~

~

Oi'8m ~
~!"

orem ~ ~
~~-I

UJtUl
''oft

W{"'l1~

f.lur ~
~ ~

'"ft~ "1M \!1~

"lf~"-

om,

\!1~ ~~,

~f.lf~

'iltmum ~~
ffl"9f(?f ~~

~
~,
~

C~C<I~d'J!I, ~ ~

~

t'I!l'I, ~ ~

"9f'!t ~

"lJI{l5&1'!t .~ 9j1fu

~
~,

~

<it, GaH5&1'!t ~ ~I

"9f1I¥1-~ ~

~I~~,~~~~~,~.~~~~I "1<u"lJltJI'!t ~

~ ~ ~ ~ 1tt 4r:st~"'i1. ~l ~ ~. ~ ~ fl~«1~"'i1 ~ (?"'b-~ : a-<!:-<l'~) ~ ~~ ~ fl~t"'i11 ~ ~~~()IIU~elfA
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ •.~ ~I

f.ml ~.
'~~

~~ ~
<rot'~

~I ~

~ ~

~~ ~·~I(ttS1$11

f.ml ~
~ •• <l5Rf1

~
'~

.

~on~.
~

~~ ~ '~. ~Ilt~
~? ~

<Ut~~~~~' ~ ~

CClSt~· ~ ~
~ ~~ ~

~

~.

~l

~~l:C'ilfCHnll"'. ~ ~ f.ml tU<Pt)ltdj .~ <rot ~.~?
~~'<IPlBlC"i1 ~<!:~o'liffif

~

~.~(:>.".,,~:~~)~iItOOf

~.
~) ~ ~9f

9ftcxt ~
~ ~I ~

f'ijfeal"1lfbk.' ~ I
~I

~."<fIm ~ ~"<fIm ~~

m~
~~ -. ~

f.Nr-t (~~. '1tt~ ~ ~ fiIf~. ~~ ~~ <rot 0lRtl1M ~~ ~ ~.~ f.ml
~~ ~~ (~~'\b- : (Jf ~

WT ~I

~ ~~ct ." - :>:» I ~'*'rI (:>.,,<!::» ~~~14'1c<tSl: ~ ~ I ~~ $Ilt ~~ ~-~ ~ ~ ~I ~.~, "'<It~~ erll5)~'!I'<IIUf~.~ ~~~~·~~."'<It~~~,~~~~~1 "101"1 1 $lrn4"l1 f.rowrn ''<It~~'' ~ 1
.~-~ '<ft~' ~.~

~,

~' ..~

'"'<It~~' ···~Ci1~i1C~.~
()ICO{ COR"

~

~<f~~~Ilt'e.~ ~ ~~ ~

on I ~lerC<p"lI'<It~~~ " ~ C'!1 ~ ~ ~ (~~

~~~!)
~ ~ ~9f

.

R~ ~ ~
~ ~
~I ~~~

~~
~
~

f.mll=~ "" Nif
~
~ ,~ ~~

~ ~
~

<rot I ~ ~ ~
.~

<pIUICbI(i11 ~~~ ~ "11-i'CI5lOl'll "'IRib1Rl41~I '<I1'1.cxfA'lI
~

<rot
~Of

*¥IC'lti11 nmr \£I~ on <rot
~

~1~'~'~~,~~~~~'~~"1I-i'CI5lOj'll~ ~I ·'<I1'1.0tfA'lI ~
~

~ $Ilt
~I

.~

~~'!"eIC"1lbi1hl~I$Ilt~m~~~~\£I<IS~
~ ~ ~ ~~ ~) "(.Of ~~)

I" .~ ~ ~

~ ~~ ~
~

c:4C<P ~ ~ ~ ~~
~~~

OI® ~
~ ~Iltl
~I

~
,~,

,~~'RriT
\£I ~ ~
~ :

~..m
~ ~

~ ~

~I
'-ey' ~,

~\£I<f, '<I1'1.01C<I'lI
~

\£I~ ~
~ ~ 9f~.~

~

"''liffif''~!

'~'itUt
~)

'Of'
~~

~?

~
~ ~

'let'

~?"

~~,

"'<It~~~"R! (<fCoRr ~

~~

~ I ~~ ~ ~

~ ~~~

~

"'<It~~~"R! ""'<It~" ~~""t

"51141'!lfVJqs '9ft~ ~ ~/~-

~~···.~~~I~~~~,~~·~~(Jf

Oft-lCtrn ~-'.-(Jf
~?"
~ ~,

~"rfmr~'I~"~~'W1~~~~~:'~
(""t,~)~) ~~C'r,~).,"'<ItIf

cmdj1'~ .~~~
~~~ ~

xt

f.ml

\£Ilfif ~

~

~~

~

~I

~~
~ 'Slt<f ~
~~.~

~
C~ ~
~

et'Jt ~~
~

: .. ~lr 9ftlr ~ ~!

.. ~ ""
~.~

"ftt'ttt ~~ ~t'It
~

-0'.'11(.'1111 ~
~

ott, ~~
~

~flIl\fit'(fjl ~~

Ji1l'I"It'f ~I

iff ~
<IIt01'l~

~~
~ ~

~~,
~ ~ ••

on ~

~ ?~

~ ~
C~

"Gt-T ~
~

AA I

~.

~·I

qqf.l\i~iiI
~~I

~
~

~9j!fi>C{jCfi:i1

~~ ~~ ~1~.ott,~~Oft,~~~~~~"
~ (~, ~ '<pt;t ~ ~

~ti'It
~),

~

~

G ~ '"' 9f5t9f5t
~ ~ ....
<j)~

~
~ ~I ~

~ffi~
~9fm~ ~

C~·~:
~ ~

'~cmr~~~~I"$~~
lIttfJ ~ ~, ~ -e9ftft ~ ~~

:C014liil'1'llll ~
~ 4IC~f':'ij" .. ~ ~ ~ ~I

~

..

~'1ntt

~~

~
<IIlf~~

C'Mf;f~~~~ ~I f.l00>11'5",~ ~ <.fI~
'<pt;t

•.•. ~,~, ~

.•. ~fiIs~~~ : "~Ji1l'I' ~~
t:1f ~

: '~~"C'It

~tml

~~~~~~~~~~I

Ol ~~

~~~~flIf~~~I~~~~~
"'!~C{l~C"'01 ~ ~ ~ ~

1ft ~,
~


~ ~

9fIlIf
~?"

t:1f C>t'e ~~,

~~,~,

~ ~ ~

f.lCIU>1I"1;I~

f.f
~

C1t ~'81~

ij'!H.\SCif'!l YoU ~ ~~ ~ ~I ~

~
~ ~ ~
~I

~ 9f'llh:IC'!IiiI
~I

~
~

~

'1ItfI' ~,
~ ~
~

~

~.~
<.fI.~·~·lIItf ~~~ ~ ~lIl ~ 'APIt~
I6j'8J~

~

lIItf~? ~.

If_Clt '1att
~ ~ ~ ~

~

~~,
~
~~~~

~

~
~
<.!l~

~

~cn
~~
."'""'~

"'1~C4Ifl:C"'iI ~,~9f

.1t"~ijiI, ~
4IIC"Ci!If~ ~ ~I~, ~I 'lifCn ~ ~

(%lI'1:'1lf.1. )S'\o'In)
PlIfJI~"''iI ~ octc1fl~~~~~~9fm:'I

~t'5t
~
~ ~

ffl

orelftif

'eItiI''1f1u ~
~lIt
~ (~ ~) ~~ ~

~

~

P\tffl'lM~~~~ <.fICR ~. ~M~I.Ia.~

~

~ ~ ~I

~

~.~
~) ~~

lttIl ~~~ ~~~~
~ ~ ~ ~~"
<rn( ~ :

(""~~

~

~~

f<Im-C<IIIi7fI:<'>Ci7i ~~ <.!l~ourn~

~'f

~I \i\i,¥C'It C11lIfl:C"'iI. III~ ~
~

~

iff c9fG ~~

~ct

""'f1II~~
ON! ~ ~

3ftii11~

*

~~lilOI«

"'It'f <ut~

~
~

~oWt ~
~ ~

ffl OfGlmfl ~ lif'if~ ~ CSM, ~~ fils? '~'ItfT ~,

~

~

~~'G~"It'f~,
'<3 ~~~ t:1f CfCi't ~

~, ~ AA~~
~

~
~

"RG'ft ",1'$'~I.Ia.iiI ~'.CtI~ 'IIt'&S11f1 •• "II1miIt l:t'h 'G~ "It'f ~~

~

~
~~~

oJIl: ~

f.mlT ~
~I"

Of Of~ ~

·~lIl

~

lr~sVt~

~41'tfC.
~ ~

~'S"f~1

~ 'lteR1 ~<j)Cf ~fflC'lliilCI'ti!1 '5fatt ~ti{ ~~~I
~~ ~

AA MOO'lf'S'"
~

CWfI "'I~

-.rI~ ."1I'''ICII"illif ~~

~I II

\tiAIt ')jCf '5fatt ~, ....
~
~~

'5fatt ~
~ I ~ ~

~1i ~I

~

~c. -e~~ ~ (~-e9f1 ~ ~ 1JIin), "'~ ~ ~c. cmr~ ~ ermr fils 1IItI ~~ ~f WiiI1~ ~ ~ ~ or-r, I

t"ltiC4"11~1 ~ oml ~
<j)~q

<m ~
~I ~ ••

1l~4 ~~
~

<rn" ~

~"..-tt"~ ~
1ItiU ~

m ~.~.
1I1>1~~ml ~

~

Wa. f5lcw "RI~1fII1,~~, .l ~ 9ft'« on f\mr ~ 1II'CIRf ~ <.fI~ ~ f9fCPt f'IC"t ~ f'tci ~
~~

~~

~~
filM' ~
~~ ~~

.c'II!'6.JfilIo""~ '"
~
.,..~

~

<n'I~ ~tmI"l
tttIf~111

~~9fCjl9f~

~
~I

1IIt1IIil. 11if.\'
~(~

~

1Jtr-f. ~
~ ~ ~

~ ~

~-m.,..,~ ~
iff I
~~9fCjI ~

~~I
~

~~f.1st
~
~,

t4R ~"NI

~.~11tl
~11I'tCi« ~
~I
<j)~ ~

~
~~
~

~~,

~~,
~

"'G~

~

~I

~

~

~

~~,

~~.~

~~
'<pt;t

~I
~

~
~

CR1 C4t~~,
~ ~

9f1t1f-9ftCG'l 'fRi ~ ~~ ~ ~ ~
~

fif4 ~
ottl·~
~

~ ~~
~

t~
~

CIn'iIT ~
~~ift~1
~

~

~,

<.!l~ ~

'Ifta, .'0i\it;'fJ1I ~

~,

-.r-rt fils ~

~

~I

~ IJI. ~

fi{m~~, WI ~~ ~
~ ~I ~.

~~9fCjI

..,.. ~'''!tI

I '{'IJ ~

cQ1Wf.f
on I

~,

fliti ~ ~~ fliti~, t4t-Wt 1lmf~, C4PWtq ~ ~I M~ ~~, ~<.fI~~1 ~ filr.n!" (~, ~; ~Co"\~: 8~-8~)
~~~-t:1f~~$~

IJI~

~

\fi1~C<II~

C4PWt

m

~
~

~
~

I~
~

.-r.1Pf~ ~
'\8

... ~

1IIIt I iff. CCIIfif !PIt CII'm ~

AAI.~I!R,

G-.aft1'n '"'I,

et'Jt

~~<ut9frn~:
~. ~~ ~I<.fICR ~~

~~'<Ptl

~

,""".III!

~MlfjICijC!HI ~

~

~-'OtG'!t ~ ~

~ "..,

~
"IJI~ ~

~t:C4\fi~~ ~I"

~
~~
O{Jlfl~W ~ ~

~
~

c~

~~

~

(Jf ~~

;~

~~~

fll:q\liI<U<sI ~

~-~

~
~A~

~ ~~m~
~IC\l3lati1l~ g ~~ ~

~m ~~
Cfl1'OOf ~
~ ~

emf ~I"~

~
DI?t1if~

emf ~

om ~ ~
~
(~~b"~ ~, "~ :

W ~I ~~ ~ 1.ItCltIi ~ I ~ DI?t1if~(.\!)ICn Oll~~ ~ct
i(JIN"ttal <t~-<t(!:) I ~~ If'f'1l9f ~

c<I-t ~

-e'l1f \1'S1"'If.htt~ ~ CSItIfif ~

~t.-.tti{ ~

1lIt'r amt ~
V<tt~I

~

~I

~

1If,

<1ft'! C'Iti'It ~

.. sstit 9ft:qtif ~'ICI' c

~-<.!1~~~~~1tt~,~~~~

~"~~~~I)

If.
~
~
~"'" ~

~,
~

CIRAf--asif'l~
~-e

>t1>tc5t.,:qG'((CjIfif~~~~onl

~ CjlI<tHI"~"'I
~~9f

m!i
~

~,

~

~

lRI<m'
~!

*~~
• ~
~~¥I:q
~tof "C$f"-!f$

..

mt (itICII.,If.litll ~

'1flB't

'ttJ~1

~9f1

l.tl ~.-u
-e ~

Ifl~

~~~ 9ffIt~, &1.,66(il ~ ~ l.CI't't ~I C"CII6111t~~~ on &1.,65111 ~, '$ ~ ~

~

~~

~

*,
$

ifQ

~

~

~I·SIttlll"

-

$~,

~~
~I ~ ~ ~I

DI?t1if~
~

~,
lftlf I'I~

~~ I'I11fi{ ~
~I
~

~ '5ttttof~(.\!)ICU ~ ~ on ~ ~ 11II1It'R' c-r ~ 9f'If ~ ~
~~ ~ '(t~ ~~ ~ ~I 9f'If~

~~~ ~I":qt(
~ ~~~?

Oi'!"JOi:q~~,
Ifliilf"! Ifl~ ~

~~Ifl~~~-

Cb'!O(Jot:q, ~

~

'iI~'!16P( ~

C1lf'5I:qFli~ ~ Otfif "1"lt""."

CIIt1I!1:t"., ~!

1fl'R ~

W:SI<I\!)~ $.lftlf

on ~,
~~
~~
: 8~

~
~9f: ~

~
~

on lIIt1f, ~9f'If
~ ~, ~ ~~ ~~

cOGl61fl~'I1 ~~

9frn '" I 9f'If~

ift ~I .q lISt1I'I tift .. 'l5It9fittf ~ ~

wt 1It1f 1111 Wf fiR ~.
~
~
~I"

'1_(~
~

~~
'~

Cb\!)"'IJotC<t'l1 ~ ~ \!)~'SI~fcrn~

~

i1<tJ"'IJICN'I14'~~et~C<P ~I ~~

C'S1't't ~~?
~~ ~1"'I'fPl) I "I~ ~

~b\!)i(JW~ ~

~ ~

"1t"~""'I,

(~~
r;"t1irt

~~~

c$t ~~

~

C5fif~b\!)"'IJOt<t1 ("~~lfm~~1

'if'I.

ft.)

~~

~
~

mfi!!!!
<.!1'f-. ~ ~

I" ~~, ~~ ~

'<11~~~~
~

~~ ~ ~~1ffiT, ~~
Q)(Jl~61i11

~ '~~"
~~.~
~~ ~~ ~

~b~
~
~I;,tIn
1

UI ~
• -.tt'If ~ ._. ~ ~

~~ <qs~~"1i1 ~ ~

C5~i(JC'fC<t'l1 ~i~:r,,.n~~1~1

(~~'\~:

88b") I ~,~b\!)iJlOi<t

~
~

~
~

~
~~9f

~I
~b\!)iiJO'fC<t'l1 ~ ~ <rof? ~ ~

C~ ~)~~g

~~

~~~

'~~"~

~ I~ t1~ (~<llCf

I!PR ~8~ ~.~ ~~

1faIt '<1"'11~.
~ ~ ~ I <!f<t'~ ~

G!t1lS ~~
~8(!:(t1 ~ ~ ~

~~~~_~W-UI
~~ 1lS~

~~~~~
~~ ~

(.If'<;ltI '<11~
~ ~Ifl'f-. 'I'I1'1t<Pfiil<f
If'C:I!)1 ~-~

~ ~~"'1t~<.!1<qS~;~~~~~:

~

~

ll'f 'iI1lf $~

'6l~d1J6at C?lif, ~100at.,,~

~~CIf~~11

"'1t'f ~ ~ ~
~~
~

:!lC\!lJ~
~

~
~

(<n ~

.)

~ ~
~
~ ~

i1JI~"11ct!l'l1~

~ ~~ Oft I ~
(t~-(t(t

.

~
I!PR ~ ~

filst"tt1 ~

.~

'l~'n ~ ~ fiIIW .. 1{tI, 1It"m
~ -

"<IIfif
~ ~
I

'it;\!)i1JC'f<IC<P ''<I1iI'tC9I1 '61'11~.,{I<pI~ ~~

~
~'-I!I~ ~

~
\£1<f~ ~

~~

9fmf1

m
~
9fti@r1

~~C"'I1

9ft\!l1 ~
"i.lfi!"1ltal'l1 ~

~

:!l'<I1"f ~
"Cultivate"
... ) ~ ~

'bfR ~
'<tS'I1t ~
(Jf

"1"f ~~

emf 9fta'f1t'I1 t1IS1~!
?

C.~
~ ~~

~~

I) (~) CIf

c""'" ~ ~
111".111 ~

tt't ~ C<t1<tIt'!I ~ : (~) "I'~~, ~ ["1I"1C11Il(.,<tl\lI~]
'A 'Ittltt (~
-.,

~ ~~
~Wji;

<tnT
~ ~

~b\!)i1JC'fC<t~ ~ ~ <.!1lfii ~ ~ ~ <rof ~ ~

~

:il1.,1bi;I'fCii'Sl ~(Jl~i1, ~ ~ ~ ~~

w-u lJatf.t ~
~ ~' "~Cillcq'l1 ~ ~
(Jf ~~

I ~~
~

~

c:Ut"1 ~
~

m~

~8I~ "I<f ~~
~

'l61
~

~C"{1 ~

~ C~"

i1JI~"lrt!l<qsI'l1~ "iftClf1

~".

~ ."

CIftIII ~

<.!1ifC'S~

~

C?lif ~
~?

"<IJ1i{IS ~
~

on' ~

"'IJlfi"1llf1'l'I1

"6lift<Is ~,
~ ~ ~

<rSmC'I

9!'!Iil't<t.<f

"9f'i ~
"'61\!)lm~ "I11''fC'4'11 ~ ~

"~

m
(~~'\b" g

~\!)i1JC'f<t ~, ~ etl"'1ICH:~

'If?¥fil~C61"'1 <.!1'f-. ~~ '6l1~"1tq5l1 ~

<pRjfll~C11t"'l~~

tj;!Ict~I"

tI'I1f ....
~ ~ ~

11\~

<mG'fllf WI ~

1!T11

.1111"'" .. ,.......,'10\.

"""".·"",,a __ ~,

Ifl ~

~<t-~~

'if'I. ~.)~ct
'm"1'f ~

<uI~

~'1-~

-s
~~

~9It ~I

~~

~<tITRit ~

~

~

I~

~~~
.~~

~
~

~
~

~
~

~ ~

~~
(~~lr~

f'lC41fi:C"I01 : ~<t~'\) I

~

~.~ .~ ..~ -

~

~:

~

~

(~9ft~, (?j~$l11<qliT), ~
.~

~ooo)

~ ~ "~I

'~~'

ift'$TC~ .. ~ ~1!I<f, ~ ~~~ (~,COgni;ion.

GIPft"f ~~~
~.~

(5cience)-~

~

'~"

~ iff-9ftW-~ ~
~

"1\!)<:P1~01 ~
(NPP) ~~

.~.• ~ ~~

~

~9ft'!Jrnf
~. ~~

.fi!o{jI41·~
awareness) ~

(~
~ ~

~),
I!I~

,,~..,tet
~

<It~~

<P1411f1<:Pli"'~ ~ ~~,

~1I~1\5~ ~ .,~~i01'l1\!) '{3
(.<1I1~~·~-1 (.<q${ ~ ~~~

~
~

I~ ~, <p1f8lql~ ~

!It~.", ,~~
'II\ill~ ~ ~

~OI1~C"I ~ I!PI<f ~ ~

~ ~~
~? I!I~ ~

~

$
~

~'!frn
~ ~

~ ~,

1\fe$l\!)01 ~~ ~,~,

<m9fRf I ~~:
~
~,

etIJt ~ ~ ~.

~

llml ~

~

~~,

~.a:pil@l4N4'11

~~~91ct~~'1.~~~~~?~~~ Cilt9f8lca:p'll ~ ~~! .' ~ ~I ~, ~~ ~ ~~

~

~

om~

~~~"~~

_.~

tw~~-

'!ITIfir ~
~?j ~
ifti{1if

~
~ WI, ~ lfIi, ~ ~

~
_

<mI ~ ". ~ <fCI7I ~ ~~I ~ ~ ~~ ~ ~~

"'C{lCV1~0ftiM ~

11M '~'

<m~ $J~~
-e ~
~

~
~

~
C~

~ ~ 'It\ ~ ~ C~ <rot
~ ~
~!

- ~~I ~ ~

~.1.1IItfiI'

i\"I~ tbtIf ~~ ~
~

1£I<I5<f't'!t ~ ~
~

~~
~ ~ct~,

~

"IGlC"I" ~

1ftIIlIt"'II~"I'II~,

~ ~lI<l1"I'lI ~

1ffit lItii
~ ~-~ ~~~ ~~

~lCf~ct ~

I!f~ ~

~~,
. ~~.~ ~
~.~

~~
~ ~
~

~~

.. ~

'<' "fIIft
~ ~

"I'II\~~'"
I

~ ~~~~
~
I

~
~~?jift ~ ~

~~
'1t~~
c;<:pti{

~

~~
~

~m
~

~~,,·~~I~~.3f11pJ~at"I4i'.If6\!)~ct ~?j01JI,,<pI~t<I'~·

~I

o ..~ ~ ~ ~ t4f
~ ~

<fCI7I ~~I ~~"II\SI~I41 1_~

~~ ~ ~~~ GlIC"IIf)'lI41~ ~

*1'&I~ ~;.(~)
~
~I

~.~~_
'(3 ~ ~

(-.1In_ "1ff) "".I~

~~I

I ~~ ~~t<I

~ ~

..Q~

~

GTI01ICA'l, .••• "

~
~ ~

~

1:(i;q~HI .~

..

"''''It'll ~ . filtA\"'1I""" ~ t )~) ~ ~~ Rift,." _I.t
tltlII1Cj1"'f"4'V1' ..... '4I1t~
~I .,~ !t'IItct'tct

~" ~\-C~ ~~
~

I" ~

••

·.lRBr ~ : "'I1r1tf'l .1ItIn,~lfJilt <lf8l{lIt('l 1!I<f~~~.., mt ~.~~.

"""

~
~ '$
'{3~

~
~
~

I"
~

I!I~

\~I(JI~~ ., it'In'fm "tll(_I" "'" _111 ~~ al'l\!)I~CjI ~tIiI'Ilr ~ '<'tr1i11t-o' ~.,... .. ~ ~ ~'tl
~~ ~ ~

"" ~~~
"lIJlt"lti4t ~

'llf'1Mn ~

~

tI'f~,

9ft( ~

~

~

~ C'I"I"fl~ ~l1t 1f11f? ....r-l ",Iil"fil~~ ~ ~ "Publish or Perish", 1f9IMI ~ ..I" 1ItWT ~I ~ ~I <8 ~ ~ tIr.i4r'Pf~ tJI~1 ~ C'I'h ~~?

WPIt? ~I
~

~~?~f.lt"l""."~~*,t""'ijjf"?C3NIfR~.?
~~~~~'<n1IfI~~'Pf""lfif~~~'Pf~

"ij'1~ iIl~,
~t<I
~~~g

~

~

~t'6Ii1~

~~
~~

~

iIl"i4I~liIf9Pt?
~~~I ~~ ~ I '~oj I
~o II

~-~!

~I

fW-f11 \51<1,,1""1 :
"lfll ~9jI!I'ilf.l;qs, ~ ~t<I ~t<I ~ ~ ~~.~
~tf

~~I

~~ 'St~ ~~

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~.I
~I ~I ~~ ~ <It~ tt<:PbllPt ~~, ~~
~

~

<It ~

(.<q${ ~

~~~

~~, mffls$l\!)"1~

~mrfUf

<It

~ II ~ ~9It~ '\!)'fJlf6\!Ii4f't'-1f ~ ~~ I 811 ?fift~ ~91ct I <t II 1fCU ~~"llq~ ~ ~~ ~~~I '\ II ~ I II ~ '~'-<!I~

~Il ~IQ8<rt1f I ~ II ~ iilf~ I' ~ II <f~

1Ut",","1 ~:

f.Ra1lq~ ~'

'GlI.. \!)~t<l<p'-<!I~ ~ I

lftf~

lr

~·iilf~

~ II O:Ul!left"llql5jet<I'M

lftf~

I

(~'{3

~~~~~ifiU~~~~~ GlI,,"I .. tPi'f)
~ ~I ~~

$lf8l,{6Mt<l<P ~~ II ~'t'4(,\""I'lI<l11f ~~ II "JI41~"1I'4~ ~ I I
~ ~ ~ ~, ~Mlr

~~ II 'iJI""f1i11~

'(j ~~

(~

~~'1.

~.-'4IQ,~GRI'&""'om)

filf~1

~~

~ ~

''''i1r~''
1fI<f~ ~
'\lr

~~~.~
9f1f ~
~

~
~1~1\5~ ~

~

iff
~I

~
~1!I<f,

cmct~t<I
~ ~

"iJ'Itn" GlIC"1I&"lI"~

on ~

~

~

'lItC41et:'lI

\'

~ ~ ~

-e ~

~,
~

~~~~ ~~ .,~~
(~)

C\!lRt

I~

I

(1I1Ii{lr, ~ ~

~o, ~~
~

~'~R,

~~~~R

~~-1f~1 ~, ~ e, 8, ~, ,\-<!I~

<fmi{

,,~et"1\SJoml ~

~~~

~

~~I

~~.~

~

~~,

eA1'I. ~ ~.'" ..~ ~ ~ ~'I '6Iltwil61lt ~ .~ .~
)0 ,,~

~, ~

~,.~ ~ ~ ~~

I~

~. ~~

1(COf ~,

.~'

~

(Ocham's ~

razor) ~-

<it

~, ~
~I

<i'll'flbl~,
(~~,

~

~,

~

~,

P'1<ii)<i., ~ ~ • ~

'~~I~,

lJRr ~'-<!l~

<mf '$It1Uc<M ~1"«!'I(flIlJ1 : .~~
~",'\1T : ~~~,\)I

~'$ItIU~ost
_,..~

em ~
1lt~ ~

~1\t4.jf\:l<fSM

~~
Wjif~

~IClJ1lfb\!l ~~;,'6jIC"'It<il~'1I\"I~

~.

m~. m ~
~

<f&'fI ~,

't~ ~~
ifil1t

~

'611'...... ~
'QI ~

(~"''\1T : ~"'~-,,'\)

~~~<Rt ~ ~ ~_"-' c<P't ~ Jitcer..,."'t 'fII1Iltf .rtIf ~ ~~"'" I .

'5'IICm

~<1l<f

,*!>tIC~.~

_I

_ ~m f.r<lf~ '6jf\s"<I~'lI ~'l '6I:qAAI'n~M·~ ~
~ ~
'8

~~~~~,"iIM~'~'-~~W-f~'

~

I

~
'8

: '6jP!l8liSfJ '~"l
~~\!IJ"C1lI'1J I

~
~' ~

'8

~~I!)'+C1lI'tJ1

~

~ ~'!_<lS ~

~ ~'!_<lS ~

~'1.

<it~'!_<lS <it ~I
"~~

(~~

~)I.~'!_<lS
~
~ctt)

~

:eI\!I)·.,.Ci.lI'1J (~, I

~J~I8J\tC~ ~~

1:4Fts'llC'1~
~~~,

tt II '04fii01<i1'1

~.~~(~)
<!IC<iS ~

'~~

~~

[~

""I ~~·8~~~~~~:.;~~
) ~1m~

~
~,

~~
~

ourn-C<fC"1~'<jS~ ~
'8

~
~~~~:

~I

.ftn tIM,,"

C'fI1Jf .... "

~'!_<lS~on,

~~~ ~ ~
~
I

~\!IJ'~OlI~ '6j\tJI<i{l<i1

lJRr' :

.., .,' !~ I

~ '~\!IJ"C1lI~' ~'1 (~N<I~),
~"

(<r.{?f1fW ~: ~'1. '8 ~'!_<lS ~ ~. 1(COf <roR, ~~ ~~et
'8

on)~
~

'8~

~

~

(commonsence), ~~

~ 1~
C~ ~ ~(~

~
~

""~
~~ I ~

~
~

~
~

~

~
~tf, .-( '6I1"""U

'l(CI4I..,'
__

'\ I '!R],

'It1nIU, ~,

'1IIfp{ ifJtClf

(redundancy-CMt'1)

:eI«tliSfCii<il (Pragmatic)

~,

~
'8 ~

~fi:rn~1
'6IICl11lb"1M ~

~~,
~

~~
<1l~ ~

~

~
C~~

(~~

~~~~

~

I <1l~ '$It1U ~!(!or

'St<f ~t(1
~

<fI AbllnCI· '" _ "~I"'11'b

~ ,~

~ ~

~IM~~~~~~~·~_~.1'I."1-r~
Jiij<il«t'll ~ ~"" ~I ~~~·~;(Ot_1 I!!i1t1rt <1l~ ~ I ~~ bFcfi4t'f41 ~!ffIIIT = ~-<!l~~IU~~I_" ~~ ~ '6j~f?l'& ~ ~~~(~~·~)I

~

lf1'lIiet <ut~

I~

f.roJ

~l~~~'8~~:Of<1l'3,"IM'on'I~~~~'5t~ "it-<!l~

~Cfl'"''I .~ ~M' 4ft "'
~,_~;
~ ~ I"~
~8btl ~ ~~~'~'~~I

co® ~

~

~

I Ciiflrn<llC'f~ : "<!I~

~
~ ~"

~
~ difference)

l1. ~
~ I~ '.

Oft : ~
c<I'Ii?t-.rn" <!I~ ~ (Prior ~~

_
AWrji~~~,~, ' nr ! .

.nIet

(absence) '8 CSl'f (Difference) CSl'f1 ~ ~~~~' absence ~ <!I~ C$'f') I ~ ~ <!I~ ~ I ~~~

<iart DCO'I '6ICi{]I"iJII8I<1

(mutual

1fII' 11IPt4 ~ ~
~

"""'$I"~~ ~ ~wr R" .;_liCf) ~ ... .,,,t'
~

~~fi

w., ~ ~~)

: '6j\!lJ\tII8I<1 (~ m?f ~; ;~~~ (Posterior absence
~

~~
:~

~I

~

~;;n
~
'6I<i~<II

- ~;nl
c<r"6jf~et ~

~

~'~~;n
~.~
~ ~

(~.~
~~;n'1
I ~~ <!I~ ~

~

~
.~~

'~;n') filmtf

~
~
~

~~.
I ~~'
<!I ~

9fTft(~~.,
~I ~

1ItW ell 1I\~ • ..,..
~~

~1r ~ 'IIfIPU1~,
~ ~
<1l~

<1t ~.

~
<f&'fI ~
I

'\t\\'~Cl11ii ~

~~
~

"iIM ~~ ~ (~WfM ~ ms-c<lS\S 'Get <f&'fI ~ I 1fttif 'ttt-l1l' ~~ _
~tft-l
~I ~ ~ ~? _ ~~

"m· 'a'l1)
""'"
~-

...

~-t9ftfit
I~
~.~~

tll ~.

~~

- '6j<iMYf4 ~

~ i:5rf~et I <!I ''6j<iM:'f<ll\!lI' ~

<I'm ~, ~ '6jICl11lbiil~ ~~
~

~
<1l<iS ~

~

C"1'8m
I
~
~

~~ "\ ~ f.mr ~ iff, ~ ~ ~ ~~, ~ f.1>~? ~ ~~ f.mr ~,,~~
absence) -C<iI ~~

~ ~ f.mr-~ '6jC"1J1"1JII8IC<i~ (Difference)
<!I ~~~~ (~ C<iIif

~;;n
~~ ~I

Prior '8 Posterior

~I

~~,

<!I<I' <!I<I' ~

<1l~ (;<iaIft ..~

~\!)"'41~ ~ 1: ~

~ ~.

~ ~~

~

i@l0"'11
9flftt( -

C<i'1if <l'tm:et ~.

IWIR,
~ ~~,

IWIR ~.~
(~~et
~

cut~
~ \!It
~

~
~ ~~~,

~
<1l<iSU1 ~ ~ ~

~
~
~ <1l<iS ~

~

I~

<ut~ ~, ~~,
lftC<iI ~

'5Pfnr~)

'IfU
~

~~~~~'~I

"Coi{llrn<ll'lll~ ""~~ • ~(I \5C<r ~

~et ~

~~
~

~,

""~-.ote"1ft, 'Ift.~
~ ~.~
""., <1l~~~.

~
I ~.

Double negation,

f.mr ~
~

I Of<1l'3,:o1<!j3, = ~, ~

~ =~

~

~

"~<1l'3, <!I<I' '6jI8I<1C<II

""~fII,

c'lftl: ~

(Cog!lition)-<!l

Of~ Of<1l'3, ~

(~""~~

f.mr ~(""~~

~

'\) Iro

.m~,

~

'I81C<i' ~~ilijlii

~I

~.~

~

?I"ft~-.rnl ~

~~~,~CWI~~~~~I

~ ~*
~l~JM<p ~~

fifN ~

1 ~~,

~~

c9fRt~f.1Cjt'Sl,;q 11fit ~

~

~

•. bsentlal a

ql:'antlfler ~"Sfol

;U;q(lt."IilI ~ (awareness)

~

~

Logical ~I ~~ ~"\~

Form

(LF) .. t"I ~ ~ LF ~

i~iI\!5" ~
~ CRJI ~

~ ~~ om~, ~,
~

~ ~ ~,~~
~'fo{ ~

~.~ '<;5f1"bc1~1c;q ~
~ ~ ~

~

~1'ilI\JaI'i1~

~~ffi

~ ~-~
:

~1·lIS1ii ~ ~"'iWf.l' ~I ~ ~"e ~~~w ~ ~I ~~. ~1'41.1" ~ If''i'..f5'!l ~ ~I

~1'$"'\!5111 ~ syntax

~

~"~'"C">i

t.nnRlfHl

Oft'4t;qI'?6';q\l5I" ~

~

~

~

~11fttIf
(}B~I

~
~tliI'"

f.ropt ~Ilfit, ~I' 1111: ~
~~

~

~

~I ~-<JI1f~1If11I'Sh,
(congnltlon)-

Q~
IJI~~~:

ontology

"~~?"~~,

elf 'Gj;qf.llfi:lttCII (Limitor) SEXUALITY-TEXTUALITY lfit ~ 'IfttOtt, ~

~

wm ~
~ ~

~ lII'tt ~?

'ol'flAllll1Ut9fl1'lJt'l11f
~ ~I ~~ .. ~

fW.wr? lIilil"lltll

""'"

ci1tIt'f
1ft~

). wt
~~ ~

Counter

Positive (Locus)

<It
1 ~~

tt~tijlo$lT ~' ~ ~~if ~, ~

(wh) ~ ~

ottl
~

~-<JI1f ~ trace ~

'"

.~

~~~~~~? ~
• ~

.~"
on ~

~

t.fPPf WI?

'cnoIJ '" ~

CIttIf 1D'I 'ItT t'ItT ~

"I'I~.'tMi
~ ~I

11M'' ' ' ' ' ..
1ft1·~.1fl

'Gj;qCDPJ:lt<P (Limitor) tt~CCI'~ ~

CI"f ~
Q ~'~I)
~ ~

.......

1

~. wt~,
Pragmatic Trace ~';{ '" ~

(~~'IfttOtt,
~(~ lfit

'"

wm
~)I '

OIl

~;q'6<p 1
~ ~

'''P on q If\'' .. ~
~l ~

...." ~

'8tfi

Competence ~

181ft

'on' ~
1{{'1 ~ "-<JI1f

1Itt'f ~

~

IJI~ '"It'-<JIif ~

'on' ~ If..... 91? 1 .~ 'on' ~ t'ItT
... ~.-. ~

m

ott C<I'tif ~ '#{M~t. ~ ~ ~
"~~?"

=

(Trace >i;q>iil"- C<I'tif on C<I'tif ~

Trace ; C<IIIif I

~Cillo$lT) ifIlr binding

I~
and

~
seam) ~. delete' 2INlC'lI~

tt~CijlfiNll;q(Jl(It<p ~

~

~
~I

~~
~ 'copy

(relational

~~~I~on~~~onu-clttal~~1

L(ocus)-relation

fittlfl 'Gj"!tijl~ ~ ~ CSIti'f ~ onl
~ ~I ' ~-<JIif ~I ~I ~, ~ (PRO) IJI~ The city

~,
~

C<I'tif .a~(lPt<p ~
~ ~

'on' ~

~~(16l1i ~~?

.... ~~~~.n
'"

<p1l~"liI ~

...
-'

1JI"4fitO '"

m.~ ~ .wt'I "!fit 1ft~'

CSIti'f \fI1f ~

fIIIt<qS 'Gj"!tijl~t\!5, \fI1f \flI;qf.llfi:It."I"ft ~

~m
pro-~

~,

~~
~
~

') ~ ~

Q~

~

lII'ttl
~lfit

RI ~
~
~ ~ [PRO to hurt ~ ~~

~
~ herself] ~~~, ~ ~

~~~"
~ hurt~ ~

~~~)~~~~?~~~?'''f1~''~~
~~ ~CRJ~on?

C<I'tif ~
expected

C'fi'It'f

~ .,.. ~
~

"~"It"--'iIttif ~
~onl

~ •
~

~I

m ~ ~~ ~
~
~I ~I Empty

.. ~

Srimatl ~?"

fiir ~~
was destroyed

'iIC1IJ ~

tI!51If.f~~

Q!R,~~Q!R?

iiir.Itl 1Ut~
~, ~

~I
~ ~~~~I ~-<JI~

~
~

~..Qf+'tiI ~
~ ~~

$
~ ~

'1ttI _
~

CCIIPt·~ 9fItitt ~~if ~,
(1fl'i'fCif

- ~ ttfl"\I5't.~Q
~'f.1w1

LF·"I ~~~

~ "Iif 'IftIIt ~

"I~~~~'6JttG1"11I\"~~

16Pi1i6~ C<I'tif ~~,
'IftIIt ~ ~ ifIlr ~ ~
~I

~, ~

absent I ~ ~

-~<IJt~~?
-~~~lmm'W!1f~~~.~I~~1911
~Semantics ~~~~~I~,~,~,~,~-

tt~Cij'''b

~-<JI1f 'IftIIt '" ~ Categoryl

PtofD)113I 1fWIr ~

~
~?

f1IiWJ'tiFIL ~~
~ ~

~
~~
positive) ~.,.

~
~

I~

~ ~ ~ ~ .n 1;11" bil~!4'"
(~C"I"'''Counter "ICI ~,

~~" outmf ~ bilfit;"'"1 ~"1~j'<JIC. I'
~ofGjltill ~ fIIttqs

~

~'~

~~
";qt<pJ~, ~ ~ ~I ~ ~

m~,
~:

~
$IIlf~ ~
~ ~

~~I6j'''IRlcn
~~~~-~~

~
~ ~11~ effort

~ <It

~
activity

m tfIIt ~.
~ ->e ~

:

c;qsjof

f.Is1
~, ~

~~
~I ~ ~

CinrI~Valency-~~

'~ ~ m
»Il:t)
~ ~.~ c:<IS'~

~

~

1IC'lJ, ~

~ ~ ~

~~

-.n'I'II'I ...
Deleted

TRACE

9ft'f

iiir.It?~.

~ C<I'tif ~

~-'~W
~1~1~1f6~ ~ ~

~ <m ~I

'i3P1n'~
~
~

'omtfit<p
"I ~
•••

Oq"'<P1l'1~ilI~

CSIti'f, ~

oltegory

'G Content

1ft1f

iiir.It? "Il

'G <p(;QltbHI ~

2It'III ~

~

~

11fCnr "1,.,\15041 ~

'IMtI!5J ~

~

fill ,~.

f.lti

,'Ot",.. t>i( ~

(

--: ~

~

~~

CIlHI!1tl ~ ~"liflif6 ~
......,~' ~

~m~.,. ~~ ~" ~lff;f
If!~

~

~~lfI

~

~1If9t ~ ~

~

I '" "PRO ~
..~ ' If! ~ ~

f'ItI,III,llflf'll'. .. 1fn
Ingalls, D. H. H. 1951. A a!&llt"lI'll Materials for The Study of Navya-nyaya Logic. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvanrd University Press ~fIIl" C<JII"l<JI11!) II ~, 001 :>~'\b-I <ft~m~.:~~~1 C<JI <JIll!)I : ~~I 1"1 C<JIl"1IIII!)I : 9(: < C<JII"l<JI11!)1: 9(:
'<j'!lf ~~ ~ ~[

'fiIii~

~~~I

~~

~
'Jtit ......, ~
'(3

~"It
.JIQI~
~~_

~I ~

9fIi~'~
~I

~"It
~

~I~

-

",mrfjCll.lIl&i~~CIl ~ ..

if&HtClI'lt ~.

~

<ttl(t

C~,

~I

~~~b-I

'~

~N5~P1<JI

'\

: ~ - ~ (1: ~ - ~~),

"""'~~If!~~I~CIt'1tfit~<fICIt~~,~~~ ~ Comfort

.
~

"It C'Iti'O, ~

WQ ~

'~'~

~fijl"ltG ~
~.~I

~
~

~, ~~,

'I11CeratOlIQ! ~Cilb-~ I <mfu-9(~1 I ~'tl

I

~,
~

~
~

~

1f!~'fiIii..18tCPn ~~
~ Ci'PIt~t1Ir.:ttll,
"lPIJ ll&f ~

~
~?

~Cj$tt&f

oum merr~

~I

'<j'!lf'$iJ

-----~:
<pi I
~I" ~,~~Q!I ~~8a-1

'OfJrn ~<r

lfl'f-l ~~
~I

~-~q(~,
~~letl!)'lJl

~Cilb-~-b-b-I c<JII"I<JI11!)I 9(: ~ :

~ ~~I"'"., RtillilR
......, ~'A? ~ ~
Cj$t1f

~~IQ'" ~
~ ~

li'Ia!t'l1

~

C<JII"l<JItl!)I : ~

$jl~JIS<lijl

<fI1I ~~

l1it? ~
~

$1{"ItCIl ~ $~ ~

~

~

~,~

~

~

'IttiI' ~

~~

<tt ~~

Potter, K. H. 1957. The Padar thatattva nirupana of Raghunath Siromoni. Cambridge, Mass : Harvard University Press. ed. 1977. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. Vol. II. Delhi : Motilal Banarasi das.

- '~ ~ ~ lfit
subtle
~

Phallus ~

body,
~

<mtt '~
~?'

~

~'i? ~

~"IIffm ~ ~

~~,
~

~I

~Jlfllt'I~

i#J14'11l)1~~

~.<It
(.Cj$if

'!"tiI"'''1 ~

~

IftiI'It <Q ~ t"ttIt '11 .mtr ~

<tt
'WIUt?ftI:lT11f,
~I

Bhattacharya, Sed. Encyclopedia of Indian Philosophies. Vol. VI. Delhi: Motilal Banarasidas. ~~~I ~ ~I C<II1",<JI1\31 :

"IfIf.f ott I ~ ~

'9fJ1f~1
of Science."

~

: -;U1~4"JP1 ~

~

~

Bandyopadhayay, D 1997. Chomsky and Habermas : Nyaya Theory of Debating. Language Forum. XXIII : 1-2 2000. "Making of Indian Philosophy Margins (PP. 57-73) Kolkata.

~
~

~'1t
~

I ~Cilb-8 I
~

oum ~

'e .~

lfl'f-ll filCOI"t5at1

C<JII"l<JI11!)I 9(. <I. ~ : ~~'\b-I ~

~
~I

~
~-~

I I

lfl'f-l

~I ~ (~~~b-: X) fiI~ I "Dr. Gourlnath Sa.trl, who WI. proved to be my nyayakalyanamltra, for It WI. he who flr.t encouraged me to enter the dense and thorny world of N.vYI-nyaYI whln I wa. considering more favorably the sunny world of kavya and Allmk.r •. "

C<jI''''<JI11!)1:'J'f~~1 Matilal" B. K. 1968. The Navya Nyaya Doctrine of Negation. Cambridge, Mass : Havard University Press

<1St<U~
~I ~
'~Q!'

~
~ ~

~*,m~Q!
~
~ ~

~

~

~

C'M lo"ltll~~1
~,'6I~"1J5atll:f\!l~C~'!l
(~9(lQ! ~~, ~ ~~

<ft ifCUiU1ll ~ (~~'\b-),

C~ ~ (~~b-8) ~

lfim1fit
~ ~ ~

1985. Logic, Language and Reality. Delhi : Motilal Banarasidas.
~ ~ ~
~~

ts9faj~

*'It, ~ 'CIItI ~ ~I ~ 1IP{t1t1f ~ ~"fI"I ()~I\"'),
~

~I
~Qflr

OI<lJO{lI·tll'l1 1.~ '6IIC",15011~

ml ~ ~
~,

I c:elIfIT ~

m ""~~ ~
~
~

~~
!II~
C~

'J'f~~
'e ~

-e

~lI(

~

~

COfl:I) I~ 'J'f~'J'f'fI

I ~~b-b- 'J'f~'J'f'f <ftl!~

~~

ourn-~
~~~~~I'

\!iIIC",1501'11 ~~, 1

~

~

"1fI "

t1f

,'11ft ~
b-8

'PIIt'Rf lItllJ ~

~

I"

0'Il.