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Mobile Robot Design

Presented by:

Team J1

Eric Adams Chris Eaton Kevin Glover Manny Lebita Gus Weiss IV

Outline
Project Definition/Objectives Component Overview System Wide Integration/Testing Project Status Budget/Schedule Update Questions

Project Definition
To design a mobile robotic system that will traverse through a maze with arbitrary obstacles and transmit information to a PC that will graphically display the robots telemetry information and maze layout.

Project Objectives
Navigate/Collect information within maze Traverse a closed path within maze Transmit information using transceivers Process and display received data Exit maze

System Block Diagram

Compass Altera Board

Rangefinders

IR Sensors

Transceiver

Drive Train

PC-Side Application

Project Specifications Components


Altera Board Drive Train Rangefinders IR Sensors Compass Communications PC Application

Altera Board
Controls the robot Interface to all modules Modules are connected through expansion header pins Built-in 7-segment LEDs, push-button switches, and DIP switches for testing Programmed using VHDL

Drive Train
Consists of 2 modified servos with wheels Drive Train control logic provides 8 directional settings and 4 speed settings Servos are driven using PWM signals Speed controlled by altering duty cycle

Drive Train Testing Procedure


Developed PWM generator separately and verified waveforms using oscilloscope. Ensured relatively straight travel in all speed modes

Ultrasonic Rangefinder Sensors


Consists of 3 rangefinder modules Determines range to objects Returns hex value, which is interpolated by software Actual effective range 3cm 89cm Actual precision inconsistent, thus streaming buffer implemented in software

Ultrasonic Rangefinder Sensors Testing Procedure


Verified correct trigger input values using oscilloscope Measured output readings at various distances to ensure consistency

Infrared Line-Tracker Sensors

Front-mounted module with three digital lines Signal goes high when reflective material detected beneath the sensor Altera board uses IR sensors to decide movement when traversing loop

Infrared Line-Tracker Sensors Testing Procedure


Line tracker has built-in LEDs that illuminate when the sensors signal goes high (i.e., when the tape is detected.) Place each sensor over a piece of tape and make sure the LED illuminates. This ensures the line tracker itself is working. Place the robot on a closed path and see if it follows it. This ensures proper integration of the line tracker.

Odometer
Instrument needed to measure the distance traveled by robot Initially planned on implementing timers with servos, but servos were unreliable Decided on hardware odometer Servo consistency improved, and thus we returned to original plan

Electronic Compass
Provides orientation information Important in mapping and loop traversal VHDL control logic implemented Interfaces using SPI Communication difficulties Software contingency in development

Compass Contingency Plan


Communication problems with the compass could force an alternative solution Contingency plan is to implement software functionality to replace compass Software would use trigonometric formulas with odometer data to calculate a heading

Wireless Communications
Necessary for robot-topc communications Accomplished through 2 transceiver modules Data transferred at 19.2k bits/sec VHDL module controls send/receive logic Robot and PC send packets to each other Packet format revised

RF Communications Data Packets


Robot-To-PC Packet:
Byte 0 Byte 1 Byte 2 Byte 3 Byte 4 Byte 5 Left Rangefinder [7..0] (integer 0-255) Center Rangefinder [7..0] (integer 0-255) Right Rangefinder [7..0] (integer 0-255) Speed [1..0] Mode[1..0] Reserved Move Control [2..0] Reserved Sensors [2..0]

PC-To-Robot Packet:
Byte 0 Override Mode[1..0] Speed [1..0] Control [2..0]

RF Communications Testing Procedure


Receiver and transmitter modules developed separately Oscilloscope used to verify clock lines, timing, and proper operation

System-Wide Integration
Top-level VHDL file that integrates communications, drive train, IR sensors, and ultrasonic rangefinder sensors Implemented as Finite-State-Machine with four states Idle Mode stops robot and waits for commands Remote-Guide Mode controls robot based on incoming packets Self-Guide Mode controls robot based on its own sensor readings Traversal Mode controls robot based on IR Sensors once robot is in closed-loop

Responsibility Shift: Software


Servo control improved, allowing software implementation of odometer Compass work still being done; contingency plan: software implementation Packet formats revised Software buffer implemented to improve rangefinder consistency PC-Side App is Brain of robot

PC-Side Application
Use Visual Basic 6 to display an approximate map of the maze based on data sent by the robot Record obstacles in memory in order to aid robot in decisions Provide direct human control of robot

Processing Packets
Packets include rangefinder, line tracker, and servo data Velocity and timer: determine distance traveled (odometer) Turn-rate and timer: determine heading changes (pseudo-compass) Rangefinder distances and basic trigonometry: obstacle placement

Software Distance Correction


Rangefinder returns erratic data Distances sent to streaming buffers Buffers smooth inconsistencies in data, providing a time-averaged value This value is then interpolated from a table of actual distances

Storing the Maze


Maze is 214cm x 305cm PC-Side App creates a matrix Each array element represents a 1cm square Detected obstacles are placed in matrix

Maze Legend
0 = unexplored territory 1 = path traveled by robot 2 = tape 3-9 = reserved 10-255 = walls
255 represents highest accuracy 10 represents lowest accuracy Higher accuracies overwrite lower accuracies

Project Status: Completed Tasks


Integrated/Tested: Drive Train, Rangefinders, IR Sensors, and Communications PC-Side App and robot are talking PC-Side App graphically displays robot sensor status and orientation Robot can traverse a closed loop Robot can explore maze randomly

Project Status: Remaining Tasks


Finish compasseither in hardware or software Implement algorithm for maze traversal Complete PC-side mapping algorithm Write final report Project is ON SCHEDULE

Schedule Update
Drive Train Rangefinders IR Sensors Compass Communications Integration PC-Side App Documentation Presentation 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Time (man-hours) Original Updated

Budget Update
Qty Description Unit Price $39.95 $38.50 $19.95 $74.26 $55.00 $94.95 $149.00 $14.95 Total: Total $119.85 $77.00 $19.95 $74.26 $55.00 $94.95 $149.00 $29.90 $619.91 3 Ultrasonic RangeFinders 2 Battery Chargers 1 Tracker Sensor 1 Wireless Transceiver Pair 1 Electronic Compass 1 Rover Kit with 2 servos 1 UP2 Development Board 2 NiCad Rechargeable Batteries

Engineering Impact Considerations


Safety/Health Issues - Battery could possibly leak Wireless Communications Standards - 433MHz band available for unlicensed transmission

Real-World Application
Space/Nautical Exploration Plant Automation Military Weapons Home Appliances Automated Medical Equipment

Questions?