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# LOVELY UNIVERSITY

PROFESSIONAL

## TERM PAPER OF MATHEMATICS

SESSION: 2010-2011 SUBJECT: MATHS COURSE: BTECH (ME) SUBMITTED TO: MANREET SINGH SUBMITTED BY: NAME: SHAILESH SINGH SECTION: D4901 ROLL NO: RD4901A59 REGISTRATION NO: 10908518

INDEX:-

DEFINATION ECQUATION.

OF

EXACT

DIFFERENTIAL

METHOD EQUATION.

OF

SOLVING

THE

EXACT

DIFF.

## EQU. REDUCIBLE TO EXACT DIFF. EQUATION.

APPLICATION.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It is not until you undertake the project like this one that you realize how massive the effort it really is, or how much you must rely upon the Selfless efforts and goodwill of others. There are many who helped us with this project, and we want to thank them all from the core of our Hearts.

Teachers of the Department for giving us the best of knowledge and guidance throughout the project. And last but not the least, we find no words to acknowledge the financial assistance & moral support rendered by our parents in making the effort a success. All this has become reality because of their blessings and above all by the grace of god.

## TOPIC OF MY TERM PAPER

Give a short summary of the method of solution of exact differential equation can be solved by more work involved in each case than one method. Compare the amount of

## Exact differential equation

A differential equation obtained from its primitive directly by differentiation, without any operation of multiplication, elimination or reduction etc is said be an exact differential equation. Thus a differential equation of the form M(x,y)dx + N(x,y)dy=0 is an exact differential equation if it can be obtained directly by differentiating the equation u(x,y)=c, which is its primitive. Du= Mdx+Ndy

THEOREM:

M = N y x

## Where M = it denotes the differential co-efficient y of M with respect to y keeping x constant.

N = differential coefficients of N with respect to x x Keeping y constant Ex:- Question: solve y(2xy+x) dx = ex dy

METHODS

FOR

SOLVING

EXACT

DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS:
STEP 1. Integrate M w.r.t x keeping y constant STEP 2. Integrate w.r.t y, only those terms of N Which do not contain x STEP 3. Result of 1 + result of 2 = constant

Mdx+ Ndy =0 M /y = N/x { exact differential equation} .: the solution of Mdx+Ndy = 0 is Mdx + (terms not containing x)dy = c Y=c

## THERE IS ANOTHER METHOD TO SOLVE THE EXACT DIFFERENCIAL EQUATION:

Consider the equation f(x,y) = C

Taking the gradient we get fx(x,y)i + fy(x,y)j = 0 We can write this equation in differential form as fx(x,y)dx+ fy(x,y)dy = 0 Now divide by dx (we are not pretending to be rigorous here) to get fx(x,y)+ fy(x,y) dy/dx = 0 Which is a first order differential equation? The goal of this section is to go backward. That is if a differential equation if of the form above, we seek the original function f(x,y) (called a potential function). A differential equation with a potential function is called exact. If you have had vector calculus, this is the same as finding the potential functions and using the fundamental theorem of line integrals.

Example:
Solve 4xy + 1 + (2x2 + cos y) y = 0 Solution

We seek a function f(x,y) with fx(x,y) = 4xy + 1 and fy(x,y) = 2x2 + cos y

Integrate the first equation with respect to x to get f(x,y) = 2x2y + x + C(y) C(y). Now take the partial derivative with respect to y to get fy(x,y) = 2x2 + C'(y) We have two formulae for fy(x,y) so we can set them equal to each other. 2x2 + cos y = 2x2 + C'(y) That is C'(y) = cos y or C(y) = sin y Hence f(x,y) = 2x2y + x + sin y The solution to the differential equation is 2x2y + x + sin y = C Notice since y is treated as a constant,. we write

SOLUTION OF THAT DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION WHICH HAVE M IS NOT EQUAL TO N . y EQUATION DIFFERENTIAL INTEGRATING REDUCIBLE EQUATION: FACTOR
: multiplication of a

x TO EXACT

differential equation which is not exact by a suitable function is known as integrating factor.

## (1)BY INSPECTION WE CAN FIND THE I.F :

Xdy + ydx = d(xy) I.F. exact derivative d(y/x) d(x/y)

## Question: solve y(2xy+X) dx = ex dy

Sol: (yxdx-xdy) + 2xy(square) dx =0 Multiplying by 1/y(sqr) Integrating, we get x + x(square) = c is the Y solution

(1)

IF
If

EQUATION

IS

HOMOGENOUS

## EQUATION THEN THE I.F WILL BE:

Mdx+Ndy = 0 be a homogenous equation in x and y. then 1/(Mx+Ny) is a integrating factor (Mx+Ny0).After finding the integrating factor we multiplied it with given equation and now it becomes new M and N and now we can find the solution of exact differential equation.

(2)

I.F. FOR AN EQUATION,IF M IS OF THE FORM M=F1(xy)y AND N IS OF THE FORM OF N=F2(xy)x

Then the integrating factor will be 1/(Mx-Ny) where (MxNy 0) and after that we multiplied it with equ. And find out the solution.

(3)
(a)

(b)

## (3) FOR THE EQUATION OF THE TYPE :

x ~ay~b ( my dx + nx dy) + x~cy~d(py dx +q1x dy) =0

## then I.F will be=x~hy~k Where a+h+1 = b+k+1 m and n

c + h+1 = d+k+1 p q

APPLICATION :
(A) ELECTRICAL CIRCUIT: The equation of electric circuit depends upon the following laws 1) I = dq/dt 2) Voltage drop across resistance R = Ri 3) Voltage drop across inductance L = Ldi/dt 4) Voltage drop across capacitance C = q/C

(B) MECHANICS : it can be used to drive an equation of mechanics using differential equation. (C) HEAT CONDUCTION : IT is used to find the temperature of body and many other places where temperature level needs to be known.

## find the amount mass

converted from one form to another. Effect of NEWTONS LAW OF COOLING - the rate of decrease of the temperature is proportional to the difference between the temperature of the body and that of the medium.

(E) SPRINGS IT can be used to find out tension of the string or the velocity at which the spring is moving in to and fro motion and its acceleration.

BIBLOGRAPHY: