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10900632 Section: B4903 Roll No: B31 Course: PHY (111) Submitted to : Mr. Jagmohan Sir.

Maxwells equation: are a set of four partial differential equation that relate

the electric and magnetic field to their sources, charge density and current density. These equations can be combined to show that light is an electromagnetic wave. Individually, the equations are known as gausss law, Gausss law for magnetism, Faradays law of induction, and Amperes law with Maxwells correction. The set of equation is named after James Clerk Maxwell. These four equations, together with the Lorentz force law are the complete set of laws of classical electromagnetism. The Lorentz force law itself was actually derived by Maxwell under the name of Equation for Electromotive Force and was one of an earlier set of eight equations by Maxwell.

Conceptual descriptions:

This section will conceptually described each of the four Maxwells equation, and also how they link together to explain the origin of electromagnetic radiation such as light. The exact equations are set out in later section of this article.

1.

analogous to electric charge. Instead the magnetic field is generated by a configuration called a dipole, which has no magnetic charge but resembles a positive and negative charge inseparably bound together. Equivalent technical statement are the total magnetic flux through any Gaussian Suface is zero, or that the magnetic is a solenoidal vector field.

2.

charge: The electric field tends to point away from positive charge and towards negative charge. Most technically, it relates the electric flux through any hypothetical closed :Gaissian surface to the electric charge within th e surface.

3.

electric field. This aspect of electromagnetic induction is the operating principle behind many electric generator: A bar magnet is rotated to create a changing magnetic field, which in turn generates an electric field an a nearby wire.

4.

can be generated in two ways by electric current. Maxwells correction to Amperes Law is particularly important important: It means that a

changing magnetic field creates an electric field and a changing electric field creates a magnetic field. Therefore, these equation allow selfsustaining electromagnetic waves to travel through empty space.

General formulation

The equation in this section are give in SI units. Unlike the equations of mechanics Maxwells equation are not unchanged in other unit systems. Though the general form remains the same, various definition get changed and different constant appear at different places. Other than SI., the units commonly used are Gaussian units, Lorentz- Heaviside units. Two equivalent, general formulation of Maxwells equation follow. The first separation bound charge and bound current from free charge and free current. This separation is useful for calculations involving dielectric or magnetized materials. The second formulation treats all charge equally, combining free and bound charge into total charge. This is the more fundamental or microscopic point of view, and is particularly useful when no dielectric or magnetic material is present. More details, and a proof that these two formulations are mathematically equivalent.

History: Although James Clerk Maxwell Is said by some not to be the originator of these equation, he nevertheless derived them independently in conjuction with his molecular vortex model of Fardays lines of force. In doing so, he made an important additional to Amperes circuital law. The Term Maxwells Equation

The term Maxwells equation originally applied to a eight equation published byMaxwell in 1865, but now a days applies to modified version of four of tese equation that were grouped together in 1884 by Oliver Heaviside, concurrently with similar work by Willard Gibbs and Heinrich Hertz. These equation were also known variously as the HertzHeaviside sometimes still know as the Maxwell-Heaviside equation. Maxwells contribution to Science in producing these equation lies in the correction he made to Amperes circutal law in his 1861 paper.He added the displacement current term to amperes circuital law and this enabled him to derive the electromagnetic wave equationin his later 1865 paper A Dyanamical Theory of the electromagnetic wave. This fact was then confirmed experimentally by Heinrich Hertz in 1887.

The concept of fields was introduced by, among others, Farrady. Albert Einstein wrote: The precise formulation of the time-space laws wsa the work of Maxwell. Imagine his feelings when the differential equation he had formulation proved to him that electromagnetic fields spread in the form of polarized waves, and at the speed of light! to few men in the world has such an experience been vouchsafedit tool physicists some decades to grasp the full signification of Maxwell discovery, so bold was the leap that his genius forced upon the conceptions of his fellow-workers The equation were called some the Hertz-Heaviside equation,but later Einstein referred to them as the Maxwel-Hertz equation. In 1940 Einstein referred ti the equation as Maxwells equation in The Fundamentals of Theoretical Physics published in the Washington periodical science. The equation were called by some the Hertz-Heaviside equation, but later Eintein referred to them as the Maxwell-Hertz equations. In 1940 Einstein referred to the equation as Maxwells equation in The Fundamentals of Theoretical Physics published in the Washington periodical Science. Displacement Current The product must have the dimensions of a current. In fact, That product has been treated as being a fictionus current called the displacement current i. Displacement is properly chosen in that nothing is being displaced, but we are stuck with the word. Nevertheless, we can now rewrite In which id is the displacement current that is encircled by the integration loop. Let us again focus on a charging capacitor with circular plates. The real current I that is charging the plates changes the electric field E associated with that changing field E . The charge q on the plates at any times is related to the magnitude E of the field between the plates that time in which A is the plate area. To get the real current I, we differentiate.

Apllications:

1. Maxwells equation are the most general equation of the macroscopic

electromagnetic field. Any engineering problem that includes electromagnetic fields solved starting from these equation, although in some instances it may not be quite obvious. Maxwells equation can be written in two forms, Integral and differential. Teir integral form is ..eq(1.1)

..eq(1.2) eq(1.3)

eq(1.4) 2. The current continuity equation in integral form is important because it must be satisfied by all real current and charges.. ..eq(1.5)

3. The general boundary conditions are specislized forms of the above

equation, connecting the electric and magnetic field vectors on the two sides of a boundary surface between two media. The read ..eq(1.6)

eq(1.7)

..eq(1.8)

..eq(1.9) .Differential form of Eqs (1.1)-(1.5) are obtained from the integral form by means of the Stokess and divergence theorems.They have the form eq(1.10) eq(1.11) ..eq(1.12) ..eq(1.13) ..eq(1.14)

Electromagnetic Field:

Electromagnetic field is a physical field produced by electrically charged objects. It affects the behavior of charged objects in the vicinity of the field. The electromagnetic field extends indefinitely throughout space and describes the electromagnetic interaction. It is one of the four fundamental forces of nature. The field can be viewed as the combination of an electric field and a magnet field. The electric field is produced by stationary charges, and the magnetic field by moving charges: these two are often describes as the sources of the field. The electromagnetic field is described by Maxwells Equation and the Lorentz foce law. The electromagnetic field can be regarded as a smooth, continuous field, propagate in a wavelike manner, whereas from the perspective of

quantum field theory, the field is seen as quantized, being composed of individual particles.

The electromagnetic field may be viewed in two distinct ways: Continuous structure Classically, electric and magnetic fields are thought of as being produced by smooth motion of charged objects. For example, oscillating charges produce electric and magnetic fields that may be viewed in a smooth continuous, wavelike fashion. In this case, energy is viewed as being transferred continuously through the electromagnetic field between any two locations. For instance, the metal atoms in a radio transmitter appear to transfer energy continuously. This view is useful to a certain extent, but problems are found at high frequencies. Discrete structure: The electromagnetic field may be thought of in a more coarse way. Experiments reveal that in some circumstances electromagnetic energy transfer is better described as being carried away in packets or chucks quanta or photons with a fixed frequency. Plancks relation links the energy E of a photon to its frequency v through the equation: E=hv Where h is Planks Constant, named in honor of Max Plaank, and v is the frequency of the photon. Although modern quantum optics tells us that there also is a semi-classical explanation of the photo electric effect the emission of electrons from metallic surface subjected to electromagnetic radiation-the photon was historically used to explain certain observations It is found that increasing the intensity of the incident radiation increases only the number of electron ejected, and has almost no effect on the energy distribution of their ejection. Only the frequency of the radiation is relevant ti the energy of the ejected electrons.

This quantum picture of the electromagnetic field has proved very successful, giving rise to quantum electrodynamics, a quantum field theory describing the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with charge matter. It also gives rise to Quantum optics, which is different from quantum mechanics rather than Quantum field theory.

Dynamics of the electromagnetic field In the past, electrically charged object were thought to produce two types of field associated with their charge property. An electric field is produced when the charge is stationary with respect to an observer measuring the properties of the charge, and a magnetic field is produced when the charges moves with respect to this observer. Over time, it was realized that the electric and magnetic fields are better thought of two parts of a greater whole-the electromagnetic field.

Applications:

Light from the sun is the main source of energy on earth, whether directly or indirectly. Electromagnetic radiation covers basically all aspects of life. Properties of the electromagnetic field are exploited in many areas of industry. The use of electromagnetic radiation is seen in various disciplines. For example, X-rays are high frequency electromagnetic radiation and are used in radiography in medicine. Other forms of electromagnetic radiation are used in radio astronomy and radiometry in telecommunications. Other medical applications include laser therapy, which is an example of photomedicine. Application of lasers are found in military devices such as laser guided bombs, as well as more down to earth devices such as barcode readers and CD players. Something as simple as a relay in any electrical devices uses an electromagnetic field to engage or to disengage the two different states of output.

In 1864 Maxwell published A dynamical Throry of the Electromagnetic Fied in which he showed that light was an electromagnetic phenomenon. Confusion over the term Maxwells Equation is exacerbated because it is also sometimes used for a set of eight equation that appered in Part III of Maxwells 1864 paper A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field entitle General Equation of the Electromagnatic Fiel, confusion compounded by the writing of six those eight equation as three separate equation, resulting in twenty equation and twenty unknows. The eight orginal Maxwells equation Maxwells equation can be written in modern vector notation as follows: (A) The law of total current

(B)

(C)

(D)

Electromotive force created by convection, induction, and by static electricity. This is in effect the Lorentz force

(E)

(F)

Ohms Law

(G)

Gausss law

(H)

Equation of continuity

The Equations: Maxwells four equation describe the electric and magnetic fields arising from varying distribution of electric charges and currents and how those fields change in time. The equation were the mathematical distillation of decades of experimental observation of the electric and magnetic effects of charges and current. Maxwells own contribution is just the term of the last equation-but realizing necessity of that term had dramatic consequences. It made evident for the first time that varying electric and magnetic fields could feed off each other-these fields could propagate indefinitely through space, far from the varying charges and currents where they originated. Previously the fields had been envisioned as tethered to the charges and currents giving rise to them. Maxwells new term freed them to move through space in a self-sustaining fashion, and even predicated their velocity-it was the velocity of light!

1. Gausss Law for electric fields: (The integral of the outgoing electric field over an area enclosing a volume equals the total charge inside, in appropriate units) 2. The corresponding formula for magnetic fields: (No magnetic charge exists: no monoples .) 3. Faradays Law magnetic Induction:

The first term is integrated round a closed line, usually a wire and gives the total voltage change around the circuit, which is generated by a varying magnetic field threading through the circuit. 4. Ampere Law plus Maxwells displacement current: This gives total magnetic force around a circuit in term of the current through the circuit, plus and varying electric field through the circuit. The purpose of this lecture is to review the first three equation and the orginal Amperes Law fairly briefly, as they were already covered earlier in the course, then to demonstrate why the displacement current term must be added for consistency, and finally to show, without using differential equation, how measured values of static electric and magnetic attraction sufficient to determine the speed of light.

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