TERM PAPER OF SYSTEM ANALYSIS AND DESIGN THEORY TOPIC :-INDENTIFICATION OF COMPUTER OUTPUT S SUBMITTED TO

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Prof. Dinesh SUBMITT ED BY MCA (1 sem.)
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Roll no.B39,B40 Reg. no:1080 10805252 INDEX 1. Acknowledgement
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It is a matter of immense pleasure that we take this opportunity to express my heartfelt gratitude to my guide Mr.Dinesh Lect. Of Lovely Professional University for the invaluable ideas,Assistance and encouragement that he provided during project . We also wish to express our thanks to him for his helpful reviews comments supports on our studies .We shall always visualize his encouraging gesture,competent guidance,constant Inspiration

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OUTPUT

DESIGN :-

Computer output is the most important & Direct source of information to the user. Efficient , Intelligible output design should improve the system’s relationship with the user & help in decision making. A major formof outputis a hard copy from the printer. Printouts should be designed around the output requirements of the user. The following media devices are available for providing Computer based output: 1.MICR readers. 2.Line, matrix and daisy wheel printers. 3.Computer output microfilm (COM). 4.CRT screen display. 5.Graph plotters.
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6.Audio response. In addition to deciding on the output device, the system analystmust consider the print format and the editing for the final printout. Editing ranges from suppressing unwanted zeros to merging selected records to produce new fig. In either case , the task of output preparation is critical requiring skill & ability to align user requirements with the capabilities of the system in operation. The standards for printed output suggest the following: 1.Give each output specific name or title . 2.Provide a sample of the output layout , including areas where printing may appear & the location of each field. 3.States whether each output field is to include significiant zeros, spaces between fields, & alphabetic or any other data. 4.Specify the procedure for proving the accuracy of the output data . In online applications, information is displayed on the screen. The layout sheet for displayed output
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is similar to the layout chart used for designing input. Areas for displaying the information are blocked out, leaving the rest of the screen blank or for system status information. Alowing the user to review sample screen can be extremely important because the user is the ultimate judge of the quality of the output & in turn, the success of the system. For example, the following shows editing output for a student birthdate : DISPLAY :DATE OF BIRTH (mm/dd/yy) 23/19/80 RESPONSE : MONTH EXCEEDS 12 SUGGEST A RETRY : DATE OF BIRTH (mm/dd/yy)

FORMS DESIGN
We have learned that data provide the basis for information system. Without data there is no system, but data must be provided in the right form for input & the information produced must be in a format acceptable to the user. In eithercase, it is still data – the basic element of a printed form.

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WHAT IS A FORM ?
People read from forms, write on forms , and spend billions of hours handlings forms & filling forms. The data the forms carry come from people, & the informal output of the system goes to people. So the form is a tool with a message; it is the physical carrier of data – of information. It also can constitute authority for actions. With this in mind, it is hard to imagine a business operating without using forms. They are the vehicles for most communication & the blue print for many activities.

CLASSIFICATION OF FORMS:A printed form is generally classified by what it does in the system . There are three primary classifications: action, memory & report forms. An action form request the user to do something – get action. A memory form is a record of historical data that remains in a file is used for reference & serves as control on key details.
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Three classes of formsCLASSES CHARACTERSTICS EXAMPLES Action 1. orders, instucts, authorizes application form 2. achieves result purchase order 3. goes from one place to another sales slip shop order time card Memory 1. represents historical data bond register 2. data generally used for inventory control reference 3. serves as control on certain stock leader details Report project 1. summary picture of a balance sheet 2. used as a basis for decision trail balance making

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REQUIREMENTS OF FORMS DESIGN
Forms design follows analyzing forms, evaluating present documents & creating new or improved forms. There are several major requirements: 1. IDENTIFICATION & WORKING:-

The form title must clearly identify its purpose . columns & rows should be labeled to avoid confusion. The form should also be identified by firm name or code no. to make it easy to recorder. 2. MAXIMUM READABILITY & USE :The form must be easy to use & fill out. It should be legible , intelligible & uncomplicated . Ample writing must be provided for inserting data. 3. PHYSICAL FACTORS :The form’s composition, color, layout & paper shock should lend themselves to easy reading .

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Pages should be numbered when multipage reports are being generated for the user.
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ORDER OF DATA ITEM :-

The data requested should reflect a logical sequence . Related data should be in the adjacent positons. Data copied from source documents should be in the same sequence. 5. EASE OF DATA ENTRY :It is used for data entry , the form should have field positions indicated under each column of data & should have some indication of where decimal points . 6. SIZE & REARRANGEMENT :form must be easily stored &filed. It should provide for signature. Important items must be in a prominent location on the form. 6. USE OF INSTRUCTIOS :The instructions that the accompany a form
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The

should clearly show how it is used and handled. 7. EFFICIENCY CONSIDERATIONS :The form must be cost effective. This means eliminating unnecessary data & facilating reading lines across the form. Forms design should also consider whether the content is executive summary, intermediate managerial information or supporting data. TYPES OF FORMS :Forms are classified into several categories : Flat forms, unit-set/ snapout forms , NCR paper & preprinted forms. These types are described briefly. FLAT FORMS A flat form is single-copy form prepared manually or by machine & printed on any grade of paper. For additional copies of the original , carbon 8. TYPE OF REPORT :-

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paper is inserted between copies. It is the easiest form to design, print & reproduce. UNIT-SET/SNAPOUT FORMS These forms have an original copy & several copies with one-time carbon paper interleaved between them. The set is glued into a unit for easy handling. The carbon paper is approximately 3/8 inch shorter than the copies. The copies are perforated at the glue margin for tearing out, although the carbon is not perforated. CONTINUOUS STRIP/FANFOLD FORMS These are multiple-unit forms joined together in a continuous strip with perforations between each pair of forms. One-time carbon is interleaved between copies, which are stacked in a fanfold arrangement. The fanfold is the least expensive construction for large-volume use. Computer printouts are invariably produced on them, they are virtually part of system design.

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NCR

PAPER NCR paper has many applications in salesbooks, checkbooks, inventory tickets & deposit slips. It offers cleaner & longer-lasting copies than the carboninterleaved forms. No carbon means no smears or smudges. One problem is the sensitivity of the chemical. It shows every unintended scratch. Other disadvantages are difficulity with erasures & high cost. LAYOUT CONSIDERATIONS When a form is designed, a list is prepared of all the items to be included on the form & the maximum space to be reserved. The list should be checked by the form user to make sure it has the required details. FORM TITLE & NUMBER The first consideration in forms design is a brief , descriptive title that tells what the form is & what it does. Since we read from left to right & from top to bottom,

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the upper left corner of the form is an appropriate place for a title . FORM TITLE COMMENT INVOICE Too general SALES INVOICE better FURNITURE SALES Overmodified INVOICE INVOICE FOR SALE Too long, unwieldy OF FURNITURE

DATA CLASSIFICATION & ZONING After the items are classified into a logical sequence by group , the next consideration is placing the data groups in appropriate areas. Two interlocking forms divided into seven zones each to summarize :

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1. A form is divided into zones; each zone represesnts a similar group of information . 2. The zones are organized in a logical flow based on the upper left corner method. A form should be designed to be read or filled out in the same way . we read or write in English . 3. when more than oe form is involved , the sequence of data in related forms should follow the same flow. RULES & CAPTIONS In designing forms, use rules to guide the human eye to read & write data groups. In this respect, printed rules aid in a zoning a form. A caption is similar to a column heading. It specifies what information to write in the space provided.. rules & captions go together :rules guide & separate ,whereas captions guide & instruct. To summarize, a form is designed with a combination of rules & captions. Rules can also be used to make boxes in which the user place data. The captions tells the user what
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information goes in a particular position.

BOX DESIGN The box design gets the captions up out of the way & reduces the form size by 25 to 40 percent. It also makes the data entry uninterrupted from left to right. SPACING REQUIREMENTS If you puck 20 printed forms at random, you will find a great variety of spacing on them. Most forms seem to be spaced haphazardly. The method of preparing a form tells heater to allow for handwritten, printed entries or both. BALLOT BOX Using ballot or check –offboxes for questions that can be answered by yes or no can greatly reduce the amount of required writing . The
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indicates a preference simply by checking off the desired box or placing an X in the appropriate space. FORMS INSTRUCTIONS A well-designed form with clearly stated captions should be selfin-structing. In a recent consulting job, an eight-page procedure included twopages telling how to fill out the printed forms. A sample of the instructions is as follows : Date : Fill in the current date. Name : Print legal name in full. Description : Give title of each part.

PAPER SELECTION Forms may be printed on different paper of diff. colors, grades & weights. Colored paper or colored printing on white paper is used to distinguish among copies & facilities sorting copies. Order of copies
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color

First Second Third Fourth Fifth

white yellow pink blue buff

Paper weight is based on a ream of 500 sheets that are 17 by 22 inches. There are three major factors to consider in paper selection : Appearance, longvity & handling. The form designer needs to know 1. the number of times the form will be handled . 2. the amount of folding it will receive. 3. the extent of exposure to the environment. COST CONSIDERATIONS Various cost factors go into the final decision to produce a form. Costs consist of both one-time & running costs. Flat charges center around the preparation of the system used to create the first copy. One way of reducing costs is to order”two-up” or side by side forms attached by a

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perforated line. Other cost-reducing alternatives are : 1. using standard size & weight paper. 2. ordering in larger quantities at a discount. 3. discouraging the use of unnecessary color. 4. using standard locations for key captions for key captions & forms title. FORMS CONTROL The forms step in forms is to determine whether a form is necessary. Forms control in a procedure for 1. providing improved & effective forms. 2. reducing printing cost. 3. securing adequqate stock at all times. Before launching a forms control program , the designer needs to consider several questions : 1. Who will be responsible for improving forms design?

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2. Should forms be produced in house or assigned to an outside printer? 3. What quantity should be printed ? What is the break-even point on printing forms ? 4. How much lead time is required to replenish forms ? 5. How will one handle recorder ? Who will initiate them? In what way? 6. How will obsolete forms be handled? 7. What should be the life of the form? 8. Where & how should the form be stored? If questios of this nature are not addressed in advance, the organization is probably not ready to launch a forms control program .

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