You are on page 1of 12

# MATHEMATICS 8

UNIT 4

SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS
MULTIPLYING FRACTIONS
DIVIDING FRACTIONS
FRACTIONS AND DECIMALS
ORDER OF OPERATIONS
SUBTRACTING FRACTIONS
When the denominators of the
_ fractions are the same, simply
= subtract one numerator from the
the original denominator.

## When the denominators are not the

_ same, you will have to find a common
denominator before you can begin
= subtraction.

## To find a common denominator for these two fractions,

you need to find the lowest common multiple for 5 and 3
The lowest common multiple of 5 and 3 is
15
Look at the relationship between the
original denominators of the fractions
_ and the new common denominator.
= What number would you have to
multiply the old denominator by to get
the new one?

## Whatever that number is, multiply the

old numerator by it as well and place
= denominator. Do this for both fractions.

## Subtract the second numerator from the

denominator.
Multiply the two Numerators

X =

## Multiply the two Denominators

MULTIPLYING FRACTIONS
The Simplest of the Operations
DIVIDING FRACTIONS

DIVIDED BY =

## This is easier than it seems. You simply change the

second fraction to its reciprocal, change the
operation sign to multiplication, then follow the rules
for multiplying fractions.
Reciprocal
A reciprocal of a fraction is obtained by flipping the
original fraction over so that the original numerator
becomes the new denominator and the original
denominator becomes the new numerator

## Each of these fractions is

the reciprocal of the other
INVERT AND MULTIPLY

DIVIDED BY =
RECIPROCAL
BECOMES

X =
CHANGE OPERATION SIGN TO
MULTIPLICATION
LOWEST TERMS
Sometimes fractions can be broken down into equivalent
fractions with the smallest possible numerators and
denominators. This is called reducing to lowest terms.

## To reduce a fraction to lowest terms, you must find

the greatest common factor for both the numerator
and denominator. You then divide both the top and
bottom by the greatest common factor.

## The greatest common factor for 6 and 8 is

Divide both top and bottom
by 2. Its the largest
6 divided by 2 = 3 Lowest Terms
number that will divide 8 divided by 2 = 4
evenly into 6 and 8
FRACTIONS TO DECIMALS
As indicated before, the line dividing
the numerator and the denominator is
a division line. This fraction can be

Tenths
Hundredths
Thousandths
Mixed Numbers to Decimals
Two and five sixths

## 5 Keep the whole number and do the division for the

fraction. Place the decimal point between the whole
6 number and the decimal you get after doing the division.

5 divided by 6 = 0.83333

## Decimal Point. This seperates

the whole number from the fractional
number.
Another Way...
5 Turn the mixed number into an
6 improper fraction.

## 5 17 Then divide the top number

6
= 6 by the bottom number.

17 divided by 6 = 2.8333
ORDER OF OPERATIONS
BEDMAS APPLIES TO FRACTIONS TOO!

P Brackets
P Exponents
P Division In the order of appearance
P Multiplication from left to right