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Sex Education Syllabus to Be Revised by

NCERT
National Council for Educational Research and Training
(NCERT) has decided to make positive changes to the sex
education syllabus after the discovery of objectionable content
and graphics in the sex education text books.

Seven states in India had raised objections to the sex education syllabus;
the graphic and content was found to be inappropriate.

The content will be revamped keeping the focus on ‘abstinence’ rather


than the use of protection, the prevailing content in the text. The revised
content will seek to stress on prevention as the key message to
youngsters in their fight against HIV and sexually transmitted infections.
The syllabus will be revised to suit people from different cultural
backgrounds and from urban and rural areas.

The final draft of the proposed changes is sated to be ready by end of


October.

Why Sex Education Is Required For


Teenagers?
There is a burgeoning need, in recent times, to impart sex education to
our teenagers. During adolescence,not only do the hormones work
overtime, but there are physical changes too that are taking place in the
body structure; particularly so in the sex organs, making the teenager
curious to explore these changes. Added to all this, there is often an
impulsiveness to indulge in what is forbidden combined with the absence
of adequate wisdom to control these impulses.The 'sexual arena' is in
constant focus among the teens; in the absence of proper guidance, this
can result in more harm than good.

Let us try to analyze the reasons that point towards sex education for the
teens-
Adequate guidance would always help prevent teenage pregnancies.

It stresses on the role of abstinence and contraceptive methods, including


the use of condoms.

Besides teenage pregnancies being a health hazard, adolescents are


mentally unprepared to handle pregnancy, childbirth and parenthood.

With sex education, teenagers will be better equipped to understand the


repercussions of teenage pregnancy on their health as well as that of the
fetus. They will recognize the importance of pre- delivery care and the
consequences of hiding a pregnancy.

Sex education will help teenagers appreciate the negative impact of


teenage pregnancy on their education, and consequently on their future,
so that they would take necessary steps to avoid it.

Sex education would go a long way in helping to control AIDS and other
sexually transmitted diseases like gonorrhea, non-gonoccocal urethritis,
pelvic inflammatory disease and syphilis, to name a few.

Sex education to the teens is the responsibility of every parent and


teacher. It is better for them to get the right information from their peers
rather than getting misinformation from other sources like friends,
magazines or websites.

Enlightening a teenager is the best preventive policy to tackle the


growing health problems in this age group. They need to understand very
early that “it is better to be safe than sorry
What is Sex Education?
Sex education touches upon the following topics-

Human anatomy

Reproduction through sexual intercourse


Pregnancy

Safe sex

Birth control methods

Sexual orientation

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs)

The so called information on 'the bees and the birds'


should be imparted by a parent or a peer. However
most often this information is derived from
books,magazines,pornographic websites and various
other sources. When this happens it was not
dispensed with in a methodical way which lead to
misconcepts and does more harm than good.

Recently there has been an effort to incorporate sex


education as part of the academic curriculum. This
has been successfully implemented in several
western countries but continues to face stiff
opposition in many Asian countries, like India.

The hue and cry from the conservative societies ‘not


to impart’ this type of 'Kam-Sutra' education to our
young in the schools is due to the following reasons-

Parents fear that this type of education would make


our children more liberated and they would indulge
in sexual intercourse more readily.

Administration fears backlash that may have some


political repercussions’ in implementing such a
policy forward.

However the growing incidence of teenage


pregnancies and the rise in HIV has made this an
important issue that requires urgent global
discussion.

Regular Teachers More Effective at Teaching


Health, Sex Education
When it comes to teaching sensitive subjects like sex, students
learn more if taught by their regular classroom teacher, says a
new study.

A strong student-teacher relationship can play a key role in learning health


and sex education. Students feel more comfortable with regular teachers
and are able to joke around and laugh with the teachers, but also take
them more seriously, find researchers from Ohio State University and the
University of Kentucky.

Because of the established relationship regular classroom teachers have


with their students, it may be easier for adolescents to talk with and learn
from someone who already knows them as individuals.

In the study conducted in nearly 700 high school students in central and
northern Kentucky, the team found that it was easier for the kids to talk
about personal stuff with someone they knew.

"The actual person teaching makes a difference in how students learn.


When there is a good relationship that really facilitates learning and
motivation. And we found that in almost every area, the regular
classroom teachers were more effective, they were better," said Eric
Anderman, co-author of the study and professor of educational
psychology at Ohio State.

"The relationship between the teacher and the student, particularly during
adolescence, is very important. It was easier for the kids to talk about
personal stuff with someone they knew.
"It was easier for them to absorb the material and become more
interested in what they were talking about with their regular teacher in
the classroom," he added.

Sex Education for All 11-year-olds: Brit


Government
In this entire flurry about rising teen pregnancies, the British
Government’s latest move comes as no surprise. A government-
backed report has recommended compulsory sex health education
at school for kids as young as 11!

According to the report, school kids ought to be taught about sexually


transmitted infections like Chlamydia that can cause infertility.

Academics should also discuss contraceptive methods in a bid to cut


rising numbers of teen pregnancies.

The report found STI and HIV rates were rising while demand for
abortions was also on the up.

It labeled the scale and nature of sexual ill health in England a "grave
concern" - and warned the government's long-term sexual health strategy
was in danger of failing.

The report said there had been "considerable action and funding ... to
improve services" after the National Strategy for Sexual Health and HIV
was published in 2001.

But it called for more testing for HIV and other STIs and improved
access to abortions.

The report, by the Medical Foundation for Aids and Sexual Health and
the Independent Advisory Group on Sexual Health, also called for family
GPs to improve the sexual health care they give.

"We need GPs to be able to identify sexual health needs and be confident
talking about sex," The Sun quoted Co-author Ruth Lowbury, a top
sexual health expert, as saying.

"There are some ... who haven't really been interested in engaging with
sexual health.
Charities Want Sex Education for Kids
as Young as Four
Sexual health charities Brook and the Family Planning
Association are calling for sex education for kids as young as four
so as to reduce teen pregnancies.

The charities said children should be taught about sex so that they are
aware of things like abortions and sexually transmitted infections when
adolescents.

"If we get high-quality sex and relationships education in every primary


and secondary school across the UK all the evidence shows teenage
pregnancy rates will continue to fall and will improve young people's
sexual health," said Brook chief executive, Simon Blake.

"This is not about teaching four-year-olds how to have sex ... it's like
maths - at primary school children learn the basics so that they can
understand more and more complex concepts at a later stage," said Julie
Bentley, the Family Planning Association chief executive.

Yesterday the Department for Children, Schools and Families issued new
draft guidance for schools. The Sex Education Forum has called for sex
education to be made mandatory in schools.

Teen Pregnancy Rates Could Start to


Increase: Report
A report by National Center for Health Statistics in the US has
revealed that teen pregnancy rates could start to increase after
being steady for several years.
The government report revealed teen pregnancy rates increased from 21
births per 1,000 teenage girls in 2005 to 22 per 1,000 in 2006.

"It's only one year. And it might be, to use a very technical term, a blip in
the data," said Edward J. Sondik, PhD, director of the National Center
for Health Statistics. "We feel strongly that it bears watching."

The report also said the number of underweight babies in the US also
increased to 8.3% in 2006 from 8.2% in 2005. "This trend reflects an
increase in the number of infants born prematurely, the largest category of
low-birth-weight infants," said Duane Alexander, MD, head of the
National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
RAS/L

Hollywood Films Blamed for Inspiring


‘pregnancy Pact’ Among the Teens
Hollywood films such as Juno and Knocked Up have been blamed
for inspiring the "pregnancy pact"- a deal made by seventeen US
schoolgirls to get pregnant together.

The seventeen schoolgirls are pregnant going into the summer holidays
at the 1,200-pupil Gloucester High School in Massachusetts, 30 miles
north of Boston.

"Nearly half the expecting students, none older than 16, confessed to
making a pact to get pregnant and raise their babies together," Times
Online quoted Joseph Sullivan, the headmaster, as saying.

Sullivan said he suspected that the girls were influenced by Hollywood.

One of the fathers is a 24-year-old homeless man, and others are also in
their mid-20s.

All of the pregnant girls are under 17 and some are younger than 16, the
age of consent in Massachusetts, prompting the mayor to ask about
possible criminal charges for under-age sex.

"At the very least these men should be held responsible for financial
support, if not put in jail for statutory rape as the mayor has suggested,"
Greg Verga, the chairman of the Gloucester School Committee, said.

School officials became suspicious when girls began seeking pregnancy


tests at the school clinic and seemed more upset when they were not
pregnant than when they were.

Some girls reacted with high-fives and started planning baby showers
when they learnt they were expecting.

After administering about 150 pregnancy tests, the medical director and
the nurse at the school clinic recommended prescribing contraceptives to
pupils regardless of parental consent. The idea went down badly with
families in the predominantly Roman Catholic town and the two clinic
staff resigned in protest on May 30.
Chidambaram Stresses the Need for Sex
Education to Combat HIV/AIDS

Union Finance Minister P. Chidambaram said on Sunday that sex


education is must to control HIV-AIDS.

He said this as he inaugurated an orphanage for HIV infected children in


Coimbatore.

Chidambaram also said that the migratory labourers, lorry drivers and
above all sex workers are the most vulnerable sections of the society.

"It is spreading very rapidly among lorry drivers, migrant labourers, who
keep on traveling from one place to another. Moreover, the sex workers
who are carriers of this deadly disease," said Chidambaram.

He also exhorted people to engage themselves constructively and help


the Non-Governmental Organizations (NGO), which are battling against
this menace.

The number of people estimated to be living with HIV-AIDS in India is


about 2.47 million.

Yet over 40 per cent of Indian women have not heard of AIDS, creating a
dangerous combination of lack of knowledge and greater sexual activity.

.
.

22. Central Institute of


Educational
Technology
Educational technology constitutes one of the important
areas of activities of the NCERT. The Central Institute of
Educational Technology (CIET) undertakes activities
related to research and evaluation, documentation and
dissemination along with consultancy services to various
organisations of educational technology. It develops
audio-video programmes which are transmitted on DD-I,
Gyan Darshan and Gyan Vani.
ANNUAL REPORT 156 2006-07
Major Activities of the Institute during 2006-07
RESEARCH
An Evaluation Study of the Process of Design and
Production of
Educational Media Programmes and their Effectiveness in
Student Learning
The programme aims at qualitative analysis of educational media
scripts
with a view to assess the effect of media programmes on students
learning
and to suggest measures for improvement for the future
production of
ETV Programmes. Five research tools for content analysis, testing
achievement, obtaining perceptions of teachers and students
have been
developed. In addition a questionnaire and observation schedule
to
measure learners’ attention span has also been used. Analysis has
been
completed.
A Study into Effectiveness of Educational Technology
based
Teaching-Learning Materials in Tribal Primary Schools
The major objectives of the project are to develop Educational
Technology (ET) based teaching-learning materials and to study
their
effectiveness with primary school learners in tribal areas. The data
has
been collected from Bhind and Murena districts of Madhya
Pradesh
and analysed. Three orientation programmes-cum-workshops for
the
teachers of 10 project schools in Ghati Gaon of Gwalior district
have
been organised to develop ET learning materials. Reading clubs
and
puppet corners were developed in these project schools. A regular
follow
up and monitoring is undertaken to know the status of the
activities
initiated under the project.
Participants of the workshop on development of puppets holding discussions
ANNUAL REPORT 2006-07 157
A Status Study of Computers in Schools
The study aims at assessing the infrastructure both in terms of
hardware and
software and their utilisation for academic purposes. Research
tools have been
developed and the states have been identified for undertaking the
study.
A Study of Status and Perceptions of Stakeholders of
School
Programmes Telecast on ‘Gyan Darshan Channel’
Preliminary information on the programme telecast has been
collected
and a review of the studies undertaken has been completed.
Research
tools viz. questionnaire to know status and schedules for knowing
perceptions of teachers, students and parents have been
developed. The
study shall be carried forward through visits to school utilising the
programmes to know status and obtain views of different
stakeholders.
Pattron Ke Uttar – An Interactive Follow up Programme
with the
Viewers of ‘Tarang’
The CIET continued with its regular activities of monitoring
transmission
of ETV programmes on DD-I and Gyan Darshan channels. Apart
from
this, responses from the viewers of ‘Tarang’ received through their
letters
were analysed. Monthly programme entitled ‘Pattron Ke Uttar’
based on
letters received from viewers was developed and telecast.
DEVELOPMENT
Development of audio-video programmes for supporting curricular
and
co-curricular activities involves assessment of needs, designing of
programme
briefs and scripts, conduct of formative evaluation during the
design and
production of programmes. It also involves undertaking production
and
post-production (editing) work and their preview to develop good
quality
media programmes for different target groups. The target groups
comprise
of children, teachers, teacher-educators, parents and the public at
large.
Various production related activities undertaken during the year
are as under:
Script Designing
The CIET developed 83 audio and video script during the year
2006-07.
Out of these 45 are video programmes and 38 audio programmes.
The areas
covered included Science, Mathematics, Political Science and
Language
Learning (Hindi and English). These are based on the NCERT
textbooks.
Series covered included rivers of India, Seema Prahari Tujhe
Salam (salute
to you the border guard), Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Subhash
Chandra
Bose, Nazir Akbarabadi, Kabir, Ras khan, etc. Scripts for
programmes have
been developed under series on songs of freedom, water, food
and nutrition.
Scripts have also been developed on themes like ‘Connections’
under the
series doing and deciphering science for middle level classes;
‘How Reshma’s
Brain Works’ under the series brain and behaviour and ‘Beat Goes
On’ under
the series Cardiac Cycle. A series of 7 audio programmes
highlighting
contribution of medical and surgical sciences to benefit human life
and health
and two audio programmes on invention of radio and gramophone
have
been developed.
ANNUAL REPORT 158 2006-07
Educational Media Programme Production
Important series of video programmes produced in different
disciplines
include 6 programmes in science, 3 in mathematics, 7 in language
learning, 8 on Art and Crafts and 9 on National Curriculum
Framework
(2005). A total of 65 programmes have been added during the
year.
Seventy-one audio programmes were produced on series:
Rashtrawadi
Andolan Ke Geet; Rimjhim Part I and III; Stories of Munshi Prem
Chand;
poetry of spiritual poets like Ras Khan, Kabir, Rahim, Ravidas;
Radio Ki
Kahani; Gramophone Ki Kahani; Story of River Yamuna; Samajik
Gyan
aur Rajnitik Jeevan; Science; Social Sciences etc.
Development of ETV Programmes on Sex Education
A workshop was organised to identify themes and develop scripts
to
develop video development of programmes on Sex Education.
Media Programmes on Fairs and Festivals of Rajasthan
Shooting of two video programmes on festivals of Dussehera and
Cattle
Fair at Kota has been completed. Post-shooting activities are in
progress.
Evolving Software for Children by Children
Scripts of two video programmes, one of which is animation based
on
toys and games, have been developed under this project. This is
to help
foster creativity among children.
The Development of Institutional Material
The institute has taken up a Project on identifying difficult
concepts in
Geography followed by development of instructional material and
training
of tribal teachers at upper primary stage. The difficult concepts
have been
identified and material developed has been tried out. The SCERT,
Chhattisgarh and IGNOU are extending support to the project.
Development of an Archive of Children’s Literature
Research and scanning of materials for children’s literature in
Hindi to
establish an archive has been undertaken. More material is being
collected
and processed.
TRANSMISSION
ETV programmes are telecast on DD-1 and Gyan Darshan
channels under
the title ‘Tarang’. The duration of transmission of programmes on
the Gyan
Darshan is three hours and 40 minutes and on Doordarshan 55
minutes
each day from Monday to Friday. Further, direct telecast of
programmes
from the CIET premise was undertaken to make use of microwave
link for
an approximate duration of four hours on each of these days. The
CIET is
broadcasting for half-an-hour on average on 12 Hindi Gyan Vani
Radio
FM channels at Allahabad, Mumbai, Bhopal, Varanasi, Raipur,
Jaipur,
Indore, Kanpur, Lucknow, Delhi, Jabalpur and Patna.
ANNUAL REPORT 2006-07 159
The Details of the Telecast Timings for Different Target
Groups:
National Channel (DD-1) Telecast Timings
For Secondary and Sr. Secondary Classes 05.00 a.m. to 05.25 a.m.
For Primary Classes 10.30 a.m. to11.00 a.m.
Gyan Darshan
For Secondary and Sr. Secondary Classes 05.00 a.m.to 05.25 a.m.
For Teachers 07.00 a.m.to 07.15 a.m.
For Secondary and Sr. Secondary Classes 10.00 a.m.to 10.30 a.m.
For Primary Classes 10.30 a.m.to 11.00 a.m.
For Secondary and Sr. Secondary Classes 03.00 p.m.to 03.30 p.m.
For Primary Classes 03.30 p.m.to 04.00 p.m.
For Primary Classes 07.00 p.m.to 07.30 p.m.
For Secondary and Sr. Secondary Classes 07.30 p.m.to 08.00 p.m.
TRAINING AND EXTENSION
The institute provides professional training in various aspects of
educational technology viz., designing of scripts, techniques of
production
and post-production work (editing, animation and graphics),
camera work
and other studio operations. The training is also imparted to the
teachereducators
at elementary and secondary level of the school education. This
covers basic concepts, skills related to production of media
materials and
their utilisation. The orientation and training programmes
organised
during the year are as follows:
Training Courses on ‘Audio Digital Editing’ were conducted
from
16-17 November 2006 and 13-15 February 2007.
Training Programmes on ‘Effective use of EDUSAT
Network’ were
organised by the institute. Over one hundred persons in four
batches
from different organisations like SIET, CIET, NIOS, KVS and DIETs
were trained in handling of EDUSAT Network equipments.
The training programmes were conducted from 22-23 June 2006,
27-28 June 2006, and 27-29 December 2006.
Training-cum-workshop on ‘Puppets for DIET Faculty and
School
Teachers’. The training course-cum-workshop was organised from
29 January to 2 February 2007 at the CIET. Thirty teachers
participated from Kendriya Vidyalayas. The programme
emphasised
on development of hand puppets, their correlation with the
textbooks
and development of scripts for puppet plays.
Orientation Course for ETV Scriptwriters in Creative
Writing for
Media Productions for Children of various Age Groups. The
course
aimed at creating a pool of talented scriptwriters and was
organised
from 26-30 March 2007 at the CIET. Twenty three selected
teachers
participated in the programme.
Training Course on Media Research and Evaluation of
DIET
Faculty from North-Eastern States. A course of ten-days’
duration
was conducted from 26 March to 4 April 2007 at CIET. About thirty
participants from DIETs and SCERTs of North-Eastern States
ANNUAL REPORT 160 2006-07
participated. They were familiarised with scope, areas and
methodologies of evaluating educational media programmes
including
computers and satellite based instructions.
VIDEO LIBRARY
The CIET continued to serve as South-East Asia’s Centre for NHK
Japan’s
Video Library and received Betacam Cassettes of all award-
winning
programmes. These were made available to the producers within
CIET,
SIETs and other media organisations for reference.
Festival of Audio-Video Programmes
The institute organised a Festival of Educational Audio-Video
Programmes
in collaboration with the SIET, Kerala at Thiruvananthapuram from
13-15 March 2007. Nearly 70 participants attended the festival.
Programmes were screened for school children and the public at
large.
Other Extension Activities Undertaken were
Screening of 56 films shows produced by both the CIET and the
well
known film makers, were organised by the NCERT film club for
school
children and participants of the training programmes.
SIETS–CIET COORDINATION
During the year, CIET continued to extend academic and technical
support
to the activities of the SIETs. A coordination meeting of the SIETs,
RIEs
and CIET was held at SIET, Kerala in Thiruvananthapuram on 14
March.
Discussions were held on problems faced by SIETs and future
planning
of the programmes keeping in view the changing technological
and
educational scenario.
Live Interactive Telecasts
The NCERT, EDUSAT Network established at CIET and other 100
sites
at the SCERTs, SIETs, schools and centres of KVS, NVS, CBSE, NIOS
etc.
was made operational and four major orientation programmes
were
organised with different target groups. The CIET extended
technical
support in the organisation of the following programmes:
Orientation of Teachers on NCERT’s New Textbooks for Different
Classes. The programme was of 36 days duration from 6 July to 18
August 2006.
Orientation Programme for Principals and Head Teachers of
Kendriya
Vidyalayas from 19-21 September 2006.
Orientation of Teacher-Educators on NCF-2005 and
Recommendations of National Focus Groups held from 18 January
to 9 February 2007.
Orientation of Functionaries of SSA from DIETs, BRCs and CRCs
on
Formats for Monitoring of Quality.
ANNUAL REPORT 2006-07 161
Major Contributions of the Faculty
Professor R.L. Phutela worked on research studies entitled
‘Status of
Computers in Schools’ and ‘Status and Perceptions of
Stakeholders of
School Education Programmes Telecast on Gyandarshan Channel’.
Research tools have been developed and samples identified. He
coordinated meetings of EDUSAT Users and SIETs-CIET
Coordination
Committee. He served as visiting fellow at the CASE, Faculty of
Education
and Psychology at M.S. University, Baroda. In addition, he
participated
as resource person in the three National Seminars on ‘Technology
Integrated Education’ held at M.S. University, Baroda; ‘India as
Emerging
Global Power and its Implications for Teacher Education
Programmes’
held at Chet Ram Sharma College of Education, Noida; and ‘Praxis
of
Policy to Effective Practice for Quality Assurance in Teacher
Education’
held at DAV College of Education, Chandigarh. Two papers entitled
‘Changing Paradigm of Learning : A Global Perspective’ and
‘Quality
Assurance in Teacher Education: Towards Effective Practice’ were
contributed in these seminars.
Professor Dharam Prakash completed a pilot study on ‘Use of
Mobile
Devices for Delivery of Educational Content’. He undertook
development
of software in the form of two video programmes based on toys.
He also
worked on the project ‘Evolving Software for Children by Children’.
He
contributed as a member of writing team for Class II and Class IV
Mathematics books. He contributed in orientation programme of
science
faculty in production of video programmes in collaboration with
CESC;
Orientation Course of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) using
multimedia for NIOS faculty.
Professor Manjula Mathur coordinated two projects on ‘Use of
Educational Technology in Primary Schools of Tribal Areas of
Madhya
Pradesh’ and ‘Dissemination of Educational Media Programmes
Developed
by CIET’. She participated in the orientation of teachers on ‘New
Language
Textbooks through Teleconferencing’. She also coordinated
translation
work of mathematics textbooks for Class II and IV. She acted as a
resource
person in face-to-face training programme of teachers of Kendriya
Vidyalaya held at Bhubaneshwar and in the workshop at SCERT
Udaipur
and SCERT Uttarakhand to review state syllabi in view of NCF-
2005. In
addition, she served as a member of textbook committee for Hindi
textbooks ‘rimjhim’ Classes II and IV.
Dr M.A. Hussain, Reader coordinated a project on
‘Development of
Instructional Material on Difficult Concept of Geography for
Training of
Tribal Teachers of Upper Primary Stage of Chhattisgarh’. He
contributed
in the programmes at the institute on ‘Development of Scripts for
both
Audio and Video Programmes’.
Dr Madhavi Kumar, Reader was involved in development of
audio
programmes based on the Hindi textbook (Kshitij, Aaroh) for
secondary
level. She was involved in development of audio series on social
sciences
for Class VI and on rivers. She contributed in script development
for video
programmes in curricular and co-curricular areas like environment,
ANNUAL REPORT 2006-07 161
Major Contributions of the Faculty
Professor R.L. Phutela worked on research studies entitled
‘Status of
Computers in Schools’ and ‘Status and Perceptions of
Stakeholders of
School Education Programmes Telecast on Gyandarshan Channel’.
Research tools have been developed and samples identified. He
coordinated meetings of EDUSAT Users and SIETs-CIET
Coordination
Committee. He served as visiting fellow at the CASE, Faculty of
Education
and Psychology at M.S. University, Baroda. In addition, he
participated
as resource person in the three National Seminars on ‘Technology
Integrated Education’ held at M.S. University, Baroda; ‘India as
Emerging
Global Power and its Implications for Teacher Education
Programmes’
held at Chet Ram Sharma College of Education, Noida; and ‘Praxis
of
Policy to Effective Practice for Quality Assurance in Teacher
Education’
held at DAV College of Education, Chandigarh. Two papers entitled
‘Changing Paradigm of Learning : A Global Perspective’ and
‘Quality
Assurance in Teacher Education: Towards Effective Practice’ were
contributed in these seminars.
Professor Dharam Prakash completed a pilot study on ‘Use of
Mobile
Devices for Delivery of Educational Content’. He undertook
development
of software in the form of two video programmes based on toys.
He also
worked on the project ‘Evolving Software for Children by Children’.
He
contributed as a member of writing team for Class II and Class IV
Mathematics books. He contributed in orientation programme of
science
faculty in production of video programmes in collaboration with
CESC;
Orientation Course of Computer Aided Instructions (CAI) using
multimedia for NIOS faculty.
Professor Manjula Mathur coordinated two projects on ‘Use of
Educational Technology in Primary Schools of Tribal Areas of
Madhya
Pradesh’ and ‘Dissemination of Educational Media Programmes
Developed
by CIET’. She participated in the orientation of teachers on ‘New
Language
Textbooks through Teleconferencing’. She also coordinated
translation
work of mathematics textbooks for Class II and IV. She acted as a
resource
person in face-to-face training programme of teachers of Kendriya
Vidyalaya held at Bhubaneshwar and in the workshop at SCERT
Udaipur
and SCERT Uttarakhand to review state syllabi in view of NCF-
2005. In
addition, she served as a member of textbook committee for Hindi
textbooks ‘rimjhim’ Classes II and IV.
Dr M.A. Hussain, Reader coordinated a project on
‘Development of
Instructional Material on Difficult Concept of Geography for
Training of
Tribal Teachers of Upper Primary Stage of Chhattisgarh’. He
contributed
in the programmes at the institute on ‘Development of Scripts for
both
Audio and Video Programmes’.
Dr Madhavi Kumar, Reader was involved in development of
audio
programmes based on the Hindi textbook (Kshitij, Aaroh) for
secondary
level. She was involved in development of audio series on social
sciences
for Class VI and on rivers. She contributed in script development
for video
programmes in curricular and co-curricular areas like environment,
ANNUAL REPORT 2006-07 163
development of formats for audio series on rivers, on interactive
media
learning programme, on art education, development of video
series on
music. She also participated in a workshop on ‘Identification of
Gaps in
the Textbook of Business Management’. Her three papers related
to poll
predictions, its impact on voters and on winners and losers have
been
accepted for publication.
What is fitness?

Fitness means being in good physical condition. We often think of athletes as


being very fit. They tend to focus on performance-related fitness for sports.

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This topic focuses on health-related fitness, which helps you feel your best and
lowers your risk for certain diseases. Making small changes in your daily
lifestyle helps you improve your fitness.
What are the benefits of fitness?

Fitness helps you feel better and have more energy for work and leisure time.
You'll feel more able to do things like playing with your kids, gardening, dancing,
or biking. Children and teens who are fit may have more energy and better
focus at school.

When you stay active and fit, you burn more calories, even when you're at rest.
This can help you lose weight if you need to. It also can help you to sleep
better, handle stress better, and keep your mind sharp.

Fitness is good for your heart, lungs, bones, and joints. And it lowers your risk
for heart attack, colon cancer, diabetes, and high blood pressure.

How much physical activity do you need for health-related


fitness?

To improve your health, it’s important to make physical activity part of your daily
life.

One way is to get some moderate activity for at least 30 minutes a day, 5 days
a week or more. Brisk walking is one kind of moderate activity.

Or you can do more vigorous exercise, like running, for at least 20 minutes a
day, 3 days a week or more. This is activity that raises your heart rate to 70% or
more of your maximum heart rate. To find your target heart rate for exercising,
use the Interactive Tool: What Is Your Target Heart Rate?

Children and teens should be active for at least 1 hour each day.

Here’s how you can tell if an activity or exercise is making you work hard
enough. If you can't talk while you do it, you're working too hard. You're at the
right level if you can talk but not sing during the activity.
What types of physical activity improve fitness?

The activities you choose depend on which kind of fitness you want to improve.
There are three different kinds of fitness:

• Flexibility is the ability to move your joints and muscles through their full
range of motion. Stretching is an exercise that helps you to be more flexible.

• Aerobic fitness means increasing how well your body uses oxygen. This
depends on the condition of your heart, lungs, and muscles. Any activity that
raises your heart rate, such as walking or running, can improve aerobic
fitness.

• Muscle fitness means building stronger muscles and increasing how long
you can use them (called endurance). Activities like weight lifting or push-ups
can improve your muscular fitness.

You may be in better shape in one kind of fitness than another. For example,
you might be flexible but have poor muscle strength. It’s best to work on all
three kinds of fitness.

How can you be more physically active?

If you're ready to add more physical activity to your life, here are some tips to
get you started:

• Make physical activity part of your routine, like brushing your teeth or going to
work. Try biking to work at least once a week, using the stairs more often, or
walking to do errands near home. But talk to your doctor before you start an
exercise routine, especially if you haven't been very active or have health
problems.

• Walking is one of the best fitness activities. To keep up a routine, you can
walk with family members, friends, coworkers, or pets. Keep track of your
steps with a step counter or pedometer, which you can buy at a sporting
goods store. This can help motivate you to walk more.

• Schedule activity for times that you're likely to stick with it. For example, walk
in the morning if you tend to talk yourself out of it later in the day. If you don't
have time for one 30-minute walk, break it up into three 10-minute walks.

• Find a partner to do your activities with. This can make exercising more
enjoyable.

• If you want a more structured exercise routine, consider joining a health club
or a community center that offers fitness activities.

• Find an activity that you enjoy, and stay with it. Vary it with other activities so
you don't get bored. For example, walk 3 days a week, and switch to
swimming or biking on the other days. Join a softball, volleyball, or basketball
league for fun and exercise. By finding more activities you enjoy, you'll have a
greater chance for success. Use the Interactive Tool: How Many Calories Did
You Burn? to find out how many calories you burn during exercise and daily
activities.

Setting small, realistic goals can help you improve your fitness. Write
down your goals and activities. Give yourself a healthy reward, like
getting a massage, each time What
is Fitness?
• "Physical Fitness" Microsoft Encarta
Reference Library 2004:
“the ability of the human body to
function with vigor and alertness,
without undue fatigue, and with ample
energy to engage in leisure activities, and
to meet physical stresses.”
Fitness is not about being thin, having a small waist, or having bulging muscles. It is
a combination of qualities that enable us to be at our full potential in performing
vigorous physical activities. Physical Fitness involves the performance of the heart,
lungs, and the muscles of the body. Specifically, it takes into account our Cardio
Respiratory Endurance, Muscular Strength, Muscular Endurance, and Flexibility. To
some extent, Fitness also influences our mental and emotional development since
what we do with our bodies also affects what we can do with our minds.

Although Physical Fitness and good health influences each other, they are not the
same. Healthy people could be physically unfit due to lack of exercise. On the other
hand, Physically Fit people perform their everyday tasks effortlessly.

On this website we will view Fitness in different angles and look at the General
Fitness Exercises and Workout Equipment. We will also help you Set an achievable
and realistic Fitness Goals and provide you with methods to achieve them. We hope
this website can teach you what you need to know about Fitness to get intrigued in

Fitness Programs and Trainings and achieve your Fitness Goals. you reach a goal.

Points to ponder before going to a gym


Dr Ravinder Chadha

sing awareness regarding fitness, there is a mushrooming of gyms and fitness c


er of metropolitan cities. These centres face a lot of problems in finding qualifie
ascent stage as far as training institutes are concerned whereas in Western cou
ses for such fitness trainers. In India we have mostly self-qualified trainers. The
ers.

are extremely common primarily due to unqualified trainers and also individuals
a very short span of time/or lose weight instantly. Youngsters eye the muscular
Sanjay Dutt and try building up muscles quickly and are lured to lift heavy weig
their own or on advice from untrained instructors and go in for wrong exercises
ent and work out without a proper warming up

can occur due to lifting heavy weights in squatting positions or/performing abd
out proper technique.

/elbow injuries occur due to a wrong technique while lifting heavy weights.

n is common among individuals suddenly increasing the time/or intensity on the

g a fitness centre, the following points should be kept in mind:

of the gym should be such that one can squeeze out time from the daily schedu
gym should ideally be located near home, place of work or between the two.

ngs should be figured out. Some gyms cater to housewives in the afternoon cha
sual rush time is early morning or late evening.

hould talk to people who are already members to learn about the quality of equ
ionary cycles and strengthening machines. Check if the health club is clean, we
ir-conditioning, ventilation etc. Good ventilation prevents from taking in a lot of

able to do exercises without supervision as it can cause serious injuries. A good


ng the proper use of the equipment, the appropriate exercises for strengthening

most important thing before joining a gym is to find out regarding the persona
he trainer is qualified or not and the number of persons he is looking after. Norm
10 to 15 people as individual attention is very important to achieve a fitness ta

m after an offer of complimentary workout for two to three days would be an ide
f such offers, paying for a day or two to get the feel would be a good option. Th
facilities could be reviewed. One should also find out whether these are inclusiv
es are to be incurred.

re offering various types of fitness workouts like yoga, aerobics, etc, is an ideal
gym only for weight training as undertaking proper warm up and cooling down
one with aerobic equipment.

a former doctor/physiotherapist, Indian cricket team.

AYURVEDA & YOU


How food helps in keeping good heal
Dr R. Vatsyayan

OUR food, which contains many types of nutrients, is derived from b


and animal sources.

Despite many similarities among various types of foods, every eatab


unique characteristics. Irrespective of its numerous health benefits, n
food can supply all the essential nutrients to the body. The basic poin
should keep changing our food, and take as far as possible everythin
distinct body type. Similarly, of the six tastes -- sweet, sour, salty, bi
and astringent -- no food of a single taste should be excessively used
should any taste be abandoned unless medically advised.

Plants are as good living beings as we are and most of our food is de
natural sources. They grow under different environmental conditions
and humidity, and their organic compounds are passed on to us as s
them afresh. It is an established fact that fresh food is more healthy
than the processed and preserved food. Chemical additives of colour
preservatives not only make to lose the nutritional value of food but
risk of changing the basic good effects of it. Similar is the case with
reheating of food.

There has been an unending debate over vegetarian and non-vegeta


now scientifically acknowledged that vegetarian food has more healt
the non-vegetarian diet. Vegetarians live longer and suffer less healt
old age than meat eaters. Though it is not possible to make the entir
vegetarianism, it should also be realistically borne in mind that there
wrong in eating meat as long as it is not eaten to the exclusion of ve
fruits.

A healthy diet will contain chapatis from wheat flour without removin
brown bread and unpolished rice, pulses, plenty of fresh vegetables,
leaves and roots, and raw but well-washed salads and fresh fruits. T
minimum use of oils as a cooking medium. Fish and chicken have ce
over red meat and excessive use of salt and sugar in diet should be

No doubt, spices help in digesting the food but their more than requi
results in hyperacidity and other problems of the stomach. Adequate
is equally essential as it not only helps maintain the suppleness of th
carries various nutrients to the tissue level and plays an important ro
waste products.

Ayurveda believes that one should eat food only the when previous m
digested. It should be wholesome and fresh and at the same time co
different ingredients. If right food is taken at the right time it leads t
digestion, absorption and assimilation.

The writer is a Ludhiana-based senior ayurvedic consultant.

HEALTH NOTES
Reducing calorie intake later in life can still
bring longevity
WASHINGTON: Researchers at the
University of California have
discovered that reducing calorie intake
later in life can still induce many of
the health and longevity benefits of
life-long calorie reduction.

They are using this knowledge to


establish a novel screening technique
to find drugs which mimic this
longevity effect.

“Right now, there are no authentic ‘anti-ageing drugs’ capable of


extending the lifespan of healthy people. The technique we have
developed allows us to screen a relatively large number of drugs in
months rather than years,” said lead researcher Professor Stephen
Spindler. — ANI Fats in stomach reduce protective
effects of vitamin C

WASHINGTON: Fats in the stomach may


significantly reduce the protective effects of
antioxidants such as vitamin C, according to a study conducted by
scientists at the University of Glasgow.

The study demonstrated that the presence of lipids decreases the


ability of antioxidants like ascorbic acid, an active component of
vitamin C, to protect against the generation of potential cancer-
forming compounds in the stomach. — ANI

Stressing it a little too far


ks, a steaming hot cup of chai: Our young professionals try
stress at work
Jigyasa Kapoor Chimra

front of the computer for hours, work


tition. Then comes the need to socialise.
lth takes a backseat. Facing numerous
ches, high blood pressure and sleeping
ssionals who are struggling hard to keep
going in life and career.

e these young professionals on their take


from the doctor on how to stay hail and
the stress.

me requires me to be in office from 9 am


me with no time to take care of my body,”
yee of a telecom company in SAS Nagar.
th mantra he says, “As my working hours
elf in good shape I have recently started
of exercise helps me maintaining my cool
day and gives me a lot of energy.”

owner of The Other Square-17, says, “When you run your own business, it dem
cause of the risk factor involved and stress becomes a part of your lifestyle. Bu
ith all professions these days and the best way to escape is by enjoy your work
h your employees, make them your friends and make your work place a happy
re at 9 pm and that’s when I have time for myself and I de-stress myself by ca
night film or simply head towards the hills.”

in my work that I sometimes even forget to lock my house,” says Anand Gupta,
nk in Sector 8. And when it comes to chill out while working, he says, “When I f
ually take a stroll outside the office and have a cup of hot tea. Known to be a st
surely relieves me of all my tension.”

tips to de-stress, Dr Geeta Joshi, ayurvedic and stress management consultant


ays, “Stress is related to the mind and only way out for these young profession
he adds: “Life has been the same for all of us but these days youngsters think a
asually and that is where stress gets into their lives.” Suggesting ways to ease
nk positive. Relax, that’s another way of keeping tension out of your life. Watch
can make you feel good.”

e common ailment and she says, “Backache is one of the most common problem
face because of the long sitting hours and also the wrong diet. And the mantra
is: “Eat proper to stay healthy.”

jigyasachimra@tribunemail. com

Express yourself

Sex education among students of primary and middle school.

Li X, Shi SZ, Wen WY, Wang WA; International Conference on AIDS.

Int Conf AIDS. 1998; 12: 195 (abstract no. 13549).

Department of Preventive Medicine, Kunming Medical College, Yunnan,


China.

ISSUE: STD/HIV infection is related with harmful behavior and becoming


a serious issue for youth. Sex education is an effective way to reduce the
risk that young people face. PROJECT: In China, just recent years, the
importance of sex education is recognized. Although some research and
theory study have been done, implementation of sex education is still
difficult. This project named "know more about yourself" tried to develop
methodology and training material for teachers so that they can
integrate sex education into school curriculum. We hold a series of
workshop for the students of primary and middle school. In these
workshops, according to different age, we provided the knowledge of
body development, psychiatry development, relationship, peer pressure,
self-esteem and reproductive health, as well as life skill, such as how to
say "no". Every student received four to five hours training in their spare
time. Some parents and teachers participated these workshops too. Also,
we answered questions asked by students through telephone and letters
after the workshop. RESULTS: From the result of pre- and post-test,
students' knowledge about sex and related issues were promoted
greatly. In their composition; they told us that they like the workshop
very much because it solved their puzzle and helped them treat sex issue
openly and properly. They like teaching method we used too because it
provided them opportunity to participate in all activity and talk
themselves. They feel more confident about their ability and
responsibility of being a teenager. Students' parents and teachers gave a
positive response to the workshop and considered sex education is
necessary for the students. LESSONS LEARNED: Teenagers need sex
education. If we listen to them and use proper method, sex education
can be acceptable and enjoyable, and will play an important role in
children's development, and help them to be more confident and
responsible in STD/HIV prevention.

Publication Types:

Talking with Your Pre-School Child About Sex


While it would be nice if there was a simple flow chart I could offer to tell you
precisely how to talk with your pre-school child about sex, one that would
cover everything you need to know and every question your child might ask,
no such magical flow chart exists.

There are some important preparations you can go through before you talk
with your child about sex but in the end, it’s going to take many
conversations and much stumbling for you to find your footing. Remember
that the most important thing is not to have all the answers and be ready for
every question. The most important thing is to listen to what your child is
asking and be open to helping find the answers that you don’t have while
letting them know that there is nothing wrong with asking questions about
sex.

That said, having some idea of what is coming around the corner can help
though. The American Academy of Pediatrics offers parents some general
guidelines about what kinds of questions to expect and what information
they consider it important for your child to have at different ages and stages.
Here is an overview of what they suggest:

From eighteen months to three years old.

Even from an early age your child will likely start exploring his or her body by
touching it. The fact is that genitals have nerve endings and touching them
feels good and is a way children soothe (and amuse) themselves. This isn’t
sexual in the same way we might think of teens or adults touching
themselves, and it’s certainly a healthy thing to do.

During these years it’s important to teach your children the proper names for
all their body parts, including their genitals. By making up names or ignoring
these body parts altogether you send the message that there is something
wrong with them and/or that they should be ignored. Sexual health is an
important part of overall health, and to keep our children healthy they need
to know about their whole bodies.

You can also begin to teach your children about the difference between
private and public. One way to do this is to teach them about the parts of
their body that are private and should only be touched by themselves (e.g.
parts covered by a bathing suit). By making this distinction you are letting
them know that there is nothing wrong with their bodies and that curiosity
about their own bodies is healthy. But you are also teaching them that there
is a time and place for exploration, and that they have the right to privacy
and to be free from unwanted sexual touching.

Four to five years old.

During these years your child may begin to show a more active interest in
sexuality, both in terms of how their body works, and how other children’s
bodies work. They may want to know why girls and boys bodies are different,
and they may not understand why they can’t touch other children wherever
and whenever they want to.

Your task at this age is to both continue offering accurate information (e.g.
about where babies come from, about the names not only for their own body
parts but the body parts they don’t have but are seeing on others) and to
help your children find and maintain limits or boundaries around exploration.
For example your family might be okay with walking around without clothes,
but your child needs to know taking off their clothes at daycare or at a
formal party isn’t okay. Another example is that its perfectly healthy for your
child to want to touch their own genitals, but they need to learn that doing it
in public isn’t okay. At a minimum the American Academy of Pediatrics
suggests that before reaching school age, your child should know:

• Proper names of body parts


• Functions of the different body parts
• Physical differences between boys and girls