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Haley Kittleman Mentorship Period 5 Mr. Ashcraft January 5, 2009 Andrew Spang, Mentor and Band Director at Folly Quarter Middle School
By looking at the ideals and events based on these ideas. emergence of nationalism. Wagner. and the variety of instruments available. Music can be divided into eras including the Renaissance. It is important to look at this background in order to gain an understanding to the composer’s thoughts during the Romantic Era. Depending on the events of the time period. the importance of the individual. the music reflects the certain ideals and events that took place. and Romantic. emotional and story-telling forms. and Dvorak reveal the ideas of the Romantic Era through the less specific structure. Baroque. one is able to find insight on the music composed during the time period. and the interest in imagination and nature. The works of the Romantic composers such as Tchaikovsky. emphasis on emotions. The music of each era has its unique characteristics which are relative to the history of the time. Classical.Kittleman 2 Abstract Music has served many purposes in society. . The Romantic Era marks a time of self awareness.
Kittleman 3 Table of Contents Page Number List of Figures Introduction Historical Events and Ideas during the Romantic Era Romantic Music Romantic Composers Conclusion Recommendations Acknowledgements Works Cited Appendices 4 5 5-6 6-8 8-10 11 12 13 14-15 16 .
composer English Horn Sugar Plum Fairy from “The Nutcracker” 6 7 10 .Kittleman 4 List of Figures Page Number Amy Beach.
In Europe. the Romantic Era of music began at a later time period. At the time Mahler was composing. Romanticism occurred in both literature and the arts. This era reflected romantic and idolized views of the world. “If a composer could say what he had to say in words. nationalism erupted as various countries gained freedom or unification. he would not bother trying to say it in music” (thinkexist. rather than the Romantic idea of intuition. Although Romanticism started in the late 1700s. The musical aspects of this era reflect the historical events occurring at the time and the ideals of the people. This declaration stated that any European involvement in the Americas would be considered a threat towards the United States. imagination. President Monroe made a declaration known as the Monroe Doctrine. This demonstrated American national pride. Romantic music flourished for another half of a century. This era was a reaction to the Classical Era. This movement ranged from the late 1700s to the mid 1800s. emphasized the importance of emotions. a Romantic composer and a foremost conductor of this era. This paper will make connections between the history and the music of the Romantic Era. The Romantic Era of music began around the early 1800s and ended around the 1900s (Essentials of Music: Romantic 1825-1900). leaving many well known creations today (What is Romanticism?"). the musical world was experiencing the Romantic Era. In 1823. Romanticism. once stated. In other countries. people rebelled in order to . because the United State would not accept another country dealing with countries near their territory. which emphasized reason.com). Italy and Germany became unified during this time period. the umbrella of the artistic movements.Kittleman 5 Introduction Gustav Mahler. Historical Events and Ideas during the Romantic Era Nationalism and cultural pride became a large influence on the music during the Romantic Era. Although Romanticism came to the end and was replaced with Realism. nature and the individual (Singleton).
Greece. pitch. For instance.Kittleman 6 gain freedom from countries. The style of the Romantic music is more extreme. and drastic melodies. and tonal color. Stylistically. and national holidays were created to demonstrate the people’s pride (Bentley). Because of these shifts. Music’s role in society also began to change (Bentley). the idea of cultural identity and nationalism increased. anthems. Schumann was from Germany and wrote many compositions for the piano. Some women. As countries won their independence or became united. the music has more range. Women’s rights also emerged during this time period. Women believed they should be treated equally in society. became free of the Turkish rule. Romantic Music The characteristics. music had a more functional role in society. her principle instrument (Essentials of Music: Clara Schumann). This led to a different occupation role for composers. including dynamics. is known for her Gaelic Symphony and a large amount of viola music (Essentials of Music: Amy Beach). however this idea did not apply to the women of the time. such as Mary Astell and Mary Wollstonecraft argued that women have the same natural rights. Now people began to appreciate music as an aesthetic. Clara Schumann and Amy Beach were Romantic composers. The Enlightenment led to the ideas that men had natural rights. Flags. Earlier. instrumentation and forms of the music reflect the history of the Romantic Era. women began to emerge as composers. in 1827. Dramatic melodies and more dynamics and sound allow the Source: Amy Beach and the birth of "Gaelic" Symphony . Beach. which pertains to the emotions of the listeners. who composed near the end of the Romantic Era. For instance.
English horn. For instance. more brass. and art song. Beethoven added trombones and choirs to his symphonies (Spang).Kittleman 7 composers to write emotional music (Essentials of Music: Romantic 1825-1900). For his seventh symphony. symphonic poem. which reveals the individual freedom idea of the time period (Kauble). New instruments were introduced and the amount of each instrument increased. The audiences. and various percussion instruments. Instrumentation of the Romantic Era also changed. There was no strict format for a symphony during the Romantic Era. The sound of Romantic music was also more dissonant and composers used chromaticism. the symphonic poem often showed cultural pride. Woodwind Instrument” . This new and almost unbalanced sound was a reaction to the strict ideas of the Classical Era. Mahler also made additions in his symphonies. In addition. Forms of the Romantic Era included symphony. Mahler wanted a peasant-like sound. Chromaticism is based on the chromatic scale. could imagine the events as the music progressed. The Romantic composers used their freedom to experiment and find different sounds to put in their compositions. invented an instrument known as the “Wagner tuba” for his work called “Ring Cycle” (Spang). who know the story. Some composer could take a legend from their culture and create a piece to make the story come to life. piccolo. The art song is a vocal form of the Romantic Era (“The Romantic Era”). Symphonies were also used during the Classical Era. where the scale goes up in half steps. A symphonic poem is a composition based on a story. but the Romantic composers took the freedom to change the symphony during this time. a composer of this era. New instruments of this era included the bass clarinet. Source: “English Horn. In order to make this sound. The symphonic poem added imagination to the composition. Richard Wagner.
People would come to listen to their favorite aria. The instruments could cover wide ranges of pitches and gave the group different sounds. whose melody was used in the movie Apocalypse Now. Each composer had his influences. an opera house. Fredric Chopin. Wagner did not want the audience to just leave during the performance. music became more of an aesthetic. Richard Wagner. He even built Bayreuth. which is music written for a certain character. the opera house was a social hot spot. Romantic Composers Romantic composers included Gustav Mahler. If the villain is entering the scene. and then leave during the recitative. Restaurants and places to gamble were also located in the opera house. just for his huge operas. Jaws. For his operas. and Richard Wagner.Kittleman 8 Mahler added a mandolin and cowbells to the orchestra (Spang). This concept is now very common today. During this time period. For instance. Wagner made the recitative and the arias flow together. The recitative is the spoken dialogue. This allowed the composers to create emotional and powerful music with each unique sound of the instruments (“The Romantic Era”). the eerie music signals the approaching shark (Spang). Antonin Dvorak. Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky. When he wrote the both the music and story of his operas. The leitmotifs can connect emotions with the characters. in the movie. which would bore people. which many came from historical events or ideas of the Romantic Era. while the hero’s music creates the feeling of bravery and happiness. while the aria is when the character sings his or her thoughts. Wagner also introduced leitmotifs. the music generates the emotions of fear and hate. The opera was designed with a . Before Wagner and his operas. rather than a functional object. “Here Comes the Bride” and Ride of the Valkyries. a German opera composer. is known for writing the popular wedding march. The new additions added more color and flavor to the music. Felix Mendelssohn.
Compared to the structured forms. This opera house suited Wagner’s operas. a tragedy will occur. During the Romantic Era. Mahler depicts faith and faith knocking on the door three times. Mahler even once wrote a small paragraph in a score and the trumpet part in order to describe how the notes should be properly played.Kittleman 9 huge pit to fit Wagner’s large orchestra and an oversized stage. Mahler felt a strong emotion and had an exact idea of how his music should be played. Wagner’s operas about the gods are examples of the Romantic fascination with the supernatural. This progression began during the Baroque Era with Gabrielli.” In his music. so Mahler’s ability to add these sounds supports the Romantic idea (Johnson). where this composer indicated dynamics. Mr. They would have to decide how it should be played. Mahler went beyond this and was very precise with his instructions. so he indicated this very precisely (Spang). when Faith knocks on the door for the third time. Gustav Mahler. Stephen Johnson describes that Mahler included sounds of life and death in his pieces. As the story goes. Mahler’s form was very unexpected and different. He specified attacks on the notes and dynamics. the conductors and musicians had no indication of how to play the music. composed during the end of the Romantic Era. This taps into the emotions of the listeners. Wagner was able to influence this historical change by having his operas flow from beginning to end as one whole aesthetic (Sherrane). His sixth symphony is also called “The Tragic Symphony. Before this progression. which told the epic stories of gods and their battles (Spang). emotions and intuition were emphasized more than logic and reason. which were both characteristics of Romanticism. Mahler’s compositions are full of emotions and the idea of the supernatural. born in 1860. but he was too superstitious to have the third knock sound at . Andrew Spang explained how Mahler was the end of a musical progression. Mahler even added a huge hammer to create this sound.
Kittleman 10 the performance (Spang). Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky. and Swan Lake. Their melody and rhythm were the roots of his creation. Spang describes that his last symphony was an apology to his wife. Paul Stefan said in regards to Dvorak’s music: His musician's heart was deeply touched by his country's folk poetry. Mahler’s music demonstrates the very emotional and supernatural aspects of the Romantic Era. . a Russian composer. allow the audience the escape from the real world and use their imaginations. and reoccurring melodies in compositions (Smaczny). During the Romantic Era. Dvorak was born in 1841 in Bohemia. the imagination grew. (Rabinof) Dvorak’s style consisted of symmetrical melodies. However. Ballets. The ballets were fairy tales. He died while he was still in the process of composing. Some of his music exemplified Bohemian styles and sounds. called Tchaikovsky. used some dance time signatures. which demonstrates Tchaikovsky’s ability to reveal his national pride. The music was filled with his emotions and he even wrote his wife’s name in the margin (Spang). song and dance. Antonin Dvorak’s compositions are examples of cultural identity and pride. Mahler’s tenth symphony is unfinished. These ballets were Sleeping Beauty. fictional stories. The Nutcracker. a new form used in this period (Essentials of Music: Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky). Mr. Stravinsky. In an article. Alma. wrote music for many ballets. like Tchaikovsky’s. Another Russian Source: “A Plum Role” composer. Tchaikovsky also wrote music in the form of symphonic poems. “the most Russian of all of us” (Spang). Dvorak’s compositions demonstrate the idea of pride for one’s culture.
in their compositions. emotions. reflects the ideas and historical events of the period. people began to have an overwhelming pride for their culture and country. and the imagination. Women fought for equality based on the Enlightenment principles. Composers living during this time reveal reoccurring themes such as national pride.Kittleman 11 Conclusion Romanticism marked a time where emotions. including its characteristics and composers. . and the individual were emphasized. the imagination. freedom. and music became more of an aesthetic. The Romantic music.
. A more detailed research on a composer would give more details on a person’s background. and listening to the music. styles. a lot of insight could be gained.Kittleman 12 Recommendations For further research. By looking at scores. and score can reveal characteristics of the Romantic Era. reading about the piece. which would reveal influences on their lives that later impacted their music. Also an extensive study on a Romantic composition would be interesting. This would show much detail on their composing styles and their influences on Music History. The composer’s life. it would be beneficial to look at extensive research on one Romantic composer.
for their support during my writing process. Ashcraft.Kittleman 13 Acknowledgements I would like to thank Mr. . and my mentor. Mr. the Folly Quarter Middle School band director. the Mentorship Program’s advisor. Spang.
SIRS Researcher. Block. 2009 . 2006. 2009 <http://thinkexist. McGraw-Hill Higher Education. 4 Jan.html>. "Music History . ProQuest." Traditions and Encounters: A Global Perspective of the Past. Robert. Sherrane. Adrienne Fried. "Romanticism.com/composer/schumann_c.com/composer/beach. 4 Jan. Stephen.org/beach_article." DSO Kids. 2008 <http://sks.com/quotation/ if_a_composer_could_say_what_he_had_to_say_in/206756. 27 Nov. Bentley. 19 Aug. Sony Music Entertainment . Spang.sirs. 2004.com/eras/romantic. 2009 <http://sks.Kittleman 14 Works Cited "Amy Beach. 2001." Tutti Magazine No. Woodwind Instrument.kaublepianostudio. 4 Jan." Essentials of Music. "Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky. SIRS Researcher." The Internet Public Library. Rabinof.The Romantic Period." Glenelg High School. Martin. 2009 <http://www. Sony Music Entertainment . "Gustav Mahler. Ziegler.dsokids. 2001.com/>.com/sites/0072957549/student_view0/chapter29/ chapter_outline.ipl.essentialsofmusic. ProQuest. Smaczny. 2 Dec.html>.com/2001/dso. Sony Music Entertainment .htm>.html >. Jerry H." Essentials of Music. Kauble.com/>. 2006.essentialsofmusic.essentialsofmusic. 16 Jan.com. 4 Jan.htm>. Singleton. "Romantic 1825-1900. 2001. 3rd ed. 2008 <http://sks. Philip. 2001. "English Horn. "Gustav Mahler Quotes. 4 Jan.html>. 2004: 44-48. Andrew.sirs. 4 Jan. "Amy Beach and the birth of 'Gaelic' Symphony. 2006. 27 Nov." BBC Music Nov. 4 Jan. 2009 < http://www.americancomposers.html>. 2006. Sylvia. "Richard Wagner. 2009 <http://www.html>. “Peter Ilyitch Tchaikovsky. 2002: 82-485 SIRS Researcher.3." Essentials of Music.mcgraw-hill.html>.sirs. SIRS Researcher. ProQuest. ProQuest." Junior Keynotes Spring 1995: 6-7." Piano Studio of Martin E. 2008. "Clara Schumann.essentialsofmusic.org/div/mushist/rom/wagner. Sony Music Entertainment . 2008 <http://www. 2008 <http://www. and Herb F." BBC Music May. "Antonin Dvorak: Spirit of Bohemia and Folk Music." Essentials of Music.asp?PageID=155>.com/composer/tchaikovsky. 2009 <http://highered. 27 Nov. 1999. Jan.sirs. 2008 <http://sks. "Antonin Dvorak. 2009 < http://www.com/>.com/history/romantic." Thinkexist. "Chapter 29 Outline. NCTM. 2009 < http://www.. 27 Nov. 4 Jan. Kauble. 27 Nov. Personal interview. 2009 <http://www. Johnson. 1995: 12-16." American Composers Orchestra. 2008.com/>. 4 Jan.
org/C0126184/english/movromanticism. 2008 <http://library.htm>.com/>. 2001. 2004/Jan 2005: 42.org/15413/history/ history-rom.htm>.Kittleman 15 Tegnelia." Music Notes. 2009 <http://library. "The Romantic Era. "What is Romanticism?" Romanticism: from the canvas to the printing press to the opera. "A Plum Role. 4 Jan. ProQuest.sirs.thinkquest. SIRS Researcher. ." Pointe Dec. 30 Nov.thinkquest. 4 Jan. 2009 <http://sks. Abby.
gives directions on how to write a History paper. and conclusion. http://www. This site. . The format given includes an introduction.Kittleman 16 Appendix For my paper.bowdoin. I used a basic format found at the Bowdoin College website. body.edu/writing-guides/.
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