2009

Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction

CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development Proceedings of the

ROUND TABLE DISCUSSION ON CLIMATE CHANGE ADAPTATION AND DISASTER RISK REDUCTION (DRAFT)

July 20-21, 2009 Conrado Benitez Hall, PRRM Building, 56 Dr. Lazcano corner Mo.Ignacia Sts., Quezon City Day 1 – July 20 I. PRELIMINARIES

Welcome and Introductions The day’s activity started at precisely 1:30 in the afternoon facilitated by Ms. Weng Bolinas, coordinator of the CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development. She welcomed the participants and introduced the activity saying that this was part of a series of discussions on Climate Change Adaptation that their coalition is conducting. She then proceeded to facilitate the introduction of the participants, instructing them to give out their name, organization, and why they opted to participate in the discussion. Below is a list of the reasons expressed by the participants for attending the one and a half day round table discussion. (Names of participants in Annex 1: RTD and CCA Directory of Participants) • (Allan Vera, Christian Aid DRR Officer) To support the CSOs in influencing not only the Philippine position to the UNFCCC but the entire negotiations as well; • (Chito Tiongco, Panay Rural Development Center, Inc. Executive Director and Coordinator of Policy Advocacy on Climate Change) Interested to learn more on the issue of climate change adaptation; • (Ruel Velarde, Philnet RDI) One of their programs is building disaster awareness in the community and partnered with Christian Aid in implementing DRR; • (Raymond Daen, COPE Foundation) To gain deeper understanding on climate change adaptation; • (Sonia, Social Action) To learn more from the discussions; • (Shirley Bolanos, Coastal Core) To gain deeper understanding of Climate Change and its effect to the community; • (Toning Balang, FORGE Cebu) To share insights on climate change as well as learn from the sharing how we will bring the Philippine agenda on climate change to Copenhagen;

CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development

1 of 37

2009

Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction

• •

• • • • •

• • • •

• •

(Randy Johnson, US Peace Corps volunteer in the LGU of Bolinao, Pangasinan) To learn as much as he can on how climate change is affecting the Philippines and bring this knowledge back to Bolinao; (Salvacion Ruiz, PARASAMAZA and Zambales FARMC) To clarify the issue of black sand quarrying in their area and deepen understanding on climate change in order to know how to better protect the waters of Zambales; (Al Riego, MACEC) To gain more ideas and learnings that may be used in implementing climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction in our area; (Allan Reguyal, Social Action-Infanta) – To participate in the discussion on DRR and CCA; (Cesar Hawak Jr., PUMALU-MV) To participate in order to gain additional knowledge on what needs to be done in order to prepare for the effects of climate change to fisheries and coastal communities; (Carmelito Tatlonghari, Chairman of SIBA, Philippine Climate Watch Alliance and AGHAM) Interested to learn more about CCA since our focus is on climate change and renewable energy; (Natalie Pulvinar, AGHAM) To learn about other adaptation practices being done at the community level in the areas of participants today, and gain more knowledge regarding adaptation technology in preparation for the Bangkok Summit; (Marie Marciano, Vice President of PNCC) To determine what our positions may be in the coming negotiations of the UNFCCC leading to the summit in Copenhagen; (Abbie Dulay, NFR Policy Research Officer) To document the entire proceedings and learn more about climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction; (Jocel Pangilinan, Christian Aid) To take part in the discussions on climate change especially regarding its effect on fisheries; (Josefina Porcil and Lennie Alegre, Office of Civil Defense and Secretariat of the National Disaster Management Council) Was invited by Christian Aid to take part in the discussions and very much interested because DRR is part of their major responsibilities. They expect to learn much from the discussions and determine how they can help in the promotion of climate change adaptation; (Sis. Alice Original, OND Hessed Foundation) Very interested in the issue of climate change because they are implementing climate change programs right now in South Cotabato; (Jessica Bercilla, Christian Aid) It is their advocacy within the CSO WG on CCD to ensure that the voices of the community are heard and their ideas included in the discussions towards the UNFCCC Copenhagen negotiations, with the help of the present members of the Technical Working Group.

CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development

2 of 37

2009

Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction

Background on the CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development Chito Tiongco, Panay Rural Development Center Executive Director Mr. Tiongco was provided the task of introducing the CSO WG on Climate Change and Development as well as the context leading to this activity. He said that one of the programs the Panay Rural Development Center is working on is policy advocacy on climate change. A major component of this project is working with civil society organizations in engaging the Philippine government regarding its position on the climate change negotiations. This involved the coming together of several CSOs to work out plans on engaging the Philippine negotiators, which gave rise to the CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development. It was initially a small number of CSOs based in Manila, but while the date of the negotiations drew near, many more CSOs expressed their intent to join and support the advocacy of the coalition. Right now the official members of the CSO WG on CC and Development are: • Ateneo School of Government (ASoG) • Christian Aid (CA) • Conservation International (CI) • Earth Savers’ Movement (ESM) • Freedom from Debt Coalition (FDC) • Greenpeace International • Haribon Foundation, Inc. • Legal Rights and Natural Resources Center (LRC-KSK) • NGO Forum on the ADB • NGOs for Fisheries Reform, Inc. (NFR) • Non Timber Forest Products-Exchange Program (NTFP-EP) • ODA Watch • Oxfam • Panay Rural Development Center, Inc. • Philippine Network on Climate Change (PNCC) • PhilDHRRA • Philippine Rural Reconstruction Movement (PRRM) • Third World Network (TWN) • Upholding Life and Nature (ULAN) One of the major components of the CSO Working Group activities is the conduct of a series of round table discussions or fora on the Bali Building Blocks. It is expected that these RTDs would provide the venue for the formulation of a position that will be submitted to the Philippine Panel of negotiators. Today’s RTD is the sixth of a series, where the five previously

CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development

3 of 37

2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction conducted RTDs include: 1) Climate Change and Agriculture. containing the various positions of the negotiating countries. The negotiating panel was just newly formed at the time of the submission of the CSO position. 2) Adaptation. The CSO Working Group is not merely confined to international activities. Though currently. As of the moment. 3) Adaptation Financing. Mr. which is slated to be discussed in a Bicameral Conference Committee. 4) Reducing Emissions on Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). added into. It also wants to influence the country’s national policies such as the Climate Change Bill. which was formulated in the format of the negotiating texts. this would also help determine the final position for the country. Presentation of the Program CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 4 of 37 . He added that though in the end. When the Philippine panel convened in April. concerned agencies of the government and representatives of the CSOs. The TWGs were tasked to review the negotiating texts from the UNFCCC. and the formulation of a National Adaptation Program of Action (NAPA). During the most recent RTD on Shared Vision. or whether any more provisions would need to be put forward. advocacy and influencing national policy continues. while the TWG on Adaptation will be holding its meeting the following day. and 4) Shared Vision. the Technical Working Groups (TWGs) were formed. composed of members of the official negotiating panel. They are even open to including provisions on REDD subject to further studies and supporting evidence. namely: 1) Mitigation. and determine which of the positions need to be supported. 2) Shared Vision. It was used a one of the main reference document for the formulation of the Philippine negotiating position. erased. the focus is on the negotiations in preparation for Copenhagen. the negotiating texts are still open to comments and additional provisions. 3) Financing and Technology Transfer. Four TWGs were formed. Consequently. The Financing and Technology Transfer TWG is meeting right now. Tiongco shared that the mitigation TWG had to meet twice just to cover the entire scope of the issue. and 5) Mining and Indigenous Peoples. the final decision still lies ultimately with the negotiating panel it is still a great opportunity for the CSOs to be able to participate in the review of the negotiating texts and the formulation process for the Philippine negotiating position. the Philippine position is still a work in progress and according to the negotiating panel. the CSO Working Group submitted an initial position on the Bali building blocks. the CSO Working group lobbied for more space in the crafting of the Philippine position and from there. It was a happy note that most of the provisions stated in the CSO position had been included in the initial draft of the Philippine negotiating text.

assuming that participants of this RTD have already been exposed to the basics of climate change and would be in a position to relate the inputs with what is happening in their respective communities. then the policy interventions would also be wrong and the country would be investing in the wrong area and we’ll be wasting valuable resources. but will be limited to what the MSI is doing in terms of research. such as National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA). They wanted to get the input of the participants on the negotiating texts regarding climate adaptation in time for the TWG meeting the following day.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Ms. Siringan started his presentation with an overview of his presentation. INPUT ON CLIMATE RELATED RISKS AND PROJECTIONS INPUT 1: Some Possible Impacts of Climate Change to Coastal Areas (PowerPoint in Annex 3) Dr. Ms. Bolinas informed that the program sent earlier to the participants by email may not necessarily be followed to the letter to make way for slight changes brought about by developments in the discussions of the TWG. She then proceeded to go through the initial design of the program. another resource person. will also be presenting tomorrow. changes in the frequency. changes in the patterns of rain and amount of rainfall and coral bleaching. Jessica Bercilla clarified on the need to have scientific inputs for the discussions. coming from the Manila Observatory (MO). Fernando Siringan. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 5 of 37 . She added that the presentations today would not focus on the basic but more on updates on what science sees happening in our country. (Revised RTD program flow in Annex 2) She stated that several government agency representatives have been invited and were expected to come tomorrow. She informed that aside from the next speaker from the Marine Science Institute. The MO resource person shall be presenting their updated list of vulnerability maps in the country. rising sea levels. Another presenter for today will be coming from the Philippine Climate Adaptation Project (PhilCAP) handling agriculture. Policy interventions should be based on sound science. He said that some of the consequences of global warming include: the warming seas. If the science is wrong. Department of Agriculture (DA) and the Inter-Agency Committee on Climate Change (IACCC). strength and path of storms. saying that he would not be able to tackle all the possible negative impact of climate change to coastal areas. One of the emphases. any submission the Philippines made must be evidence-based. Marine Science Institute (MSI) Dr. upon entering the negotiation process is that. II.

Iloilo and Naga are also flood vulnerable areas due to their low elevation. from 1983 to the present also shows an overall trend of rising sea surface temperatures in the Bicol shelf. what must be focused on would be the different effects this might have to various parts of the country. The specific data set from Bicol shelf showed a slight increase in sea surface temperature from 1930-1990. Geographical data on possible flood vulnerable areas may be downloadable from ASTER. In the case of the Philippines. Siringan showed combined data sets from the Comprehensive Ocean Atmosphere data set containing information on the sea surface temperature from 1930-1990s measured by ships plying the waters around the Philippines. several lines of coconut trees in Nara CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 6 of 37 . and it appeared to have been related to the heating of the sea. Based on studies conducted by MSI in Palawan. But since it is an average.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction He presented some data regarding the history of red tide occurrences in Manila Bay. Another data set from the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS). It may show an average global sea level increase. There are data that show that sea level rise in various parts of the country may reach an average of 2 cm/year. They conducted a study to determine the cause of the red tide outbreak in Manila Bay in 1998. Areas like Pampanga. Sulu Sea and South China Sea with the same increasing SST patterns. Bulacan and part of the CAMANAVA region would suffer from destructive floods should the sea level rise by even one meter. Focusing on sea surface temperature changes. as well as the rise in sea levels. He showed another data set that shows the average of incidences of sea level rise all over the world. Aquaculture ponds in coastal plains will be more prone to flooding. He provided some graphs showing the relation of changes in water temperature to changes in air temperature. Another consequence of sea level rise is coastal erosion. He showed several more graphs of Surigao.5 degrees centigrade per year. One of the greatest fears in the country is that with the rise of sea levels. but there might be countries that may actually be experiencing decrease in sea levels. it does not show the particular scenario for each country. This shows evidence that increase in air temperature is linked to increase in sea surface temperature. and sea surface temperature in Manila Bay rising constantly from 1990 to 2000. Dr. major parts of the country would be inundated. All the data presented show different slopes but all agree on a constant rise of sea surface temperatures. The rise in sea surface temperatures is related to the change in the amount of food production in the sea. It showed overall air temperature in Manila steadily rising from 1900 to 2000 by an average of 1. And it points to a global average increase in sea level.

especially along the Batangas Pier. He added that the people have not protected the surface waters enough resulting in an increased demand for groundwater. 2002 and 2009. Siringan provided data from their collaborative study with Conservation International on the Verde Island.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction fell due to coastal erosion. But he cautioned that. Siringan showed that there were several changes in the shoreline through the given years. Anecdotal accounts from the South flank of the Bucao River mouth in Botolan. A 7. It shows the vulnerability of the Verde Passage area due to climate change. and 4) destruction of coral reefs and mangroves that serve as buffer against big waves. But sea level rise due to warming seas is not the only cause of coastal erosion. while coastal erosion were also evident in the coral reef islands of Honda Bay. compared with NAMRIA data for the years 1992. aquaculture. Dr. Climate change cannot be faulted solely. new ground may appear but Dr. excessive groundwater withdrawal. build-up over soft sediments. It is expected that shoreline changes would still take place in the coming years due to factors not actually climate change related but manmade or induced. Due to events like these. 3) engineering structures. large shoreline segments continue to undergo erosion. The increased extraction rate of groundwater resulted in enhanced ground compaction giving way to the lowering of the ground and a 40 cm total rise in sea level. Faults are also actively causing changes in land formations. Based on a map using aerial photos from 1947-1953. 2) subsidence – due to tectonics. There was a recorded erosion of precisely 150 meters along the north flank of Maloma River in Zambales. In Zambales. A lot of areas in the Verde Passage experienced CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 7 of 37 . Zambales declared a ten (10) and forty (40) meter erosion in just one storm event.1 magnitude earthquake in Mindoro in 1994 caused a tsunami and sinking of the ground in Baco resulting in roughly a 200-meter ground erosion in the area. Siringan cautioned against settling there since there is a big possibility that it might disappear again. the natural setting of the area should not be overlooked. Other factors are often the more immediate cause of erosion such as: 1) switching of river mouths. despite large sediment inputs from the eruption of Mt. He then moved on to show the changes in shoreline position. He showed the position of active faults along the Verde Island. Pinatubo. the ground also changes levels. according to data from the PHIVOLCS. Dr. He advised the participants to lobby against solid base piers in their areas and opt instead for piers on stilts or posts. There are man-made constructions like dams and piers that obstruct the flow of the seawater thereby interfering with the sediment drift and thus attributing to changes in the shoreline (coastal erosion) that may not be advantageous to communities along the coast.

And in determining the reason or factors leading to this phenomenon. questions asked and the corresponding response beneath in bullet points: Question: Mr. Open Forum The floor was opened to questions from the participants regarding Dr. with Bolinao. MSI observed the changes in precipitation or rain fall. Siringan noted that the overall trend is increasing over time. From 1945 to present. and there is actually very limited data available for use.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction widening or increase in land mass. decrease in primary productivity will lead to the reduction of small fish that feed on phytoplankton. it could also cause massive fish kills due to the lack of oxygen. and ultimately causing decrease or loss of income for the small fisher folk. These are attributable to climate change. It seems that the CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 8 of 37 . the amount of fish food in the open ocean or the blue water also changes. but more long term data is needed to be able to draw a long term trend. Pangasinan as their study area. Approaches towards responding to the changes cannot be done uniformly. Samar showed an average decrease in rain fall over a period of 100 years. Dr. Siringan’s presentation. Siringan concluded his presentation by saying that everyone should be vigilant of the changes occurring in our country and our respective communities. We need more knowledge on the changes happening around us. And it is our responsibility to know or learn how to use the available data for our purposes and to aid us in climate change adaptation. With the warming of the seas. data collected by the MSI on the Verde passage showed an increase in the frequency of typhoons within and near the area. Precipitation data from Guiuan. thereby leading also to a decrease in the bigger fish that feed on the small fish. but they have yet to determine the cause of the increase. below is a list of the comments raised. whether it’s due to the heating of the waters or the pollution of the waters or both. Increased toxic algal blooms can severely affect the livelihood of tahong growers. He also informed that marine scientists agree that warming seas will decrease primary productivity. These changes can also be observed from the phytoplankton assemblage. We may use personally generated data or data from the government. He shared the results from one of their studies relating to red tide or dinoflagellates. This has detrimental effects to our fishers. Dr. Roger Concepcion said that he observed from the studies presented that there is a need to harmonize the baselines. thereby affecting the income of fishers. Based on the studies. it appears that toxic varieties of dinoflagellates favour warmer waters. The problem now is that even the toxic elements are also increasing.

There is a pacific decadal oscillation. He asked if this could be attributed to the animals’ instincts of following the food chain or if there were other reasons. He said that this is what they have been attempting in the country. one may surmise that the fluctuations noted here would be the change we are looking for but it may just be a part of the natural cycle and not really significant. it has to extend far to have a frame of reference. Moreover. Question: The participant from Zambales asked regarding the importance of magnetic sand over normal sand. he surmises that these cetaceans could have been drawn to our shores because of the availability of food. • Regarding the cetaceans (dolphins). some even noted that tuna catch in the Visayan Sea have been increasing. But there are still data sets that may still be used. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 9 of 37 . this started in 1880. This is very difficult to attempt with the existing datasets available at PAG-ASA from the 1950s.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction conclusions stated do not agree with each other. which is also incomplete. She said that magnetic sand is being quarried in their area. He added that these are highly observable occurrences that may be used as basis for anecdotal evidence. Though some say this is attributable to the establishment of Marine Protected Areas (MPAs). Question: Another participant clarified if it is true that many scientists generally believe that global warming would generally lead to a decrease in primary production. If we are to believe the assertion of groups saying that the increase in carbon dioxide is causing global warming. Siringan answered that based on available data primary production is going down as sea temperature rise. but we cannot directly link changes in primary production with changes in solar activity. he argued that interpretation of change may not be correct if one is looking only at a 20-year record. Dr. he added that more data would be needed in order to sufficiently respond to this question. But the warming of the sea itself may take root from several solar activities. He added that though he is not an expert on these things. Siringan agreed that there is a need for a more long term study of a set of data especially related to climate change. Siringan agreed that there have been many sightings of these creatures. using records from other sources. • On the first point. • Dr. Dr. All other related studies base their conclusions on data way before 1880. But he again reminded that he is not saying this with authority. He also asked if the speaker had ideas on the possible reasons for the sudden entry of large marine animals in Philippine waters. personally. He added that it would be better if we agree on a critical period in the country and focus on it through time. I would argue that people should in fact look at longer records as well as historical records to contextualize climate change.

particularly vehicle emissions. and disappeared when the plant ceased operations. it should be immediately reported to the authorities. He takes the position that developed countries should not prevent Filipinos in engaging in technologies that will allow us to be competitive. magnetite sand mining has been a major contributor to coastal erosion. But he stressed that he does not believe that the Philippines should go into technologies that are not available locally or are expensive just to shift away from using hydrocarbons or coal. would still be beneficial for the country and that everyone should be working really hard towards this. Should there be incidences of magnetite mining. Masinloc also has a power plant. is prohibited by law. and has been reporting cases of red tide occurrence annually. Siringan replied that intuitively we should expect changes in the phytoplankton assemblage with a constant increase in temperature. They have an inference that they want to investigate as part of a project they are currently conducting. looking at atmospheric circulation. They believe that it may have an affect because when the power plant started operations algal blooms appeared. Siringan reacted to a comment from the participant that he says hinges on the premise that global warming is due to the increase in carbon dioxide. • Dr. It is in Limay that algal blooms. Dr. Question: Another participant commented that there have been observable changes in the characteristics of the fish species found in the sea waters surrounding heat-emitting power plants. the reason why Canada and the US are so concerned of Asia is that aerosol transport is more direct from Asia going across the Pacific to • CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 10 of 37 . funded by the DOST. But he said that reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. the discharge point of which is in Limay. more often referred to as red tide. because a thick layer of magnetite sand serves as armour for the part of the coast that is very prone to erosion. originated mostly in the years from 1988-1998. He added that based on their studies in La Union. Could this be true? • Dr. He said that they wanted to determine if the presence of the power plant has any relation to the presence of these algal blooms. Siringan replied that any mining in the coastal area.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction • First and foremost. Technologies being sold to us are expensive and not worth it he says. Studies say that the fish near the area become more prolific the higher the temperature of the water. on harmful algal blooms. There is a power plant on the Bataan side of Manila Bay. Bataan. including mining of magnetite sand. On the issue of pollution from Asia. which he personally does not believe completely as a geologist.

2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Canada and the US. they took interest in two major landscapes which they deemed critical to food security: 1) The lowland irrigated agricultural landscape. The highland in this country is almost 2M hectares. and did not adjust to the rain fed rice production. which he opines is most important because it is one of the most resilient. surely all forest areas will be devastated. And the highland is located along the forest lands. there is direct input from China going to the Philippines.Rain fed agriculture contribution is increasing. But since irrigation is not properly used. pollution is filtered our first through the various countries it’s passed through before it reaches the country. INPUT II: Philippine Climate Change Adaptation Program Dr. But the problem is that in agriculture. In the lowlands. The real issue today. This way. there will be more typhoon occurrences. Concepcion heads the research on the Philippine Climate Adaptation Project. in most cases. it will be opened to a wide variety of crops. Concepcion shared that if temperature climbs in the highlands. And there seem to be no one with enough political will to stop the conversion of agricultural lands into something else. or in the next two decades. NAPC/PhilCAP Dr. He shared that in their study. And rainfall pattern today is stronger. And temperature is a single major factor that may affect the country’s agriculture. he proposed several adaptation programs as part of their study. Given this. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 11 of 37 . though during the winter season. studies say that due to climate change. But he believes that this change in rainfall pattern is favouring agriculture for the moment . as well as it is where the most disadvantaged groups are located. gusty but erosive. where major investments are poured in. He said that following various literature. It includes an adaptation program that will improve the efficiency of investments in the lowland irrigated lands and an adaptation program that will create proactive awareness and understanding of the importance of the highlands to our food security. we are losing our best lands. nor took into consideration the shortening of the summer months. is that it is in the highlands that we find our highly valued and highly diversified crops. it appears that temperature plays a major role in climate change. Roger Concepcion. If the rise in temperature cannot be controlled right now. before going back to the Philippines via oceanic flight. there has been a massive rearrangement of rain fed rice production in the past three years. and 2) the highland agricultural landscape. there was an advance of one month. but why the highlands? Dr.

Irrigated lands should not have seasonality. if this landscape is opened. but not right now because irrigation did not adjust to the changing planting calendar of the rain fed that advanced by almost more than a month in many places. if you cut a bamboo and find a lot of water inside. and schedules adjusted for irrigated lands. As to the highlands. Concepcion shared that they have found the rise in pest and diseases validated in rice (i. It should be used as a way to balance the flow of agricultural products into the mainstream. So the adaptation program here would be to make the Department of Agriculture (DA) work closely with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR). the disastrous effect would be on the biodiversity of the forest.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction In agriculture. The issue for irrigated lands is maintaining the integrity of water but optimizing the value of water for production to protect farm gate prices. The government must develop a strong sense of responsibility because the highland is the last frontier that will offer new lands for agriculture.g. The effect of climate change in agriculture is not in production but in the farm economy. Clarificatory Questions: Question: Are there available literature pertaining to these biological indicators? • Literature is available and the speaker promised to provide a copy of what he has. The overlap in harvesting time created a one and a half month gap. What Philippine farmers need is a program that increases their cash flow. We have to manage our water resources carefully. We need to develop an early warning system and the farmers’ biological indicators would be very helpful with this.e. These agencies should immediately plan proper screening of plant varieties and animal species that will be introduced into the highlands. Dr. not merely their income. an extended rainy season is welcome. affecting the rain fed areas making them inaccessible and easily affected by traders. So climate change would affect agriculture not in production but in the management of surplus. But the lack of surplus management in agriculture affected the opportunity to increase the volume of rice without sacrificing farm gate prices. On the rise of pests and diseases due to climate change. in fact productivity increased. Biological indicators could be very instructional (e. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 12 of 37 . this may be taken as a sign of pending drought). So the overlap in the harvesting period of the rain fed widened. This overlap is an impact of climate change but it did not affect productivity. The adaptation program they developed for this issue is the tapping of local knowledge and use of biological indicators currently utilized by many farmers. increase in tungro and stem borers). Water for irrigation should be controlled.

But what is funny is that during the wet season. but in the dry season the supply of water is efficiently rationed out.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Question: What is the timeline of the indicators mentioned? Because if this were to be connected to the upland loss of biodiversity and to the upstreamdownstream relationship. while it is 72% during the dry season. Discussion focus mainly on upland concerns. She said that addressing climate change concerns should be time bound. what would be the implications of the seemingly positive effect on the lowlands but biodiversity negative on the highland? And how reliable are the indicators mentioned? • The speaker replied that this is where the beauty of utilizing local farmer knowledge lies. so our efficiency is going down. as well as give opportunity for the CSO and other stakeholders to contribute in beefing up the country’s own position. One option is low carbon diet agriculture. One important implication of increase in temperature would be its effect on the efficiency of the use of urea. it would affect the lowland. we’ll be able to see the negative and positive effects. Bercilla provided a brief overview of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and other related agreements as an introduction to the succeeding workshop on climate change negotiating texts. but the effect of the degradation of corals and other fish habitats should also be reflected in the discussions and the positions taken. Organic agriculture should only be promoted in an area that is rich in biomass. When people from the lowland and the upland provide information. Christian Aid Ms. efficiency in the irrigated lands in the lowlands is 68%. She gave a cursory discussion of the resultant Kyoto Protocol and the Bali Roadmap that is the bone of contention for the upcoming meeting in December to be held in Copenhagen. Farmers are geo-referenced. There are a lot of issues that are currently not being discussed in the negotiating table such as reduction in emissions due to degradation of coastal and fisheries. She explained that there is a need to review the negotiating texts thus far. The problem in monitoring advantages to the highland is that we do not know exactly what is happening there. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 13 of 37 . It appears reversed because we were not able to adapt to the surplus of water during the wet season. INPUT 3: UNFCCC and Other Climate Change Agreements Jessica Bercilla. in order for everyone to have an idea of the various positions in play.

and if not. it is finite. This thin strip of atmosphere is what is being threatened and discussed and debated on right now. Then decide on whether they agree on the points being raised taking note of national interests. solidarity and common but differentiated responsibilities? They have to decide if they agree with the way the texts were phrased.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction This she said would be the advantage of going through the negotiating texts aside from giving the participants an opportunity to give their input on the issues being discussed and have a first hand knowledge of how the negotiation is being done. The groups were given an hour for the workshop and afterwards were tasked to report their output in plenary. IV. Magalang shared some of the input from an Asia-Pacific Conference on Climate Change. She explained that the focus of the first workshop is to go over the negotiating texts on climate change adaptation. III. and 3) Means of Implementation (page 59 paragraph 42) Each group was tasked to go through their assigned texts and determine what needs to be done. which is why it is important that the principle of the HFA be included in the negotiations and in the final negotiating texts as well because then it would become binding. Bercilla explained that though we are implementing the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA). He said the headlines 40 years ago carried events such as the landing of the Apollo 11 on the moon. SYNTHESIS Miguel Magalang. it is a non-binding. the participants were asked to report on their respective group outputs. The most beautiful photo taken of the Earth was done accidentally by the Apollo mission when the sun was behind them. 2) Multi Window (page 57 paragraph 41). it showed how thin the atmosphere of the Earth is. (Workshop 1 group outputs in Annex 4) Ms. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 14 of 37 . Looking at the photos of the Earth. we are struck by the thought that it is but a small mass in the universe. sponsored by Al Gore that he recently attended. She then proceeded to explain the mechanics of the workshop. to list down possible alternatives. It became the most massively produced picture of our planet. And he showed several photos of the Earth from that mission. The participants were divided into three groups: 1) Framework (page 56 paragraphs 37-40). From that same mission in 1969. GROUP WORKSHOP AND REPORTING After the one hour timed limit for group discussion. MACEC Mr.

when it has the same atmosphere as ours? It cannot be because it is closer to the sun because Mercury is even closer but Venus is still hotter.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Why is the warming of the Earth controlled compared to Venus which is too hot. can they be expected to initiate by December 2009? Or would the initiative still come from countries such as ours from the G77? What’s important is that everybody is ready and equipped down to the community level to adapt to the impact of climate change. This is because of the absorptive capacity of the Earth the heat is absorbed by its land and waters. He stressed that it is very important that everyone. it is greenhouse gas emissions that are causing our planet to heat up. unlike with Venus where the atmosphere takes it all in. The question now is what would we want the newspapers to carry in its headlines this year? What would happen if there wouldn’t be any agreement after Copenhagen? An extension of the Kyoto Protocol? It seems likely because as of the moment. Now based on studies. He ended his sharing by posing a challenge to everyone in coordinating of our adaptation mechanisms and disaster risk reduction schemes for greater effectivity. Bercilla stated that the interface of the Disaster Risk Management Bill and the Climate Change Bill. CLOSING REMARKS Jessica Bercilla As a final note. A participant shared that the Climate Change Commission Bill has already passed at both Houses of Congress and is now ready for the Bicameral Conference Committee discussion. and though this is a big step. the output of which along with today’s output will be carried by the members of the TWG in their respective meetings. will be discussed tomorrow in order to see how we can work together to move forward. especially the CSOs. The climate change legislations in the US have already passed at the lower house. And the European Union does not seem to be moving towards making any commitment. Ms. And Senator Legarda is pushing for the immediate discussion of the said bill at the Bicam. Bercilla reminded that the discussion process will continue tomorrow. V. The day’s session adjourned at precisely 6:45 in the evening. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 15 of 37 . The challenge here is how to respond to the anthropogenic nature of climate change that has been proven by thousands of studies. participate in the discussions on this bill because it will ultimately decide on the institutional mechanism for climate change in the country. Ms. only Norway has given its commitment at 43% reduction. We need to resolve how we’ll maintain our nationalism and solidarity with other developing countries while working on this advocacy.

2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 16 of 37 .

Review and discussions on the negotiating texts served as the participants’ contribution in the formulation and lobbying of the CSO position to the UNFCCC negotiations in Copenhagen. PRRM and Alyansa Tigil Mina. what the unique needs of each community are and what can be done as adequate response to those needs. Vera provided a brief but concise recapitulation of the previous day’s activities. providing a map of where the discussion is progressing and pointing out what else needs to be done. participants were again asked to introduce themselves. Christian Aid Mr.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Day 2 – July 21 The day’s sessions started with an introduction given by Weng Bolinas of the CSO TWG on Climate Change and Development. which our representatives to the TWGs on climate change will be carrying along with them in their respective meetings. He said that later on. Two additional representatives from the government were present – BFAR and NEDA. we wouldn’t be tied down to just asking for mere infrastructure support like in the past. Vera reminded everyone to highlight through the succeeding discussions. such that when all negotiations in the UNFCCC have been completed and countries have manifested their commitments. we would know what to ask of them in terms of support. Mr. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 17 of 37 . as well as representatives from a national fisher folk federation – PUMALU MV. RECAP Allan Vera. Before the recap of events yesterday. there will be a context sharing through the workshops that would help in determining the situation at the local level. I. These would also help in identifying the unique needs of each community at the local level and the country as a whole in terms of climate change adaptation and mitigation. As a final word. who relayed that the third input on climate change related risks and projections will be given today. He said that one of the highlights for the entire activity is the dialogue with scientists because it is important for everyone to realize there have already been studies conducted and initiatives taken in further understanding climate change and determining where we are. This way. There shall also be a practice sharing in order for those who have had experience in implementing DRR to share the lessons they’ve learned so far and determine how these can be related to climate change adaptation. Social Action Network. All of these are designed towards improving our position as civil society organizations and influence the position which our Philippine delegation would be carrying with them in the negotiations.

in which case information from the provinces is utilized. which is still in the concluding phase. cope or recover from the hazard . or Risk = Hazard x Exposure x Vulnerability. socio-economic or ecological. loss or disaster. She would also be discussing Integrated Risk Mapping and how it can help in mainstreaming multi-scale adaptation. Manila Observatory Dr. exposure. based on the previous mapping study they made for DENR in 2005 that resulted in National Scale Risk Maps. The Multi Scale Risk Mapping Framework being used right now was termed multi-scale because it promotes risk sharing preparedness and adaptation. absorb. This is funded by World Bank-LGU Global Fund for DRR. and cannot yet be released publicly. The HEV (Hazard Exposure Vulnerability) framework may be used at the national scale. She outlined her presentation to include a preview of disaster risk related concepts. and in partnership with the Ateneo School of Government. Vicente clarified that her presentation would serve as a special preview of the study they are conducting right now.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction II. International Institute for Rural Reconstruction and the Earthquake Megacity. She then moved on to defining the term “risk” as “the likelihood of harm. Vulnerability is the capacity to prepare. and vulnerability. The GIS is mapping that is supported by a spatial database.It may be human. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 18 of 37 . The Manila Observatory was tapped by Ateneo to take part in the study. Vicente. The highlight of her presentation would be the Risk Geographic Information System (GIS) and maps. INPUT ON CLIMATE CHANGE RELATED RISKS AND PROJECTIONS A Technical Assistance to Support Local Government Capacity to Manage Natural Disaster Risk in the Community Dr. exposure maps. and vulnerability maps that aid in determining risk. an orientation on the Multi-Scale Risk Mapping Framework that is appropriately suited to the Hyogo Framework advocacy of Multi Scale Risk Assessment because it responds to risk sharing and preparedness. Hazard is the physical impact of a disturbance. There are hazard maps. May Celine T.” It is an approximation of the compounding effect of three things: hazard.M. while Exposure shows the elements affected by the hazard.

access to urban centers and transportation facilities. floods and more. It showed the top three vulnerable provinces as: Isabela. state of ecological resources etc. Pampanga. Projected Rainfall Change – this is a projection map. Vicente then breezed through a series of climate/weather related risk GIS maps just to show what it entails. It showed the south and south western parts of the country as most vulnerable. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 19 of 37 . projected rainfall. and Ifugao. The advantage of this kind of work is that you can rank the provinces according to their level of risk. tsunamis. • • • • • Typhoons – most vulnerable are the north and north eastern portions of the country El Niño – Experienced in the years 1982-83. and 1997-98. 1986-87. Cagayan. state of the natural environment etc. temperature increase. Combined Typhoons and El Niño . In the near future they want to overlay ecological units like ecosystems and watersheds. they hope to capture risk over political boundaries but in the context of ecosystems. 1991.94. El Niño. Dr. heavy rains and typhoons – this is a historical map done for the IIRR. and Camarines Sur. Total Agricultural damage due to drought. The Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software is used to overlay and multiply the hazard scores with the population density scores and the Human Development Index (HDI) in order to generate a risk map. though geophysical risk as purely historical and cannot be projected. She breezed through maps indicating risk to typhoons. we must also include geo-physical risks of disasters in the assessment. El Niño. She showed national scale maps pegged to provinces showing historical and projected risks. She also noted that though we are discussing the climate. The beauty of the GIS is that risk maps may also be combined and analyzed through either historical data or projected data. This risk mapping exercise may also be scaled down to the municipal level as well as to the barangay level. They also recognized the need to peg risk to the politico-ecological context. drought. In the future.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction • • • Hazard Factors – natural or anthropogenic hazards Exposure Factors – population density. earthquakes. showing the top three vulnerable provinces as Albay. education and income factors). There is a need to analyze spatial patterns through politico-ecological context. poverty incidence. The other direction also is to go local. Vulnerability Factors – HDI (encompassing health. settlement areas and populated places.top vulnerable province is the Ifugao province.

Vicente reiterated that the purpose of the mapping is to determine their priorities for adaptation especially when you relate the risk maps to exposure and vulnerability variables. and Albay Earthquake Induced Shallow Landslides – top three vulnerable provinces are Surigao del Sur. Top three vulnerable provinces are Pangasinan. 21. 15. This is what is called Integrated Risk Mapping. the project counted the number of times a province was ranked in the top 20 by hazard. which is the overlaying of political boundaries with ecological boundaries. Southern Leyte The implication here is that this list would be the possible provinces that will be assisted by the project. 12. 18. time scales and themes. 5. This would need more evidence based support. 10. Manila Observatory wanted to address the politico-ecologic context. Through the spatial scales. Nueva Ecija. Cavite and Cebu Flood Risk Potential – based on slope and elevation only. 19. Dr. La Union. 8. three things need CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 20 of 37 . though there are still other criteria (partnership criteria) that are being developed. 20. They also monitored poverty incidence through time. 6. Vicente’s stand as a mapper is that you cannot fully quantify risk because it is too complex. 16. It considers spatial scales. and Benguet Tsunami – top three vulnerable provinces are Albay. In order to do this. Pampanga Camarines Sur Pangasinan Leyte Bataan Davao Oriental Tarlac 2. And the result showed the following top 23 vulnerable provinces due to poverty incidence: 1. Metro Manila was treated as a special case due to its high earthquake risk among others. Cagayan Nueva Ecija Virac (?) Sorsogon Capiz North Cotabato Zamboanga del Sur 22. Albay Maguindanao Bulacan Negros Oriental Bukidnon La Union Zambales 3. Quezon 23. but we can correlate spatial patterns and strategize based on this. 17. 7. In terms of time-scales. they need to go from national to regional to provincial to municipal to barangay to community and also vice-versa. What’s good about these provinces is that they are evenly distributed within the country. 13. and Pampanga. 14. Sulu. 4. ecosystems and watersheds. A map was also generated based on frequency count indicative of disaster risk and losses. Dr.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction • • • • Combined Temperature Increase and Rainfall Projection – Top three vulnerable provinces are: Basilan. 9. such as satellite images. and in selecting provinces. 11.

and the projected scenarios. There are data from the study that cannot be published yet as of the moment. Question: Several participants inquired on the possibility of getting a copy of the PowerPoint presentation. they were told that it might not necessarily be the case. because they wanted to be able to study the results relative to their respective areas. They apply their formula then look at what the map looked like and then they ask an expert if it is reflective of the ground conditions. the context. Open Forum: Question: What are the major factors that influence change in the ranking? Is it true that the methodological research processes caused the changes in the ranking and not necessarily changes in the actual context or actual hazard? • Dr. formulating policies. the reality is that it is most complex. • Ms. each type of disaster risk has the same weight. This needs progressive research. In fact all of the factors have an influence in the ranking. they revise the formula. monitoring and evaluation. planning. but they would not be giving copies. action. programming. mainstreaming with the help of integrated risk mapping means: awareness raising. Vicente replied that there are lots of factors. changes in scoring may be site-specific. They also have a special request. It is an evidence-based decision support. looking at the frequency count. She said that the role of each participant now in guiding mapping is to determine which variable applies in their case. • The research process. This is another direction that MO will be going toward.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction to be considered: the historical. The MO agreed to share the results of the study so far. Finally. and learning and experiencing. They have a CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 21 of 37 . the complexity of themes involved also need to be taken into account. meaning although the risk formula looks simple. She reiterated that this presentation is only a preview of the project that is yet to be concluded. But remote sensing or satellite image interpretation and GIS help systematize this complexity. They plan to study the risk formula and the weighting. The key is to be able to match the various hazards. the forecasted or seasonal. If is not. enabling interventions. in order for everyone to be able to give informed/educated inputs to the negotiation process. Therefore. the ground conditions and the formula affected the result. Bercilla explained the context of the negotiation regarding the presentation. Risk maps must guide adaptation. When they conducted a peer review. exposure and vulnerability depending on the needs of the stakeholder. Some disaster risks may have more weight in some places that in others. As of the moment.

because the projection would be the same and the base maps would be the same. Vicente responded that besides the Philippine Climate Change Adaptation Program (PhilCAP). which is why the recommendation was to settle first the partnership arrangements. so they did some ground proofing. So what they did was to organize the region into some form of a geographic information network. pertaining the weighting. recently established in Region 13 and following is Region 11. it would be too general because of the resolution.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction formula that they are using right now and they want to validate it. They would appreciate help from the local areas in terms of providing data that would show vulnerability that could help validate or invalidate their formula. 3. once all the agencies came together and placed their maps on top of each other. that is why there is a need to go into the vulnerability aspect to see a clearer picture of the municipality. one foremost recommendation and learning in the project is to focus on institutional partnerships. the process is expert driven but has to be consultative among the partner institutions. CI has been trying to help out the LGUs in their respective areas in terms of the mapping and its importance in terms of climate. because they believe that NEDAs regional land use mapping would be a great help. there is a need to go to the municipality level because if it’s only a national map. 2. MO has long wanted to work or collaborate with NEDA. regarding the scale. maybe the factor of frequency can be incorporated into the weighting. They observed in region 2. Comment: A participant from Conservation International raised three points: 1. • Regarding the weighting. Another reason is to ensure that the maps coincide. The lesson they learned was that if this is not given priority. • Dr. They cannot base their study on data form the national census only because it is not updated. It would be easier for them to get realistic results when data is plenty and complex. in which MO played a role in assessing capacity for GIS. This activity is also serving as a validation as well. It’s like an alliance of LGUs in the region to put their maps together and do some sharing and exchange from it. They called this the Regional Geographic Information Network (RGIN) and is already working out in Region 2. the institutions involved would not have any ownership of the formula and methodologies. especially now MO is promoting the Regional Risk GIS Hubs. a partnership between CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 22 of 37 . MO can go there and network with them. so they had to do some ground work. even the boundaries do not coincide. So sometimes the planning aspect would be jeopardized because you have different points. they found that sometimes their maps do not coincide. he asked whether MO has already explored about historical information and probably information from the folks over a certain time period in an area. This session could help in identifying the vulnerability base through the inputs of the participants.

He said that they are currently moving out of the CARAGA region and suggested that maybe MO can include this in their focus areas. • Dr. But when they attempted to partner. In the future they plan to respond to other sites. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 23 of 37 . She suggested the use of NAMRIA maps because these are the same per region. She also wanted to know what base maps are being used. they encountered turfing and if nothing happens because of this. They would welcome any support from the NEDA as a ways forward. The learning is that they have to get the institutions involved in the review of the risk formula and methodology at the start. They just differ in boundary due to the internal revenue allotment. non-government and scientific institutions at the ground level to optimize resources. and this may include Quezon. they have to move on to other sites. especially the ecological maps which have been really helpful. • Dr. and they have been requesting PAG-ASA to include Quezon in their projects because the fisheries is very vulnerable to these climatological changes. It is included in the framework as an ecological risk. based on the presentation. Regarding the base maps. which is why it would help to peg the risk on the ecosystem. But in the DENR atlas in the web. Vicente replied that they try their best to ensure that the consultative process is followed. But she wanted to know how the mining issue was incorporated in the formula and how much weight was given to it. • Dr. Vicente informed that ecological risk is one of the future directions of the project study.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction government. And last. And she also concurs with the need to go down to the municipal level. Quezon is included in the top 23 vulnerable provinces due to poverty incidence. She reiterated the request of BFAR that Quezon be included in the MO studies. Question: The Alyansa Tigil Mina representative noted that they were glad that mining was included as one of the hazards identified. even though sometimes their boundaries are still conflicting. they do have a mining map overlaid with protected areas. She also noted that MO was able to use several maps from the Conservation International. MO has been working with NAMRIA and is in fact one of the common users of their base maps. Vicente conceded that MO did not particularly focus on mining because it is not their area of expertise. Question: The BFAR representative asked whether there have been any consultative process undergone in the drawing up of the maps. Comment: The CI representative added that they have been able to come up with an update on terrestrial priorities which the MO can also make use of. or was it just a mere scientific process.

He said that they are worried that the Philippine would not be able to come up with the needed data on time to secure funds from these external sources. Based on previous meetings. • The representative to the TWG on Financing and Technology Transfer replied that regarding the issue of financing related to the negotiations. The inputs have so far laid out the scenarios happening in the country relating to climate change. the process evolved to the municipal level.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction • Ms. Over the span of several years. Bercilla gave context on the role of MO in this advocacy. Bercilla was called to explain the dynamics for the next workshops. when the calamities are already there. But from the start MO said that the issue of mining is really a difficult issue to tackle because it also has to take into consideration geographical risks. This is where the outputs for the next workshop would be helpful. The problem is that though there have been many initiatives at the local level in terms of advocacy on the impact of climate change. to enable us to implement climate change adaptation and disaster risk reduction. Focus on climate change and DRR is almost always given when disasters have already struck. Countries affected are asked to provide data to show how much they are suffering from the effects of climate change. III. at the community level. GROUP WORKSHOP Ms. as well as data showing their disaster risk. Question: A fisher folk representative shared that he was one of the representatives in the Bangkok Conference on Climate Change last year. several options and funds are actually available and proposals have been submitted but these would still need to be discussed further at the international level. But what was agreed upon was that there is no need to wait for the negotiations at the international level in order to implement climate adaptation and disaster risk reduction. but it falls short of what is happening in the ground. Initiatives of engaging with the negotiators were started by KLIMA under the MO. there are still no results because they are still arguing on where to access the funds. She explained that the objective for all of the things that’s been done so far since yesterday was to contribute to the CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 24 of 37 . We should already lobby that these types of budget be included next years’ appropriation. It was stated there that the WB would be releasing funds to help countries that are affected by climate change. Then they also have been affected by the issue of turfing among government agencies. We should look first at internally generated funds just to move forward. there seem to be no moving forward because the government always has the excuse that there are no funds to respond to the issues being raised.

We are being asked to take note of the possible climate related changes being felt in our community for the past 10 years. They recommend that we point out the specific socio-economic or gender based need within our field of operation or geographic context. including the newly industrializing countries. She then proceeded to explain the dynamics or context of the negotiations. China because half their population is living below the poverty level. Russia. And finally. They feel that these countries should not be included in the G77 because they are industrializing and are also major emitters. lending strength to arguments with our evidence. The recommendation for the time frame would ten years. we need to identify the specific vulnerability in our communities. • European Union and other allies with a particular advocacy . thus providing negotiators the means to open up more options. • G77 plus China position – poor and developing countries. And we hope to advocate for key provisions that will benefit our country as well as other who are also highly vulnerable.They have a wishful thinking that the G77 would break-up. So how will this be done? By presenting positions bolstered by not only by scientific evidence of vulnerability and risk in terms of human development and capital (natural and financial) depletion/destruction.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction thinking process during negotiations. She explained that there are blocs or key players in the negotiations. which have caused most of the countries in Asia to suffer. issues that need to be addressed through the succeeding workshops. • G8 – 8 largest and richest countries in the world. South Africa) – newly formed bloc that’s always being targeted by the EU. so their exposure is very high. Why the need to do this? This is because we are running interception in order to block any more gains by developed countries. First in the points that need to be addressed in this workshop are the climate related hazards in specific geographic contexts. • BRICS ( Brazil. but also on empirical data coming from everyone’s experience at the ground level. There are specific points that are being targeted today. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 25 of 37 . in the context of each affected community in a particular time frame. the specific statements of principle and our proposed methods and mechanisms. Next. China. we hope to be able to cull out at the end of the day. She pointed out that special care must be made in order to highlight the vulnerability of communities because this is not easily made known. India. It’s actually G139 already since several more countries have joined this bloc so it would be quite difficult to hope that this would sooner break-up.

strong lobby came from the International NGOs. There is also the issue of historical emissions causing the current climate hazards versus current emissions. and 2) Long Term Operative Action (Shared Vision) so we need to be strong and united in our positions or else we are in danger of being swayed to the other side. but there are countries like Bolivia that are saying that though industrializing countries’ emissions are relatively high. We have chairmanship of two critical discussions in the negotiations: 1) on Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD). initially. Another thing we need to remember is that countries such as China. Ms. There are also certain issues within the Philippine Delegation that we need to know about. We need to remember this because these countries are highly exposed and thus are highly vulnerable as well. There are those that say China’s current emissions are really high. industrializing countries. There are those that do not want the country to be a member of the G77. One is that there are people within the delegation whose main focus is more on mitigation rather than adaptation. They are normally found in the SIDs. That is why part of the goals of the CSO Working Group is to help Philippine CSOs sharpen their analysis on climate change so that they will be equipped in representing the country in the negotiations. it is still no match to the extent of the historical emissions of the industrialized CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 26 of 37 . much to our detriment. we’ve had very few strong advocates of adaptation within the delegation. what is our point of unity? We need to remember the plight of the most vulnerable. Least Developing Countries (LDCs). – the first two largest economies in the world. Aside from that. LDCs and developing countries such as the Philippines and Africa. Japan right now is the most difficult to negotiate with because they’ll never let you know their position up to the last minute.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction • • • Alliance of the 30 – another alliance where the Philippines was excluded because we submitted a position without consulting our ally countries. There is a need for a stronger Philippine CSO lobby. In the past. One. Japan etc. Within the CSOs. have a large population (E) who are vulnerable (V) to climate related hazards compared to industrialized countries. But we are not merely talking of geographic vulnerability but the vulnerability of the people in general. there are also differing positions within the Philippine delegation. The underlying reason might be because there is much more to be gained in terms of financing under mitigation than there is under adaptation. Small lsland Developing States (SIDS-AOSIS). Africa US. Bercilla reminded that there are things that we need to remember as we contribute to the Philippine submission.

The guide questions for the combined workshops were as follows: 1. What else needs to be responded to? 6. What are the current adaptation practices and strategies employed in order to respond to the challenge of a changing climate to the affected population? (micro. DRR. Who are the most exposed and suffering population? Why are they most exposed? Why are they suffering? 3. it is more efficient. The groups were: 1. He showed a simple prototype. On the ground vulnerability. What are the new climate related hazards being felt in your ecosystem in the past 10 years? 2. Coastal and Small Islands Group 2. Bercilla proceeded to explain what is expected of everyone in the second workshop. meso. Rural Upland and Lowland Group 3. the climate debt of these industrialized countries would be extensively large. etc? 4. fuel efficient – as it used only sticks and twigs. we have to be conscious of conditionalities. The participants were grouped based on the ecosystems they are working on. settlements. while going over the negotiating texts. saying that the upsides of the rocket stove is that it is easy to assemble. the fire or heat is concentrated CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 27 of 37 . Joshua Guinto) presented an invention called the rocket stove. workshops 2 and 3 were merged and tackled in one sitting. and makes use of recyclable materials. And they have to pay. macro) 5. especially those living in evacuation centers. an endogenous adaptation technology. What are the effects of these hazards in terms of livelihood security. CCA adaptation needs and strategies data have to be provided. Ms. many vulnerable people will die. PRESENTATION OF ROCKET STOVE Prior to the presentation of the group outputs.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction countries. and they continue what they’re doing. capacity for food production. He said that this would be highly valuable to communities affected by calamities. Urban Upland and Lowland Group In the interests of time. Due to its rocket or chimney style. added still to their current emissions. Where available adaptation funds should be best put to use? At what scale? IV. Looking at this in the context of historical emissions. What needs to be done at this point is for everyone to comment on the negotiating text and give key points to guide negotiators. But let us bear in mind that if these countries do not pay. Still. Given the comprehensive discussion above. food security. a representative of PRRM (Mr.

but we need to have more projections in order to determine climate change vulnerability. it becomes a multi-hazard and would take on a climate related character. COPE.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction and makes for faster cooking.. which are actually geological hazards. BFAR. Coastal and Small Island Ecosystems CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 28 of 37 . • Another comment raised from the floor is that each area or community should have or develop the capacity to identify which areas within their jurisdiction are most vulnerable. There should be projection o scenario building in order for us to see the future impact of climate change. Below is a list of the main points raised during the plenary discussion following the group reports. Risk mapping at the community should be included in the things that still need to be done including the capacity-building in terms of localized risk mapping or identification of vulnerability. it is important that we go beyond historical in doing our vulnerability assessments. a representative from each of the groups was tasked to report on their workshop outputs. • The experiential and anecdotal data from the communities should also be included in the data gathering. Bercilla informed the body that during one of the national workshop on the Strategic National Action Plan (SNAP). the community maps would be overlaid with the risk maps. This would save the effort of doing another level of risk mapping at the local. FORGE Inc. (Step by step instructions on making the rocket stove in Annex 9) V. one participant suggested. • Ms. (Workshop 2 and 3 Group Outputs in Annexes 5 and 6 respectively) Urban Lowland and Upland Ecosystem Group (Unlad Kabayan. it was agreed that if there are going to be localized climate risk mapping. We need to predict changes brought about by the vulnerabilities as well. In the interests of climate change adaptation. NEDA) • A member of the group clarified that they included hazards that may at first glance seem not directly related to climate change such as earthquakes. GROUP PRESENTATION (OUTPUTS FOR WORKSHOPS 2 AND 3) After the allotted time for group discussions. Because the community maps done by the stakeholders on the ground are already reliable and would only need to be overlaid with the GIS maps being drawn by the government in order to get a clear picture of the vulnerabilities and risks at the local level. But if these other hazards are placed alongside others. • One participant commented that most of the maps we have are historical.

These measures allow a person to adapt to the projected risk. KM-KAMMMPI) • The BFAR representative asked why the group was calling for the abolition of the LLDA. To which the group replied that the increase in sea temperature contributes to reduction of the nutrients for the fish and inevitably leading to massive fish kills. These are initiatives that should have been done even before the event of climate change. such as conservation etc. CI Phils. LGU Bolinao. Pangasinan. especially the insurance for the Bantay Dagat. There should be an insurance mechanism for times when fishers’ gears. Moreover. The fisher folk representatives were one in saying that they have been advocating for this for the longest time. They have never effectively managed and protected Laguna Lake as the lake it is but as a watershed. we must also be aware of previous options or initiatives that have not been implemented as well as the reason why. PUMALU MV. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 29 of 37 . and what supports their recommendation of reduction. MACEC. Coastal Core. as was experienced several times in Bolinao.. WVF. They said that they’ve inquired of the Philippine Crop Insurance (PCI) why fishers are not included in the insurance program. They have no lasting results to speak of. vessels and other paraphernalia are destroyed in times of disaster or calamities. So far there is no legislation yet in existence that gives support to this. the wood used in making fish cages are left abandoned in the sea after the cage is no longer operational and aggravates siltation and pollution of the waters especially during typhoons and strong rains. there more saturated the sea is. The more fish cages there are. • One recommendation from among participants is the inclusion of insurance for fisher folks in times of calamities brought about by climate change as one more item that still needs to be done and should be given budget allocation. Would it be due to lack of funds or just plain misappropriation? • BFAR reiterated the need to establish an insurance system for fishers.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction (NFR. • Another comment raised is the importance of funding risk reducing adaptation measures. • One of the participants raised the issue of implementing “no regret options”. To which the group replied that LLDA have for the longest time been ineffective in implementing its duties and responsibilities. They were informed that it is very difficult to insure fisheries there is no assurance of the availability or possibility of catch because the resource is mobile. and the government must be ready to provide funding for these measures in whatever form it takes. He reminded that in suggesting options. • BFAR asked the group again how the existence of fish cages is attributable to climate change. There is a provision for this under the negotiating texts. in order to offset their losses.

Rural Lowland and Upland Ecosystem (HESED. Bicol. • Atty. It would be helpful if we could identify where specifically does the increase in rainfall happen. Still. Mindanao and Palawan). affected people still lack food during times of calamity or disasters. • One participant asked why despite the existence of food relief programs. the PCI said that there might be a possibility of insuring culture fisheries since it is more controlled but capture would be really difficult. Ibay noted that many identified flooding and typhoons as new hazards. • The group replied that specifically. This way. one participant urged that someone should think of a way or a scheme to make insuring capture fisheries feasible. NQ SAC. Philrice. we would know how best to respond to these hazards. March and June. VI. ATM) • Atty.e. WORKSHOP 4 (Negotiating Text) CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 30 of 37 . Another suggestion is to conduct a socio-economic survey for fisheries and base the provision of insurance for capture fisheries on the fluctuation of the fishers’ income. She suggested that it would be better if they would be able to specify what is ‘new’ about these hazards which have in fact been felt since the start of time. NEDA. he said that marine sanctuaries or fish sanctuaries may be used as a sort of collateral because it is easier to monitor the resources within given that these are “no take” zones. how long does it stay in one place compared to other places. For example. All these issues on insurance could fall under the climate risk insurance system that was adopted by Heherson Alvarez as one of the negotiating position of the Philippines. Ipil Zambo Sibugay SAC. AGHAM. storms and typhoon are staying longer and becoming for frequent and bringing in stronger winds and greater amounts of rainfall (South Cotabato. Camarines Sur and Marinduque does not previously experience rain in the months of February. Ibay added that it would be best if we could detail or quantify the increase in rainfall or the duration of rains. He suggested that food security be included under the recommendations on investments and under the climate adaptation program. rain seasonality has changed – i. PRRM. Cebu and Quezon).2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction • • • But based on recent dialogues. and you can also detect the affects of climate change in these relatively controlled areas. but now they do. the force of tidal waves have become stronger (in Manila.

they need to list down possible principles that they deem should be included in the declaration of principles such as precautionary principle. the body immediately proceeded to the conduct of the last workshop on the negotiating texts. Below are the assigned categories for each group: • Group 1: Objective.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction After the plenary for the two merged workshops. they need to identify or propose the means. each group presented their outputs for the last workshop. and methodology of implementation that they want the negotiators to bring to the discussions. implementation. etc. Below are the issues raised during plenary. Bercilla explained that each group was expected to again read through their assigned negotiating text and do four things.g. VII. First. such as multi-window financing mechanisms. • Focus should be on the most vulnerable developing countries to climate change and not just on LDCs and SIDs • Multi-stakeholders approach shall be implemented in all process of project development (e. monitoring. Scope and Guiding Principles (pages 20-27) • Group 2: Implementation (pages 37-36) • Group 3: Means of Implementation (pages 47-55) Ms. low-lying coastal. The groups also need to determine guidelines for general positioning on the negotiations. they need to go through the entire text if time allows in order to check on the language that would be most acceptable to us. Next. Scope and Guiding Principles (pp. Once they were called for plenary. This time. the participants were again randomly grouped into three but not according to ecosystem. Finally. planning. integration of CCA in the planning processes.) to include countries threatened by extractive industries such as large-scale mining. evaluation) CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 31 of 37 .20-27)66 Declaration of Principles: • To integrate “holistic and socially accepted” in the guiding principles Means/ Mechanism/ Methodology of Implementation: • On identification or definition of vulnerable counties (e. (Workshop 4 Group Outputs in Annex 7) Group 1: Objective. gender sensitivity etc. PLENARY REPORTING The groups were then requested to commence their discussions and end within thirty minutes no matter what they’ve accomplished. arid and semi-arid areas …. common but differentiated responsibilities.g. mechanism.

additional and predictable financial resources separate and apart from ODA that are supported by appropriate institutional mechanisms.1 Risk reduction and management (ii). particularly LDCs and SIDS. supported by developed country Parties Alternative 3 (d) to paragraph 19 – page 28 New.g. such as women. and children.7).2 Implementation of urgent and immediate.  Highlight the provision among others  Include other vulnerable sectors in the listing such as persons with disability. Alternative 4 (i) to paragraph 19 – page 29 Prioritise the adaptation needs of the most vulnerable communities and groups. elderly. and people with illnesses. Group 2: Implementation (pages 37-36) Declaration of Principles: • The declaration of principles should include the following: Participatory (bottom-up approach) Socially just Promotes common good Cross-generational Culturally-sensitive Humanitarian Upholds human rights Appropriate Scientifically sound (eco-system approach included) Objective Focus on most vulnerable sectors (women. referring to ‘victims’ of calamity as survivors.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Positioning: The Philippines should take the position that would best benefit the country and its most vulnerable sectors. or stakeholders) Language: NEGOTIATING TEXT Alternative 2 to chapeau of paragraph 24 – page 41 [To promote enabling activities to support adaptation REMARKS  Insert “marine” in ecosystems that are particularly vulnerable CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 32 of 37 . medium. IPs) Transparency and accountability Politically correct (e.] (ii). including economic diversification consistent with sustainable development among others especially those identified in the national adaptation plans (refer to decisions 1/CP. Language: NEGOTIATING TEXT Alternative 3 to Subparagraph 19 (a) (ii) – page 27 [Adaptation actions. children. persons with disability.10 and 5/CP.and long-term adaptation actions in all developing country Parties. elderly and people with illnesses. REMARKS  Qualify “economic diversification” as consistent with sustainable development.

Forestry) biodiversity as cross-cutting Positioning: Philippine positioning should not be exclusive. we should be sure that we would have much to gain by it as a country.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction to climate change action in all developing country Parties particularly low-lying and other small island countries. not merely boasting. and should be based on evidence and hard facts. drought and desertification. Health.47-55) Declaration of Principles: • The declaration of principles should include the following: Favour adaptation over mitigation Environmentally sound Environmental management Consistent with national development goals Gender sensitive Pro-Poor/ Vulnerable sectors should not be further affected by risks Poverty Reduction Sustainable development National development goals consistent with the MDGs Development should be towards a low carbon pathway Means/ Mechanism/ Methodology of Implementation: • Mainstreaming Climate Risk Reduction/Disaster Risk Reduction in the planning process • Participatory .Bottom-up approach and community-managed • Transparent • Widely disseminated • Adequate funds allocation • Demystifying climate change – should be able to make adaptation a way of life • Corruption free • Put in place safeguards • Ensure public information • Adaptation options should be location-specific and sector-specific • Consider the impact on various sectors . We should also ensure that wherever and with whoever we ally ourselves with.CHAWF (Coastal. and developing countries with fragile marine and mountainous ecosystems are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of climate change may:] Group 3: Means of implementation (pp. countries with low-lying coastal. Agriculture. arid and semiarid areas or areas liable to floods. CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 33 of 37 . Water.

regional and global levels.] REMARKS  Revised chapeau of paragraph 28 and adopted a combination of alternatives 1 and 4 plus alternative 6 (b)  Deleted “and parties with economies in transition” and shoes “shall” over “should” to make the provision more decisive. projects or actions. technology and capacitybuilding by at least 0.] CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 34 of 37 . technology and capacity-building. sub national. [poverty reduction strategies. regional and global levels. to support adaptation action at local. including:] a. projects or actions.] risk reduction strategies. developing country Parties shall be provided with finance on a continuous basis. predictable and sustainable financial resources. sub national. regional and global levels. including:] Alternative 4 [Taking into account the provisions of paragraphs 3133 below.  Revised chapeau should read as: “[Taking into account the provisions of paragraphs 31-33 below. (from alternative 1) Alternative 2 [Support for adaptation shall be adaptation actions should be supported through the provision of new.05 percent of GDP of developed countries. adequate. [poverty reduction strategies.]  Include letter (a) of alternative 1 in alternative 2 Alternative to paragraph 28 – page 49 [Means of Implementation (a) Adaptation actions identified and prioritised by developing country Parties in their national adaptation plans may be submitted to the Adaptation Committee for publication. [Identified adaptation programmes. sub national. developing country Parties shall be provided with finance on a continuous basis. including:] Alternative 6 (b) [Identified adaptation programmes. Adaptation actions submitted for publication should be consistent with national policies.] national communications and NAPAs and other relevant instruments.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Language: NEGOTIATING TEXT Alternatives to chapeau of paragraph 28 Alternative 1 [Taking into account the provisions of paragraphs 31– 33 below. developing country Parties [and Parties with economies in transition] [shall] [should] be provided with finance. to support adaptation action at local. national. national.] national communications and NAPAs and other relevant instruments. technology and capacity-building by at least . such as those arising from [national sustainable development strategies]. such as those arising from [national sustainable development strategies]. to support adaptation action at local.] risk reduction strategies.5per cent of GDP of developed countries. plans and programmes. national.

There must be a “balancing of interests” wherein we are pushing for principles that would benefit us.15% of their GDP to Official Development Aid to enable developing countries. what we think applies for our country may not necessarily applicable at the international level because our experiences may not be that relevant to the other countries in the negotiating table. rather we should make do with our own. So Mr. climate change and sustainable development but this too did not push through. In the 1980s the Annex 1 countries. so we must also take into consideration the characteristics of each country involved. He said this is why it is important that we participate in the processes of coming up with our own legislation that contains the establishment of a Climate Authority. before they were called Annex 1. It is the number one disaster country in the 1900s. He stressed that when formulating principles. but would be relevant also to other countries in the negotiations. maybe January next year. We’ve had so much disaster only to be exacerbated by corrupt officials who have nothing good in their minds for the country. we need to strengthen planning and preparation for climate change adaptation. This means it may also go higher than 1. He informed the body that the TWG agreed on the meeting today to increase the 0. but this did not materialize.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction 28.1 Establishment of a “Convention Adaptation Fund”. Belosil was asked to give an update on the result of the recently concluded meeting of the TWG on Adaptation held today at the DENR.0% because this is the minimum. based on assessed contributions from Annex I countries and other possible sources of financial. Disaster risk reduction is but part of climate risk CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 35 of 37 . He added that implementation of adaptation and mitigation should be done at the local government level not at the national in order to prevent corruption and mismanagement.2% or .5% donation of developed country GDP for the Adaptation Fund to at least 1. The Philippines is in the middle of the typhoon track in the Asia-Pacific. promised that they will donate . disaster risk reduction and mitigation. Roger Belosil Representative to the TWG on Adaptation Mr. “Adaptation Fund” must ensure sufficient financial resources for all developing countries to: … Input from MR.0%. Belosil advised not to put too much trust on these countries’ promises. During the 1992 Rio Summit they also promised that they would extend assistance for biodiversity. which will already be discussed in the Bicameral Conference Committee next month and signed into law before the President steps down from office. Through this Climate Authority.

He said that he appreciated the workshops today because it gave the participants a glimpse on how international law is being made. we have to be aware that there are blocs arguing and fighting over these negotiations. taught the Barangay Captains how to come up with a real time weather-based alerting system. Input from Atty. Bercilla informed the participants that soft copies of the negotiating texts would be emailed to each in order to give them an opportunity to comment some more on the provisions. he hoped that everyone would stay as vigilant and maintain a high level of interest in adaptation. He informed that they met yesterday. He then thanked everyone for their active participation in the entire sessions. This is good way to ensure community participation and proper management. and used it as preparatory option for climate risk reduction.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction reduction. He reiterated Mr. and capacitated them with technological know how so that they themselves would be able to monitor the possible effect of incoming rain through computer software programs. They also flashed the dates and activities relevant to the advocacy of the CSO Working Group so that if anyone wanted to participate some more. VIII. Peria was also asked to give some updates on the discussions within their TWG. He said that the best recourse is what Governor Salceda accomplished by making the declaring the calamity fund as climate fund. The former is done to respond to the risk of our geohazards. But our biggest problem is mismanagement at the local level compounded by the graft and corruption at the national level. We also need to realize that what we are fighting for does not end in Copenhagen. whatever comes out of the December meeting. WAYS FORWARD AND CLOSING REMARKS Ms. (Schedule of related activities annexed) CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 36 of 37 . Ping Peria Representative to the TWG on Adaptation Financing Technology Transfer and Capacity Building Atty. Belosil’s point that while we may bring in our specific experiences and know-how. then it would be easier to discuss whatever options would be available for further participation. It gave them a snapshot of how an international treaty is formulated and the opportunity to take part in it. He asked that each organization take initiative to monitor the developments in the negotiations and include the topic in their respective programs and activities.

to the facilitators. This is where we again may come in and influence the policy-making process. the documenter and the organizers who made this activity happen. Allan Vera closed the activity with words of gratitude to all of the participants. The Round Table Discussion was finally adjourned at precisely 5:35 in the afternoon. we would still have opportunity to put in more of our comments because the Philippines would then have to legislate and implementing law for the treaty. Prepared by: Abbie Santos-Dulay NGOs for Fisheries Reform CSO Working Group on Climate Change and Development 37 of 37 . this by far is the most comprehensive and most challenging as well and he’s happy to note that it was a success with the active participation of the participants.2009 Round Table Discussion on Climate Change Adaptation and Disaster Risk Reduction Atty. He said that of all the RTDs conducted. Mr. Peria assured the body that should the agreements be approved and signed as an international treaty.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful