AP Psych – Duez LEARNING TARGETS - Chapter 3 "The Biological Bases of Behavior" Communication in the nervous system Neurons are

the basic communication links in the nervous system. They transmit a neural impulse along an axon to a synapse with another neuron. This all-or-none event is a change in the electrical charge that moves along an axon. Action potentials trigger the release of chemicals called neurotransmitters that diffuse across a synapse to communicate with other neurons. Transmitters bind with receptors in the postsynaptic cell membrane, causing excitatory or inhibitory PSPs. ACh plays a key role in muscle movement. Disturbances in the activity of the monoamine transmitters have been related to the development of depression and schizophrenia. Endorphins contribute to the relief of pain and perhaps experience of pleasure. • Organization of the nervous system (Central Nervous System & Peripheral Nervous System) CNS = brain & spinal cord PNS = somatic nervous system (connects to muscles & sensory receptors) & autonomic nervous system (connects to blood vessels, smooth muscles, and glands. • Looking inside the brain: Research Methods EEG = record broad patterns of electrical activity in the brain. Lesioning involves destroying a piece of the brain. New procedures include CT (x-rays from diff. angles), PET (radioactive dye), MRI (nuclear tech detailed image) and fMRI (MRI & PET combined) scans. • The Brain and Behavior 3 Major regions: hindbrain, midbrain, and forebrain. Hindbrain develops first and both hindbrain and midbrain handle essential functions. Thalamus is a relay station. Hypothalamus regulates basic biological drives (hunger/sex). Lymbic System is involved in emotion, motivation and memory. Cortex is cerebrum's convoluted outer layer, which is subdivided into occipital, parietal, temporal, and frontal lobes. • Right Brain/Left Brain: Cerebral Laterality Cerebrum is divided into right and left hemispheres connected by the corpus callosum. Studies of split-brained patients and perceptual asymmetries have revealed that the right and left halves of the brain each have unique talents. • The Endocrine System: Another Way to Communicate Consists of glands that secrete hormones, which are chemicals involved in regulation of basic bodily processes. Control centers for endocrine system are hypothalamus and pituitary gland. • Heredity and Behavior: Is it all in the genes? Genes are the basic units of genetic transmission housed in chromosomes. Most behavior qualities appear to involve polygenic inheritance. Researches access inheritance through family studies, twin studies, adoption studies, and genetic mapping. • The Evolutionary Bases of Behavior Darwin argued that if a heritable trait contributes to an organism's survival or reproductive success, organisms with that trait should produce more offspring than those without the trait & prevalence of that trait should gradually increase over generations due to natural selection. Major points to understand: 1. The different methods for peering into the human brain 2. What the areas of the brain control 3. The structure of the neuron 4. The action potential 5. The role of neurotransmitters in neural transmission Questions to consider: 9. What has brain-imaging 18. What is the endocrine system, •

1. 2. 3. 4.

What are the key parts of the neuron and what are their functions? What is an action potential? How does synaptic transmission take place? Which neurotransmitters regulate which aspect of behavior?

procedures uncovered in schizophrenic patients?

hormones, and what are some aspects of behavior regulated by these hormones?

10. What are some functions of
the medulla, pons, and cerebellum?

19. What is the difference between one's
genotype and phenotype?

11. What are some functions of
the midbrain?

20. How are family studies conducted and
what can they reveal?

12. Which structure is the
brain's relay center?

21. How can behaviors be adaptive?

13. What does the
hypothalamus regulate?

5. 6. 7. 8.

What are endorphins? What is an EEG and what is its output? How are lesioning and electrical stimulation used to study brain function? Which brain-imaging procedures provided information about brain function/structure?

14. What are some functions of
the limbic system?

15. What is each lobe in the
brain known for?

16. What do left/right brain
functions, sensory/motor information, and splitbrain research reveal?

17. How do scientists study
hemispheric specialization in normal subjects - what have they learned?

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