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LSA equipment in life boat. (6 hand flares> 15000 cd and 1 min, 4 rockets>30,000cd and 40secs, 2 buoyant smoke signals>3mins,anti-sea sickness tablets, tpa, portable fire extinguisher, search light, a manual pump, efficient radar deflector, food ration, fresh water, tool kit) Container capacity- how much load a container can carry (32tonnes for 40ft container) What and why material of sounding bob. (brass- non sparking, softer than steel) IOPP supplement ( Page 22- Gautam Sen) Anchor not coming up, reasons? (Windlass oil level low, anchor stuck, slipping of clutch, high oil temp cut-out, power failure, pump or motor not functioning, actuating valves prob. ) How container is placed on tank top with drawing. (Pg 121- Reeds Ship Const) Composition of lpg, lng and cng (Lpg-propane, butane, Lng-metane, Cng-methane) Maintenance on QCV? (Try out once every 3 months, drain air bottle, check hand operation, spring condition, check piston) If life boat falls suddenly while lowering then how will u troubleshoot? (Falls broken, Falls releasing mechanism operated accidently, centrifugal break check.PAWL AND RATCHET MECHANISM FAULTY) Advantages and disadvantages of flare? (Flare advantage: prevents water to come to the deck, more space for deck machinery, avoids anchor from striking at bottom and improves buoyancy fwd.Disadv.-more flare means parametric rolling..Parametric rolling occurs in head, or near head, seas in conditions where wavelength approximates to ship length, where the natural period of roll is twice the wave encounter frequency and where the hull form is such that the ships waterplane area changes considerably with draft i.e. as large waves pass along the length of the vessel. This latter criteria means, in practice, that it occurs in those ships with fine hulls, large bow flare and significant overhang of the stern.) Limitations of ODME (Difficulty in analyzing- bad weather, muddy water, discharge capacity increases in bad weather as speed is measured when the ship is not moving as much) COFFIN PLATE (Attaches sole piece in stern frame with keel plate in aft and attaches keel plate with stem in fwd) INTERNATIONAL SHORT VOYAGE (in which a ship doesnt exceed 200 nm distance from nearest land and total voyage should not exceed 600 nm) CHEMICAL TANKERS AND PRODUCT CARRIERS CAN CARRY DIFFERENT GRADES OF CARGO, IF CARRIED WAT R THE PRECAUTIONS TO BE TAKEN? WHAT ARE ARRANGEMENTS PROVIDED ON THE SUCH TANKERS? (every tank have different pumps, all tanks have different insulations, separate pumping and piping arrangements) BALLAST WATER MANAGEMENT? (Page-117, gautam sen) WHAT ARE CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS? (Sudden operational failure of which may result in hazardous situation) AS A 2ND ENGR. WHAT ARE THE PREPAREDNES FOR ISM SURVEY ONBOARD? (IMO SYMBOLS, D.P.A, SMS, DRILLS, TRAINING, CRITICAL EQUIPMENTS, CONTIGENCY PLANS, SAFETY EQUIPMENTS, P.M.S., NAVIGATIONAL EQ, BUNKERING PROCEDURES, POLLUTION PREVENTION PROCEDURES ) As per SOLAS , define high speed craft, bulk carrier (High speed craft is a craft capable of a maximum speed in meters per second equal to or exceeding 3.7XV*0.1667 where V is volumetric displacement corresponding to the design waterline and BULK CARRIER means a ship which is constructed generally with single deck, top-side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk and includes such types as ore carriers and combination carriers) How will u check the CO2 bottle supplied by the shore in large numbers if they are full or not ? (Bottles are checked by radio isotopes or by weighing them...since u mention large numbers then radios isotopes is the best method...its similar to a laser gun used in checking temperatures) To which part of the ship is the pintle attached and how is it attached? Is it fixed or is it floating with the rudder stock? ( Pintle brg,Refer Reeds-page 86.. Pintle has a tapered face which matches the tapered surface of rudder arm and then bolted. Pintle rotates along with the rudder) What is gusset plate, stealer plate, docking bracket, swash bulk head n thr purpose? (pg-21/47 Reeds ship cons, Stealer plate: a single wide plate which replaces two narrow plates in adjacent strakes of a ship plating/ the girth of the ship decreased toward the ends and so the width of the plates is also decresed in these parts. To save making the plates too narrow at the ends of the ship, it is usual to run a number of pairs of adjacent strakes into one. ) What do we infer from Admiralty coefficient ?(Reeds Naval Arch-127)

23) What is propeller law? (A series of relationships for an installed power transmission system which refers to shaft power, engine
speed and mean effective pressure. These relationships place particle limits on engine designer. An engine under test and coupled to a dynamometer will operate according to the propeller law.) What is a float free arrangement? (Float Free Arrangement is required on Emergency Position Indicating Radio Beacons (EPIRB) and life rafts. This allows the unit to float free and operate automatically if the vessel sinks. Units may still be able to be launched / released manually. Float-free launching is the method of launching a life raft whereby it is automatically released from a sinking ship and is ready for use. Float-free arrangements may either be an HRU or some other means. Whatever type it is, if your vessel capsizes too quickly for you to release the life raft manually the float-free arrangement may be your only chance of survival. A hydrostatic release unit used in a float free arrangement must have a Coast Guard approval number starting with 160.062. A float free link may be used with a Buoyant Apparatus or a Life Float and must be certified to meet 46 CFR, subpart 160.073 Principle of wake (Reeds Naval Arch Page - 137) Angle of loll (If ship is initially unstable i.e. has negative GM, the ship will heel till the B comes under G, then GM is 0.so now the ship is inclined and in a kind of neutral equilibrium. Now if the ship is further heeled, the ship rolls about this point .This is because on further heeling beyond loll angle, GZ becomes positive) What are the safeties on air bottle? (Relief valve, Bursting disc, Pressure cut-out switch, Low pr. Alarm) that this ship is restricted for carrying cargoes of density 1700 kg/m3 and over...? Triangle 300 mm below...500 mm sides solid triangle... Q.Is there a relief valve on deck fire line ,if yes its location and purpose? Yes , Aft , 10 BAR setting , Protect line from overpressure.

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27) 28) U are about to join a bulk carrier. You are standing on the jetty. On looking at the ship how will u confirm

Q.How many EEBDs, capacity, does it contain air/oxygen, bottle pressure, can it b filled onboard? 10 MINS , 35 LITRES /MIN , 200 bar , Air 2 in Cargo ships , passenger ships 2 in every vertical zone , if more than 36 then extra 2 (Read in FSS code) Q. Why contra flow propeller has more efficiency then normal one.? Reeds page 144 + It serves to counter the asymmetrical torque effect of a conventional propeller. It has long been recognized that contra-rotating propeller systems have the advantage of eliminating the turning effect or rolling effect of torque produced by the action of a single propeller. If a single propeller is employed, for example, the craft rudder must be used to compensate for the propeller-produced torque. The rudder thus introduces a drag factor which reduces the propulsion efficiency of the engine. This problem becomes more important in high speed water craft wherein the torque produced by a propeller is greater and hence the compensatory effect of the rudder must be greater. Moreover in rough water at high speeds the submersion level of the craft is variable so that the torque balancing effect of a rudder is irregular and can cause oscillatory rolling of the hull. Contra-rotating propellers permit balancing of the torque produced by each propeller, together with the effect of flow past the propeller support struts, and permit attainment of much higher propulsion efficiency factors.

Q. Wt is intact stability? Values of GZ, area under GZ-theta curve from 30 to 40 degree of roll. The area under the righting lever curve (GZ curve) shall be not less than 0.055 m.rad up to m.rad up to = 40 or other angle of flooding = 30 angle of heel and not less than 0.09

* if this angle is less than 40. Additionally, the area under the righting lever curve (GZ

curve) between the angles of heel of 30 and 40 or between 30 and , if this angle is less than 40, shall be not less than 0.03 m.rad Q. Functions of fin stablizers, hw thy operate, principle etc. Reeds Page 152 Q.ODMCS- requirement, installation features, ppm limits (if any), how this works? 150 grt and above tankers

Tanker vessel must be enroute The vessel should not be in special areas. The tanker must be 50 nautical miles away from land. The instantaneous rate of discharge of oil content does not exceed 30 litres per nautical mile. The total quantity of discharge must not exceed 1/30000 of the total quantity of the residue formed cargo.

Q.MAINTENANCE OF FOAM SYSTEM Recirculation of Foam thru dosing pump , Lab tests , Test valves for freeness , run with sea water and check foam monitors.Check flow sensor . Q. What is identification no. of ship , where r they placed, and wt r d dimensions? Chapter XI REG 3 IMO NUMBER , visible place on stern , amidships port and starbd (above deepest assigned loadline ) , or either side or front of superstructure. Passenger ship-horizontal surface visible from air ...at least 200 mm in height , width proportional to height. Transverse bulkhead in mach. Space or hatchway and if it is a tanker , then also in the pumproom.(100 mm height) Q. What r the manual calling points , at what distance they r placed? Manually operated call points shall be installed throughout the accommodation spaces, service spaces and control stations. One manually operated call point shall be located at each exit. Manually operated call points shall be readily accessible in the corridors of each deck such that no part of the corridor is more than 20 m from a manually operated call point. Q. Strengthening arrangement for floating bulwark, drawing and explanation. (PERCY PAGE 115) STANCHIONS

Q. Specifications for parachute rockets and how many and where. 4 ROCKETS , 200 m , 40 SECS , DESCENT SPEED -5 m/s

Q. Strengthening arrangement for hatch, hatch coamings and types of hatches and working. Reeds Ship const Page - 55

8.What to do with Category X NLS after discharging, what is meant by Pre-Wash, what system is there by which we get 75 litres chemical remaining after pumping out? The discharge into the sea of substances in Category X as defined in regulation 3(1)(a) of this Annex or of those provisionally assessed as such or ballast water, tank washings, or other residues or mixtures containing such substances shall be prohibited. If tanks containing such substances or mixtures are to be washed, the resulting residues shall be discharged to a reception facility until the concentration of the substance in the effluent to such facility is at or below 0.1% by weight and until the tank is empty, with the exception of phosphorus, yellow or white, for which the residual concentration shall be 0.01% by weight. Any water subsequently added to the tank may be discharged into the sea when all the following conditions are satisfied: (a) 1.the ship is proceeding en route at a speed of at least 7 knots in the case of self propelled ships or at least 4 knots in the case of ships which are not self-propelled; 2.the discharge is made below the waterline, taking into account the location of the seawater intakes; and (c) the discharge is made at a distance of not less than 12 nautical miles from the nearest land in a depth of water of not less than 25 m. Q) Minimum no of transverse bulkheads ,factors on which this depends ,2 methods to decide factor of subdivison ? Reeds page 62..... Length of ship and criterion of service numeral which depends on number of passengers , volumes of machinery and accommodation spaces ,and total ship volume Q) Harmonized survey Guliya General page -41 Q) Annex 6, what all comes under this regulation, pre combustion methods to reduce NOX emission? Nox , Sox , smoke , Sulphur content of fuel ,

Water injection , Exhaust gas recirculation , (Gautam Sen page 25)

Q) Ship safety survey, what all survey under this ? Gautam sen page 122

Q) Static , dynamic stability curve with parameters ? Reeds Naval arch Stability Chapter Q) Wht is shell expansion plan..Why it is called so...what information we got frm it? Drawing showing details like welding seam and butt, thickness, and framing of all plates forming the shell plating of a hull. The arrangement of the shell plating taken from the 3-dimensional model may be represented on a 2-dimensional drawing referred to as a shell expansion. All vertical dimensions in this drawing are taken around the girth of the vessel rather than their being a direct vertical projection. This technique illustrates both the side and bottom plating as a continuous whole. In Figure 12.2 a typical shell expansion for a tanker is illustrated. This also shows the numbering of plates, and lettering of plate strakes for reference purposes and illustrates the system where strakes run out as the girth decreases forward and aft. A word of caution is necessary at this point for in many modern ship shell expansions there is also a numbering system related to the erection of fabrication units rather than individual plates, and it may be difficult to use the drawing to identify individual plates. However single plates are often marked in sequence to aid ordering and production identification. 5. SMALL SHIP ROLLS MORE, WHY? Since the disp is small , so the dynamic stability is small i.e. the work done to heel it to any angle is small.............so they roll and capsize easily due to a external forces(which might not be enough to overcome the dynamical stability of a ship with greater displacement ) Q)IOPP Supplements. How do u record accidental oil discharge into ORB? Gautam Sen page - 22

Q. How is hawse pipe connected to the hull..? Show it in drawing with the strengthening arrangements..?.dia../ material...?Ship Construction by Percy. Q. Latest fire fighting media..?

1230, C6F12O, (3M Novec 1230) fluid is an environmentally friendly Halon replacement for use as a gaseous fire suppression agent. Novec 1230 is manufactured by 3M. It is generally used in situations where water from a fire sprinkler would damage expensive equipment or where water-based fire protection is impractical, such as museums, banks, clean rooms and hospitals. 3M Novec 1230 fluid does not deplete ozone(ODP 0).
Novec 1230 Novec 1230 fluid is a high molecular weight material, compared with the first generation halocarbon clean agents. The product has a heat of vaporization of 88.1 kJ/kga and low vapor pressure. Although it is a liquid at room temperature it gasifies immediately after being discharged in a total flooding system.

Cooling and smothering.Novec

The product is ideal for use in total flooding applications, localized flooding systems, directional spray type applications and may be used in portable extinguishers for specialized applications. But in addition to the conventional methods of superpressurization using nitrogen, Novec 1230 fluid also lends itself for use in pump applications because it is a liquid. Q.WHAT IS CSC PALTE ON CONTAINERS? Container Safety convention plate.. All containers when manufactured have a CSC plate which is valid for 5 years after production. After 5 years the owner is either authorised to operate with ACEP (Automatic Container Examination Programme) or need to operate with PES (Periodic Examination System) where a competent party inspects the container and the CSC plate is updated for a maximum of 30 months Q. TORSION BOX AND HOW THEY ACT AS STRENGTHENING ?

Reeds page - 122 Q.Engine design change after 1973. Long stroke engines..to save fuel. Q.Types of total flooding CO2 , Halon , novec 1230 Q.Marpol's which annex is control not prevention....and all detail? Annex 2 Q.How air pollution can harm marine environment? Acid rain , particulates ,Ozone depletion , global warming Q.Keyed propeller after fitting , have a clearance..where , what effect if prop. is fitted well and clearance is zero? Stresses and crack due to expansion

Q)DIAG. OF INTERNATIONAL SHORE COUPLING,HOW IT IS CONNECTED,SPECIFICATIONS

Q.For high expansion foam what is the water + foam compound mixing ratio 1 litre foam mixes with 30-50 lit wtr........around 3% concentrate Q. How does foam + water mix with air? Venturi effect is based on Bernoulli theorem ... coz kinetic energy of fluid is increased, if height is remainingg unchanged then pressure energy will reduce which creates the vaccum around the liquid. Because K.E.+P.E.+PRESS. ENERGY=CONSTANT FOR ANY LAMINAR FLOW Q. Steering Gear Safeties A. Overload alarm, Hydraulic Tank Low level alarm, Power Failure Alarm, Relief v/v, Bypass v/v, Short ckt trip , One motor supplied by emergency power.Will automatically start when power is restored after power failure. Short ckt trip.

Q. Statical Stability A. It is a measure of tendency of a ship to return to the upright position , if inclined by an external force Q. Equilibrium A. When the wt. of the ship is equal to the upthrust & the centre of gravity & centre of buoyancy are in the same vertical line . Q. Reserve Buoyancy A. It is the potential buoyancy of the ship & depends on the intact watertight volume above the waterline Q. Free Surface Effect A. When a tank onboard the ship is not completely full of liquid & the vessel heels, the liquid moves across the tanks in the same direction as the heel, centre of gravity moves away from the centreline, reducing Metacentric Height(GM) .This virtual reduction of GM due to free surface of liquid in the tank is Free Surface Effect Q. Light Wt. of a Ship A. Light Wt. of a ship is the displacement of a ship in tonnes without cargo, fuel, lube oil, ballast water & fresh water in the tanks, consumable stores, passengers , crew & their effects. Q. Dead Wt. of a ship A. It is the Difference in tonnes between the displacement of a ship in water of sp. gr. 1.025 at the load water line corresponding to the assigned summer freeboard & the light weight of a ship. Fuel,water ballast , fresh water , cargo,passenger and stores.

Q. Green House Effect-Ozone Depletion : Relation A. Effect produced by gases such as CO2 , Water vapour, & other gases which form an envelope around the earth's atmosphere,not allowing the heat radiation from the earth to escape back, thus causing global warming , this effect is called Green house Effect . Ozone Depletion is directly proportional to Green house Effect. The relationship between global warming and ozone depletion is quite a direct one. As stated in the above paragraph, when the green house effect traps the heat and prevents it from rising back into the stratosphere, global warming is experienced. If this heat does not rise successfully back into the atmosphere, the automatic result is the reduction in temperatures up in the stratosphere. These reduced temperatures are the main course of ozone depletion since the ozone layer does not thrive well under reduced temperatures. Also CFCs are gases which also contribute to greenhouse warming. Q. Advantage of a Keyless Propeller A. 1. The Stress raisers @ the fwd end of the shaft keyway do not exist. The shaft is stronger & has greater resistance to Fatigue Failure. 2. An increase in the coefficient of friction available for Torque Transmission. 3. A controlled Degree of Interference Fit 4. A reduction in the allowance required for temperature as coefficient of expansion for C.I. sleeve is same as that of the shaft. 5. Fitting & Bedding is easy. Shaft of lesser dia will suffice for same engine and ship

Q. Advantage of Rapson Slide Mechanism. A. 1. It converts the linear motion of the rams to rotary motion of the rudder stock. 2. Rudder Drop Allowance is included so that the drop of rudder along with the tiller does not affect the rams , same way jumping of the rudder is also included 3. Maximum Torque is available at maximum angle when Torque requirement is greatest.

A. -Temp. of Combustion Chamber & Duration for combustion In 4/S duration is lesser hence NOX Emission in a 4/S engine is lesser Q. Windlass Safety A. Electrical : Electromagnetic Brake / Motor overload / Short Circuit Protection / Restart delay timer / Remote Stop , Oil high temp trip , Oil level low alarm /trip Mechanical : Manual / Mechanical Brake / Cable Stopper / Slipping Clutch / Relief V/V Q. Windlass Speeds A. Let go speed : 5.75 m/s Lifting : 0.12 ~ 0.2 m/s (9~15 m/min) When Mooring light : 0.75 ~ 1.0 m/s Q. Slipping Clutch A. Commonly fitted on Electrically Driven Windlass either between the motor & the gearbox or incorporated in the gear box. This avoids the inertia of the driving motor being transmitted thru the gear system in the event of shock loading on the cable.

Such shock can occur when the anchor is pulled hard into the Hawse pipe when being housed.

Q. Properties required in the Propeller material 1. Corrosion Fatigue Resistance. 2. Resistance to cavitation erosion. 3. General Corrosion Resistance. 4. High strength / weight ratio. 5. Good repair ability. 6. Good Cast ability.

Q. Important Clearances A. Jumping Clearance :- 6 mm , At Rapson slide 12-15 mm Max Rudder drop - 12-19mm , At Rapson slide -20-25 mm Propeller Drop :- 1 mm / 160 mm dia of shaft Pintle Clearance :- 1.1 ~ 3.3 mm

Q. How vertical movement of Rudder is Restricted ? A. The vertical movement of rudder is restricted by welding a small flat bar to the bottom of the horn. The clearance between the rudder & the flat bar should be less than the X-Hd clearance . Any vertical force on the rudder will hence be transmitted to the stern frame & not to the steering gear. Q. International Shore Coupling A. Bore : 64 mm / PCD : 132 mm / OD : 178 mm / thickness : 14 mm / No. of Holes :04 / Hole dimension : 19 mm slots , Dia of Bolts : M16 X 4 (50 mm long ) / Good Joint to withstand 10.5 bar press. & 8 washers

Q. Re-Entry into the Engine Room after CO2 Release A. Re-Entry after the discharge of CO2 is determined by a. Heat build up due to the scale of Fire & elapsed time after release b. Ship's position, condition & prevailing weather (ship may be taking in water & progressively listing) c. Where the point of entry is situated.

Q. Stern Tube Clearance A. Oil~Cooled : 2 mm / Sea water Cooled : 8 mm Bearing length : Oil Cooled ~ 2 X Dia of Shaft , S.W. Cooled ~ 4 X dia of shaft Q. Dia of Fire Hose A. 40 mm & 64 mm ( 1 1/2 " & 2 1/2 ")Material : Woven Fabric Canvas reinforced with rubber lining (length of hose 20 mtr for Deck & 15 mtr for m/c spaces, 25 m if breadth greater than 30 m) Q. F.O. D.B. Tank survey A. 1. Empty Oil 2. Fill with S.W 3. Pump out with O.W.S. 4. Ventilate 5. Check with Explosimeter 6. Gas Free Certificate. Q. Dry Dock Fire Fighting Arrangements A. 1. International Shore Coupling 2. Charged fire line 3. Fire Patrol 4. Portable Fire Extinguishers 5. Sand boxes

Q. Critical pressure & Critical temperature A. Critical Pressure : It is the pressure at which gas will just liquefy at it's critical temperature. Critical Temperature : Temp. above which the gas cannot be liquefied under isothermal compression

Q. How CO2 system is protected from over pressure ? A. 1. Location of CO2 room is such that the temp of Engine Room causes least effect (room Temp < 55 deg C) 2. CO2 bottle are filled 63 % of their capacities for expansion allowance due to temp rise 3. Bursting Disc is incorporated in the bottle to prevent leakage from the bottle upto 177 bar @ 63 deg C. 4. Non return V/V fitted @ the manifold which releases the gas to atmosphere 5. Also, a pressure switch is provided to give alarm in case of leakage / accidental release from the bottles

Q. Fire in CO2 Room A. In case of Fire in CO2 room ~ temp. rises above 63 deg C ~ Bursting disc will rupture & pressurise the manifold ~ Rlf V/V will try to release the pressure at the same time .Fire will be extinguished as the Rlf. V/V releases the CO2 in the CO2 room. Q. Functions of Stern Tube A. 1. Support the tail shaft & wt. of the propeller 2. Acts as a gland to prevent entry of Sea Water in the Engine Room

Q. F.W. Tank inspection / Routines A. 1. 6 Monthly ~ a. F.W. system pipelines to be disinfected with 50 ppm chlorine solution for 4 hrs. b. Tank to be disinfected by 50 ppm solution of chlorine for 12 hrs. c. Tank Drained, Hosed with F.W., Cleaning with Rags 2. Yearly ~ a. manhole door gaskets to be renewed b. Suction / Filling V/V to be O/Hd c. Fill shore filling Pipeline with 100 ppm Chlorine soln. & maintain for 1 hour d. Disinfection of shore line e. Paint to be observed for cracks f. If Paint is cracked ~ surrounding area to be cleaned, brushing, chipping etc. (base metal to be exposed) g. Epoxy Paint to be used for painting ; sometimes the entire tank needs to be recoated as touch up may not be possible Q. O.W.S. not working ? What is the further course of action ? A. 01. Try to contain the leakages (oil & water). 02. Raise the requisition to order the spare. 03. Make a note in the O.R.B. date, time of breakdown. 04. Make Entry of all oil transfers to Bilge tank. 05. As per ISM Code ~ report to Office 06. shut down Wash basin / arrest steam & water leakages.

Q. Vent Pipe Characteristics A. 1, Cross sectional area must be 25 % more than filling pipe X-sec 2. Safeties : Goose Neck , Float v/v , Flame arrestor Q. Maintenance on a smoke Detection System A. 01. As per Zone we have to check the functioning of the detection system so that in one month all sensors will be checked in round 02. Smoke canister is used for smoke detection / Flame Flickering is used for IR Detectors / Hot Blower for Heat Detectors 03. Local LED has to be checked on each sensor whether it is activated or not & raise the alarm. Check for False Alarm Also. 04. Cable resistance must be checked across the ends, If the resistance increases above a level equal to the resistance plus cable resistance then a system fault should activate. Q. Alternatives used for Asbestos A. Glass wool & Polyurethane foam

Q., In case of Emergency steering , how to operate A. Ensure a clear communication for emergency operation via VHF or ships telephone system. - Normally a switch is given in the power supply panel of steering gear for telemotor; switch off the supply from the panel. - Change the mode of operation by selecting the switch for the motor which is supplied by emergency power.

There is a safety pin at the manual operation helms wheel so that during normal operation the manual operation always remains in cut-off mode. Remove that pin. 3. Operate the telemotor p/p's solenoid block manually. Q. What is Rudder locking? A. To bring the steering gear to rest speedily all hydraulic ,line valves are closed , thus ensuring Hydraulic lock. Rudder is locked when the ship is being towed. Rudder is locked in midship position to avoid turning due to wake of towing ship. Q. What is the purpose of installing a Bulbous Bow ?(Reeds Ship Const-page 78) A. Bulbous Bow is fitted on the forward of the ship in order to reduce the wave making resistance thus resulting in lower wave height. Hence, power required reduces. It also increases the forward buoyancy & reduces the pitching. Q. Bulk Carrier Hatch Coaming Stiffening A. Where the height is 600mm or more , the upper edge is stiffened by horizontal bulb flat & supporting stays, at intervals of 3m, to the deck are fitted. Coaming less than 600 mm high are stiffened by a cope or similar bar at the upper edge. The steel coamings extend down to the lower edge of the deck beams, which are then effectively attached to the coamings (fig 19.4 page 197 Eyres, Given in Reeds as well)

Q. Types of Rudders( Reeds Pg-85) A. Rudders may be of 3 types : a. Semi-balanced rudder : they have a small portion of their lateral area forward of the turning axis (less than 20 %) b. Balanced Rudder : a larger amount of the area forward of the axis (25 to 30%) c. Unbalanced Rudder : full area aft of the axis. Balancing is done to achieve a reduction in torque since the centre of lateral pressure is brought nearer the turning axis . However the fully balanced rudder will at low angles tend to drive the gear. Q. How are frames spaced in the Cargo Hold ? What are Web Frames ? A. Frame Spacing of cargo hold fitted at 760 mm & are made of H or I section. Web Frames are deeper & thicker frames, the depth is more than 600 mm , stiffened on their free edge & are mostly fitted in the engine room to enhance the strength & avoid vibration.(Reeds 47-49)

Q. What are the structural defects that can occur in the Cargo Holds ? How often these cargo holds surveyed ? A. Most common defects arising in the holds are : Corrosion , Cracks , Bulging , Thinning Down , Leakages. Holds are usually surveyed every 5 years....

Q. What is Camber ? A. It is the upward curvature of ship from ship side to the centre, it helps in drainage of water, also increases the resistance of deflection under load. Q. Types of strake ? A. Sheer strake , Garboard strake , Bilge strake. Q. What is a Kort Nozzle ?(Reeds Pg 96) A. 1. It is a cylindrical tube like structure fitted around the propeller disc. 2. It increases the thrust without increasing the power consumption. 3. used on shallow draft vessels such as supply boats & tugs which are used for towing purposes. 4. It gives better flow of water through the propeller, thus increasing the propulsion efficiency & also steering capability.

Q. What is maximum Rudder Drop ? A. Maximum Rudder Drop allowed is 16 mm & in any case it should not be more than the clearance provided on the X-Hd. If the rudder is allowed to drop more then the load would be transferred to the steering rams & it would bend . Q. Wake of the Propeller A. Wake is the flow of water because of the friction between the hull of the ship & the surrounding water. This wake is drawn into the propeller & it helps the working of the propeller.

Q. Wheel House informs Engine Room about Bad Weather, state the further course of actions. A. 1. Keep standby m/c in ready condition, so they can be used readily. 2. Start one more generator. 3. Start one more steering gear. 4. Maintain L.O. & F.O. tk levels topped up so as to prevent the tripping of the engine by loss of suction. 5. All loose spare parts must be lashed properly.

6. Check the engine room crane is parked. 7. Check the whistle air is ON 8. Call one more standby Engineer.....

Q. What all certificate to be carried according to annex 6 International Air Pollution Prevention Certificate. Our Administration DG Shipping has not yet ratified the same, therefore, for Indian Flag Vessels they issue Statement of Compliance (SOC). Also control of emissions from ship and certificate for Volatile Organic Compounds.Also EIAPP-ENGINE INTERNATIONAL APP

Q. Harmonized survey or how certification of ship is harmonized ?- Harmonization of certification means all the surveys are normally carried out in one go within the window period. This will ease the Owners to complete all the surveys in dry dock or during lay up of the vessel. Also any recommendation arising during the surveys can be easily dealt with. Harmonization of certificate normally done during the renewal surveys (every five yearly)

Q. What is dewatering?Provide draining and or pumping facility to pump out water from spaces which are located fwd of foremost cargo hold in case of detection inflow into corresponding spaces. Solas chapter 12 regulation 13.1. The sys task is to operate and supervise the operation of drainage sys by control and position indication of relevant butterfly valves in corresponding spaces. Spaces can be connected to eductor for drainage and tanks are drained by ship water ballast system. Water level detector in hold at 0.5 mts and another on height not less than 15% or not more than 2mts) Q. What is the purpose of top side tanks in bulk carriers? Top side tanks are used only when ship is loaded with high density cargoes, like steel sheets, rolls etc,, in that case centre of gravity g moves too low to make extremely large GM, (stiff ship) which in turn can break ship in any bad weather, to raise G up , the TST is filled with water. Other design of bulk carriers are there in which top holds of smaller sizes in mid of two holds are there to load same cargo and thus adjusting GM.

Q. As per Marpol annex II what is water performance test? Procedure- fill cargo tank with water to a depth necessary to carry out normal end of unloading procedure. cargo tank pumped and stripped with associated piping in accordance with ships approved manual. Collect water remaining in cargo tank & piping in calibrated container for measurement. Residue should be collected from - cargo tank suction and its vicinity, any entrapped area in cargo tank bottom, low point drain of cargo pump, all low point drain in piping upto manifold valve. Total quantity collected above determines stripping quantity for cargo tank. If more than one tank is using pump and piping then all drained and distributed amongst the tank if mentioned in approved manual. Condition of testing- trim (minimum) by stern and list <1 to facilitate proper drainage at suction point. and during test back pressure maintained at minimum 1 bar at cargo tank unloading manifold.

Q. Under which clause in ISM Safety Management System is there? (Part A: clause 1.4, part A is IMPLEMENTATION and part B is certification and verification) Q. What materials are used in LPG tanks construction? INVAR: 36% nickel steel with 64% iron or 9% nickel steel for higher temperature. Q. Actions to be taken during boiler uptake fire? Boiler uptake fire is because of wet soot deposited during low steaming, during uptake fire do not carry out soot blow ,reduce the load and stop the engine , cover the m/e t/c with the canvas so that no air is supplied. Q. Refrigeration gases , how they are classified according to environment hazard? Ozone depletion potential- max R11, for R22 is 0.05 and global warming potential- max is R11.and R22 is 0.365

Q.Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) is a means of converting nitrogen oxides, also referred to as NOx with the aid of a catalyst into diatomic nitrogen, N2, and water, H2O. A gaseous reductant, typically anhydrous ammonia, aqueous ammonia or urea, is added to a stream of flue or exhaust gas and is absorbed onto a catalyst. Carbon dioxide, CO2 is a reaction product when urea is used as the reductant. Ammonia slip is an industry term for ammonia passing through the SCR un-reacted. This occurs when ammonia is: over injected into gas stream, temperatures are too low for ammonia to react, or catalyst has degraded catalyst eg. titanium oxide. Q. Remote detection of oil spills Ionics Agar Environmental has launched Leakwise WL, a new wireless oil sheen detector and oil build-up monitor which uses

Orbcomm satellite communication and cellular networks to alert operators of oil leaks and spills. Designed for installation onshore near terminal storage tanks and pipelines and at sea close to tanker jetties and offshore tanker buoys, the Leakwise WL sensors can detect the presence of as little as 0.3 mm of oil on water and monitor its build-up. The floating sensors in Leakwise WL use the latest technology of high-frequency electromagnetic energy absorption and are unaffected by dirt or oil coating or by changes in water level, salinity and temperature. This enables reliable operation with no false alarm and very low maintenance costs, according to the manufacturer. The Leakwise offshore detector is mounted on a stable wave-rider buoy and contains a solar panel with rechargeable battery, digital signal processor, transceiver for the bidirectional data link and antennae for satellite and cellular communications.

Q. MOB marker? The Lifebuoys come in two sizes to cover all SOLAS requirements. One weighing 2.5 kg, the standard, and one weighing 4.5 kg to comply with SOLAS-74 Chapter III, Reg. 31.1.7 which states that to operate the quick release arrangement for self-activated smoke or light, the lifebuoy should weigh min. 4 kg. (Bridge wing: Smoke and light). day and night signal attached to Lifebuoy and used in emergency to mark position of man overboard provides 15 minutes of dense orange smoke far exceeds SOLAS requirements of 2 hours at 2 candela for light output and duration safe to use on petrol or oil covered water lithium battery sealed for life - no annual replacement automatic or manual deployment universal stainless steel mounting bracket tested to survive a 60m drop into water (SOLAS 30m) ideal for use on ships or rigs with high freeboard 360 degrees all-around signal light. Q. What is squatting effect? The squat effect is the hydrodynamic phenomenon by which a vessel moving quickly through shallow water creates an area of lowered pressure under its bottom that causes the ship to squat lower in the water than would otherwise be expected. This is due to a reduction in buoyancy caused by a downward hydrodynamic force created by flow-induced pressures. It is caused by similar forces as lift in aircraft, except that the low pressure area is beneath the hull. It can lead to unexpected groundings and handling difficulties. This phenomenon is caused by hydrodynamic effects between the hull of the ship and the sea floor. Squat effect is approximately proportional to the square of the speed of the ship. Thus, by reducing speed by half, the squat effect is reduced by a factor of four. Squat effect is usually felt more when the depth/draft ratio is less than four or when sailing close to a bank. The phenomenon is caused when water that should normally flow under the hull encounters resistance due to the close proximity of the hull to the seabed. This causes the water to move faster, especially under the bow of the ship, creating a lowpressure area. This counteracts the force of buoyancy, causing the vessel to dip towards the bow. The reduced pressure on the bottom of the boat sucks the boat slightly downward until the increased displacement counteracts the force generated by the reduced pressure. Q. Hypermist systems? New IMO Requirements The IMO requires all ships constructed on and after July 1, 2002 to install water-based local fire extinguishing systems in machinery spaces accommodating machinery with a particularly high risk of fire (main engine, D/G engine, boiler, incinerator, F.O. purifier and I.G.G.) with the aim of extinguishing or suppressing fires in their early stages. This new rule was established in recognition of the importance of extinguishing or suppressing fires while they were still small, after analyzing many on-board fire incidents from all over the world. This idea arose in response to situations in which prompt operation was difficult with previous systems (especially CO2 fire extinguishing systems), because the crews safety had to be confirmed before discharging the extinguishant, which enabled fires to expand. The HYPER MIST employs specially developed nozzles operating at high pressure (approx. 5MPa) to generate super fine particles of mist ranging from 30 to 80 microns in diameter. When sprayed on a fire, the mist offers compound effects: it absorbs radiant heat from the fire, creates a shield, reduces the temperature of the fire area by evaporating upon contact with the flame and depletes the oxygen, thereby extinguishing or suppressing the fire.

Q.Why during rudder test we are doing 35 degree and 30 degree y not both 35 degree? because if we go from 35 to 35 rudder becomes sluggish and slow and timing may not reflect the exact efficiency..in layman term if you are ordered to sprint towards a wall and record timing, u may run like hell in beginning, but as u near towards the wall u will naturally tend to slow down and thus u cannot assume that in timing.... mech efficiency of the rudder decreases,instead of steering , the rudder causes drag.Size of the steering gear to achieve this 5 degrees extra will rapidly increase When u are on stbd 35 and then u give port 30 or 35 the variable discharge pp gets huge error signal gives max pumping rate but when it reaches 30 in port , the error signal remains very less and it is much lesser than the error between 0 deg an...

Q. ANCHOR CHAIN MEASUREMENT Anchor chain is measured by the thickness of the steel making up the links. This means that 1/2-inch anchor chain is made up of links formed from 1/2-inch diameter round bar (called "wire"), which is then bent into the shape of the link and the two ends are welded together.

Q.Sheer strake-The upper strake of side shell plating adjacent to the strength deck is referred to as the sheerstrake. As the sheer strake is at a large distance from the neutral axis , it has a greater thickness than the other strakes of side shell plating. Also, being in a highly stressed region it is necessary to avoid welded attachments to the sheer strake, or cutouts which would introduce stress raisers.The welding of bulwarks to the edge of the sheer strake is not permitted within the amidships length of the ship

Q. Dynamical Stability Dynamical stability is defined as the work done in inclining a ship. The ease with which a vessel can maintain a straight course, or be made to turn, will depend upon its directional stability. Sometimes this characteristic is known as the ship's dynamic stability but should not be confused with dynamical stability . ISM Code SOLAS CHAPTER IX REGULATION 3..International Safety Management (ISM) Code means the International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention [[[adopted by the Organization by resolution A.741(18),]]]. ISM Code aims to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment, particularly the marine environment, and to the property. DOCUMENT OF COMPLIANCE AND ITS DURATION SOLAS CHAPTER IX REGULATION 4..A Document of Compliance shall be issued to every company which complies with the requirements of the International Safety Management Code. This document shall be issued by the Administration, by an organization recognized by the Administration, or at the request of the Administration by another Contracting Government. SMC and ITS DURATION SOLAS CHAPTER IX REGULATION 4..A Certificate, called a Safety Management Certificate, shall be issued to every ship by the Administration or an organization recognized by the Administration. The Administration or organization recognized by it shall, before issuing the Safety Management Certificate, verify that the company and its shipboard management operate in accordance with the approved SAFETY-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM. ISM emphasises on the essential ingredient of Shipping Management that, every company should develop, implement and maintain a Safety Management System ( SMS ) to the Code. But this does not mean that the code is trying to tell the company how to go about running their business. It is up to the company how to go about implementing the codes.

Q. What is propeller drop? The propeller shaft in the after peak tank is provided with inboard and outboard seals. These seals contain nitrile rubber or viton lip seal which seals against the bronze liner shrunk fit around the cast iron propeller shaft. After a few years it creates grooves on them and naturally looses sealing and sea water can easily find its way inside. This reduces the lubrication effect and creates wear of the bronze liner. Now as there is enough clearance the shaft will come down by certain amount because of the propeller weight. This drop in propeller shaft is termed as propeller drop and is measured by POKER gauge.

THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS MAY BE ASKED IN MEP AS WELL. Q. How do you measure the propeller shaft drop of a marine vessel? Before taking the measurement, we have to remove the rope guard first. Also to make sure whether the vessel has the poker gauge or not. This poker gauge is used to measure the propeller shaft drop (known as propeller wear down).After dismantling the rope guard, make sure to turn the blade to a particular position , refer to the marking. Normally, we take top measurement and bottom measurement

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If the dip stick breaks in co2 bottle then what will happen? (If co2 bottle dip stick is broken, once the liquid level reaches below the broken siphon tube , co2 will freeze as latent heat is absorbed from the remainder CO2.Earlier with intact tube , co2 changed from liquid to gas at end of hose outside but now it turns to gas inside , reducing the discharge rate)

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manhole door elliptical...why?( Manhole door elliptical: longitudinal pressure = pd/4t or circumferential pressure=pd/2t where p=pressure, d=diameter, t=thickness...so circumferential pressure is more) How stern tube is fitted? (In water cooled its held on stern frame boss wd steel nut and on aft peak bulk head fitted to welded bolts via flange...in oil cooled its forward end is fabricated and welded to elongated stern frame boss in aft and on aft peak bulk head in forward..... What is Muntz metal, monel metal, white metal compositions and which is more electrochemically active of them? (monelcopper-38 n nickel-60,al and manganese-2, white metal- tin-88, antimony-7.5, copper-4,lead-0.35, muntz metal-copper-60, zinc-40) Explain how survey of rudder is done? how is the load of the rudder is transmitted to the ships hull? Discuss about the stationary and moving cones? (Page 88 Reeds Ship Const, Wt of rudder acts down thru stock. This is supported by rudder carrier bearing. From stock load is transferred to pilgrim nut then to tiller then to distance piece, then to upper cone, then to base cone which is fixed to steering gear flat. upper cone is moveable &amp; lower cone is fixed as it is attached to steering flat rudder survey a. Visual examination of the rudder plating for cracks and distortion. Air plugs and drain plugs are to be opened in the presence of the class surveyor, repair superintendent and chief officer. Water draining out indicates a breached rudder and the breach to be located by air pressure testing and applying soap repairs to be planned. Check the rudder drop in the steering gear compartment (trammel gauge). Check the pintle clearances, jumping bar clearance and the palm coupling bolts tightness to be checked. Check the rudder stock for corrosion, erosion and any damage. The inspection plates in the way of the upper, the lower pintle to be cut open, and the pintle nuts checked for proper securing. Later the plates to be welded and tested. Hydraulic test the rudder for a static head of about 2.45m of sea water. After draining and re oiling the internals, plug the drain and check the effectiveness by a vacuum check and cement the plug. The rudder stock gland packing has to be checked and Hull Testing A. Hose Test : 2kg/cm2 @ 1.5m , Dia of nozzle not more than 12 mm. Before fitting : Bend Test , Tensile Test, Impact Test After fitting : Hydrostatic test : 2.45m ht from top for a tank , Hammer Test Air test : 0.14 - 0.2 bar Drill test : 20 mm hole ND Tests-hull thickness measurement , crack detection ,

Q.Stainless steel Cutting Problems A. Gas Cutting of S.S. Plate : Oxidising & Blowing Away of the Oxidised metal. If large amt. of Chromium is present, then oxidising the S.S. becomes difficult. Iron rich powder is used in the cutting area to enhance the oxidising capacity. Q. Ship is going to sub-zero temperature ~ Precautions Required A. 1. Anti freeze is added to water systems (J.C.W. & P.C.W.) 2. Close skylight 3. Hydraulic system ~ Heaters on 4. Draining fire main line / anti freeze in sprinkler system. 5. Blow through the sea chest with steam 6. emergency Generator & Life boat ~ Anti freeze 7. Lifeboat Drinking Water do not keep in Lifeboat 8. D.B. tank F.O. Tank Heating Lines 9. Recirculation of S.W. 10. P.V. Breaker , Dk Seal Anti Freeze 11. Standby Motor ~ External Heating On 12. Winches to be operated regularly

Q. DB Tank plug material A. Silicon Steel Q. CO2 pipeline material A. Solid Drawn seamless galvanised steel Q. Propeller material A. Ni~Al Bronze or Manganese Bronze Cu -78/81% , Nickel 4.5/5.5% , Al -9/10 , Fe-3/5% , Mn 2% Q. Shipside Overboard V/V material A. Body :- Ni~Al bronze / Cast steel Stem / Seat / Disc :- Monel metal (Ni~60 % , Cu~38% , Mn+Al~2% Q. Why Draw of a Propeller is required ? A.The amount by which the aft end of the propeller boss protrudes out of the aft end of the taper of the tail end shaft after the propeller has been fitted. Significance : If propeller draw is diminished, the bedding of the propeller will be unsatisfactory, the contact surface area

between the boss & the taper should not be less than 85% .Diminished prop. draw indicates the worn out taper end of the shaft, thus requires renewal of the propeller sleeve. If Draw is zero (or less) , then nut will not tighten on propeller boss , hence the propeller will not be tightened in position and may slip . Q. Rudder Construction A. Slot Welding to be carried out. Plates, Welding rods, welders Qualification & procedure of repairing must be approved by class surveyor. Second plate is called Wrapping Plate / Cover Plate. Plate is prepared by marking of the frames on it & then slots are cut. Then the plate is bend on the framework & is welded to the frames. Slots are filled with the weld. These welds are ground & made smooth. * Pressure Testing of Rudder : 1. Gravity method : Fill water in rudder upto 2.46m above top of rudder & observe it. Water level should not drop. * Hose Test : Drain plug has to removed & hose is applied on the slot welds & observe if water is coming from the drain plug. This is to be done before gravity method. * Coating : Open top plug , put bottom plug with cock. Fill 50 % water inside & 20 % with paint. Drain water slowly by cock. This is called float coat painting.

Q. Dry Dock Inspections of rudder A. Rudder : 1. When Docking is taking place observe rudder if any water is coming out. 2. After completion of docking remove top & bottom plug & check for water. 3. Hammer rudder plate to check sound & condition of rudder plates. 4. If ship is more than 5 yrs. old , Class Surveyor may insist on Gauging report 5. Check condition of Zn block fitted on the rudder. If completely worn out add few more than last time. 6. Coupling between Rudder & Rudder Stock to be checked , chip off the cement & check condition of Palm Bolts. 7. Put Rudder in midship position & see actual position of the rudder w.r.t. ship this will help identify twisting of rudder stock. 8. Pintle clearance to check. 9. Jumping Clearance 10. Weardown & Rudder drop to be checked in Dry Dock. 11. Visual inspection for rudder corrosion, pitting, cracks etc. Shell Plating : 01. Check for Buckling, Corrosion, Dents & Cracks. 02. Check condition of Anodes : If completely worn out ~ more is required / If not worn ~ not connected properly 03. Check Sea growth : If high ~ Anti fouling paint was ineffective.

Q. Hull Repair A. A Cracked weld : 01. Inform Class surveyor & seek his opinion. 02. Trace the length of crack by DP Test 03. One inch from both sides drill crack arresting holes. 04. Gas free the tank from inside 05. Gouging of Crack to be carried out by gouging electrode till bottom of the crack is reached 06. Welding electrode, welder & procedure to be class approved. Low Hydrogen Electrodes are used. 07. The affected portion to be heated to 200 deg C by flame torch & temp to be noted by IR sensor. 08. Carry out welding from either side 09. The weld is again to be heated by flame to relieve stresses & covered with insulation tapes to reduce cooling rate. 10. Weld to be inspected & arrest holes to be welded 11. Radiography to be carried out. 12. Hose test to be carried out 13. Primer & paint to be applied. Severe indentation in way of frame : 01. It cannot be tolerated so has to be cropped off along with bent frame & renewed. 02. Put 2 small size plates & weld it to frame (tag) with actual size plate. 03. Heating & stress relieving to be carried out. 04. Radiography & Hose test of the weld to be carried out. Surfaces suffering from general Corrosion : 01. Gauging to be carried out & if more than 20 % is eaten away, plate needs to be renewed.(decided by class surveyor) 02. Only thing to be done is clean the surface, coat with primer, anti fouling & anti corrosive paints. 03. Add Zinc Anodes. Bilge Keel Fractured : 01. Crop the damaged part & renew.

Q. Checks Carried out on a Tailshaft ? A. Corrosion ; Trueness ; Ovality ; Cracks ; Condition of the tapered portion ; Threading on the Shaft ; Condition of the Bush (Check for grooving) ; In case of a keyed propeller check for condition of keyway for cracks by magnetic particle test.

Q. How is Rudder Drop Measured ? Rudder wear down measurement: (Ram type Steering Gear ) At sea: 1)Jumping clearance or bouncing clearance, measured between swivel block and upper ram fork end. 2)Wear down clearance, measured between swivel block and bottom ram fork end. At docking: 1)Bouncing clearance: measured between top of rudder and jumping bar. 2)Rudder drop: between the bottom of rudder and reference mark. A. 1. It is measured in dry dock between a fixed point on bearing & another point on the rudder spade. 2. Also in the steering platform, one fixed point is made at the time of installation of rudder by the shipyard & one gauge is provided for that. The drop down of the rudder stock is measured in that.

Q. Crude oil washing (COW) is washing out the residue from the tanks of an oil tanker using the crude oil cargo itself, after the cargo tanks have been emptied. Crude Oil is pumped back and preheated in the slop tanks, then sprayed back via high pressure nozzles in the cargo tanks on to the walls of the tank. Due to the sticky nature of the crude oil, the oil clings to the tank walls, and such oil adds to the cargo remaining on board (the ROB). By COWing the tanks, the amount of ROB is significantly reduced, and with the current high cost of oil, the financial savings are significant, both for the Charterers and the Shipowner. If the cargo ROB is deemed as liquid and pumpable then the Charterers can claim from the owner for any cargo loss for normally between 0.3% up to 0.5%. It replaced the load on top and seawater washing systems, both of which involved discharging oil-contaminated water into the sea. MARPOL 73/78 made this mandatory equipment for oil tankers of 20,000 tons or greater deadweight. Q. IS INERT GAS REQUIRED ON PRODUCT TANKERS? IF IT IS NOT PRESENT WHAT ARE THE OTHER ARRANGEMENT PROVIDED IN THE PRODUCT TANKERS? (Nitrogen purging)

29) DRY DOCK STERN TUBE CHECKS? (Liner, seals, bearing condition)