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Introduction to Wireless Technology
Session WMT-101

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Agenda
• Requirements and Marketplace • Basics of Radio Technology • Fixed Wireless Overview • Mobile Wireless Overview • Wireless LAN Overview • Q&A
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Requirements and Marketplace

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Wireless Data Network Drivers
• Information access • PDAs • Network computers • Alpha paging, information distribution • Web • Audio and video
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What Is the Interest in Wireless?

• No more cables… • Mobility • Increased productivity • Competition • Flexibility

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Some Wireless Data Solutions
• Field service—dispatch, parts/order, electronic signature, package tracking • Public safety—parking enforcement, ambulance-hospital links, anti-theft • Financial—news, brokerage, pricing • Telemetry—health care, vending machines, alarm systems, energy • Identification—inventory in warehouse and stores, anti-theft
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Cisco’s Wireless Data Initiatives

Point-Point/Multipoint Wireless

Wireless LAN

Wireless Broadband Local Loop
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Mobile Cellular Voice/Data Communications
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Emerging and Existing Wireless Data Technologies

• Wireless LAN and PAN: IEEE 802.11, Bluetooth, HomeRF • Fixed wireless: MMDS, LMDS, satellite dish, microwave, optical • Mobile wireless: PCS, GSM, CDMA, TDMA, 2.5 G, 3G

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Wireless Data Networks
10 Mbps

Infrared Wireless LANs

4 Mbps

LMDS and MMDS Spread Spectrum Wireless LANs

2 Mbps

Data Rates

1 Mbps

56 Kbps 19.6 Kbps 9.6 Kbps
Narrow Band Narrow Band Wireless LANs Wireless LANs

Broadband PCS Metricom
Circuit and Packet Data
Cellular, CDPD, RAM, ARDIS Cellular, CDPD, RAM, ARDIS

Narrowband PCS

Satellite
Wide

Local
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Coverage Area
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Introduction to Radio Spectrum

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Radio Basics

Frequency = f = V / ? ?(m/sec)

• Waves are measured by frequency of movement • Radio devices operate in bands or a designated frequency range

1 Second 1 Cycle (? )

Time

2 Cycles in 1 Second = 2 Hertz

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The Electromagnetic Spectrum

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Regulation of Wireless
• Radio Frequency (RF) is a scarce and shared resource
Each country regulates the use of the radio spectrum by a government agency In the U.S. it is the F.C.C. that allocates spectrum for use and resolves conflict disputes) Internationally coordinated through the ITU (International Telecommunications Union)
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Spectrum Licensing
• Spectrum can be allocated for specific users
Civil, government or military Acquired via auction or “beauty contest”

• Unlicensed or Industrial, Scientific and Medical (ISM) bands
In most countries does not require a license, but may require registration Needs to conform to power and other parameters to reduce interference
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What Is Spread Spectrum RF Technology?

• Data sent over the air waves • Two-way radio communications • Same radio frequency for sending and receiving • No licensing required

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Access Spectrum Availability and Comparison
5000

Voice, Data, Fax, ISDN
256 Kbps 256 Kbps

+ High Speed Internet and Multimedia
1 to 50 1 to 50 Mbps Mbps 300 200 200 100

+ TDM Leased Lines
1000 1350 10 to 100 10 to 100 Mbps Mbps

1400

+ Ultra High-Speed LAN/WAN
>100 Mbps >100 Mbps

2000

400

Bandwidth 20 30 (MHz)

No LOS No LOS

LOS LOS 10 24 26 28 38 40 60

1 GHz 2.5

3.5

5.8

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Spectrum Suitability

• Less than 6 GHz
Long range (up to 45 km), non Line of Sight (LOS), not affected by weather

• Greater 6 GHz
Line of Sight (LOS), short range (1–5 km), affected by weather, more spectrum (1 Ghz)

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Wireless Basics

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Wireless Basics
• Signals • Modulation • Access technology • Antenna theory • Range • Interference
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Data Bandwidth Depends on...

• Frequency bandwidth • Modulation techniques

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Transmitting a Signal
• The goal of sending data over RF is to get information across with as much data as possible, sending it as far as possible and as fast as possible • More data can be placed on a signal in one of two ways:
More frequency used Complex modulation
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Signal Processing
Analog
High Frequencies Changes Reduced

Digital
To Radio Modulator

Filter

Microprocessor

Audio Signal

Audio Filter

Analog Signal

Performs Sampling and Coding

Digital Signal

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Radio Modulation
CB Radio Signal FM Radio Signal TV Signal

• More information = • More frequency spectrum used
3K 175K 4500K

Bandwidth in KHz
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Radio Modulation
• High speed modem compresses the data to use the same line as an old 300 baud modem; this means the same bandwidth is available • 56K modems require a better (quieter) phone line to communicate at the higher speed • If there is noise on the line, the modem will drop down in speed to connect • Mode noise, less speed • Complex modulation requires better signal strength, therefore less coverage is available
Low

Signal Strength Strong Med Med Noise Level Weak High

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System Access Technology

• Frequency division multiple access • Time division multiple access • Code division multiple access • Frequency hopping
Each Technique Varies in Its Efficiency (Throughput), Interference and Range; Depends on Application and Environment
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TDMA and FDMA

TDMA

FDMA
Channel 1

Frequency

2 1

1

2

3

1

2

3

Frequency

3
Time

Channel 2

Channel 3 Time

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CDMA
CDMA
1 1

1

4

2

5

3

1

1

Frequency

2

6

3

4

9

5 2

2

2 3 5 7 1 2 4 A long Code is Used to Generate a Mask for Each Radio Typically a Code is Transmitted on a Separate Channel
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Time 1 Bit
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Frequency Hopping
2.483 GHz

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2

Frequency 2.400 GHz

1
Time

• 79 channels, 1 MHz each • Changes frequency (hops) at least every 0.4 seconds • Synchronized hopping required
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Antenna Concepts

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Coverage Area
Sector Maxicell >10 Miles

Macrocell 4–10 Miles

Microcell 1–2 Miles

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Antenna Concepts
• Directionality
Omni (360 degree coverage) directional Directional (limited range of coverage)

• Gain
Measured in dBi and dBd. (0 dBd = 2.14 dBi) More gain means more coverage— in certain directions!

• Polarization
Antennas are used in the vertical polarization
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Antenna Gain
• In life you never get ‘something for nothing,’ the same is true in antenna gain • If the gain of an antenna goes up, the coverage area or angle goes down • Coverage areas or radiation patterns are measured in degrees • These angles are referred to as beamwidth, and have a horizontal and vertical measurement
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Antenna Theory

• A theoretical antenna (Isotropic) has a perfect 360 degree vertical and horizontal beamwidth • This is a reference for all antennas

Side View (Vertical Pattern)

Top View (Horizontal Pattern)

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Antenna Theory—Dipole
• To obtain omnidirectional gain from an isotropic antenna, the energy lobes are ‘pushed in’ from the top and bottom, and forced out in a doughnut type pattern • The higher the gain smaller the vertical beamwidth, and the more horizontal lobe area • This is the typical dipole pattern; gain of a dipole is 2.14dBi (0dBd)

Side View (Vertical Pattern)
Vertical Beamwidth New Pattern (with Gain)

Top View (Horizontal Pattern)

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High Gain Omnidirectionals

• High gain omnidirectional antennas will create more coverage area in far distances, but the energy level directly below the antenna will become lower, and coverage here may be poor

Beamwidth

Area of Poor Coverage Directly Under the Antenna

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Directional Antennas
• For directional antennas the lobes are pushed in a certain direction, causing the energy to move be condensed in a particular area • Very little energy is in the back side of a directional antenna

Side View (Vertical Pattern)

Top View (Horizontal Pattern)

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Cables Lengths Example for Aironet Antennas

• Coax cable presents a loss for the RF signal • 2.4 GHz maximum recommended length is 100 feet—with the new cable
Loss Factor
20 Ft. Cable 50 Ft. Cable 75 Ft. Cable 100 Ft. Cable
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Cable
N/A 2.2 3.3 4.4
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Diversity and Multipath
Dual Antennas Typically Mean if One

• In a multipath Antenna Is in a Null, the Other One Will Not be, therefore Providing Better environment, signals Performance in Multi-path null points are located Environments throughout the area • Moving the antenna slightly will allow you to move out of a null point and receive the signal correctly

Ceiling RX2 TX

RX1 Obstacle

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Multipath

Received Signals Ceiling TX RX Time Combined Results Obstruction Floor Time

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Multipath and FH
2500 2400

• The distance an RF wave travels, how it bounces and where the multipath nulls occur are based on the wavelength of the frequency • As frequency changes, so does the wavelength • Therefore as frequency changes, so will the location of the multipath null

Wavelength Ceiling

TX 2.4 GHz 2.5 GHz Obstacle
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Multipath (Cont.)
• Multipath signals can cause high RF signal strength, but poor signal quality levels • Bottom line
Low RF signal strength does not mean poor communications Low signal quality DOES mean poor communications

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Range Depends on...

• Frequency • Transmit power • Radio sensitivity • Processing gain from access technique and redundancy • Interference effects (-)

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Reach Distance from Hub
Point-to-Point
2.5 GHz 6 GHz 23 GHz 28 GHz

Point-to-Multipoint 2.5 GHz 6 GHz 24 GHz

28 GHz

38 GHz

50.0

20.0

7.5

5.0

3.57

5.34

6.92

14

40

Reach Distance**, Km **Assume Rain Zone K, 6cm Antennae for 99.995% Average Availability, Vertical Polarization
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Reach Distance*, Km *Assume Rain Zone K, Single Channel per Transmitter, Same Power, Same dB Gain Antennas for All Frequencies
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Interference Is Caused By...

• Obstacles like buildings, trees, walls that absorb or refract signals • Atmospherics like rain, fog, solar spots • Other electromagnetic devices Interference Can Appear as Noise or Can Cause Loss of Signal Strength
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Fixed Wireless Overview

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Cisco’s Fixed Wireless
• Provides last mile access • Point to point up to 44.4 Mbps per sector • Multipoint up to 22.2 Mbps per sector
P2P Dedicated Bandwidth
P2MP Sector

P2MP Shared Bandwidth

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Point to Multipoint Features

• Small-cell and single-cell deployment • Open interfaces—part of Cisco's dedication to open architectures • Highly efficient MAC protocol, based on the industry standard DOCSIS MAC

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Choice of Frequencies
MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution System) Spectrum Band Channel Size 2.5 Ghz 1.5 MHz, 3 MHz, or 6 MHz Coverage Point-to-Point Multipoint LOS and NLOS License Required
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U-NII (Unlicensed) 5.7 Ghz 1.5 MHz, 3MHz, or 6 MHz

25 Miles (Approximately) 25 Miles (Approximately) Yes Yes

20 Miles (Approximately) 7 Miles (Approximately) Yes No
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Headend and Subscriber Overview
• Headend can support one downstream and four upstream channels • Subscriber supports one downstream and upstream channel pair • Downstream and upstream channels may have bandwidths of 1.5, 3 and 6 MHz • Headend and subscriber both support antenna diversity
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Point-to-Point for Campus Networks

• PTP links in UNII bands available to extend PMP coverage beyond LOS constraints • Intra-campus data can be transported without using up cell capacity

UNII Band PTP Links UNII Band PTP Links

P PM nk Li

LOS Con stra ints

90º Sector of PMP Network

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Point-to-Multipoint Features

• Small-cell and single-cell deployment • Multipath robustness • Adjusts transmit power of subscribers to maintain desired signal levels at headend • Headend and subscriber both support antenna diversity

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Point-to-Point Network Overview
Subscriber Unit Subscriber Unit PBX
Internet Service Provider PSTN Headend

Subscriber Unit

Headend

Subscriber Unit
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VOFDM and Fixed Wireless

• Building New World Networks with Unlicensed Wireless Spectrum
(http://www/warp/public/cc/pd/witc/wt2700/275 0/bbfw_wp.htm)

• Cisco’s Broadband Wireless Solutions
(http://www/warp/public/cc/pd/witc/wt2700/275 0/brwis_ai.htm)

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Fixed Wireless VOFDM Association

www.bwif.org
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Mobile Wireless Overview

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Why Is It Called Cellular?
• Originally one set of frequencies across a metro
Freq {6} Freq {6} Freq {1} Freq {1} Freq {2} Freq {2} Freq {0} Freq {0}

• Limited number of simultaneous conversations • Idea was to allocate a subset of frequencies to small areas or”cells” • Allowed re -use of frequency sets as long as not adjacent • Vastly increased capacity • Shrink cell sizes to add even more • Mobility (call hand-off) required • Roaming
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Freq {5} Freq {5} Freq {4} Freq {4} Freq {6} Freq {6} Freq {1} Freq {1} Freq {5} Freq {5}

Freq {3} Freq {3}

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Radio Frequencies
• Licenses are required • Most common frequency bands are 800, 900, 1800 and 1900 Mhz • No single worldwide standard for roaming
Some regions or countries use a single standard and frequencies (mandated) Some countries use more than one standard and frequencies (open market or less regulated)
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Spectrum Allocation for Mobile Wireless Services

• GSM, PHS, and PCS are the current systems used for digital wireless communications in Europe, Japan, and the U.S., respectively • IMT 2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications) is the official term referring to 3G services
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The Mobile Wireless History and Roadmap
1st Generation Deployment
1980s 1980s

2nd Generation
1990s 1990s

3rd Generation (3G)
Starting 2001 Starting 2001

Post 3G
Starting 2003-4 Starting 2003-4

Technology

Analog-FDMA Analog-FDMA

Digital -Mostly Digital -Mostly TDMA and CDMA TDMA and CDMA Based Based
Ubiquity Services— Ubiquity Services— Voice, SMS,Circuit Voice, SMS,Circuit and Basic Packet Data and Basic Packet Data

Packet/IP Packet/IP

AII-IP AII-IP

Services

Ubiquity-Voice

Advanced Packet Advanced Packet Data Data

Multimedia Multimedia

Air Interfaces

AMPS-NMT AMPS-NMT

GSM, IS-136, GSM, IS-136, IS-95, PDC, … IS-95, PDC, …

EDGE, W-CDMA, EDGE, W-CDMA, cdma2000, 1xEV, … cdma2000, 1xEV, … 384 kbps (Typically) 384 kbps (Typically) -2MBPS (Marginally) -2MBPS (Marginally)

Not Defined Yet Not Defined Yet

Data Rates
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<20 kbps <20 kbps

<2 Mbps <2 Mbps

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Possible Set of Applications
Data rate (kbit/s) 1000 BROADBAND
Streaming Audio and Video Multimedia Video Conferencing

100

Telemetry

Web Browsing REAL TIME Instant Messaging Voice Telephony

10

eMail

Meter Reading

10
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0.1

0.01

Delay (s)
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3G Mobile Terminals
Feature Phone:
Voice Centric Design and Features Limited WAP-Browsing and Text Entry Capabilities

Smart Phone:
Voice and Data Full-Blown WAP-Browsing Basic PDA-Like Capabilities

Multimedia Phone:
Color Video and Rich Media Capabilities

PDA:
Data Centric Basic Voice Support
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PC Card:
For Laptops

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Wireless Architecture Today
• Proprietary
Slower rate of innovation and higher costs

• Hierarchical
Bottlenecks

Hosted App.

• Circuit—switched
Inefficient use of bandwidth

IN IP MSC Circuit Backbone PSTN
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Mobile Wireless Internet Architecture in the Future
• Open interfaces
Service and transport independence Services ecosystem
Third-Party Hosted Applications Applications

IN

• Distributed
Scalable

Open IP Standards
PSTN

• Packet based
Bandwidth efficient

• Options for integrated services

IP

Enterprise

Internet

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The Road to IP 1st Phase: Circuit Data Services

0 Mos Circuit Packet

BSS routes the call to the MSC MSC recognizes the call as data and initiates a V.110 call setup to the PSTN -SS7 network MSC packs the raw asynchronous data into the 64K ISDN data channel Call is routed to Cisco AS5300 or AS5800 universal access servers capable of terminating the V.110 call

Circuit Network
MSC Circuit Switch

• • •

Traffic

Voice Data BSC

WAP SC2200 SS7 Gateway Gateway
PSTN/ISDN/ SS7 IP Core Network

WAP/WEB Content and Services

Corp Intranet

Circ. Data Circ. Data Voice Voice 2G 2G

Value Chain
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AS5x00 Access Pool w/ V.110

Internet

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The Road to IP 2nd Phase: Packet Data Services
0-6 Mos Circuit Packet

Circuit Network
MSC Circuit Switch

Higher speed interfaces and “always-on” data services, and enable operators to charge by packet instead of connect time A PCU (Packet Control Unit) in the BSC converts data traffic to packets and steers it to the GPRS (in GSM networks) or the PDSN (in CDMA systems) where it accesses the packet network

Traffic
IN Services

Voice Data BSC

Enabling Data Services
Internal IP Network Network Feature Server

PDSN/GPRS VPN VPN Data Data Voice Voice 2G 2G/2.5G DHCP Server DHCP Server Management Management (SNMP) (SNMP)
Charging Charging Gateway Function Gateway Function

Security Security Server (RADIUS) Server (RADIUS)

Value Chain
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DNS Server DNS Server

Application Application Server Server
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The Road to IP 3rd Phase: Integrated Voice/Data Services
12-18 Mos Circuit Packet

Circuit Network
MSC Circuit Switch

Traffic
IN Services R99 Voice RNC

Circuit/ Signaling Gateway

Mobility Manager

Feature Server(s)

IP Core
04.08 Proxy

Call Agent PDSN/GSN Packet Gateway

Voice (Legacy Features) Multimedia Multimedia
Unified Unified Communications Communications

Packet Data

BSC Access Node

RAN

Circuit Voice

Packet Network (Internet)

Network Feature Servers

Packet Voice Packet Voice VPN VPN Data Data Voice Voice 2G 2G/2.5G

• •

Voice and data are integrated in the RAN The RNC terminates circuit voice in legacy MSC or in 04.08 proxy in the IP core, with call control and transport occurring in the packet core Circuit and packet cores can talk to the SS7 network and intelligent network platforms to terminate calls to and from the PSTN
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3G •

Value Chain
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The Road to IP 4th Phase: True Peer-To-Peer Network
18-30 Mos Circuit Packet

Circuit Network
MSC Circuit Switch

Traffic

Circuit/ Signaling Gateway

Feature Server(s) PDSN/GPRS

Packet Network (Internet)

IN Services Voice (Legacy Features) Multimedia Multimedia
Unified Unified Communications Communications

Data + Packet Voice

RNC

IP Core
Mobility Manager

Packet Gateway

Network Feature Servers

BSC

Call Agent

Packet Voice Packet Voice VPN VPN Data Data Voice Voice 2G 2G/2.5G 3G •
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Value Chain

True peer to peer architecture—all traditional MSC services offered by distributed servers in the IP core: Call Agent (CA), Mobility Control Function (MCF), Bearer Path Gateway (BP-GW), Media Gateway Controller (MGC), PSTN GW, SS7 GW, and Feature Servers (FS) HLR/VLR functions will be provided by a Subscriber DataBase (SDB)
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Common IP Architecture
Services
Unified Unified Communications Communications

Voice Voice Features Features

eCommerce eCommerce

Web Web Hosting Hosting

Location Location Services Services

Other Feature Other Feature Servers Servers

Core Network
Network Mgt

Core IP
Mobility Management Call Agent Radio Network Controller

Internet PTSN

Access Network(s)

Access Control
cdmaOne cdmaOne UMTS UMTS

Wireline Wireline

GSM GSM

CDMA2000 CDMA2000

TDMA TDMA

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References
• “Mobile IP: The Internet Unplugged”, Solomon, James D., Prentice Hall, 1998 • “Mobile and Wireless Networks”, Black, Uyless, Prentice Hall, 1999 • Cisco IOS Mobile IP:
http://www.cisco.com/warp/public/cc/ cisco/mkt/ios/rel/120/prodlit/817_pb.htm

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Mobile Wireless Internet Association

www.mwf.org
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Wireless LAN Overview

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IEEE 802.11 Standard
• IEEE 802.11 became a standard in July 1997 • IEEE 802.11B became a standard in September 1999 • Three technologies defined:
FHSS—1 Mbps and 2 Mbps DSSS—2 Mbps and 11Mb Infrared

• 802.11 defines a high-performance radio • 802.11 promises true vendor interoperability (over the air)
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IEEE 802.11 Standard

• 802.11 incorporates many ARLAN features
Power management Active scanning Registering (association) with AP Concept of roaming

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Customer WLAN Requirements

Market Requirement
Secure

Proof Points
Up to 128 Bit Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) Must Integrate with Existing LAN Management Infrastructure Roaming to Extend the Network; Deployment in Large Enterprise Facilities 802.11(b); FCC-Certified

Manageable Scalable

Standards-Based

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IEEE 802.11 Impact
• Enables BASIC interoperability over the air
DS adapters from different vendors can interact FH adapters from different vendors can interact

• System level interoperability requires more...
Vendor co-operation Higher level protocol agreement
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802.11b—Higher Datarate

• With the need for higher datarate, 802.11 decided to add more specifications • Ratified in September, 1999 an 11 MB specification was ratified • Direct sequence only • Utilizing CCK modulation

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Radio Technology
• Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum (DSSS)
900 MHz, 2.4 GHz One piece PCMCIA radio product 1, 2, 5.5 and 11 MB 25 mile bridge links Fully compliant 802.11 at all speeds
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• Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum (FHSS)
2.4 GHz frequency One piece PCMCIA radio product Fully compliant 802.11 1 and 2 MB

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Security

• 128-bit (strong encryption) 802.11 optional Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP) • Inherent security of spread spectrum • User authorization using 802.1X

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ISM Unlicensed Frequency Bands
Short Wave Radio FM Broadcast Infrared Wireless LAN AM Broadcast Television Audio Cellular (840 MHz) NPCS (1.9 GHz)

Extremely Very Low Medium High Very Ultra Super Infrared Visible Ultra- X-Rays Low Low High High High Light violet

902–928 MHz 26 MHz

2.4–2.4835 GHz 83.5 MHz (IEEE 802.11)

5 GHz (IEEE 802.11) HyperLAN HyperLAN2

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Global RF Regulations

900 MHz and 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Usage 2.4 GHz Unlicensed Usage
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900 MHz vs. 2.4 GHz vs. 5GHz

900 MHz

2.4 GHz
Global Market IEEE 802.11 Higher Data Rates (10+ Mbps)

5 GHz
Global Market IEEE 802.11 Higher Data Rates (20+ Mbps) Much Less Range than 900 or 2.4 GHz Higher Cost RF Components Large Antenna Required

PROs

Greater Range than 2.4 GHz (for In- Building LANs)

CONs

Maximum Data Rate 1 Mbps Limited Bandwidth Crowded Band

Less Range than 900 MHz (for In-Building LANs)

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What’s the Difference?

• Frequency hopping
Multipath interference tolerance

• Direct sequence
Throughput Range

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Direct Sequence Modulation
• Each data bit becomes a string of chips (chipping sequence) transmitted in parallel across a wide frequency range • Minimum chip rate per the FCC is 10; Aironet uses 11 for 1 and 2 MB data rates
If the data bit was: 1001 Chipping code is: 1=00110011011 Transmitted data would be: 00110011011 1
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0=11001100100

11001100100 0

11001100100 0

0110011011 1
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FH vs. DS: A Summary on Interference Handling
Frequency Hopping
2.4835 GHz 2.4835 GHz

Direct Sequence Channel 1
3

Frequency

Frequency

Channel 2

2.4 GHz

2.4 GHz

2

Channel 3

Time • • FH system hops around interference Lost packets are re-transmitted on next hop • • Data may be decoded from redundant bits Can move to an alternate channel to avoid interference
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Direct Sequence vs. Frequency Hopping (802.11)

DS
Faster—Up to 11 Mbps

FH
Multipath Resistant

PROs

Greater Range Multimedia Support

CONs

Slower—2 Mbps Max Limited Range

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Data Rates
• The “over-the-air” data rate at a given range and given similar implementations will favor DSSS by a factor of 2 to 1 • A 1 Mbps DSSS system should have twice the range of a 1 Mbps FHSS • 2 Mbps DSSS system will offer comparable range to 1 Mbps FHSS technology • For these reasons, the data rate advantage goes to DSSS
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RANGE—FH vs DS

• Because of this processing gain, the DSSS technology will have more range than FHSS at a given data rate

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Access Point Coverage
2 Mbps FHSS
175 ft Radius

2 Mbps DSSS 1 Mbps FHSS
350 ft Radius

5.5 Mbps DSSS
175 ft Radius

11 Mbps DSSS
125 ft Radius
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Wireless LAN Compatibility Association

www.wi-fi.org WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance)

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Other Pointers

• http://standards.ieee.org/getieee802/ (standards are available after 6 months for free) • http://www/warp/public/44/jump/ wireless.shtml

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Summary

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Cisco Wireless at a Glance

Campus
Wireless LAN

Fixed
Broadband

Mobile
2G Cellular 3G Cellular

802.11 Aironet/Radiata

MMDS Clarity

GSM/GPRS CDMA/PDSN GSM Bldg JetCell

UMTS CDMA 2000 IP RAN IPMobile CDMA Bldg EXIO

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Cisco’s Wireless Products—Overview
Enterprise Cellular Voice/Data Enterprise Cellular Voice/Data
GSM Port PBX T GSM Mobility Controller RF RF Link Link

Fixed Wireless Fixed Wireless MMDS/U-NII MMDS/U-NII Access Network Access Network

Internet Service Provider Core Voice/Data Network

PSTN

B a 100 Baset s LAN

IP IP N T RF Link RF Link

GSM Port Enterprise OAM Browser H.323 GW AS5300 2600/VG200

GPRS Access Network
IP IPVPN

Mobile Wireless

Enterprise Enterprise Wireless Data Wireless Data (WLAN) (WLAN)

Features: Features:
• End-to-end QOS • End-to-end QOS • Encryption • Encryption • Secured VPN • Secured VPN • Real-time billing • Real-time billing • End-to-end provisioning • End-to-end provisioning • IP unified communications • IP unified communications
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Residential

Branch Office

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Interesting URLs

• U.S. Office of Spectrum Management http://www.ntia.doc.gov/osm • ITU—http://www.itu.int/brfreqalloc/

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Other Networker’s Presentations
• WMT-210 Deploying and Managing Wireless LAN • WMT-230 Deploying Fixed Wireless Wide Area Networks • WMT-240 Deploying Mobile Wireless Application and Services • WMT-241 Deploying Packet Data Services in Mobile Wireless Networks • WMT-310 Troubleshooting Wireless LANs • RST-110 Introduction to IP Mobility
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Questions?

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Introduction to Wireless Technology
Session WMT-101

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Please Complete Your Evaluation Form
Session WMT-101

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