As per requirement for the course of


Submitted By:

Gaurav Uppal
Roll No.- 31101067
Guided By;

Mr. Rajiv Talwar

Institute of Management Technology




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This is to certify that project study titled ” EMERGING HR TRENDS IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY” is an original piece of work of the student and is being submitted in partial fulfillment for the award of the Master’s Degree in Business Administration of IMT(Ghaziabad). This report has not been submitted earlier either to this university or to any other

Mr. Rajiv Talwar

Gaurav Uppal

The Indian IT industry has also shown an incredible growth. they have to be handled with due care and sensitivity. Hence. workers and executives. It has been found that old HR management skills are not effectively encouraging and motivating IT professionals. This study is an attempt to measure the Emerging HR Trends in Indian IT Industry. conscience and plan is the most valuable resource. Material and Machines are inert factors. But due to sudden arrival of computer and allied technologies and increase in their applications in almost every area of industry and service sector. Secondly. Every employee has to be properly handled and motivated to meet the organisational targets. Firstly the through use of available literature and published material was done. But At the same time human elements are most difficult to be inspired. controlled and motivated. As has been found universally that user/customer/ employees are the best Judges about the efficacy of product/services or HR . the IT industry has grown to an extent. Money. due to higher level of education and training standards the emp0loyees. There is a valid reason for the same. since long the organisations are putting enough labour on managing their labour i.-5- PREFACE Human are the main resource for any service oriented organization and managing human resource is key for the success of every services enterprise Man with his ability to feel. think.e. The IT profession requires highest level of innovation and creative skills. most of IT companies are catering to other world organisations than to local clients. Though.

-6management techniques. Hence. . a structured questionnaire has been administered to randomly selected employees of IT Industry.

Chapter-6 summaries the subject matter and enlists conclusion of the results of this project study. Chapter-2 lists the scenario of HR (Human Resource) management in the Information Technology (IT) industry. objectives of the study and research methodology followed. I hope. Chapter-4 contains the details about newer compensation methods being used in the IT industry India and outside India. the results of the study may be some help to the decision makers in the Indian IT Industry. Then efficacy of these compensation methods in Indian context has been discussed. Chapter-5 is a chapter which shows the opinion analysis of the employees working in Indian IT industry regarding the Emerging HR Trends in IT industry and overall assessment of HR management in Indian IT Industry..-7CHAPTERS SYNOPSIS Chapter-1 provides us some background about the subject matter. . Chapter-3 enlists number of peculiar problems being faced by the Indian IT professionals and suggestions to overcome these problems.

who provided me an insight into the working of Indian IT industry and that information was of immense help to complete this project report. guidance and help in the conduction of this study. A N Gupta. without which this project may not have seen the light of day. who was very kind and helpful and encouraged me to undertake this project study. Polaris (Sr. I feel highly obliged to Mr. Rajiv Talwar. It is because of him that this project study could be completed.-8- ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I am grateful to my Project Guide Mr. All the respondents also deserve my gratitude who were kind enough to spare their valuable time in answering my questionnaires and provided valuable suggestions. Gaurav Uppal . Mgr HR). I am also very much thankful to all my colleagues who were kind enough to provide me lot of data.

think. will demand high motivational level of its employees. This is possible only development of the by maintaining enthusiasm and motivation of the employees. Money. The most successful business companies.1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Success of every business enterprise depends on its human resource.2 Growth of an enterprise is vital for the economic the country.3 The basic aim of human policies is the genuine concern for the people. but man with his ability to feel. 1. personal and positive approach in the total perspective of organisational interest.0 HRD MANAGEMENT IN IT INDUSTRY 1. 1. The upcoming competition in India. which is vital for carrying out the operations in most efficient manner. all over the world have designed their policies to achieve higher productivity by using potentiality and strength of people.0. material and machines are inert factors.0. At the same time human elements are most difficult to be inspired.-9- CHAPTER . controlled and motivated. Proper design of human policies is based on the higher responsibilities.0. The world's best companies . conscience and plan is the most valuable resource.

Proper promotional avenues must also be created so Thus. 1. Proper recruitment helps the line managers to work most effectively in accomplishing the primary objective of the enterprise.5 The human resource management is very crucial in respect of information technology services than other manufacturing or marketing enterprises. Human resources are capable of enlargement i.10 have established their strength with their people.e.0. would enable the organisation to hire and retain the services of the best brains in the market. selection. as to motivate employees to peak performance. This also help in building up their spirit.4 Finding the right man for the job and developing him into a valuable resource is an indispensable requirement of every organisation. training. selection and training. functions such as manpower planning personnel recruitment. every manager is expected to pay proper attention to recruitment. In order to harness the human energies in the service or organisational goals.. morale and espirit-de-cops which becomes strength of the company. when carried out properly. 1. development activities in an organisation. The employees identify themselves with the company they are working for. The IT services are technical in nature .0. The culture of excellence thus nurtured contribute to growth with stability and continuous improvement in productivity. capable of providing an output that is greater than the sum of the inputs.

11 and at every stage the human touch is involved. Hence it is well motivated and devoted manpower which is very much essential for the success of IT industry. ..

The role of the HR manager must parallel the needs of his changing organization. the HR professional. but was frequently viewed as a road block by much of the rest of the organization. resilient. ROLE OF HR MANAGERS And Some industry commentators call the Human Resources function the last bastion of bureaucracy.2 Strategic Partner:-In today’s organizations.. HR managers need to think of themselves as strategic partners. and customer-centered. as an example—much of the HR role is transforming itself. policing arm of executive management. the HR person contributes to the development of and the accomplishment of the organization-wide business plan and objectives. In this role. is a strategic partner. Traditionally. In this role.12 1. While some need for this role occasionally remains you would no want every manager putting his own spin on a sexual harassment policy. Successful organizations are becoming more adaptable. The HR business objectives are established to support the attainment of the overall plan and objectives.1 1. the HR professional served executive agendas well. to guarantee their viability and ability to contribute. an employee sponsor or advocate.1.1. Within this environment. The tactical HR representative is deeply knowledgeable . who is considered necessary by line managers.1. 1. quick to change direction. and a change mentor. the role of the Human Resource professional in many organizations has been to serve as the systematizing.

and commitment to serve customers well.5 Change Champion:-The constant evaluation of the effectiveness of the organization results in the need for the HR professional to frequently champion change. contributing. and employee development. This strategic partnership impacts HR services such as the design of work positions. communication. the HR manager provides employee development opportunities.13 about the design of work systems in which people succeed and contribute. concern. and happy. the HR manager plays an integral role in organizational success via his knowledge about and advocacy of people. due process approaches to problem solving. and strategic pay. In this role.1. and empowerment through responsibility build employee ownership of the enterprise. reward.1. gain sharing and profit-sharing strategies. Fostering effective methods of goal setting. 1.3 Employee Advocate:-As an employee sponsor or advocate. performance development and appraisal systems.. The HR professional helps establish the organizational culture and climate in which people have the competency. employee assistance programs. and regularly scheduled communication opportunities. recognition. 1. career and succession planning. This advocacy includes expertise in how to create a work environment in which people will choose to be motivated. Both knowledge about and the ability to execute successful change strategies make the HR professional . organization development interventions. hiring.

. values. he champions the identification of the organizational mission. In Walt Disney. 87 per cent of all Fortune 500 companies use parallel teams and about 100 per cent of all companies use project teams. The main role of leadership was seen as creating a participatory process for employee involvement.2. Research shows that six out of every 10 employees like to work in teams.2.2 Story telling and appreciative enquiry are emerging as a new dimension in positive motivation.2 1. and action plans. Finally. This is a marked shift to build effective teams.14 exceptionally valued. to build collective wisdom. To promote the overall success of his organization. He also sponsors change in other departments and in work practices. vision. he helps determine the measures that will tell his organization how well it is succeeding in all of this. 1. 1. telling success stories is one of the . goals. Knowing how to link change to the strategic needs of the organization will minimize employee dissatisfaction and resistance to change.1 LEADERSHIP AND EMPLOYEE INVOLVEMENT. Finding out what's wrong seems to be the trend. Control has given way to collaboration and the old paradigm of promoting competition and motivating through incentives shifted to creating co-operation and oneness amongst people. The HR professional contributes to the organization by constantly assessing the effectiveness of the HR function.

Leaders in Disney concentrate on quality. She added that only a few organisations really train people to make them a success. Leaders must realise that talent is equal to brand". Leaders according to him are living individuals. .2. Only those companies will succeed who create a cause. His new theory is EVP which means "Employee Value Proposition". they become assets when you train them to increase their knowledge and skills". not a business.3 hours per person per year on training.3 Rosabeth Moss Kanter said. values and involvement. " Human beings are good raw material. feel and touch. Tom Peters said. a pilot or an athlete on the other hand spends 10-15 times more on training. Mr Peters pointed out how most organisations are not serious about developing people.4 He also stated that the HRD department should be renamed TDFD (Talent Development Fanatic Department) and wealth for this new regime will flow from innovation. " We have transitioned from an asset-based economy to a talent-based economy. A surgeon. 1. only those employees will succeed who are "certified radical".2. whom people can smell. Quoting Gary Hamel he said. 1.. Their passion for work must be infectious. The new definition of lay-off is untalented go talented stay. not organisation. Seconding this. They spend on an average 26.15 important methods used to remind people of greatness and goodness of the organisation. Speaking in the plenary sessions.

2. In a Forbes Magazine study of around 100 companies from '17 to '87.     People try to resist or deny change They adapt. Hewlett Packard. only 39 companies were found to survive.Organisations like Ford Motor.7 E-Learning :. Intel and IBM are using e-learning to increase the knowledge of their people. Forgetting tradition must can devalue existing strengths. It was found that most change processes go through four fundamental stages.16 1. 69 are dead and only 31 are alive.6 A number of presentations revealed that leaders who initiate change must do so with one foot in the future and the other planted in past values. Companies like Fordstar even manage time differences between . participate in the change They attempt to add value The culmination or formation of a new status-quo 1. The overriding concern seems to be to downsize.5 Another aspect of leadership if the decision to introduce fun in the work place. Management of Change:-Research proves that many change models don't consider the human experience during change. deeper and longer lasting relationships. The success of a change process depends on the skill of the facilitator to create a participatory process to enlist the support of people and address the issue of grief. 1.2. Research shows that this reduces absenteeism and builds stronger.2. It appears out of every 100 Fortune companies in the last decade..

3.1 The Innovative Practices in Human Resources study uncovered 12 practices that are reducing HR costs and improving service quality to employees. and enable their departments to advance from transactional organizations to strategic partners in the business. William Taylor. Web-centric universities are becoming the order of the day. said. Stanford. 1.2.. "There is no going back from back from dotcoms". have started emphasizing elearning to attract a worldwide audience. demos. core values. modular and has a huge reach. The advantages of e-learning are many: It is self-paced. flexible. less expensive. He was of the opinion that there is a merger taking place between computers and human beings. product details. . lower overhead costs. MIT. chats. editor and managing partner of the Fast Pace magazine.17 countries while conducting virtual class rooms. presentations to communicate new concepts.8 CEO's are talking to their people about new ideas and enlisting their support through forums and message boards. 1.9 Universities like Cornell. etc. issues of governance and corporate communities. This is changing the way people behave and work. 1. Key findings from this research included the need for HR managers to streamline processes.2.3 INOVATIVE PRACTICES IN HR 1.

4 1.2              Practices and technologies include: Internet and intranet employee services Strategic human resources Centralized HR departments and call centers 360-degree performance appraisals HRIS systems Employee self-service Voice response systems (VRUs) Resume scanning and Internet recruitment Kiosks Automated time and attendance systems Team policies and development Outsourcing Business process reengineering (BPR) 1. There is much more concentration and focus today on the strategic outcomes of human resource activity than ever before.18 1.4. .1 LINKING PAY TO PERFORMANCE Most Human Resource professionals are familiar with the concept of strategy. The area of compensation is no exception.3..

at appraisal time.3 In experience.5 Second.. managers are required to evaluate the performance of their staff. 1. There is far more interest in more closely linking the reward mechanisms to the achievement of corporate objectives. It means sitting down and trying to reconstruct what each staff member did. several factors get in the way of this happening.4. Unfortunately.19 1. the annual salary change is usually a small percentage.4. which is usually toward the end of the year. In other words. most performance appraisal systems are after-the-fact appraisals. Giving the better performer 2% more than the cost of living has little motivation or recognition attached to is too much hassle. However. First. capturing it in a non- . So everybody gets the same increase. 1. So many managers don't make that distinction . Similarly giving the poor performers 2% less than the cost of living increase is not that much of a penalty. 1. Motivation for superior performance is the goal.2 Pay for performance systems are becoming more and more popular as senior managers reach beyond the use of compensation systems to deliver pay. the link between individual performance and pay is frequently nonexistent "merit" pay is a hollow concept in this regard.4 A merit system demands that managers be willing to make distinctions in merit increases based on performance.4.4. Such a system requires solid grounding in a clear and documented link between performance and salary increases. most organizations will profess to a "pay-for-performance" philosophy as a keystone of their compensation system.

8 They are adopting a system of annual incentive bonuses linked directly to the achievement of corporate and individual objectives in three specific areas. Sound like a familiar pattern? It is a process that repeats itself year after year. and has a great deal to do with building managerial and individual competence. cost containment and behavioral changes. 1. Besides.20 threatening way. making a merit increase recommendation. 1.4. "What is my rating and how much do I get?" is a constant theme in merit systems where salary decisions are tied so closely with the appraisal process. 1. Although employees profess to want to "know where they stand" they often take issue with the appraisal. are turning away from the merit system and toward an annual incentive system.. Organizations that are the best and want to separate themselves from the rest. they wait until the penny literally "drops". is qualitative in nature. which is gaining in importance. . they don't listen to the evaluation.4.6 The end result is usually a lot of avoidance behavior. The first two areas are quantitative and the third area. communicating the evaluation without a fuss and finally. The areas are corporate revenues and gains.7 You might well ask is there any way out of this mess? The answer is fortunately yes.4. particularly for middle and upper management positions but increasingly for teams and individuals lower down in the organization as well. Managers avoid the appraisal process like the plague.

service.4.9 Why Is This Transition Occurring? :-Well. 1. Human resource and organizational systems are also needed to capitalize on and thrive in this rapidly changing work environment. Technology initiatives within the CSU have resulted in significant advances and improved technical capabilities and efficiency. public/taxpayer expectations and the demands for quality education. access.2 In 1991. there are many challenges facing businesses today and these challenges are driving them to find better ways of linking pay and performance to the achievement of corporate results.5. Even though funding levels for higher education have been cut in recent years. the CSU began a study to look at alternative work and job design approaches to meet these challenges. The study focused on the information technology community and how work processes and activities could be better organized to remove artificial barriers and improve organizational effectiveness.21 1..5. 1. the study focused on developing a job design approach that could adapt to changing skill requirements and that would promote the continuous ." Secondly.1 CHANGING JOB DESIGN IN IT COMMUNITY The California State University (CSU) system is being challenged to meet increasing demands for educational and administrative services through the innovative use of technology and human resource systems. a process often associated with the term "reengineering. and accountability have grown.5 1..

Finally.5. and the CSU anticipates entering into negotiations with its employee representatives in the near future. A new job design approach that was proposed as a result of the study is presented. other supporting systems are described for an integrated human resources approach. The development phase of the project has been completed. and changing work place demands and priorities.3 This article begins by identifying several trends that led to the study..5. 1. 1.4 Three trends have had a direct impact on the development of a strategic job design approach for the information technology community at the CSU: (a) diversification and convergence of technology. 1. The goal of improved organizational effectiveness and an orientation towards reengineering and skills guided the development of the proposed job design approach. then describes the overall project within the context of an organizational effectiveness equation.5. This has resulted in widely .5 The technology demands within higher education lead to a complex and dynamic computing environment. including a new classification structure and competency dimensions and measures for defining and evaluating positions. increased demand for educational access and (b) changes in instructional delivery methods.22 acquisition of skills for knowledge-based employees in information technology. Academic and administrative computing strategies tend to be at cross-purposes in terms of defining systems requirements.

however.6 In terms of educational trends. many institutions offer distance learning using various transmission media and are incorporating instructional technology into curriculum development. Two key issues are identified: (1) Economics. research. . and decision-support purposes. Students expect guaranteed access to technology and to research databases. Data.. campus systems are becoming more integrated.[2] Workplace trends.23 diverse systems and technology within and across the CSU's twenty campuses. voice.[1] Library and computing functions are becoming increasingly interdependent in "an infrastructure of scholarly communication" within higher education. Reductions in staff are occurring at the same time as transaction volume and service expectations are growing. and video technologies continue to be combined in more interactive and userfriendly formats. Networking and desktop computing have removed traditional boundaries for information access.5. well represent the outlook for the CSU. as data are shared across multiple platforms on a network "highway" that is linked to external information sources. and this access has become an issue of social responsibility. There is increasing pressure to constrain administrative costs within the "labor intensive cost structure" that exists in higher education. as presented in Sustaining Excellence in the 21st Century: A Vision and Strategies for College and University Administration. Increasingly. 1.

With fewer people and greater access to information. educational. To quote Thomas P.24 (2) Decentralization of responsibility. one job" to the reality of a range of skills that have to apply to a number of different kinds of professions." (4) ]he influx of new technology and applications has created a demand for continual learning and adaptation. maintaining skills to keep pace with changing technology was identified as a critical goal. Knowledge requirements are expanding to encompass a greater breadth of technologies and subject expertise. to more generalized job responsibilities focused on outcome and greater participation on cross-functional teams (3) Another central workplace trend is the "earning and learning" environment described by the U. as well as including processoriented capabilities such as communication and negotiation skills. Foley..S. 1. More to the point. Department of Labor in its Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS) report. workers must possess a skill that they continually upgrade just to keep pace in the professions they choose. Secretary of the Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Industry:"We've changed from the idea of "one skill. organizations are moving responsibility for decision-making downward to the point of service.7 The implications of these technological .5. Work organization is shifting away from job specialization and a task/procedure orientation. and workplace trends point directly to the need to reengineer . Due to the CSU's relatively stable workforce.

Based on these trends and overall organizational goals. and processes. work design.25 organizational structures. .. two key objectives were established for a new job design approach for the CSU: flexibility and skill development. Fundamentally. each campus needs the flexibility to achieve its goals by distributing work assignments in a way that optimizes its available skill mix and promotes individual skill development and initiative.

To suggest the measures to fill the gaps and improve motivation level of employees and HR management in IT industry. 3.1 OBJECTIVES OF STUDY Following were the objectives of the study:1. To measure the perceptions of IT sector employees in respect of application of HRD in their organisation.26 - 1.6. To find out lacking areas regarding the HRD in IT sector. . To review literature and research done in this area.. To enlist emerging HR trends in Indian IT Industry 2.6 1. 5. 4.

5 Finally. The convenient random sampling technique was used for the selection of the respondents.7 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 1.3 Firstly. Then the questionnaire was modified accordingly. 1. analyzed and interpreted to meet the required needs of this project study and presented in Report form.27 1. The questionnaire was mainly based on objective type close-ended question. The final questionnaire was administered in person to the extent possible and through mail if needed. All published and unpublished available on the subject matter was consulted. the survey was undertaken. The 100 respondents were selected among the executives and staff working in various IT organizations. 1.7. Interview and discussions were held with the various executive/ Managers/ staff employed in IT sector. Primary and secondary data available with these organisations was also used for this project study. 1.7. The HRD functions/ activities being undertaken in different IT organisations were also studied.2 In order to measure the employees perceptions of emerging HR trends in different IT organisation.7. the pilot survey on ten randomly selected respondents was undertaken. . The survey was based on structured questionnaire. but few open ended questions were also included. the results of the survey has been presented in Tabular form.1 The study was exploratory in nature. if desired..

This is particularly true of the professional from Software Industry. 2. 2. on the move all the time. enhance their skills.1 The web is altering the HRD landscape beyond recognition.3 The employees are like gypsies. The key to corporate success in the fast changing information era is ‘thinking on your knees’. The value addition will then happen for both the employee as well as the employer resulting in a win-win situation.e. They camp at some location.0..0 HR IT SCENARIO 2. how and when and not just what.2 What is this thinking on your knees? Normally as the HR person you know what the situation is and operate from there. responsibility levels and move on.28 - CHAPTER -2 HR TRENDS IN IT INDUSTRY 2. The question is not about what else you can do to retain an employee but it is about making him productive.0. while he is with you. Opportunities are plenty and the next job opening is only a mouse click away. This means that the new strategy calls for the recognition that no employee is expected to be permanently with you. At this point you operate on your knee i. A repositioning is required in your decision process with questions like why. with far more dynamism and with a lot more effectiveness than thinking on your feet.0. Normal .

must be obviously followed by changes. they must make recruiting.1. as the organisation’s major thrust area.1..29 tenure in any organisation is likely to be between two to three years.2 Organisations recognize that that their ability to gather. . Out thinking the competition at electronic speed is the key to winning corporate battles. Successful business organisations have no choice but to promote the performers and let non-performers go.1 2.1. 2. But ‘change is the only Constant’ for guaranteed success. manage. 2. Competent people deliver the rest don’t matter.1 INNOVATION IS THE KEY Information technology and Internet have changed several equations. analyse. The corporate success is sum total of entrepreneurship practiced by your staff.2 The key to employee longevity :-Today’s most successful organisations recognize that to fuel growth and sustain a competitive advantage. 2.1. distribute information and transform themselves into a learning organisation will provide continuity and ensure for them their leadership role. 2. Learning.3 Points to note: The following points are important and must be properly understood. hiring and retaining top talent. Systematic organizational learning should be central corporate philosophy. Reaching out to the world market place is no more the challenge in achieving corporate victories. which may not necessarily be welcomed by veterans in the organisation.

With added pressures of .6 Job responsibilities must facilitate personal development and learning should be institutionalized with well-established knowledge bases. Encourage the group to work together as a team.1. Corporate goals must factor in individual career growth and personal growth must be tied to corporate growth and vice versa 2. Capturing experience and making it available ‘corporate wide’ should be a permanent feature of an organizations. focus and adapt.5 • • New Paradigms In HR Business plans must consider HR issues. 2.1 The world’s most popular people resource base seems to be falling short of numbers to meet its own demands. • Establishing a sense of urgency well ahead of the problem surfacing. • Plan and create short-term win targets – reward employees and recognise achievers. • Organisations need to create awareness amongst their employees about their vision and then empower them to act on that vision.. • Form inter-functional core group.1.2. • Consolidate improvements through a knowledge base driven system and institutionalise proven new methodologies. not just being expected to change.2 WAR FOR TALENT 2.30 • People have a great deal of informational knowledge to contribute to the organisation. • • People are responsible People desire opportunities to effect change. 2.

2. If that sounds like too many people. To meet the overall software and services (domestic and export) target of $87 billion by 2008.000.2 million knowledge workers for its domestic needs.4 Ironically.million-strong IT workforce. we can easily meet this demand. has to increase about twice.2 Country: India. if we consider the scarcity of IT manpower across the world. Plug in English-speaking and low labor costs. the country which has been such a popular people resource for the IT industry the world over.2. Take a look at the US.2. 2. already with a 10. "IT-enabled services is a wonderful .6 million new jobs in the next one year.000 additional manpower. Experts insist that since this sector does not require very highly skilled manpower. think again. MIT says IT-enabled services and ebusiness will need 12. can India’s IT industry achieve its software and services revenue target of $87 billion by 2008? 2.3 Japan is no different and estimates close to a million new jobs. and suddenly we can envision $50-billion software exports target by the end of this decade. majority of the demand for manpower will be in the area of IT-enabled services..00.000 (December 2004). Their choice destination—India. according to the Nasscom-McKinsey report. not just in quantity but in quality as well.70. Germany is looking for 20. which stands at 12.2.31 migration and attrition. Population: 1 billion-plus. which needs to fill 1. While Nasscom puts the requirement at 11.5 According to industry estimates. 2. Not impossible. is struggling with numbers to meet its own demand. the country will require a minimum of 2.000 workers by 2007. This implies that the present strength.2.000 IT specialists and Italy is seeking 15.00.

all you need to do is train them." 2.2 WHAT OTHERS ARE DOING .3. they need to be trained on accents and customer services. in a call center.1 • • • • • • OBSTACLES Denial (This is and long term) Misalignment (Ramping up/Ramping down) Timing Treating everyone the same Navigating the bureaucracy Demographics 2.32 opportunity for India and for such services you don’t need highly skilled professionals. For instance.3. You just need smart graduates who can speak English.1 Recruiting Signing bonus Finders Fee Alumni connections Non-techs Students Interns Retaining Retention bonus Project pay Reduct FTE/same pay Telecommuting Externs Job sharing Recognition programs Retraining Job rotation Team assignments Skill inventories Competency development Certification Restructuring Broad job descriptions Flexible compensation programs Flexible jobs Positive problemsolving spirit 2..3 4 R’s of HR in IT Table 2.

3. 11. 2. 12. retain and reward the best performers (Encourage all to be the best) 2. not seniority Involve everyone. 7. 8. 5. 2. 3. Constantly align and balance resources to meet changing needs SEARCH FOR TOMORROW Attract. 6. 10. etc.4 • • • • Quality of boss Direction of department Exposure to new technologies Confidence in the company Job security Challenging work Location Access to capital resources Caliber of co-workers Empowerment Department leadership Ability to influence department success TAKING THE LEAD See ourselves as problem-solvers Develop critical skills and competencies in ourselves.) Recruiting/retaining students Identifying tech skills in all jobs/people (Skill Inventories/assessment) Sharing staff RETENTION FACTORS 2. then others Build compensation around results not tasks. 9.33 • • • • • Pooling recruitment efforts Increasing freedom at the dept level (on-the-spot hiring.. broadbanding. 4. competencies.3.3.3 1.5 • .

3.9 PRACTICES      Focus on value Financial and human value Commitment to core strategy Linkage between culture an system Multi dimension communication . incentives  Alternatives outsourcing 2.3.3. simplify.34 • • • • Increase flexibility Reduce fixed costs Reduce administrative effort (Simplify.7 ATTRACTING      2.3.8 Recruiting sign on bonuses Relocation incentives Recruiters Reduced cycle time for hiring Campus/ job fairs / referrals/ internet RETAINING      Work environment Communication forums Telecommuting Flexible staffing Exciting projects 2. simplify) Utilize the full range of individual talents THE CRISIS  Shortage of IT workers COMPETITION 2.6 2.. profit sharing.3.6  Compensation stock options.

industry partnerships Curricula: technical skills and career skills ( teamwork and communication) 2.12 3 4 5 6 7 8 KEY SUCCESS FACTORS Understand people What they want Long term perspective’ Innovative Co ordinated approach Career development I 2. more and more companies around the world are looking towards India for outsourcing their software requirements.3.1 In the last few years.3. the spread of client-server computing in decentralised organisations involves the development of applications specific to a user's business.10 DEVELOPING    Internship programs Training programs Career development programs 2. In particular.35     Stakeholders partnerships Mutual support and collaboration ( teamwork) Risk and innovativeness Passion 2.4. The changing business environment is demanding new applications.11   LONG TERM SOLUTIONS Education.. . government.3.4 OUT SOURCING 2.

e. A rule of thumb to start and gain experience is. It is no longer just a means for reducing costs..4. keep it within the organisation.2 Outsourcing is becoming a strategy for forward thinking IS managers. all these cost and quality advantages are coupled with the use of state-of-the-art technologies.3 As a result. while maintaining high quality.36 2.6 In 2004-05 more than US$ 2500 million worth of software development work was outsourced to India (The total software exports from India during the year was US$ 4085 million).4.4. in-source.4. It should enhance and add value to the business. If IS is high cost and of low value addition. It is estimated that the quantum of . but a tool for adding value to business.4 Outsourcing is closely linked with corporate strategy. i. It has come to mean. 2. outsourcing has gradually grown beyond the traditional idea of "having a third party running the data centre".4. the Indian software companies have substantially helped to cut costs in software development projects or MIS environments. timely and adequate to assist decision making at the management level and quality and cost control at the middle and lower levels. Moreover. It enables organisations to concentrate on their core business. 2. whenever organisations around the world have outsourced to India.5 In the past few years. "any use of an outside contractor to replace or extend in-house resources". "if IS is low cost and of high value addition. consider outsourcing". 2. carry out business re-engineering and provide information that is valid. 2. This was 56% higher than outsourcing orders in 2003-04. since it must support the organisation's major initiative in using IS.

- 37 outsourcing may jump to US$ 5 billion and reach as high as US$ 10 billion by 2010 A.D.

- 38 -


3.0.1 The IT revolution is sweeping the world, particularly the western world in for nearly a decade now, creating enormous employment opportunities in this area. India joined the bandwagon well in time and smoothly though it is yet to entrench itself strongly in terms of corporate identity and significant share of global revenues in IT. 3.0.2 Our main contribution seems to be in the less glamorous areas of value addition, maintenance, Y2K, quality assurance and

customisation of existing packages. The sudden eruption of opportunities in this area left no time for development of human resources in a planned manner and also software solutions which tended to be more ad hoc than being assured of quality. 3.0.3 With the enormous opportunities for employment, entrepreneurship with low capital investment and low gestation period for turning profitable, higher returns per employee and large return on investment/EPS, sustained encouragement from government, a very large number of organisations - large, medium, small - have been established. Correspondingly a large number of training establishments and cyber cafes have come up, most of which are

- 39 in the cities and towns to cash in on the enthusiasm of the urban middle class. 3.0.4 A number of higher level courses have also been started mainly through private organisations besides the existing government (State/Central), university and autonomous institutions. There are about 500 private engineering colleges besides IITs, RECs, universities, colleges offering courses such as MCA, M.Sc., M.E., and M.Tech. In view of the apparent demand that appears to be exaggerated, most of the programmes (barring a few by government institutions and IITs) are very expensive, almost beyond the reach of a middle-class student. Yet candidates and their parents strain themselves financially to pursue the courses hoping to get an attractive job (financially) which remains a mirage by and large. The problems are further compounded by a lack of proper teaching faculty in most colleges and franchises. 3.0.5 Except in well-established institutions, job-placements are poor. Even those trained in reputed institutions find their jobs monotonous, leading to depression. Jobs offered by the software industry have demonstrated the above factors as they are able to carry out the projects with persons of any background and levels of attainment, but with a few months training either prior to employment or a short training during probation. 3.0.6 Despite these deficiencies, students prefer software jobs mainly with an eye on the pay-package and urban locations. The employee- retention period even in good companies has been shrinking and is found to be three to six months. The companies also try to devise methods to make their employees almost captive with surety bonds, bank guarantees, employee's stock option

- 40 (ESOP) and housing facilities, among others. The employees, for their part, resort to innovative methods to wriggle out of their contracts. There does not appear to be any respectable ethics even among companies as well as the employees in this type of free for all market. To go abroad and become rich has become the motive of most of the employees even if the job does not offer any intellectual satisfaction. The manufacturing and hard-core

engineering sector has also shrunk in terms of job opportunities and attractiveness. 3.0.7 Even those software professionals, who are offered good financial packages, spend their earnings on expensive lifestyles, vehicles, and credit card syndrome and find themselves disenchanted on all fronts including the intellectual front. It should also be a cause for concern to project beyond the present software boom as to what happens to all these if the opportunities decline. The scenario appears to be quite fluid with a predominant western bias in all the activities concerning software profession with scores of Indian boys getting lured and sucked into the vortices created by the opportunities in this area

3.1.1 The significant problem areas which may be contributing to the present scenario and can be addressed can be identified as given in the succeeding paragraphs. 3.1.2 Recruitment process :-Without going into the deficiencies of the present practices, the following suggestions are made to improve the process in terms of efficiency, availability of manpower and equity to all the aspirants irrespective of the fact where they got

GMAT etc. companies can ask for a video clip for subsequent interview if required. This will also ensure that there is a focus on proper training and optimal deployment of time. Interviews can also be conducted simultaneously either physically or over the phone or by video conference and selections completed. This will also avoid the unnecessary expenses for (which are high) the candidates.. Once selected and the candidate joins the organizations. iv. The selection can be conditional that he acquires certified skills in the required areas either through training in house or through approved training agencies and establishments. If it is no on-line. . or physically at regular intervals and scores are given. iii.41 educated. the periodicity can be a month or two and the validity can be for an year or so which can also be fixed based on general agreement. The various steps of the proposed approach are as follows: i. effort and finances. ii. Based on scores and preferences of the candidates (career counselling). all member organizations should adopt a code of conduct such that the candidates stays at least for a period of one year. Aptitude tests could be conducted by reputed institutes like IITs/ private organizations/HR agencies for prospective professionals preferably ``on-line'' like GRE. Small companies can form some kind of a cooperative society wherein software professionals' services can be tapped and steer clear and manpower shortage (less than critical mass levels). v. who are presently spending lot of money with a hope of employment.

Opportunities for retraining and upgrading the skills. vii. Opportunities for creative work in the first phase particularly for those who are bright.. opportunities of higher education. Opportunities to lessen the monotony and improve interpersonal relationship and mixing and group activities. The selection process can thus be continuous and commensurate with the requirements thus avoiding idle inventory. v. Make the employee more versatile with wider perspective and flexible for easy deployment in areas needing strengthening. iii. C. B. and have an aptitude and come with a good pedigree say from IITs. vii. D by any reputed management institute like IIM etc. iv. Encouraging simplicity and excellence. 3.42 vi. There can be general norms of pay packages depending on the reputation of the companies (classifying them as A. lucrative assignments and challenging projects. viii. ii. 3.3 Advantages:-The suggested processes in 4 and 5 above can be expected to have the following significant advantages: .2 Post employment care::-The companies/organizations should take adequate interest in the career development of the employee by suitable HRD approaches which should include the following: i.) with the ratio of maximum pay within reasonable and realistic limits. vi. Incentives like ESOP. Conducting effective career development programs regularly. Periodic rotation of the rolls and jobs if possible.1.1.

pedigree and background. The aptitude tests can become richer and more representative over a few years and as the question bank becomes larger and random on-line questioning can be introduced which is more objective like GRE. This may also give the manufacturing and core engineering sector jobs reasonable chance to attract willing and bright candidates. viii. iii. vi. Equitable opportunities to all aspirants irrespective of location. Proper deployment of skills optimally. GMAT . Reduces the mushrooms of training shops with inadequate faculty. Cost effective and efficient process. The process is ideally suited for candidates to plan their careers with adequate preparation in core areas. The process also enables a realistic assessments of needs and demands regularly and meeting them even at short notices. Retention can be improved. xi. Idle employment can be minimized. ii. v. iv. vii. The candidate's skills are moulded to suit the needs of the job and need not waste time. money and efforts. xii. ix.43 i.. Particularly useful for small firms which can also operate in the cooperative society mode. x.

2.2. IIMs and MNCs.44 3. It may be a good idea to have a National Test for Software Talent similar to science talent test which can be sponsored by NASSCOM and such other interested groups 3.4 Renowned organizations like IITs.. 3. . and can play a catalytic roll in streamlining the processes for an efficient HRD in this vital area of software manpower which is a national resource.2.3 The idea of forming a cooperative society by small firms may prove to be beneficial as the facilities and manpower can be shared optimally. level also and train the candidate with or without stipend in courses where he could get admission for his degree.2. While otherwise they may face the problems of lack of adequate manpower (below the critical mass level) because of less attractive pay and perks they are able to offer.Sc.2 3. This will help in decreasing the pressure on engineering education as otherwise the skills acquired by the candidate at a great cost in branches other than computer sciences are wasted and lost for good if employed by the software industry.1 LONG TERM PERSPECTIVE These tests can be conducted at the end of 10+2 level or B. 3.2 .

1. The contributions made by the company are distributed to individual employee accounts within the trust. The amount they may cash out may depend on the vesting requirements. 3.1 4. setup by the company.0 EMPLOYEE STOCK OWNWERSHIP PLAN 4.45 - CHAPTER . 4. 4.0.4 IT SECTOR COMPENASATION METHODS 4. 4.. that accepts tax deductible contributions from the company to purchase company stock 2. service. The amount of stock each individual receives may vary according to pre-established formulas based on salary. How does ESOP work? The ESOP operates through a trust. Stock Options come in two types: .0. The employees may ‘cash out’ after vesting in the program or when they leave the company. or position.1 STOCK OPTIONS Stock Options: The ‘right’ to purchase stock at a given price at some time in the future.1 Employee Stock Ownership Plan(ESOP): is a defined contribution employee benefit plan that allows employees to become owners of stock in the company they work for.2 1.

Usually the price of the option (the 'grant' price) is set to the market price of the stock at the time the option was sold. 4. If the underlying stock decreases below the 'grant' price or stays the same in value as the 'grant' price.2 • Advantages OF Merit Pay :Allows the employer to differentiate pay given to high performers. The company does not receive a tax deduction for this type of option.46 1. the option becomes more valuable. Nonqualified stock options (NSOs) in which the employee must pay income tax on the 'spread' between the value of the stock and the amount paid for the option. then the option becomes worthless.. . dependent upon the availability of funds and other constraints.2.2 How do Stock options work? An option is created that specifies that the owner of the option may 'exercise' the 'right' to purchase a company’s stock at a certain price (the 'grant' price) by a certain (expiration) date in the future.2. The company may receive a tax deduction on the 'spread'. 2.2 4. . 4.1 MERIT PAY Merit Pay is an incentive plan implemented on an institutional wide basis to give all employees an equal opportunity for consideration. regardless of funding source. Incentive stock options (ISOs) in which the employee is able to defer taxation until the shares bought with the option are sold.1. If the underlying stock increases in value. The merit increase program is implemented when funds are designated for that purpose by the institution's administration. 4.

• Allows the employer to satisfactorily reward an employee for accomplishing a task that might not be repeated (such as implementation of new systems).2 How does Gainsharing work? A Company shares productivity gains with the workforce.. Because this pay is only implemented when gains are achieved. Equal levels of production with less effort.e.47 • Allows a differentiation between individual and company performance.1 Gainsharing is a technique that compensates workers based on improvements in the company's productivity. Gains are measured and distributions are made frequently through a predetermined formula.3. 4.3 What are examples of Gainsharing formulas? . 4.3. 4. This type of pay is based on factors directly under a worker’s control (i.2 • • What are the 'Gains' that are measured? Increases in production with equal or less effort. gainsharing plans do not adversely affect company costs..3. Workers voluntarily participate in management to accept responsibility for major reforms.3. productivity or costs). GAIN SHARING 4.

. Generally this is done on an annual basis 4. However.4.3 How to Choose an Employee Stock Plan for Your Company:Many companies we encounter have a pretty good idea of what kind of employee ownership plan they want to use. but they're not sure what it might be. This article will start you down the path to choosing and implementing the plan or plans best suited to your company.4 4. 4. 4. usually based on specific needs and goals. The amount distributed to each employee may be weighted by the employee's base salary so that employees with higher base salaries receive a slightly higher amount of the shared pool of profits.4.4. sometimes they might be better served by another kind of stock plan.2 How does Profit sharing work? The company contributes a portion of its pre-tax profits to a pool that will be distributed among eligible employees. And yet others say they'd like to have an employee ownership plan.1 PROFIT SHARING Profit Sharing is an incentive based compensation program to award employees a percentage of the company's profits.48 • Calculate gain in hours: The actual hours worked minus the expected hours (for the given level of output) equals the gain in hours. .

.5. Like profit sharing and 401(k) plans.1 Let us begin by quickly reviewing the main possibilities for broadbased employee ownership. Employees do not actually buy shares in an ESOP. with the company repaying the loan. A "broad-based" plan is one in which most or all employees can participate. All of these uses have significant tax benefits for the company. most commonly. and pocket the difference. sell them on the market for $20 each. or.000 companies.5 ASSESSMENT OF PLANS FOR BROAD-BASED EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP 4.3 A stock option plan grants employees the right to buy company stock at a specified price during a specified period once the option has vested. 4. So if an employee gets an option on 100 shares at $10 and the stock price goes up to $20. 4. Over 8 million employees in over 11.49 4. the employee can "exercise" the option and buy those 100 shares at $10 each.5. participate in ESOPs. which are governed by many of the same laws. the company contributes its own shares to the plan.2 An employee stock ownership plan (ESOP) is a type of taxqualified employee benefit plan in which most or all of the assets are invested in stock of the employer. Employees gradually vest in their accounts and receive their benefits when they leave the company (although there may be distributions prior to that). contributes cash to buy its own stock (often from an existing owner). and the sellers. has the plan borrow money to buy stock. the employees. Instead.5. mostly closely held. an ESOP generally must include at least all full-time employees meeting certain age and service requirements. But if the stock .

Companies usually set up ESPPs as tax-qualified "Section 423" plans.. Frequently. however. The employees can choose among several or more choices for investments. 4. after acquiring the stock the employee can sell it for a quick profit or hold onto it for awhile.4 An employee stock purchase plan (ESPP) is a little like a stock option plan. It gives employees the chance to buy stock. Like an ESOP. Unlike stock options. a 401(k) plan is a taxqualified plan that generally must include all full-time employees meeting age and service requirements. Stock options can be given to as few or as few employees as you wish. usually through payroll deductions over a 3. employees can choose to buy stock at a discount from the lower of the price either at the beginning or the end of the ESPP offering period. almost always in public companies. 4. Many millions of employees. the discounted price built into most ESPPs means that employees can profit even if the stock price has gone down since the grant 27-month "offering period.50 price never rises above the option price. which means that almost all full-time employees with 2 years or more of service must be allowed to participate (although in practice.5. unlike an ESOP. many choose not to). are in ESPPs. Perhaps 7 to 10 million or more employees in thousands of companies." The price is usually discounted up to 15% from the market price. the employee will simply not exercise the option. and the company .5 Section 401(k) plan is a retirement plan that. is designed to provide the employee with a diversified portfolio of investments.5. As with a stock option. both public and private. presently hold stock options. which can increase the discount still further.

Cost increases were partly attributable to increased benefits mandated by state workers' compensation insurance reforms.. She began the project as an NCEO research intern and completed it for a thesis requirement at Harvard University.6. U. 401(k) plans may be combined with ESOPs (these are called "KSOPs"). Workers' compensation programs vary from state to state. Perhaps several million employees in a few thousand companies participate in plans with a heavy company stock component. insurers attempt to provide employers with an incentive to limit safety . where the company match is an ESOP contribution. company stock may be an investment choice for the employees and/or the means by which the company makes matching contributions. At the same time. but it did find that these costs declined as employee ownership plans matured. 4. employers spent over $48 billion on workers' compensation costs.9% per year in the mid-1980s.6 EMPLOYEE OWNERSHIP :COMPANIES PAY LESS FOR WORKERS' COMPENSATION COSTS 4. Leslie Hakala authored the study. the last year for which we have data.S.1 A study has found that employee ownership companies have lower workers' compensation insurance rates than comparable nonemployee ownership firms.51 may make a matching contribution.In 1989.. 4. Many people believe there has been increased fraud as well. as employer provided health care coverage has declined.2 Background:. but in most programs.6. more employees sought to cover health problems under workers' compensation. The study was unable to ascribe a specific causal relationship between employee ownership and lower workers' compensation costs. These costs grew at 16.

If the rating is better than average. we looked only at California firms. In practice. the adjustment may be very small.. These numbers are then multiplied by the manual rate to set the premium. In California. 4. This weighted experience rating now becomes the "experience modification" figure. Rates are assigned to all companies based on their industry classification. For larger firms. These rates are then adjusted for companies with a premium above a certain level according to their actual experience. The experience modification rate is set for each year based on three years of past experience. a bad record would rate higher. The ratings compare an individual firm's experience with other firms of its type." an insurance rate expressed as a percentage of every $100 of payroll. .52 problems by developing an experience rating. if it is worse. the average experience modification factor for any business classification should be 100%. The experience modification rate is determined by looking at actual experience modified by a size weighting factor. In this study. This means smaller and less risky firms are not assigned an experience modification rating. A company with a good record would have a rating under 100%. the average rating is somewhat under 100. actual experience is given a lower weight because a single incident can skew results dramatically. for smaller firms. they will go up.4 Theoretically.6. insurance premiums will be lower. employers are assigned a "manual rate. excluding the most recent year (because data are generally not yet available).

they can exercise their options that is sell them. worth a fraction of the price at which employees brought into them.53 4. and pocket the difference between the exercise price at the time of the grant.2 According to a study carried out by Nasscom . And employees brought into them. for instance.3 A year later. It's resulted in a situation where employees have been left holding NIIT options which they would have to exercise at a price of Rs 1.7. Now.7. Except for a few who have benefitted from older schemes like Infosys 1994 scheme.. neighbours and everyone else went up like a blimp.000 IT staff last year holding around 18 million ESOPs valued at roughly Rs 12. All those who happily grabbed at ESOP's issued by their companies last year.7 4.000 crore($3 billion) at February '00 prices. the great ESOPs dream is turning out to be a nightmare. Employees who were given ESOPs at the prices prevailing during the IT boom. which they would have to exercise at a price of $25. have now been left holding pieces of paper that are. all employees who were granted . 4. But all this was merely on paper. companies issued ESOPs in cartloads.593 or Silverline options. 4. Last year. there were more than 10. even at the higher prices that the grants came from. had to sit back and watch their share prices hit the roof while they waited out the lock-in period. your friends. and the current market price. the situation's something like this. At VisualSoft.1 IT COMPANIES WRITE NEW ESOP STORY Will I ever get to exercise my stock options? It's the one question haunting IT industry professionals sitting on piles of employee stock options. if you were given ESOPs in an IT company.7. in some cases.

5-3. 4. they could not benefit as the ESOP's had 1-2 year lock-in periods. and 10 in the case of Aptech.249 NA 480 Vesting Period (Yrs) 1 1.5 1 NA 3 1-2 5 1 5 Current Price (Rs) 162 41 54 72 164 1.1 10. and could not be sold. an employee who exercised his option now..2 1.485 3. Table 4.2 8.1 ESOP IN INDIAN CONTEXT No of Shares NIIT Silverline Patni HCL Infosys SSI Wipro Infosys VisualSoft Polaris (Lakh) 18. For instance.1 ESOPs HARDLY BENEFICIAL At the height of the IT euphoria in the markets. 4.5 Aug '04 Nov '04 Dec '04 Aug '04 Sep '04 Oct '04 Oct '04 Aug '04 Aug '04 Recent ESOPs Plan Exercise Plans (Rs) 1. Consequently. some companies has specified that the option had to be exercised. those employees saw their company's scrips scaling new heights.8 4. To make matters worse.5 19.5 30. and pay out the difference. sell at the current market price.6 0. this was one year in the case of Silverline.5 3.8. that is converted into shares.54 options have returned them to the company.4 Theoretically.593 425 245* 289 555 2.7. the company has terminated the ESOP scheme. in the period during which the employee cannot convert his or her option into shares. also known as the vesting period in industry jargon. would have to buy at the exercise price.532 116 120 . The lock-in period.397 6.0 5. within a specified time frame after the lockin period expired.

207 for 423 plans and 17.9.2 Multiple Plans: Many companies offer multiple e plans. which about 1.10. and multiplied that number by the average percentage of participation in the plans (34% for 423 plans and 17% for nonqualified ESPPs).9 EMPLOYEE STOCK PURCHASE PLANS (ESPPS) 4.1.400 companies offer.3% to 2.10 ESOPS AND CORPORATE GROWTH 4. many ESPP participants are also in 401(k). multiplied those numbers by the average number of employees in the companies (13. stock option.55 4. or other equity compensation plans. To estimate the number of employees covered under the plans.. Almost all companies with ESPPs are public.500 companies offer.9.1 Employee stock purchase plans (ESPPs) include both tax-qualified "423 plans. Our estimates are based on data from ShareData's Equity Compensation Trends in America (1991). 4. 4. A 2000 study by Joseph Blasi and Douglas Kruse at Rutgers Univerity found that ESOP companies grow 2. For example.4% faster . Hewitt Associates' On Employee Stock Ownership (1996). we took the total number of companies offering plans. Hence.790 for nonqualified plans). the total number of participants in all these plans is definitely not the total of the numbers in the "Number of participants" column. and many employees participate in more than one plan. especially the more recent studies." which about 2. and nonqualified plans. Hewitt Associates' Survey Findings: Employee Stock Purchase Plans (1998). and the National Association for Stock Plan Professionals' Stock Plan Design and Administration Survey (1998).

and sales per employee. The study looked at all ESOP plans set up between 1988 and 1994 for which data was available.0 5.7% per year greater than what a model of their predicted performance would have been.2 Subsequent studies by the General Accounting Office and by academics in Washington State and New York found the same relationship.10.56 than would have been expected without an ESOP for sales. CHAPTER – 5 SURVEY ANALYSIS 5. A 1987 NCEO study of 45 ESOP and 225 non-ESOP companies found that companies that combine employee ownership with a participative management style grow 8% to 11% per year faster than they would otherwise have been expected to grow based on how they had performed before these plans.10.0. employment. 4. A 1999 study for Hewitt Associates by Hamid Mehran of Northwestern University found that the returns on assets for 382 publicly traded ESOP companies was 2. And employees are the best judge of the HR policies of any organisations.3 Studies on participative management alone find a small positive impact on performance. but not nearly enough to explain the synergy between ownership and participation these other studies have found.. IT sector is fastly growing industry in .1 SURVEY BACKGROUND HR management gets best out of its employees to meet the organisation's goals. 4.

The responses given by the respondents were recorded on the questionnaire.1 RESPONDENTS PROFILE The main features of the employees randomly selected sex-wise. 5. A major characteristic of modern socio-economic development has been the increasingly dominant role of service sector . The views expressed by the respondents has been analysed in the succeeding paragraphs. A developing country like India can ill afford continued conflict ridden. What employees perceive about the emerging HR trends of the IT organisations has been measured.1 5.57 India and HR requirements of Indian IT Industry are quit different from traditional industrial sectors.1. About 100 respondents were selected by convenient random sampling technique.2 Indian IT sector is contributing a large in employment and foreign exchange. The procedure adopted for data collection was interview with the employees randomly selected from IT organisations to the extent possible and also through mail. education-wise and type of functions wise has been provided here in the succeeding paras.3 To measure the success and failures of emerging HR trends of Indian IT Industry a structured questionnaire was designed for this purpose. its HR needs must also be properly identified. So.. The questionnaire used is placed at Appendix "I".0.and IT belongs to service sector. The questionnaire included both open ended and close ended questions... . 5.0. 5. The 54 per cent of . rigid and litigation oriented Industrial Relations..

Table 5.EDUCATION-WISE (%age) Respondents' Qualification Non-Tech Graduate and Below Non-Tech Post Graduate Percentage Of Respondents 11% 23% .2 IT industry requires higher level of education standards..1.1 RESPONDENTS PROFILE .1 RESPONDENTS PROFILE SEX RATIO FEMALE 46% MALE 54% I 5.58 the respondents were Male and 46 per cent of the respondents were Female FIGURE 5.1. The education qualification wise distribution of the employees who agreed for responding to our questionnaire has been given below in Table 5. both non-technical and technical.

Only 13 percent are working in HR and Personnel Management area. 5. Hence. TOTAL 5. the HR needs of IT industry must look after the software professionals FIGURE 5.2 RESPONDENTS PROFILE NATURE OF JOB-WISE 50 40 30 20 10 0 23 18 46 Computer Hardware Computer Software 13 IT Marketing Services HR/ Personnel Mgmt at priority..2. As per Figure the IT industry is dominated by the software professionals And next computer hardware and marketing services of IT are sharing the other half.Tech/ BCA etc.2.1 Through the Question No.1. The responses have been .Tech/MCA Etc.59 B.3 34% 32% 100% In the similar fashion the job wise profile of the respondents has also been compiled and the same is tabulated below in the Figure 5.2 WHETHER HR NEEDS OF INDIAN IT INDUSTRY ARE DIFFERENT 5. M.2 of the questionnaire the respondents were asked to comment whether the HR needs of Indian IT industry are different from traditional HR Management systems. It was a direct question in Yes/NO/No comments format and IT professionals selected for survey were asked to tick one of the choices as mentioned.

4 EFFECT OF NEW COMPENSATION METHODS ) S + ‚ . Being highly educated employees are very sensitive in pride and behaviour. The majority of respondents (69%) view that HR needs of IT industry are different from old economy sector and HR managers in IT industry has to keep this into mind.3 Emerging HR TRENDS OF INDIAN IT INDUSTRY ARE DIFFERENT (%age) Respondents' Observation Yes No Can not say TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 69% 23% 08% 100% FIGURE 5.60 tabulated in Table 5. Ü / < 46% s â” Positive s« ä¾ Negativ 26% 19% 9% sÔ ¿ç No sþ ÒCan ..3. ¯ . TABLE-5.

5.3.61 5. 26% view that it has no major effect and 9 percent has replied in CAN NOT SAY. So. 5. . It has a negative effect.1 The IT industry has been devising newer compensation methods like Profit Sharing/ Stock Options etc. In the initial stages when IT Industry was sunrise it was mostly welcomed by the employees and when IT industry share prices has gone down. 46% of the employees opined that newer compensation methods has a positive effect in IT industry while 19% said that it has a negative effect on employee welfare. As per Figure-5. What is the state of affairs in IT Industry in India was quizzed from our valued learned respondents.4 WHETHER IT INDUSTRY HAS POSITIVE ATTITUDE TOWARDFS ITS EMPLOYEES 5.. The respondents views are given below Table 5. Whether these new compensation techniques are positively effecting or not was the key point in our next question.4.3 EFFECT OF NEW COMPENSATION METHODS 5..1 In has been found that in many organisations the management ignores the employees welfare for their profit sake and does not give proper attention towards employees career and prospects.4. . The results are mixed one. to increase employee welfare and retentively. While 48% of the respondents' replied in negative and 43% gave a positive reply.

5 WHETHER IT INDUSTRY HAS A POSITVE ATTITUDE TOWARDS ITS EMPLOYEES (%age) Respondents' Observation Yes No No comments TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 43% 48% 09% 100% 5..5. TABLE . no comments. 5 of the questionnaire the respondents upon the positive hypothesis that were to comment grievance handling is done properly in the IT organisation.62 there is a profit motive operating more than employees proper welfare management in Indian IT Industry. In the Question No.1 The respondents responses to the status of grievances handling mechanism was through an indirect approach. agree.5.5 STATE OF GRIEVANCES HANDLING IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY 5.5.6 GRIEVANCE HANDLING IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY IS PROPER . The five choices provided were strongly agree.6. The data collected is given below in Table-5. TABLE . disagree and strongly disagree.

5.6 TOP MANAGEMENT AWARENESS 5.7 shows the the respondents view that the top not aware or little aware about the employees working conditions in the IT organisations Only 6 percent vouched that top management is very well aware about the nature of working conditions and 18 percent say Aware".2 Percentage Of Respondents 12% 39% 14% 26% 09% 100% Only 12 respondents strongly agree to the statement and similarly a small number of 9 respondents strongly disagreed with this. 65% of management's are Table-5. 39 percent agree that The grievance handling IN Indian IT industry is done properly and remaining 26 percent disagree with it.6..1 Whether top management awareness about working conditions of the employees and state of working conditions in the organisation was measured through next question. response.63 (%age) Respondents' Observation Strongly Agree Agree No Comments Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL 5. Only 14 percent have nothing to comment. 5.7 TOP MANAGEMENT AWARENESS (%age) . "Much Table 5.

.64 Respondents' Observation Not at all aware Very little aware Some what aware Much aware Very much aware TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 20% 45% 11% 18% 06% 100% .

5.2 58 percent of the respondents has graded it very good and above.8 STATE OF EMPLOYEE EMPLOYER RELATIONSHIP IN IT INDUSTRY (%age) Respondents Grading Excellent Very Good Satisfactory Poor TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 14% 44% 28% 14% 100% 5.8 EMPLOYEES RETENTIVITY IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY . The state of employee employer relationship in Indian IT Industry was measured through the next question.7..1 Cordial employee employer relationship is very essential in the upcoming highly competitive economy. Table 5. The state of employee-employer relationship is not very encouraging.65 5. The employment of modern technology requires more positive and effective relationship between management and the employees.7 EMPLOYEE EMPLOYER RELATIONSHIP IN IT INDUSTRY 5.7. While 42 percent consider it satisfactory and below. Indian IT Industry has very effective employee employer relationship.

the opportunities outside are very attractive. Moreover.8.2 61% of the employees view that Indian IT companies are unable to retain its employees due to most attractive avenues outside.1 The most of the employees of IT sector are highly educated and sensitive in nature. NO COMMENTS 16% YES 23% FIGURE 5.66 - 5. Their opinions in this regard are presented below in "YES/NO/NO COMMENTS" format in the Figure 5..8. Only 23% viewed that they are able to retain the employees.9.9 HOW TO INCREASE EMPLOYEES RETENTIVITY IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY .9: INDIAN IT INDUSTRY IS ABLE TO RETAIN ITS EMPLOYEES NO 61% A 5. 5. Whether Indian IT Industry is able to retain its employees was the next opinion query from the randomly selected IT industry employees.

10 SUGGESTIONS FOR INCREASE RETENTIVITY IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY (%age) Respondents' Percentage Of Suggestions Respondents Increase wages to 22% international levels 5.10 list outs all the suggestions. what the employers has to do for retaining its professionals was asked from the respondents. So.9. 36% want more foreign postings. I TABLE. The Table 5. 21% of the other suggestions included lateral induction from lower the institutes and better HR management.. Few suggestions were listed and one column was open ended to express their any other suggestion.9.2 Increase foreign postings 36% A 22% of Increase profit sharing 10% More promotions 11% Others 21% TOTAL 100% the respondents has suggested to increase the wages to international level to increase employees retentively in Indian IT industry. 10% suggest increase profit sharing and 11% suggested more promotions.1 As has been observed in general and also concluded in previous paras that the IT sector employees in India are very quickly jumping the employment. 5.10 APPLICABILITY LABOUR LAWS OF EXISTING INDIAN IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY .5.67 5.

10.11 INDIAN IT INDUSTRY REQUIRE SEPARATE LABOUR LAWS/ RULES Respondents' Observation Strongly Agree Agree No Comments Disagree Strongly Disagree TOTAL (%age) Percentage Of Respondents 57 % 32 % 02% 07% 02% 100% 5.11 EFFECTIVENESS OF OLD AGITATIONAL METHODS IN IT INDUSTRY . While only minority of 13% has given divergent views.68 5. The employees responses have been tabulated below in the Table 5. Low TABLE-5. This hypothesis was presented to the respondents. The separate Labour to whether as a Laws/Rules should be designed for IT Industry:. They were to respond upto which extent they agree or disagree..11.1 "Existing Indian labour Laws/Rules are not strictly applicable to Indian IT Industry as IT sector employees are quite different from general factory workers and are well educated and trained. The comfortable majority of respondents (89%) strongly agree or agree with the hypothesis that Indian IT sector requires separate labour management system/ regulations.

was also asked from the employees.13. FIGURE 5.1 Whether excessive competition in Indian IT sector is harming the overall long term prospects of employees in this sector The respondents opinion is tabulated below in Table 5. The table above clearly indicates that excessive competition is observed as harmful to the employees prospects. .69 5. As has been listed in Figure DESIRABILITY OF OLD AGITATIONAL METHODS IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY NO COMMENTS NO YES 0 5 67 28 20 40 60 80 5.. 5% has ticked No Comments choice.12 below.12 EFFECT OF EXCESSIVE COMPETION IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY 5. 67% of the respondents has given their reply in No and 28% answered in affirmative.1 Whether IT industry can afford old traditional trade union methods of agitations like Strike or Gherao etc. The question was direct in nature of Yes or No. So. it is concluded that old agitational techniques of trade unions are not desired in IT industry. 53 percent of the .

TABLE .14 shows the responses in this regard. The Table 5. .5.13.13 ROLE OF TRADE UNION IN IT INDUSTRY 5.. While 35% has a negative viewpoint.1 The respondents were asked to comment upon whether Indian IT Industry needs a trade union or management's are looking after the employees interest in the best possible manner.70 respondents has replied in Yes to this question.13 EXCESSIVE COMPETITION IS HARMING EMPLOYEES LONG TERM WELFARE (%age) Respondents' Observation Yes No No Comments TOTAL Percentage Of Respondents 53% 35% 12% 100% 5.

5. 9 percent of the respondents opted for multi trade union. satisfactory and poor is tabulated below in the Table 5. very good and good. 65% of the respondents were in positive grading of excellent.14 OVERALL ASSESSMENT OF EMERGING HR TRENDS IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY 5.14..1 In the end respondents were asked to give their overall assessment/ grading of emerging HR trends in Indian IT Industry.14 ROLE OF TRADE UNION IN IT INDUSTRY (%age) Respondents Grading No Trade Union Single Trade Union Multi Trade Union Only welfare association Total Percentage Of Respondents 21% 13% 09% 57% 100% 5.71 Table 5. The overall assessment on five point scales of excellent.15. While 35% gave a assessment of satisfactory and poor .13. 21% need no trade union and 13% like single trade union only.. very good.2 The largest 57 percent of the respondents view that there should be only welfare association in Indian IT industry. good.

.72 - 36% I | ° 21% ã 18% 14% 11% J .

Small may be beautiful. To make it big in the global software market.73 - CHAPTER .. . but not in the IT industry. but what the industry needs is experts in niche areas.0. India needs to increase its mass of knowledge workers. In the era of cuttingedge technologies. they have been growing phenomenally in workforce strength. 6. And if we look at the top software exporters. in other words.0 OVERVIEW 6.0.1 The era of skill-based workers has arrived but if India wants to truly move to the global arena. persons with domain expertise. it is this skilled workforce that will make all the difference. it has to spruce up its workforce.2 ‘Knowledge workers’ has become a buzzword in today’s IT scenario.6 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION 6. In the knowledge era and a skill-based economy. it has become imperative that human resources become one of the most essential ingredients of success. The growth of IT companies worldwide depends on its people and the intellectual capital it possesses. The establishment of Indian Institutes of Information Technology is definitely a step ahead in the right direction.

6. and 150 companies constituting 10% of the industry employ an average of 726 persons each. 750 companies constituting 50% of the industry employ an average of 275 persons each.5 Geometrical growth of Information Technology in the world as well as India. HCL and Infosys have staffs above 5. 6.0. Wipro.0. an acute shortage of skilled workforce will affect the country’s software exports in the long run.3 The total human resource strength of the IT industry as a whole stands at 425. if remedial actions are not taken immediately.74 6. The introduction of computers has changed the way of life every where. while some very big companies like TCS.609. software engineers or marketing managers..0. The life has become quite fast and speed of provisioning of different services has also increased. including work places and our homes.6 These fastness of services and higher level of education/training standards are not easy to manage by the organisations concerned. As we already know that Human Resource Management of the . They may be from computer hardware developers. But all this activities are being managed by number of well qualified professionals.000 employees. so they have to be managed fast. 6.000 each. As the things are running fast. At least 40 companies have more than 1.0. A company-wise break-up of this figure reveals that nearly 525 companies constituting 35% of the IT industry employ an average of 58 persons each. has created lot of revenues for government and number of avenues for employees.4 Despite having abundant English-speaking skilled workforce.

Moreover. due to existence of old conservative .75 organisation deals with the individuals putting their hardwork to meet the organisations goals. 6.8 But. emerging HR trends of Information Technology industry can not be managed properly by the old traditional HR techniques . it was felt that HR managing was not so typical. Every human beings has its own degree of preferences. HR managers has to take care of all these things in mind while dealing with the number of people working in the organisation. 50 years of introduction of computers has provided us the areas to be additionally addressed by the HR managers in IT sector. The hundreds organisational management experience has been converted into a standard personnel management and industry and service organisations are following these HR techniques for their organisational management. likings and attitude.9 Hence. Due to availability of written down procedures and rules by the learned managers.. 6. As it is commonly known that man learns by experience. 6. Indian IT industry is not an exception.7 Different type of employees/workers recruited for different level of working years of has to be managed in different styles.and protective labour laws it is not possible to meet the ever-growing international competition in the IT services. Managing people is the toughest element of any organisation than land.0.0. So.0. the IT industry has been devising newer Personnel Management/ HR techniques which specifically meet the needs of IT industry. machinery or finances. The main reason for this is high standards of education .

76 and professional training required for this industry. the employees opinion survey regarding status of HR management in Indian IT Industry and success of emerging HR trends was conducted through the use of a structured questionnaire (see Appendix "I"). Though over the period few schemes has flopped like ESOP due to heavy fall in company share prices.3 The respondents were asked to comment whether the HR needs of Indian IT industry are different from traditional HR Management . Secondly.6 & 1.7) .1. 6. computer hardware and marketing services of IT are sharing the other half. It was observed that IT industry is dominated by the software professionals (46%).1. So.1 6. The survey was conducted by randomly selecting 100 persons working in Indian IT Industry.2 The 54% of the were Male and 46 per cent of the respondents were Female(see page 49).. The respondents observations in this respect are described in brief in the following paragraphs 6. (see page 50) 6. HR managers worldwide has devised handsome compensation methods like Profit Sharing.1. there is excessive job demands for developed countries in this sector and high wage standards. Employee Stock Option Schemes ESOP etc. HR managers mainly in developing countries like India find it very difficult to retain and recruit their manpower.1 RESPONDENTS OBSERVATIONS As given out in Chapter 1 (Paras 1.

(see page 55) Only 4 percent vouched that top management is very well aware about the nature of working conditions and 16 percent say "Much Aware". to increase employee welfare and receptivity. 65% of the respondents view that the top management's are not aware or little aware about the employees working conditions in the IT organisations ..1.6 51 percent of the respondents strongly agree/agree to the statement that grievance are handled properly in the Indian IT industry (see page 54)..1.4 The IT industry has been devising newer compensation methods like Profit Sharing/ Stock Options etc. While 33% think otherwise. The state of employee . 46% of the employees opined that newer compensation methods has a positive effect in IT industry while 26% said that it has a negative effect on employee welfare.1. The majority of respondents (69%) view that HR needs of IT industry are different from old economy sector and HR managers in IT industry has to keep this into mind.5 As per 48% of the respondents IT organisation has more concern for profit motive than employees welfare.77 systems. (see page 52) 6.8 Cordial employee employer relationship is very essential in the upcoming highly competitive economy. 6.1.(see page 51) 6. 6. (see page 53) While 43% were not agree to this proposition 6.7 Whether top management awareness about working conditions of the employees and state of working conditions in the IT organisations.1.

(See page 58) 6. The state of employee-employer relationship is very encouraging. 67% of the respondents has opined that old agitational techniques of trade unions are not desired in IT industry. 6. The separate Labour Laws/Rules should be designed for IT Industry:.10 Existing Indian labour Laws/Rules are not strictly applicable to Indian IT Industry as IT sector employees are quite different from general factory workers and are well educated and trained.9 Whether Indian IT Industry is able to retain its employees was the a query from the randomly from IT industry employees.1.1. 61% of the employees view that Indian IT companies are unable to retain its employees due to most attractive avenues outside (see page 57). 58 percent of the respondents has graded it very good and above.. While 42 percent consider it satisfactory and below. Further. The majority of respondents (89%) strongly agree or agree with the hypothesis that Indian IT sector requires separate labour management system/ regulations (See page 59). While only minority of 11% has given divergent views. 21% of the other suggestions included lateral induction directly institutions and better HR management. 36% want more foreign postings. 10% suggest increase profit sharing and 11% suggested more promotions. (See page 60) . 22% of the respondents has suggested to increase the wages to international level to increase employees retentivity in Indian IT industry. This hypothesis was presented to the respondents.78 employer relationship in Indian IT Industry was measured through the next question(see page 56).

.1. satisfactory and poor.. (see page 62) 6.9 The largest 57 percent of the respondents view that there should be only welfare association in Indian IT industry. 65% of the respondents were in positive grading of excellent. good.1 Hence. 21% need no trade union and 13% like single trade union only.1. very good and good.2 CONCLUSION 6. While 35% gave a assessment of satisfactory and poor 6. very good. Majority of world leaders in IT sector are outsourcing their requirements from Indian IT Industry and recruiting Indian IT professionals. The overall assessment on five point scales of excellent.11 Whether excessive competition in Indian IT sector is harming the overall long term prospects of employees in this sector . Hence. 53 percent of the respondents has replied in Yes to this question (see page 61).. 6.2. it can be concluded that Emerging HR trends of Indian It industry are quite different from the old economy industry.79 6. India is considered one of Super Power in Information Technology and allied fields. While 35 percent has a negative viewpoint.1. the Indian Government must allow the Industry to meet international competition and desired environment in respect of Labour Laws and financial rules must be liberalized .10 In the end respondents were asked to give their overall assessment/ grading of emerging trends of Indian IT industry. 9 percent of the respondents opted for multi trade union.

80 for this Indian IT Industry.. Moreover. HR managers in Indian IT Industry must keep the sensitive nature of IT professionals and state of greater opportunities outside in mind for devising HR policies for their organisations China is also entering this area vigorously and Government of India must help Indian It industry to meet this challenge. .

Thanking You.. This questionnaire gives you the aspects of opportunity to express your opinion regarding various emerging HR trends in Indian a new IT Sector.81 APPENDIX "I" QUESTIONNAIRE FOR PROJECT STUDY ON EMERGING HR TRENDS IN INDIAN IT INDUSTRY Dear Sir/Madam.. The results shall be submitted to the university in the report format for the usage of researchers and other concerned authorities. I am a management student of Fore School of Management. no individual will be identified. As you are to a part of IT industry and must be observing that the HR trends of IT sector are quite different from the conventional old economy sectors. . I would a request you to kindly answer a few questions. As a a you are all aware that Information Technology (IT) industry is achieving a great success in Indian employment context. As part of course I a undertaking this project study... Date . Only group averages will be reported.. As is the case for entire study.

..............................82 Personal Profile of the Respondent 1...............Tech/MCA/MBA (f) Your Nature of Job: (i) Computer Hardware (i) Computer Software (iii) Marketing Services of IT (iv) HR/ Personnel management 2...........Tech/BCA etc..... (a) Place of survey..... Whether you feel that HR needs of Indian IT sector are different from old HR practices......................(Please Tick) (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) Can Not Say 3.......................... (c) Address......... (e) Educational qualifications: (i) Non Tech Graduate or below (ii) Non-Tech Post-Graduate (iii) B.. (d) Male/Female............ (iv) M........... Whether new compensating methods being adopted by the various IT companies are positively effecting the employees welfare? ................... (b) Name...

. "Indian IT sector companies has a positive attitude towards its employees and are not neglecting their welfare and prospects for their profit sake.83 (i) Positive Effect (ii) Negative Effect (iii) No Effect (iv) Can Not Say 4. (i) Strongly Agree (ii) Agree (iii)No Comments (iv) Disagree (v) Strongly Disagree 6." Do you agree with the statement. To what extent do you with this statement. How much do you think the top management of your organisation is aware of the working conditions of its (i) Not at all aware (ii) Very little aware (iii) Somewhat aware (iv) Much aware (v) Very much aware employees? . (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No Comments 5 "The grievances of the employees in Indian IT sectors are handled properly".

What the HR managers of Indian IT sector should do to increase the retentivity rate of its employees (Please Tick) (i) Increase wages to international level ii) Increase foreign postings iii) Increase profit sharing (iv) More promotions (v) Any other(please specify) __________________________ 10. The most of the employees of Indian IT sector or highly educated and sensitive in nature. (Please Tick) (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) Comments 9. "Existing Indian labour Laws/Rules are not strictly applicable to Indian IT Industry as IT sector employees are quite different from general factory workers and are well educated and trained. Moreover.84 7. Whether Indian IT Industry is able to retain its employees. Do you agree with this proposition. the opportunities outside are very attractive.. What is the state of employee employer relationship in Your Organisation (i) Excellent (ii) Very Good (iii) Satisfactory (iv) Poor 8. (i) Strongly Agree (ii) Agree . The separate Labour Laws/Rules should be designed for IT Industry:.

In your view whether excessive competition in Indian IT sector is harming the overall long term prospects of employees in this sector. . Whether do you feel there is any roll of trade union in the IT Industry? (i) No Trade Union (ii) Single Union (iii) Multi Union (iv) Only welfare association (iv) Can not say 14. (i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No Comments 13.. Whether old methods of employees association/trade union like strike or Gherao etc. Give your overall assessment of HR Management in Indian It Industry. are desirable in Indian IT Sector (Please Tick) i) Yes (ii) No (iii) No Comments 12.85 iii) No Comments (iv) Disagree (v) Strongly Disagree 11.

86 (i) Excellent (ii) Very Good (iii) Good (iii) Satisfactory (iv) Poor 15. Please give your comments and suggestions to bring further improvement in HR Management in Indian IT Industry. Thank You. ..

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