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Lake Asbury Junior High School Science Project Guide 2011-2012

Due Dates.....................................................................................2 Materials and Log book set up .....................................................3 Project Topic/Question/Problem ...................................................4 Background Research ...............................................................5-6 Research Paper Requirements .....................................................7 Research Plan (also know as Procedural Plan) ...........................8-9 The Experiment (what to do in the log book)..............................10 Collecting Data in the log book...................................................10 Analyzing Data in the log book....................................................10 Discussion/ Project Conclusion in the log book............................11 Appendices ...........................................................................12-22

Letter to Students and Parents

Dear Students and Parents, This year Clay County Schools is fully implementing the Next Generation Sunshine State Standards for Science. All science students are expected to complete a science fair project. The following booklet has been created to help assist students in completing a successful science fair project. Science Fair is hard work for students, parents, and teachers. It takes time, effort, and resources. All of the teachers at LAJH are here to help students as they go through the process. If you have any questions please feel free to contact your science teacher, one of the science fair coordinators, or come to one of the many Science Fair tutoring sessions that will be offered throughout the semester. The following dates* have also been established to keep you on track to successfully complete the project. The required forms will be provided by your science teacher and will also be available on the LAJH website. Sept. 16 Oct. 6 Oct 20 Nov 28 Dec 2 Dec 5-9 Jan. 10 Topic Selection should be completed Research paper is due Research Plan is due (TYPED!) Students may start turning in projects to their science teacher today and throughout this week!! PROJECT DUE!!**NO PROJECT WILL BE ACCEPTED AFTER 4:00 ON 12/2!! Classroom Science Fairs School Science Fair in the Media Center

*Some of these dates are subject to change due to classroom teacher discretion or other mitigating factors.

LAJH Science Fair coordinators Margaret Sieruta Tina Baker

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Getting Started
What you will need to begin
Standard Science Classes Composition notebook
Flash Drive (Highly advisable, but not mandatory)

Advanced Science Classes or Any Student Competing in Science Fair. Composition notebook Flash Drive (Highly advisable, but not mandatory) 1 inch three ring binder with dividers Backboard

Log Book
The first thing you should set up is the logbook. The Log Book is handwritten, and it may look a little abused by the end of the science project, but that is ok. Every entry must be dated and must include information on what you learned or completed on that date. It is like an interactive notebook or a diary, detailing your progress, mistakes, and thoughts and improvements as you go through this process. As you go through this packet, there are many logbook spots that tell you what to put in your logbook for that particular section of your project. Make sure that you do every one!

Log Book: Set-up 1. Leave the first page blank. You will complete this once your project has been selected. 2. On the next three pages write at the top Table of Contents 3. After the table of contents, number all the pages of your logbook in the top right hand corner starting with number 1. 4. At the conclusion of your project, go back to the Table of Contents and write each part of your project that is in the logbook and the page numbers(s) where each section is found. Example: Project Question.1 Research.2-10 Purpose ..11 Hypothesis..12 Experiment .13 (If you complete any worksheets that help you complete this project those should be pasted in your logbook and also listed in your Table of Contents)
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Project Topic/Question/Problem
When selecting a science fair topic keep the following questions in mind.
Is my topic realistic? Is it something I can do with little or no help from parents, teachers or other adults? Am I really interested in this topic or do I just think it is easy? Can I investigate my topic by experimenting and collecting data? Can I afford what I will need to investigate my topic? Do I have enough time to successful complete this project by winter break? Is this project original, or has it been done before? Is the answer to my question already known? Will my investigation add to what is known about the topic? Do I have access to background research on my topic? Are there books in the library or age appropriate web pages that will help me with my project research?

Great science projects show that you have also asked yourself the following questions:

Great science project topics can:

Be an extension of a project that was done the previous year. Come from personal and/or real-life experiences. A time when you noticed something and thought I wonder how that works or operates. Or, I wonder what would happen if... Come from current events or from reading magazines like National Geographic, Discover, Omni, Popular Science or Popular Mechanics. Come from finding out about different fields in science and what things are studied in that field. (See Appendix A: Field of Science/ Science Fair categories)

Acceptable Science Project topics must:

Be expressed as a problem question beginning with a phrase such as What is the relationship between? What is the relationship between? What is the effect of? Require experimentation and identifies the intended test subject, independent variable, and dependent variable be completed within the amount of time allotted Be within your scope of ability in terms of your age and expertise, access to materials, and testing facility constraints such as working space, and financial expense involved. have results that are quantitatively measurable in metric, SI Units not harm vertebrates not be a demonstration, model, or kit not be a consumer product test, use mold, weapons, explosives or harmful bacteria Follow all safety guidelines according to MSDS rules, safety equipment and clothing, and appropriate adult supervision.

Log Book: Once your problem has been selected, you should record the, Problem, Test Subject, Independent Variable, and Dependent Variable on the front page of your log book. Your teacher must sign approving this page. Make sure to put the date on the page!

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Project Background Research

The purpose of Background Research for Science Experiments is to:
Learn information about your topic/test subject and its relationship to the independent and dependent variables. Find scientific definitions for your topic/test subject and each of the levels of the independent variable. Learn background history and information on your test subject and the levels of the independent variable (including, but not limited to what its made of, how it works, how its used, what it does, what it needs, what it interacts with, etc) Find information about any previous similar experiments conducted by other people on your topic/test subject, describing their results and conclusions ( is a great resource to help you find this information) Find out about the people or groups that would benefit from the results of your project experiment or find out ways your project results could be useful in the real world. Provide all of the background information necessary for you to formulate a solid hypothesis, expressed in the form of an If., then. statement. The better your research, the stronger your hypothesis, and the better your experiment!

Required number and Types of Resources

You must use five different sources of information. You may start looking for information by using a general encyclopedia, but work toward books, magazine articles, and internet sources. Two of the five sources MUST be BOOKS (encyclopedias and dictionaries may be used BUT they do not count towards your required resource) Use websites that are teen friendly and provide reliable and factual information. This includes: o Government agencies like the Environmental Protection Agency, Dairy Farmers of America, National food and Drug Administration, NASA, Smithsonian o Well known companies and institutions like Proctor and Gamble, JEA, and Nemours o Sites that have domain name suffix or web address that end in .gov, .org, or .edu Dont expect to find everything you need immediately or on one site or in one book. Research takes time. To begin your research, start by selecting key words and general topics. Then work toward more specific information as you discover more about your topic. o For example: If your project problem was What effects do different types of soil have on strawberries? then the key words are strawberries and soil. Questions you would want to answer about each would include: What are strawberries? What is soil? What are the different types of strawberries? What are the characteristics of soil? What are the different parts of a strawberry plant? What are the different types of soil? What do strawberries need to grow? How are soil types different from one How do strawberries grow? another? In what type of soil are strawberries usually grown? Why?

For Clay County Library Hours use the following link: LAJH Library Hours: Generally open in the mornings from 8:30-9:00 a.m. Occasionally it will be closed for faculty meetings. Please ask the media specialist ahead of time.

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Log Book: Background Research and Information Sources. Start each new source on its own page. You should write information about the source you are using and a list of facts you learned from this source. Once you have collected enough information from at least 5 sources, you will use your notes to write your research paper. Date you Sample Entry:
looked at source.

Source Name Write the title of the book or web page

Page Number

Additional Information to Write Down Webpage Web address Copyright date or date page was last updated Author or publisher if given Books ISBN number Author Copyright date Publisher Location of publisher Pages used

Make sure you write the facts in your own words. Do NOT COPY information directly from the source

If information is copied word for word it must be written in quotation marks with a page number(s) noted. However, not all your notes can be put in quotations.

Project Research Paper

The purpose of the project research paper is to show your understanding of your project topic/test subject and levels of your independent variable and dependent variable and communicate that information to others. Before writing the final draft of your research paper, plan on having to either make a planning sheet or Page 6 of 23

write a rough draft. The specifics will be determined by your science teacher. However, the planning page or rough draft must organize your background research according to how you will write your research paper (What information will be written in paragraph 1, 2, 3, etc...)

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Research Paper Grading Criteria

(This is what your teacher will be looking for when grading your research paper)

Title page- Problem/Question centered on the center of the page Lower right hand corner has Name Date and Period Typed 10 or 12 pt black print Font used is Arial, Verdana, Times New Roman or Calibri One inch margins on all four sides Double Spaced Written in third person (do not use I, we, you, etc.) Has at least 5 sources Does not use contractions (dont, wont, etc.) 1000-1500 words in the body of the paper (this does not include the title page or bibliography)

Content of paper
Defines all key words related to project topic Answers key questions about project topic and all levels of your independent variable such as what its made of, how it works, how its used, what it does, what it needs, what it interacts with, etc Includes a description of experiments that were similar in nature to yours and what the results of those experiments were. Provides a hypothesis written in the correct format Provides an explanation or rationale for hypothesis based on research Provides a purpose for the experiment and a real life application for the results Describes who would benefit from the results of this experiment and why they would benefit from the results.

Mechanics & Revisions

Written without grammar and spelling errors Revised according to comments made by teacher

Contains 5 sources of information, 2 of which are books or magazines Written in either MLA or APA style. For examples see website: You may also use websites such as or to make your bibliography online.

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Research Plan
(This can also be called a procedural plan)
The research plan is the proposal for your experiment. It explains everything you plan to do for your project in great detail. Your Research Plan must be approved by your teacher before you begin to perform the actual experiment. Your research plan should be typed. Refer to the information below to complete your Research Plan. A) Problem/Question being addressed: What question or problem are you trying to solve? (Use the What effect or other approved format) B) Hypothesis: Example: If acidic water is placed on soil then the amount of nutrients in the soil will decrease. Remember a hypothesis is: 1. A prediction based on your research 2. Written as an If (I do this). then(this will happen) 3. Very detailed and specific; does not use words like best, bigger, etc. 4. Does not use the words I think or I predict 5. Written with your independent variable (what you are testing and purposely changing) placed between the If and the then, while the dependent variable is written after the then. C) Rationale for hypothesis: Give a reason based on your research for your hypothesis D) Independent Variable: Describe the factor you are purposely changing, the amount, the type etc. E) Dependent Variable: Explain what you will measure during the experiment in order to determine if your hypothesis is proven or not. Quantitative observations: Explain the measurements will you make to determine if your hypothesis is supported or not. Qualitative observations: Explain what other observations you will be making to determine if your hypothesis is supported or not. Such as color change or the presence or absence of something. F) Constants: Factors in the experiment which must be kept the same and cannot be changed. G) Control Group: Describe the group you are using to compare to your experimental groups. H) List of Materials: Describe what materials you will need, the quantity of each material, where you plan to get them, and the expected cost. Please remember, you have to provide all of the materials for your project. I) Location: Describe where you will complete the experiment, example: in your garage, back yard, etc. Make sure to include a physical address. J) Safety Precautions: Be sure to write down all safety precautions you will take when conducting your experiment. If your project uses potentially hazardous biological agents, humans or other vertebrate animals and/or hazardous chemicals, be sure to read the Intel ISEF rules and guidelines concerning your project at K) Experiment Procedures: Write down step by step detailed instructions of what you plan to do. The procedure must: 1. Be written as a list of numbered steps (1, 2, 3, 4.). 2. Begin by explaining exactly how you plan on setting up your experiment. 3. Include amounts of materials and metric measurements (centimeters, liters, grams, etc.) 4. Have at least five trials for the control group and each experimental group/testing group. Page 9 of 23

5. Test only one variable. (Example: If you are measuring the effect of Different types of soil on plant growth, you may not change the amount of light exposure for the plants. This would invalidate your test.) 6. Describe how and when you will make qualitative and quantitative observations (how and when you will measure changes in your control and experimental groups and what conditions will you record such as air temperature, lighting, etc.) 7. Describe the duration of your experiment. In other words, how long will it last? For example, if you are doing an experiment involving plant growth how long will you observe the growth of the plant 4 weeks, 8 weeks, etc? 8. Be detailed enough to enable another scientist to repeat your experiment exactly as you did. L) Data Analysis: Draw out the data table that you will use to record your results and describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data such as finding the mean of your trials. Explain the type of graph you will use (bar graphs for comparisons of averages from each level of the IV, line graphs for changes over time, and pie graphs to show how a part relates to the whole, and scatter plots to show relationships between variables) Science Project Approval Form: This form should be signed by both parent and student.

Note: Advanced students and students competing in Science Fair may also need to complete ISEF forms 1 and 1A. Some students may have to complete more forms depending on the nature of their project. You can download and save the forms from

Log Book: Once the teacher has approved your research plan, go back and paste it in your logbook.

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When your Research Plan and forms have been received and reviewed, your teacher will provide you with written permission to start your experiment by signing the Science Project Approval Form you turned in with your Research Plan. Do not start until your teacher has given you permission to start! On the first day that you set up your experiment have your research plan out and follow the experiment procedure you have made. If you need to make changes in the original plan dont be afraid to cross out and note the changes on your original procedure or rewrite your procedure with changes in your logbook.

Log Book: On the day that you start your experiment: 1. Make data table(s) in you logbook according to your Research Plan. 2. Make Initial observations: For example, if you are using plants, make sure to give each plant a label and describe each plant from day one (size, number of leaves, etc). The first day you start your experiment; there should be lots of writing. 3. Take pictures of how you set up the experiment. Try to avoid having peoples faces in the pictures. If you will be taking pictures with a person under the age of 18 in the pictures you must have written permission from his/her parents to be photographed.

Collecting Data
Log Book: Each time you make an entry in your logbook for your experiment you should: 1. Make sure to record all observations. Record changes that you see, hear, smell, feel, and measure in each sample of each level of your independent variable/experimental group. 2. Make notes of any changes, problems, mistakes or unexpected things that happen during your experiment. Write down the time you make observations. Anything you do during your experiment should be measured and recorded. For example, if you are watering plants on certain days, make sure to record when you water each plant and how much. Remember all data, both qualitative and quantitative, should be recorded in the logbook. 3. Take pictures .Every time you record an observation in your logbook you should take a picture of your experiment.

Analyzing Data
The purpose of analyzing data is to determine if your hypothesis can be supported by the data collected during your experiment. When analyzing data you organize data into graphs and charts and try to find relationships or patterns with the data you have collected.

Log Book: Once you have stopped your experiment you must analyze the data collected as specified in your Research Plan. Be sure to: 1. Find the mean for all the trials for each level of your independent variable 2. Graph the data 3. Write out the results of what your graph shows in paragraph form. Make sure to include the following in the paragraph. A. Each testing groups results as graphed B. The testing group or level of the independent variable that had the greatest change C. The testing group or Level of the independent variable that had the least amount of change.
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Discussion and Conclusion

The purpose of the conclusion is to show what you have learned from your project and communicate the results of your experiment and analysis. The conclusion summarizes the whole project and offers explanations for your results.

Log Book: In the conclusion the following questions should be answered using complete sentences: 1. What was the problem you were investigating or the purpose of your experiment? 2. What was your hypothesis for the experiment? 3. What were the average results for each level of the independent variable? 4. Was your hypothesis supported based on the results of your experiment? (Did the data collected match what you thought would happen?) 5. Why do you think the experiment results turned out the way they did? (Think back to all the research. What was different about each level of the independent variable that could account for the results of the experiment?) 6. Were there any problems that could have affected the results? Did you make any errors? 7. If you were to redo the experiment, how could it be improved in the future? 8. If you did another science project next year, how could you expand or extend this current

What happens next?

At this point your science teacher will decide how you will proceed. If you are in the Advanced Science classes or competing in science fair you will be required to complete a project binder and a backboard. You will be provided with another guide to complete these requirements. If you are in Standard Science classes, your teacher may assign another way for you to communicate and present your science project. This may include, but is not limited to, a class presentation, display board, poster, written paper or PowerPoint.

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Appendix A: Fields of Science/ Science Fair Categories.....................................13-14 Appendix B: Selecting a Project Topic/Question/Problem..................................15-16 Appendix C: Experimental Design...............................................................................17 Appendix D: Setting up a controlled experiment ......................................................18 Appendix E: Worksheets and Forms ....................................................................19- 22

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Appendix A: Fields of Science/ Science Fair Categories

AEROSPACE SCIENCE is the study and investigation of the earth's atmosphere and outer space. It includes the design, building, and operation of aircraft. Some topics that fall within this division are the operation of rockets, guided missiles, anything related to space travel, and the operation, and/or construction of satellites and airplanes. ASTRONOMY is the science of the universe, including the planets and their moons, comets and meteors, the stars and galaxies. BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE* is the science that studies how humans and other animals act by means of observable responses. Some topics that fall within this division are the effect of stimuli on organisms and their responses, learning, motivation, emotion, perception, thinking, individuality and personality. BIOCHEMISTRY* is the branch of chemistry relating to the processes and physical properties of living organisms. This could include the reactions of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, enzymes, blood, urine, vitamins, hormones, poisons, and drugs. As well as the how these things are absorbed, digested, and used by organisms. BOTANY is the study of plant structures and their functions, plant reproduction, growth, classification and disease. CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY* is the study of the organization and function of the individual cell. Molecular biology is the study of the interactions between the systems of a cell, including the making and controlling of proteins, DNA and RNA. CHEMISTRY is the study of the structure and properties of substances. How substances are made and how they undergo chemical and/or physical changes under various conditions. COMPUTER SCIENCE is the study and making of computer hardware, software, Internet networking and communications, simulations/virtual reality or computational science (including data structures, encryption, coding, and information theory). CONSUMER SCIENCE* is the study of comparisons and evaluations of manufactured or commercial products. Topics included in this category are taste tests, color preferences, quality control, and how well a product works. EARTH SCIENCE is the science of the origin, structure, makeup and other physical features of the earth. Some topics that fall within this division are geology (earth composition, rock formation, fossils, minerals, and fossil fuel); geography (landforms, soils, classification of streams, erosion, and sedimentation); oceanography (ocean waves, ocean currents, composition of ocean water and coastal zone management); seismology (study of earthquakes); and meteorology (study of weather). ELECTRONICS is the branch of engineering and technology that consists of making things such as radios, television sets, and computers. Experiments involving circuits for communication such as radio, radar, laser, television, and electricity; electric motors; solar cells and amplifiers would be in this category. ENGINEERING is the design, construction, and operation of roads, bridges, harbors, buildings, and machinery, lighting, heating, and communication systems. Stress testing of building materials and strength of building materials would be considered engineering projects. ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE is the study of the protection and care of natural resources. Topics included in this category are solar energy and its uses, water purification and usage, pollution control, soil chemistry, and insecticides. HEALTH SCIENCE* is the study of the human body and good health practices. Projects dealing with diet, care of the teeth, care of the eyes, and hygiene would be placed in this category. MATERIALS SCIENCE is a branch of engineering that is the study of materials and how they can be changed and made to meet the needs of modern technology. MATHEMATICS is the science of measurement, arithmetic (use of numbers, symbols, and numerical systems); algebra (probability, theory of equations, progressions, and combinations); geometry (study of geometric figures, similar figures, and scale drawings); calculus; trigonometry, statistics and graphing.

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MICROBIOLOGY* is the branch of biology concerned with the study of microorganisms. This would include the study of bacteria, viruses, yeasts, fungi, and protozoa, and even studies involving cells or tissues. PHYSICS is the science that deals with the laws concerning motion, matter, and energy. Topics found in the category of physics are force and pressure, gravity, Newton's Laws, relativity, kinetic theory, motion forces, work, energy, sound, light, and magnetism. ZOOLOGY and or Animal Science* is the science that deals with the study of animals. This could include the study the structures of animals, the functions of those structures, reproduction and heredity. *projects in these fields of science require special supervision and guidelines and have certain restrictions. The classroom teacher may choose to limit the number of projects allowed from these fields.

For a complete list of ISEF Categories and Subcategories refer to the following link:

Log book: Choose one of the fields of science from the list above that most interests you then after doing some research on that field, answer the following questions in your log book: 1. What does a person in this field of science study? 2. What is the general name of a scientist in this field called? 3. What careers would use a degree in this field of science? 4. What are three junior high or middle school projects that would be classified in this field of science? 5. Is there a topic that is studied in this field that I could do my project on, if so what? In order to answer question number four you can do a general search on the internet for school science projects in the field of science you have chosen or you can go to the two websites below for help. and
Dont forget to Write this page in your Table of Contents. Title it Science Field or Science Category

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Appendix B: Selecting a Project Topic/Question/Problem Worksheet 1: Choosing a Science Project topic

After you have found and researched the field of science that interests you, complete the problem selection worksheet. This worksheet is meant to guide you through the project selection process. It was developed from a four question strategy called Rooting into Inquiry, which is designed to aid students in creating an original and meaningful science fair experiment. Refer to the scenario and example worksheets provided to complete your own.

Example Scenario: After looking over the list of science fields, Leslee decided that botany looked interesting. She found in her research that botany was the study of plants and decided plants would be a good project topic. She then completed Worksheet 1: Choosing a Science Project Problem/Question.

Test subject is the same thing as project topic.

Write the materials from question #1. Choose only materials that will have an effect on the test subject. Notice Leslee did not choose the shovel or the measuring cups.

Write a list of all the possible ways that each of the materials can be changed.

(Worksheet 1 Page 16 of 23


Write your answer to question #2

Feasible means capable of being successfully accomplished

Note: You will have more than three questions if you use all of your answers in #3 and #4 to make questions. Realize that some questions will be better than others and you should pick the three best.

Answering the Why? for the last two questions is just as important as the question itself. If you cant answer the why then you should not consider trying to investigate the problem for your project.

Log Book: Paste this worksheet in your logbook. Be sure to record it in your Table of Contents.

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Appendix C: Experimental Design

Worksheet 2 Experimental Design Diagram Use your background research to help you complete this worksheet. Scenario continued After Leslee did some research she decided to pick strawberries as the plants that she would use in her project. She found out background information on strawberry plants which helped her to complete worksheet 2: Experimental Design Diagram.

Purpose: In one or two paragraphs describes the realworld reason for selecting this project problem. You may need to go back and read more about your topic to write a quality purpose statement.

Title: the question you are trying to answer

Hypothesis: Shows the relationship between the independent variable and the dependent variable. It is written as an If then statement and should be based on your background research Do not use words like I think or I predict. Include a reason for your hypothesis backed by information you found in your research.

The independent variable is the one factor in the experiment that you are purposely changing.

Levels of the IV are the testing groups or the experimental groups. Each is treated with a different amount or form of the independent variable.

Log Book: You should paste worksheet 2 in your log book once it has been reviewed by the teacher and returned. Be sure to record it in your Table of Contents.
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Appendix D: Setting Up a Controlled Experiment

When conducting your experiment, care must be taken to make sure that the independent variable is actually what causes the change to your test subject. When planning your experiment remember to keep everything the same except for the single variable being tested. Here is an example: Experiment purpose: How do different soil types affect the growth of strawberry plants? Hypothesis: If strawberry plants are grown in soil with sand, clay, and loam then the strawberries grown in sandy soil will grow the fastest because strawberries need soil that is not wet but drains well. The independent variable is the different soil types. The levels of the Independent variable are sand, clay, and loam. These are the only things that can be changed in the experiment. That means that the following factors must be kept the same or constant: The age and type of the plants (6 week old strawberry plants of the variety Fragaria ananassa) The type of pot the plants are in and soil (plastic 6 inch pot with 15 cm3 of X brand potting soil) The amount of sand, clay, and loam mixed with the soil (15 cm3) The amount of water, light, and fertilizer (watered 10 ml of water every other day, afternoon sun, 2 ml of liquid fertilizer brand Z every 14 days) The number of strawberry plants in each testing group (five trials x 3 plants in each trial = 15 plants per experimental/testing group for a total of 60 test subjects, i.e. strawberry plants) The time the plants are measured and qualitative observations made (plants height are measured every 3 days for 21 days in the morning between 9:00 am and 10:00 am. Also observed are color changes in leaves, texture of leaves and number and color of strawberry fruit on each plant and if the soil felt wet or dry) Testing Groups/ Experimental Groups Levels of the Independent Variable Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 3 3 Soil with 15 cm Soil with 15 cm clay Soil with15 cm3 loam sand

Control Group Soil with nothing added Trial s 1 2 3 4 5

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Appendix E: Worksheets and Forms

Cut out along dotted line to paste in your log book Page 20 of 23

Appendix E: Worksheets and Forms (Worksheet 1 continued)

Cut out along dotted line to paste in your logbook Page 21 of 23

Appendix E: Worksheets and Forms

Cut out along dotted line to paste in your logbook Page 22 of 23

Appendix E: Worksheets and Forms Clay County Schools Project approval form (to be completed by all students)

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