004ÎORMOS

01-11-10

15:33

™ÂÏ›‰·58

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∂ª¶π™∆√™À¡∏ ™∆√ §∞√!
√ §∞´∫π™ª√™ ∫∞π √π ¢À√ √æ∂π™ ∆∏™ ¢∏ª√∫ƒ∞∆π∞™*
MARGARET CANOVAN

R. B. Kitaj

∏ Margaret Canovan Â›Ó·È ÔÌfiÙÈÌÔ˜ ηıËÁ‹ÙÚÈ· ÙÔ˘ Keele University Ù˘ µÚÂÙ·Ó›·˜. Œ¯ÂÈ
·Û¯ÔÏËı› Ì ÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ Ù˘ Hannah Arendt,
ÙÔÓ ÂıÓÈÎÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi. ∞fi Ù· ¤ÚÁ·
Ù˘ ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi ͯˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ì ÙÔ ¿ÚıÚÔ
«Two Strategies for the Study of Politics»,
Political Studies, Ù. 30, Ù¯. 4, 1982, Û. 544552 Î·È Ù· ‚È‚Ï›· Populism, Junction Books,
§ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ 1981 Î·È The People, Polity, ∫·›ÌÚÈÙ˙ 2005.

√È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÂÈÛ¤‚·Ï·Ó ηٿ ÙËÓ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓË ‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÛÙËÓ
ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÛÎËÓ‹ ÔÏÏÒÓ ‰˘ÙÈÎÒÓ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÒÓ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆ›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜
ˆ˜ ·ıÔÏÔÁÈο Û˘ÌÙÒÌ·Ù· Ô˘ ··ÈÙÔ‡Ó ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÂÍ‹ÁËÛË.1 ¢ÂÓ ÂÍÂÙ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È ˆ˜ Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· Ô˘ ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó Û ‰ÔÎÈÌ·Û›· ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô Î·Ù·ÓÔÔ‡ÌÂ
ÙËÓ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, Î·È ÔÈ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ› Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, ÌÔÏÔÓfiÙÈ ·ÊÔÛȈ̤ÓÔÈ ÛÙËÓ
·‡ÍËÛË Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯‹˜ ÛÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋, ·Ô‰›‰Ô˘Ó ÂÏ¿¯ÈÛÙË ‹ Î·È Î·Ì›·
ÚÔÛÔ¯‹ ÛÙȘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ·fiÂÈÚ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛ˘ Ù˘ ‚¿Û˘. ∞Ó Î·È Î·Ù·ÓÔËÙ‹,
Ë ··Í›ˆÛË ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È ˘ÂÚ‚ÔÏÈο ‚È·ÛÙÈ΋. √È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ıˆÚÔ‡Ó ÙÔ˘˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡˜
ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÏËıÈÓÔ‡˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ¿Ù˜, ÂÎÊÚ·ÛÙ¤˜ ÙˆÓ Ï·˚ÎÒÓ ·Ú·fiÓˆÓ Î·È ·fi„ÂˆÓ Ô˘
Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈο ·ÁÓÔÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·fi ÙȘ ΢‚ÂÚÓ‹ÛÂȘ, Ù· ΢ڛ·Ú¯· ÎfiÌÌ·Ù· Î·È Ù· ̤۷
ÂÓË̤ڈÛ˘. ¶ÔÏÏÔ› ·fi ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ Â›Ó·È ˘¤Ú Ù˘ «¿ÌÂÛ˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜» – Ù˘
Ï‹„˘ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÂˆÓ Ì¤Ûˆ ‰ËÌÔ„ËÊ›ÛÌ·ÙÔ˜ Î·È Ï·˚ÎÒÓ ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘ÏÈÒÓ. √ ‰Â‰Ëψ̤ÓÔ˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Â›Ó·È Ó· ÂÍ·ÚÁ˘ÚÒÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ˘fiÛ¯ÂÛË Ù˘
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÁÈ· Ï·˚΋ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·. ™Â ÙÔ‡ÙÔ ÙÔ ¿ÚıÚÔ ı· ˘ÔÛÙËڛ͈ fiÙÈ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ·ÁÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙȘ ·ÍÈÒÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜, Î·È fiÙÈ Ë ÂͤٷÛË Ù˘ ·ÓËÛ˘¯ËÙÈ΋˜ Â·™Y°XPONA

58

£EMATA

™‡Á¯ÚÔÓ· £¤Ì·Ù·, Ù‡¯Ô˜ 110, πÔ‡ÏÈÔ˜ - ™Â٤̂ÚÈÔ˜ 2010, Û. 58-69

004ÎORMOS

01-11-10

15:33

™ÂÏ›‰·59

ˆÛÙfiÛÔ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË ‰ÂÓ ·ÚΛ ·Ê’ ·˘Ù‹˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Ù·˘ÙÔÔ›ËÛË Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ, ÁÈ·Ù› ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ηÙËÁÔÚÈÔÔ›ËÛË ı· Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ¿Ì‚·ÓÂ Î·È Ù· «Ó¤· ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈο
ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù·» Ù· ÔÔ›· ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÁÂÓÈο ˆ˜ οÙÈ ÙÔ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfi.6 ∏ ÎÚ›ÛÈÌË ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿ ¤ÁÎÂÈÙ·È ÛÙÔ fiÙÈ ÂÓÒ Î·È Ù·
‰‡Ô ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· Â›Ó·È ·ÓÙÈÛ˘ÛÙËÌÈο, Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙ› fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÙÔ˘˜ ηÙfi¯Ô˘˜ Ù˘ ηÙÂÛÙË̤Ó˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜,
·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙȘ ·Í›Â˜ Ù˘ ÂÏ›Ù. ∆Ô Ì¤ÓÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÙ·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙÔ˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÔ‡ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡
ηÙÂÛÙË̤ÓÔ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÌÔÚʈÙÒÓ Ù˘
ÎÔÈÓ‹˜ ÁÓÒÌ˘, Ù˘ ·Î·‰ËÌ·˚΋˜ ÎÔÈÓfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È ÙˆÓ
̤ۈÓ. ŸÙ·Ó Ô Jean-Marie Le Pen ÙÔ˘ Front National
ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÂÙ·È fiÙÈ «ÊˆÓ¿˙ÂÈ ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ Ô Ï·fi˜ ÛΤÙÂÙ·È
̤۷ ÙÔ˘», ·„ËÊÒÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ·ÚÈÛÈÓ‹ Î·È ÙËÓ Â˘Úˆ·˚΋
ÂÏ›Ù, Ë Î›ÓËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘ ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfiÙ·ÙË ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡, fiˆ˜ ·˘Ùfi˜ ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È ÛÙ· Ù˘ÈÎÒ˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈο Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù·.7
√ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜, ÓÔÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˜ Ì ÙËÓ ‰ÔÌÈ΋ ·˘Ù‹ ¤ÓÓÔÈ·
ÌÔÚ› Ó· ¤¯ÂÈ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ· Ì ÙÔ
ηÙÂÛÙË̤ÓÔ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ›ٷÈ. ™ÙÔ
‰›Ô Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜, ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Û ÌÈ· ¯ÒÚ· fiÔ˘ ‰ÂÛfi˙ÂÈ Ë ˘„ËÏ‹ ÊÔÚÔÏÔÁ›·
ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ¯ÚËÌ·ÙÔ‰fiÙËÛË ÂÓfi˜ ÁÂÓÓ·Èfi‰ˆÚÔ˘ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜
ÚfiÓÔÈ·˜ ÂÓ‰¤¯ÂÙ·È Ó· ˘ÈÔıÂÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÌÈ· ·Ù˙¤ÓÙ· ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈÎÔ‡ ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌÔ‡,8 ÂÓÒ ¿ÏÏÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Û ÌÈ· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ Û˘Á΢ڛ· ·ÓÙȉÚÔ‡Ó ÛÙËÓ ËÁÂÌÔÓ›· Ù˘ ÂχıÂÚ˘ ·ÁÔÚ¿˜ ··ÈÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÚÔÛٷ٢ÙÈÛÌfi Î·È ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚË ÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÚfiÓÔÈ·. ∞˘Ùfi ·Ê’ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ‰ÂÓ ·Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÈ
(fiˆ˜ Û˘¯Ó¿ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÙ·È) fiÙÈ ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Â›Ó·È ¯ˆÚ›˜
·Ú¯¤˜ ‹ fiÙÈ ÙÂÏÔ‡Ó Û ۇÁ¯˘ÛË, ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ·ÏÒ˜ fiÙÈ ÂΛÓÔ Ô˘ ηıÈÛÙ¿ οÔÈÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ‹ Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÓÙ›‰Ú·Û‹ ÙÔ˘
ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙË ‰ÔÌ‹ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜. √È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ·Í›Â˜ ‰È·Ê¤ÚÔ˘Ó Â›Û˘ ·Ó¿ÏÔÁ· Ì ٷ Û˘ÌÊÚ·˙fiÌÂÓ·, ηıÒ˜
Û˘Ó·ÚÙÒÓÙ·È ·fi ÙÔÓ ¯·Ú·ÎÙ‹Ú· ÙˆÓ ÂÏ›Ù Î·È ÙÔ˘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Ô˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡ ÏfiÁÔ˘. ™ÙȘ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ÂΛӘ (fiˆ˜ ÛÙȘ
Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ‰˘ÙÈΤ˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈΤ˜ ¯ÒÚ˜) fiÔ˘ Ë ÔÏÈÙÈ΋
ÎÔ˘ÏÙÔ‡Ú· ÙˆÓ ÂÏ›Ù Â›Ó·È ÂÌÔÙÈṲ̂ÓË Ì ÙȘ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚ˜ ·Í›Â˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÙÔÌÈÛÌÔ‡, ÙÔ˘ ‰ÈÂıÓÈÛÌÔ‡, Ù˘ ÔÏ˘ÔÏÈÙÈÛÌÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜, Ù˘ ÂÈÙÚÂÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘ ÛÙËÓ
ÚfiÔ‰Ô, Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ Â›Ó·È Î·Ù¿ ÙÔ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ‹ ‹ÙÙÔÓ ·Ó·ÁηṲ̂ÓÔ˜ Ó· ·ÓÙÈÙ·¯ı› Û ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ·Í›Â˜, ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜
Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· ÊÔÚ¤˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·Ó·Ù˘¯ı› Î·È ˆ˜ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈ΋
ÎÔÛÌÔıˆڛ·. ªÂ ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚȯı› fiÙÈ Ë ‡·ÚÍË ÌÈ·˜ οÔÈ·˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›·˜
Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·Ù‹.9 ŸÌˆ˜ ÔÈ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ Ó· ÔÚÈÛÙ› Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ Ì fiÚÔ˘˜ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ‰ÂÓ ÙÂÏÂÛÊÔÚÔ‡Ó, ÁÈ·Ù›, ηıÒ˜
·ÏÏ¿˙ÂÈ ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ, Ë ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈ΋ ·ÓÙÈ-ÂÏÈÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË ÂÓ‰¤¯ÂÙ·È Ó· Â›Ó·È ·ÓÙ›‰Ú·ÛË Û ¤Ó· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎfi ȉÂÔÏÔÁÈÎfi ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÔÓ. ™ÙËÓ ‰È·ÊˆÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÌÂϤÙË ÁÈ· «ÙË Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ›ÛÙË» ÛÙËÓ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈ΋ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·, Ô
Michael Kazin ·Ú·ÙËÚ› fiÙÈ ÂΛÓÔ Ô˘ ·ÔηÏ› «ÁÏÒÛ-

ӿη̄˘ ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙȘ ηÙÂÛÙË̤Ó˜ ‰ËÌÔÎڷٛ˜
ÌÔÚ› Ó· Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÂÈ ÛÙËÓ Î·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Î·Ù·ÓfiËÛË Ù˘ ÔÏ˘ÏÔÎfiÙËÙ·˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. √ ÏfiÁÔ˜ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ ÔÈ ËÁ¤˜
ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ÂÓÙÔ›˙ÔÓÙ·È fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÛÙÔ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ô˘ ÙÚÔÊÔ‰ÔÙ› ÙË ‰˘ÛÊÔÚ›· ÂÓfi˜ ÔÔÈÔ˘‰‹ÔÙÂ
Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÎÈÓ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÛÙȘ ÂÓÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘
·Ó·Ê‡ÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ Î·Ú‰È¿ Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ¶ÚÔÙ›ӈ fiÙÈ Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· fiˆ˜ ÙË ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘Ì ¤¯ÂÈ ‰‡Ô
fi„ÂȘ –Ì›· «Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋» Î·È Ì›· «Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋»– Î·È fiÙÈ
Ë Û˘Ó‡·ÚÍ‹ ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ‰È·ÚΤ˜ ΤÓÙÚÈÛÌ· ÁÈ· Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ. ∫·Ù·Ï‹Áˆ ‰Â ÛÙÔ Û˘Ì¤Ú·ÛÌ¿
fiÙÈ, ·ÓÙ› ÁÈ· Û‡Ìو̷ «ÔÈÛıÔ‰ÚÔÌÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜» Ô˘ ı·
ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÍÂÂÚ·ÛÙ›,2 Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ÛÎÈ¿ Ù˘
›‰È·˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜.
∆È Â›Ó·È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜;
¶ÚÈÓ ·ÎfiÌ· ÂȯÂÈÚ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ӷ ‰ÈÂÚ¢ӋÛÔ˘Ì ÙË Û¯¤ÛË
ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Ì ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÍÂηı·Ú›ÛÔ˘Ì ÂÚ› Ù›ÓÔ˜ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È, ηıÒ˜ Ô «Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜» ›ӷÈ, ˆ˜ ÁÓˆÛÙfiÓ, ÌÈ· ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ÓÂÊÂÏ҉˘
¤ÓÓÔÈ·. Œ¯ÂÈ ÌÂÓ ·ÎÚȂ›˜ ÛË̷ۛ˜ ÛÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÔÚÈÛÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÂÍÂȉÈÎÂ˘Ì¤ÓˆÓ ÏfiÁˆÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ ÔÈ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ÂÎfiÓËÛ˘ ÌÈ·˜ ÁÂÓÈ΋˜ ıˆڛ·˜ ˘‹ÚÍ·Ó ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈΤ˜.3 √
(ȉÂÔÙ˘ÈÎfi˜) ·ÔÏÔÁÈÛÌfi˜ Ô˘ ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È Â‰Ò
·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi ÛÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈΤ˜ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜, fiÔ˘ ÂÈÎÚ·Ù› ÂÓ ÔÏÏÔ›˜ Û˘Ìʈӛ· ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ
ÔÈ· ÔÏÈÙÈο Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· ÂÌ›ÙÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ Î·ÙËÁÔÚ›· ·˘Ù‹,
¯ˆÚ›˜ ˆÛÙfiÛÔ Ó· ·ÔÛ·ÊËÓ›˙ÂÙ·È ÙÈ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ Ù· ηıÈÛÙ¿
Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈο. ∏ ÂÓÓÔÈÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ·ÔÛ·Ê‹ÓÈÛË ÌÔÚ› ηٿ ÙË
ÁÓÒÌË ÌÔ˘ Ó· ÂÈÙ¢¯ı›, ·Ó ·Ó·ÚÔÛ·Ó·ÙÔÏ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ
ÚÔÛÔ¯‹ Ì·˜ ·fi ÙËÓ È‰ÂÔÏÔÁ›· Î·È Ù· ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓ· Ù˘
ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÙˆÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÈÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÚÔ˜ ‰ÔÌÈÎÔ‡˜
·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ˜. ø˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ÛÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈΤ˜
ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ Â›Ó·È ÚÔÛÊÔÚfiÙÂÚÔ Ó· ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È Î¿ı Â›ÎÏËÛË ÙÔ˘ «Ï·Ô‡» ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙfiÛÔ Ù˘ ηÙÂÛÙË̤Ó˘
‰ÔÌ‹˜ Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ fiÛÔ Î·È ÙˆÓ Î˘Ú›·Ú¯ˆÓ ȉÂÒÓ Î·È
·ÍÈÒÓ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜. ∆Ô ‰ÔÌÈÎfi ·˘Ùfi ÁÓÒÚÈÛÌ· ˘·ÁÔÚ‡ÂÈ Ì ÙË ÛÂÈÚ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡, ÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi ÛÙ˘Ï Î·È ÙËÓ «‰È¿ıÂÛË» ÙÔ˘. ∫¿ı ¤Ó· ·fi ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ÛËÌ›· ¯ÚÂÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È
ÂÚ·ÈÙ¤Úˆ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË ÚÈÓ Î·Ù·È·ÛÙԇ̠̠ÙÔ ÎÂÓÙÚÈÎfi
ı¤Ì· ÙÔ˘ ¿ÚıÚÔ˘.
√ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ Î·È ÔÈ ‰Ô̤˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜
∂›Ó·È ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ· ·Ú·‰ÂÎÙfi fiÙÈ Ù· Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù·
Â›Ó·È (ηٿ ÙË ‰È·Ù‡ˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Paul Taggart) «ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡ ηÈ
fi¯È ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜».4 ¶ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÔ˘Ó Î¿ÔÈ· ÌÔÚÊ‹
ÂͤÁÂÚÛ˘ ηٿ Ù˘ ηÙÂÛÙË̤Ó˘ ‰ÔÌ‹˜ Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜
ÛÙÔ fiÓÔÌ· ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡. ™ÙÔ Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙˆÓ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ
Û˘ÛÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ·˘Ùfi Û˘¯Ófiٷٷ Û˘ÓÂ¿ÁÂÙ·È ÙËÓ Â›ıÂÛË
ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙ· ηÙÂÛÙË̤ӷ ÎfiÌÌ·Ù·.5 ∏ ·ÓÙÈÛ˘ÛÙËÌÈ΋
™Y°XPONA

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15:33

™ÂÏ›‰·60

Û·» ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ÂÓ¤Ó ÁÈ· ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ·fi ¤Ó·Ó
·ÈÒÓ· ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ‹Ù·Ó Û·ÊÒ˜ ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈο Î·È Û˘¯Ó¿
ÂÌÊ·ÓÒ˜ ÙÔÔıÂÙË̤ӷ ÛÙËÓ ∞ÚÈÛÙÂÚ¿. ªfiÓÔ Î·Ù¿ ÙË
‰ÂηÂÙ›· ÙÔ˘ 1940 ÍÂΛÓËÛÂ Ô ·ÌÂÚÈοÓÈÎÔ˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎfi˜
ÏfiÁÔ˜ «ÌÈ· ÌÂÙ·ÙfiÈÛË ·fi Ù· ∞ÚÈÛÙÂÚ¿ ÚÔ˜ Ù· ¢ÂÍÈ¿»10
Ô˘ ·ÓÙÈ·Ú¤ıÂÙ ÙÔÓ «Ï·fi» ÛÙË Ó¤· ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚË ÂÏ›Ù.
∆Ô ÎÔÈÓfi ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂˆÓ ‹Ù·Ó Ë
ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ Î·È ·fi„ÂˆÓ Ô˘, ÛÙ· Ì¿ÙÈ·
ÙˆÓ ˘ÔÛÙËÚÈÎÙÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜, ÔÈ ÎÚ·ÙÔ‡ÓÙ˜ ·ÌÂÏÔ‡Û·Ó, fiÛÔ
ÎÈ ·Ó Ë Û˘Ì‚·ÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Âȉ›ÎӢ ÙÔ ÂӉȷʤÚÔÓ Ù˘
ÁÈ’ ·˘Ù¿.

ÙÔ Front National ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÂÈ ÙÔ ·›ÙËÌ· «ÚÒÙ· ÔÈ °¿ÏÏÔÈ»
ÛÙËÓ Â‡ÚÂÛË ÂÚÁ·Û›·˜, ÛÙ¤Á·Û˘ Î·È ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ÚfiÓÔÈ·˜. ∆Ô Ó· ˘Ôı¤ÙÂÈ Î·Ó›˜, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, fiÙÈ ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ›ӷÈ
·ÏÒ˜ ‰ÂÍÈÔ› ·Ú·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÍÈÛˆÙÈ΋ ·ÚfiÚÌËÛË
Ô˘ ÂÎÊÚ¿˙ÂÙ·È Û ÌÈ· ÙÚ›ÙË ·Ú·ÏÏ·Á‹ Ù˘ Â›ÎÏËÛ˘
ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡: ÛÙËÓ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÂΛÓÔ˘ Ô˘ ·ÏÈfiÙÂÚ· ÔÓÔÌ·˙fiÙ·Ó «ÎÔÈÓfi˜ Ï·fi˜»13 [common people] ·ÏÏ¿
ı· ‹Ù·Ó Û‹ÌÂÚ· ÚÔÙÈÌfiÙÂÚÔ Ó· ·ÔÎÏËı› «·Ïfi˜ Ï·fi˜»
[ordinary people], ηْ ·ÓÙȉȷÛÙÔÏÒÓ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ÚÔÓÔÌÈÔ‡¯Ô Î·È ˘„ËÏ‹˜ ÌfiÚʈÛ˘ ÎÔÛÌÔÔÏ›ÙÈÎË ÂÏ›Ù. √È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ÛÙȘ ηÙÂÛÙË̤Ó˜ ‰ËÌÔÎڷٛ˜ ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÔÓÙ·È fiÙÈ
ÌÈÏÔ‡Ó ÂΠ̤ÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ «ÛȈËÏ‹˜ ÏÂÈÔ„ËÊ›·˜» ÙÔ˘
«·ÏÔ‡, ¤ÓÙÈÌÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡», ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ Ù· Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ· Î·È ÔÈ
·fi„ÂȘ (fiˆ˜ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜) ÌÔӛ̈˜
·Ú·ÁΈӛ˙ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙȘ ·Ï·˙ÔÓÈΤ˜ ÂÏ›Ù, ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÈÂÊı·Ṳ́ÓÔ˘˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Î·È ÙȘ ıÔÚ˘‚Ò‰ÂȘ ÌÂÈÔ„Ëʛ˜.14 ∏
ÂÌÂÈÚ›· ı¤ÙÂÈ ˘fi ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË ÙÔÓ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÈÛÌfi ÙˆÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÒÓ fiÙÈ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ Ì¿˙· ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡, ηıÒ˜
ÔÈ Î·Ì¿ÓȘ ÙÔ˘˜ Û¿ÓÈ· ÚÔÛÂÏÎ‡Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÏÂÈÔ„ËÊ›·
ÙˆÓ „‹ÊˆÓ. ∆Ô fiÙÈ fï˜ ÌÂÙ¤Ú¯ÔÓÙ·È fiϘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÌÔÚʤ˜ Â›ÎÏËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡ ÈÛÙÔÔÈ› fiÙÈ
‚·Û›˙ÔÓÙ·È Û ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ‚·ıÌfi Û ¤Ó· Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ˘ Ô˘ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ ·fi ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ·ÓÙÈÏ‹„ÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙË Ï·˚΋
ÂÍÔ˘Û›·Ø Ì ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, ·fi ÌÈ· ȉ¤· ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·.

∂ÈÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ «Ï·Ô‡»
√ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ‰ÂÓ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌfiÓÔ ·ÓÙ›‰Ú·ÛË ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙˆÓ
‰ÔÌÒÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ¤ÎÎÏËÛË ÚÔ˜ ÌÈ· ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚÈṲ̂ÓË ·Ú¯‹ [authority]. √È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ·ÓÙÏÔ‡Ó ÙË ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛË ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÎ ÙÔ˘ ÁÂÁÔÓfiÙÔ˜ fiÙÈ ÌÈÏÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔ fiÓÔÌ· ÙÔ˘
Ï·Ô‡Ø Ì ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÔÓÙ·È fiÙÈ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ԢÓ
ÙÔ ˘ÔΛÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜ Î·È fi¯È ¤Ó·
ÌÂÚÈÎfi Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓ fiˆ˜ ÌÈ· ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ Ù¿ÍË. ∞Ó Î·È ÔÈ
ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ ·‰È˘ Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈΤ˜ ÁÈ· Ù· Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù·, ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙÂÏÈο ÌÂÙ·ÊÚ¿˙ÔÓÙ·È Û ÔÏÈÙÈο
˙ËÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ¿ÙÔÓÙ·È Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜.11 √
ÈÛ¯˘ÚÈÛÌfi˜ fiÙÈ ÌÈÏÔ‡Ó ÁÈ· ÏÔÁ·ÚÈ·ÛÌfi ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡ ›ӷÈ
οı ¿ÏÏÔ ·Ú¿ ·˘ÙÔÓfiËÙÔ˜, ηıÒ˜ Ô fiÚÔ˜ «Ï·fi˜» ›ӷÈ
·ÌÊÈÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔ˜ Î·È ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ¯ÂÈÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÌÂ
ÂȉÂÍÈfiÙËÙ· ÙȘ ÚËÙÔÚÈΤ˜ ÙÔ˘ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜. ÿÚÈÓ ·ÎÚȂ›·˜, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ÂÓÙÔ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÚÂȘ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈΤ˜ ÛË̷ۛ˜ Ì ÙȘ Ôԛ˜ Ë ÂÓ ÏfiÁˆ ϤÍË ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÙ·È
ÛÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎfi ÏfiÁÔ, ·Ó Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈο Ù›ÓÔ˘Ó Ó· Û˘Á¯¤ÔÓÙ·È.12
ª›· ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ë Â›ÎÏËÛË ÙÔ˘ Âӈ̤ÓÔ˘
Ï·Ô‡, ÙÔ˘ ¤ıÓÔ˘˜ ‹ Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜, ηْ ·ÓÙȉȷÛÙÔÏÒÓ ÚÔ˜
Ù· ÎfiÌÌ·Ù· ‹ ÙȘ Ê·Ùڛ˜ Ô˘ ÙÔÓ ‰È·ÈÚÔ‡Ó. ŒÓ· ÎÏ·ÛÈÎfi
·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Û‡ÓıËÌ· «United We Stand» Ô˘
¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹ıËΠ·fi ÙÔÓ Ross Perot ÛÙËÓ ÂÎÛÙÚ·Ù›·
ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÙȘ ·ÌÂÚÈοÓÈΘ ÚÔ‰ÚÈΤ˜ ÂÎÏÔÁ¤˜. ∏ ÂÈÎfiÓ·
ÙÔ˘ «Ï·Ô‡» ˆ˜ ÂÓÈ·›Ô˘ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÙÂÈ ÙË ‰˘Û·Ó·Û¯¤ÙËÛË Ì ÙȘ ÎÔÌÌ·ÙÈΤ˜ ¤Úȉ˜ Î·È ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÓı·ÚÚ‡ÓÂÈ ÙËÓ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË ÂÓfi˜ ÈÛ¯˘ÚÔ‡ ËÁ¤ÙË, Â¿Ó Â›Ó·È ‰È·ı¤ÛÈÌÔ ¤Ó· ¯·ÚÈÛÌ·ÙÈÎfi ¿ÙÔÌÔ ÈηÓfi Ó· ÚÔÛˆÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ
Ù· Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ· ÙÔ˘ ¤ıÓÔ˘˜. ªÂ ÙËÓ È‰¤· ·˘Ù‹ Ù˘ ÂÓfiÙËÙ·˜ Û˘ÌʇÚÂÙ·È, ·Ó Î·È ·fi ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ·fi„ÂȘ ·ÔÎÏ›ÓÂÈ
·fi ·˘Ù‹Ó, Î·È Ë È‰¤· ÙÔ˘ ‰ÈÎÔ‡ Ì·˜ Ï·Ô‡, Ë ÔÔ›· Û˘¯Ó¿
·Ú·¤ÌÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÂıÓÔÙÈ΋ ÔÌÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ·. ∂ÓÒ Ë ÚÒÙË Â›ÎÏËÛË Â›Ó·È ÂÓÔÔÈËÙÈ΋ (ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ ˆ˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ
ÌÔÚÊ‹), Ë ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË Â›Ó·È ‰È¯·ÛÙÈ΋, ηıÒ˜ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜
·Ó‹ÎÔÓÙ˜ ÛÙÔÓ Ï·fi –ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ÈÎÔ‡˜ Ì·˜– ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÌË ·Ó‹ÎÔÓÙ˜, ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÏÏÔÁÂÓ›˜ ÌÂÙ·Ó¿ÛÙ˜ ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·.
¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È¿ÛÙ·ÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ıÔÚ˘‚›
ÙÔ˘˜ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚÔ˘˜ Û¯ÔÏÈ·ÛÙ¤˜, fiˆ˜ Ë ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ô˘
™Y°XPONA

∆Ô ÛÙ˘Ï Ù˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜
√È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂÎÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ Ï·fi ‰È·Ù˘ÒÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÂ
¤Ó· ȉȷ›ÙÂÚÔ ÛÙ˘Ï, ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο «‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎfi»,
ηıfiÙÈ ·¢ı‡ÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔÓ ·Ïfi Ï·fi. ∫ÂÊ·Ï·ÈÔÔÈÒÓÙ·˜
ÙË Ï·˚΋ ‰˘ÛÊÔÚ›· ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙËÓ Â·ÌÊÔÙÂÚ›˙Ô˘Û·
ÛÙ¿ÛË Î·È ÙË ÁÚ·ÊÂÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÚËÙÔÚ›· ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ,
η̷ÚÒÓÔ˘Ó ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ·ÏfiÙËÙ· Î·È ÙËÓ Â˘ı‡ÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜.15
ŸÙ·Ó ̤ÏË ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡ ηÙÂÛÙË̤ÓÔ˘ ηÙËÁÔÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È
fiÙÈ ˘ÈÔıÂÙÔ‡Ó «Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜» Ù·ÎÙÈΤ˜, ¤Ó· ·fi Ù· ÙÂÎÌ‹ÚÈ· Ô˘ ÚÔÛÎÔÌ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ‡ÙÔ Â›Ó·È Ë ÚÔı˘Ì›· ηÈ
Ë ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ Ó· ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓÔ‡Ó Ì ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ¿ÌÂÛÔ,
Ï·˚ÎfiÙÚÔÔ ÛÙ˘Ï [tabloid style]. ŸÌˆ˜ Ë ·Ï‹ Î·È ¿ÌÂÛË
ÁÏÒÛÛ· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·ÚÎÂÙ‹ ÁÈ· Ó· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›ÛÔ˘Ì ¤Ó·Ó
ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi ˆ˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ‹, ÂÎÙfi˜ ÎÈ ·Ó Â›Ó·È ¤ÙÔÈÌÔ˜ ‹ ¤ÙÔÈÌË
Ó· ÚÔÛʤÚÂÈ ÂÍ ›ÛÔ˘ ·Ϥ˜ Î·È ¿ÌÂÛ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ Î·È ÚÔÙ¿ÛÂȘ. √È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ÂÎıÂÈ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰È·Ê¿ÓÂÈ·
Î·È ·¯ı¿ÓÔÓÙ·È ÙË Û˘ÛÎfiÙÈÛË: ηٷÁÁ¤ÏÏÔ˘Ó ÙȘ Û˘Ó·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ Ô˘ Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È ›Ûˆ ·fi ÎÏÂÈÛÙ¤˜ fiÚÙ˜, ÙÔ˘˜ ‡ÔÙÔ˘˜ Û˘Ì‚È‚·ÛÌÔ‡˜, ÙȘ ÂÚ›ÏÔΘ ‰È·‰Èηۛ˜, ÙȘ
Ì˘ÛÙÈΤ˜ Û˘Ìʈӛ˜ Î·È ÙȘ Ù¯ÓÈΤ˜ ·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ Ô˘
ÌfiÓÔ ÂȉÈÎÔ› ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ó.16 √È ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜
Ô˘ ·ԂϤÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔ‰fiÌËÛË Û˘ÌÌ·¯ÈÒÓ Â›Ó·È, ÁÈ·
ÙÔ˘˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡˜, ÚÔÊ·ÓÒ˜ ÂÎÙÂıÂÈ̤Ó˜ Û Ϸ˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂÈı¤ÛÂȘ,17 ÂÓÒ Â˘ÎÔÏfiÙ·ÙÔ ÛÙfi¯Ô ·ÔÙÂÏÔ‡Ó Î·È ÔÈ
ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ Ù˘ ∂˘Úˆ·˚΋˜ ŒÓˆÛ˘.18 √È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ÈÛ¯˘Ú›˙ÔÓÙ·È fiÙÈ fiÏË ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÔÏ˘ÏÔÎfiÙËÙ· ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·Ú¿ ¤Ó·
60

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ȉÈÔÙÂϤ˜ Ù¤¯Ó·ÛÌ· Ô˘ ‰È·ÈˆÓ›˙Ô˘Ó ÔÈ Â·ÁÁÂÏ̷ٛ˜
ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ› Î·È fiÙÈ ÔÈ Ï‡ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· Ù· ÚÔ‚Ï‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ··Û¯ÔÏÔ‡Ó ÙÔÓ ·Ïfi Ï·fi Â›Ó·È Î·Ù’ Ô˘Û›·Ó, Î·È ·˘Ù¤˜, ·Ϥ˜.

Û›·˜ Î·È ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÌÔÚʈÙÒÓ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓ‹˜ ÁÓÒÌ˘. ∂Î ÚÒÙ˘
fi„ˆ˜, Ë Â›ÎÏËÛË Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ ‚¿Û˘ Ì ·˘Ùfi ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ
Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ˆ˜ οÙÈ ÙÔ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎfiØ ¿ÏψÛÙÂ, Ù· ‰ËÌÔ„ËÊ›ÛÌ·Ù· Î·È ÔÈ Ï·˚Τ˜ ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›Â˜ Ô˘ ¢ÓÔÔ‡Ó ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÔÓÙ·È ·ÓÙÔ‡ ÛÙËÓ ‚È‚ÏÈÔÁÚ·Ê›· ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÛÙËÌÒÓ ˆ˜ «¿ÌÂÛË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·».25 √È ÔÚÈÛÌÔ› Ù˘
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Â›Ó·È ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ·ÌÊÈÏÂÁfiÌÂÓÔÈ Î·È ÔÈ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔÈ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ› ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ Ù¿ÛË Ó· ·ÔʇÁÔ˘Ó ÙË
Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË ÂÚ› Ï·˚΋˜ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜. ¶Ôχ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏ· fï˜
ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚ËÙËı› fiÙÈ Ë Ï·˚΋ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›· ηÈ
Ë Ï·˚΋ ‚Ô‡ÏËÛË Â›Ó·È ÎÂÓÙÚÈΤ˜ ¤ÓÓÔȘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜.26 °È·Ù› ÏÔÈfiÓ ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ‰ÂÓ ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ˆ˜ ÔÈ
·ÏËıÈÓÔ› ‰ËÌÔÎÚ¿Ù˜ Ô˘ ÔÈ ›‰ÈÔÈ ‰È·Ù›ÓÔÓÙ·È fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È;
¶Ò˜ Â›Ó·È ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÓ Û˘¯Ó¿ Ó· ıˆÚÔ‡ÓÙ·È ˆ˜ ÂÈΛӉ˘ÓÔÈ
ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·; ∫·È Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· ÙfiÛÔ ÈÔ ÂÈΛӉ˘ÓÔÈ fiÛÔ
ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚË Ë Ï·˚΋ ÙÔ˘˜ ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍË;
∏ ·¿ÓÙËÛË Ô˘ Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ‰›ÓÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÂÚÒÙËÌ· ·˘Ùfi
Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, fiˆ˜ ÙË ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘ÌÂ, Â›Ó·È ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚË Î·È fiÙÈ Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ Â›Ó·È ÂÈΛӉ˘ÓÔ˜ ÂÂȉ‹ ›ӷÈ
·ÓÙÈÊÈÏÂχıÂÚÔ˜. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙËÓ ¿Ô„Ë ·˘Ù‹, ÂΛÓÔ
Ô˘ ηıÈÛÙ¿ ÙË ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ¢¿ÏˆÙË Â›Ó·È
fiÙÈ Ë Û¯¤ÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙȘ ‰‡Ô Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘ Â›Ó·È «Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· ÌÈ· Û¯¤ÛË ·ÌÔÈ‚·›·˜ ·Ó·ÁηÈfiÙËÙ·˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ËÁ‹
ÂÓÙ¿ÛÂˆÓ ‹ ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÌÒÓ».27 √ Beetham (ÛÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô
·Ó‹ÎÔ˘Ó Ù· ÏfiÁÈ· ·˘Ù¿) ÙÔÓ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ ÔÏϤ˜ Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘
ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚ˘ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈ¿˜, fiˆ˜ Ë ÂÏ¢ıÂÚ›· Ù˘ ¤ÎÊÚ·Û˘ Î·È ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ ‰Èη›Ô˘, Â›Ó·È Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ıÂÌÂÏÈÒ‰ÂȘ
ÁÈ· ÙË ‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛË Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ¶·Ú·‰¤¯ÂÙ·È ˆÛÙfiÛÔ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚ˜ ·Ú¯¤˜ ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó Î·È ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜ ÛÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Î·È fiÙÈ Ë ·ÎÚÈ‚‹˜ ÛÙ¿ıÌÈÛË Ù˘
Û¯¤Û˘ ÙÔ˘˜ Â›Ó·È ÚÔ˜ Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË. ÕÏÏÔÈ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ›
¤¯Ô˘Ó ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë «Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·» ›ӷÈ
ÌÈ· ÂΉԯ‹ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ··ÏÏ·Á̤ÓË ÙÔ˘˜ ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚÔ˘˜ ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÌÔ‡˜, ‰È·ÓÂfiÌÂÓË ·fi ÌÈ· ÏÔÁÈ΋ Ù˘
ÏÂÈÔ„ËÊ›·˜ Ô˘ ·ÁÓÔ› ‹ ·Ú·Î¿ÌÙÂÈ Ù· ‰ÈηÈÒÌ·Ù·
ÙˆÓ ÌÂÈÔ„ËÊÈÒÓ.28
ŒÓ·˜ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚÔ˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ Û˘Û¯¤ÙÈÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ÌÂ
ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È Ë ˘ÔÁÚ¿ÌÌÈÛË ÙÔ˘ ·Ó·fiÊ¢ÎÙÔ˘
¯¿ÛÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÛÙÔ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi Ù˘ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘ ȉ·ÙÔ‡ Î·È ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡, Ù˘ Â·ÁÁÂÏ›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÈÙ¤ÏÂÛ˘. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë ¿Ô„Ë ¤¯ÂÈ ·Ó·Ï˘ı› Ì ÌÂÁ¿ÏË Ô͢‰¤ÚÎÂÈ·
·fi ÙÔÓ Sartori.29 ∫·Ì›· fï˜ ·fi ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ··ÓÙ‹ÛÂȘ
ÛÙÔ ˙‹ÙËÌ· ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ·Ôχو˜ ÈηÓÔÔÈËÙÈ΋. ∏ ÚÒÙË ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË, ηıÒ˜ ÂÛÙÈ¿˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÔ¯‹ Ù˘
ÛÙȘ ÂÓÙ¿ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔ ÂÛˆÙÂÚÈÎfi Ù˘ «ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚ˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜», Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È Ó· ˘ÔÓÔ› fiÙÈ fiÛÔ ÎÈ
·Ó ˘ÛÙÂÚÔ‡Ó ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ·fi ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ ÙÔ˘ ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌÔ‡, ·ÍÈÔÏÔÁÔ‡ÓÙ·È ıÂÙÈÎfiٷٷ ·fi ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜.30 ∏ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ Ó· ÂÓÓÔËı› fiÙÈ Ë È‰·ÓÈ΋
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Û˘Ì›ÙÂÈ Ì ÙÔ fiÓÂÈÚÔ ÙˆÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÒÓ, ·Ó ηÈ
Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ·‰˘Ó·Ù› Ó· ·ÓÙ·ÔÎÚÈı› ÛÙȘ

∏ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ıÂÛË
∆Ô ‚·ÛÈÎfi ‰ÔÌÈÎfi ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡, Ë Ï·˚΋
ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙȘ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ Î·È ‰È·ÓÔËÙÈΤ˜ ÂÏ›Ù,
ÚÔ¸Ôı¤ÙÂÈ, fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ¤Ó· ¿ÌÂÛÔ, ·Ïfi ÛÙ˘Ï, ·ÏÏ¿ ηÈ
ÌÈ· ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰È¿ıÂÛË. ∏ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ‰ÂÓ
Â›Ó·È Ë Û˘ÓËıÈṲ̂ÓË ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ÚÔ˘Ù›Ó·˜. Œ¯ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ó·ÓˆÙÈ΋ ·‡Ú· ÂÓfi˜ ÎÈÓ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÂÓÂÚÁÔÔÈÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˘ ·fi ÙÔÓ
ÂÓıÔ˘ÛÈ·ÛÌfi Ô˘ ÚÔÛÂÏ·ÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ·Ú¤Ó·
·ÓıÚÒÔ˘˜ Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ·ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜.19 ∞˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÂÍfi¯ˆ˜
Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈÎfi Û˘ÛÙ·ÙÈÎfi ¤¯ÂÈ ÙË ‰‡Ó·ÌË Ó· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤„ÂÈ
ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Û ÌÈ· ÂÎÛÙÚ·Ù›· ÁÈ· ÙË ÛˆÙËÚ›· Ù˘ ¯ÒÚ·˜
‹ Û ÂÁ¯Â›ÚËÌ· ÌÈ·˜ ÌÂÁ¿Ï˘ ·ÏÏ·Á‹˜. ™˘Ó·Ê‹˜ Ì ÙË ‰È¿ıÂÛË ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È Î·È Ë Ù¿ÛË Ó· ÂÈÎÂÓÙÚÒÓÔÓÙ·È Ù· ¤ÓÙÔÓ·
Û˘Ó·ÈÛı‹Ì·Ù· ÛÙÔ ÚfiÛˆÔ ÂÓfi˜ ¯·ÚÈÛÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡ ËÁ¤ÙË.20
∏ ÚÔÛˆÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ Â›Ó·È Û˘ÓËıÈṲ̂ÓÔ
·Ú·ÎÔÏÔ‡ıËÌ· Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›‰Ú·Û˘ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÚÔ˘Ù›Ó·˜. ∞ÔÚÚ›ÙÔÓÙ·˜ ·ÔÏÈıˆÌ¤Ó˜ ıÂÛÌÈΤ˜ ‰Ô̤˜,
Û˘ÌÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚·ÓÔÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÛÙÚˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ù˘ ÁÚ·ÊÂÈÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ˘ÌÓÔ‡Ó ÙfiÛÔ ÙËÓ ·˘ÙÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ· Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜
‚¿Û˘ fiÛÔ Î·È ÙÔÓ ÛÙÂÓfi ÚÔÛˆÈÎfi ‰ÂÛÌfi ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘
ËÁ¤ÙË Î·È ÙˆÓ Ô·‰ÒÓ ÙÔ˘.21
ªÂÏÂÙËÙ¤˜ ÔÈ ÔÔ›ÔÈ ÂÍÂÙ¿˙Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ¿ÓÔ‰Ô ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÏÂÚ
Î·È ¿ÏÏˆÓ Ê·ÛÈÛÙÒÓ ËÁÂÙÒÓ ÛÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· (‹, ·Ó·ÙÚ¤¯ÔÓÙ·˜ ·ÎfiÌ· ÈÔ ›Ûˆ ÛÙËÓ ÈÛÙÔÚ›·, ÙËÓ ·Ú·‰ÔÛȷ΋
Û¯¤ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÙˆÓ Ì·˙ÒÓ, ÙˆÓ ‰ËÌ·ÁˆÁÒÓ
Î·È ÙÔ˘ «Î·ÈÛ·ÚÈÛÌÔ‡») Û˘Ó‰¤Ô˘Ó Û˘¯Ó¿ ÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi ÌÂ
ÙËÓ ÂÈΛӉ˘ÓË ¯ÂÈÚ·ÁÒÁËÛË ·fi ÙËÓ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÙÔ˘ ËÁ¤ÙË
Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÓËÛ˘¯ËÙÈ΋ ·ÓÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÎfiÙËÙ· ·fi ÙËÓ ÏÂ˘Ú¿
ÙˆÓ Ô·‰ÒÓ.22 ªÔÏÔÓfiÙÈ fï˜ ÔÈ ·Ó·Ï‡ÛÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó
οÔÈ· ‚¿ÛË, ÔÊ›ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ ·ÓÙÈÛÙ·ıԇ̠ÛÙÔÓ ÂÈÚ·ÛÌfi
Ó· ÍÂÁÚ¿„Ô˘Ì ÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi ÂÓ Á¤ÓÂÈ ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ·ıÔÏÔÁÈÎfi
Û‡Ìو̷. ∏ ÚÔÛÔ¯‹ Ì·˜ ÛÙÔ ·ÚfiÓ ¿ÚıÚÔ ÂÛÙÈ¿˙ÂÙ·È
ÛÙ· Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÔÓÙ·È Û ÒÚÈÌ· ηÈ
ÈÛ¯˘Ú¿ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈο Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù·. ∆· ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· ·˘Ù¿ ‰ÂÓ
ÚÔÙ›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ Î·Ù¿ÚÁËÛË ÙˆÓ ÂχıÂÚˆÓ ÂÎÏÔÁÒÓ Î·È
ÙËÓ ÂÁηı›‰Ú˘ÛË ‰ÈÎÙ·ÙÔÚÈÒÓ, ÂÓÒ Ô ı·˘Ì·ÛÌfi˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÁÈ·
ÙÔ ÂÏ‚ÂÙÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ· Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ ÚˆÙÔ‚Ô˘Ï›·˜ Î·È ÙˆÓ
‰ËÌÔ„ËÊÈÛÌ¿ÙˆÓ Â›Ó·È ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· ÂÎÏËÊı› ˆ˜ ÂÈΛӉ˘ÓÔ Û‡Ìو̷ Ù˘Ú·ÓÓÈÎÒÓ Ù¿ÛˆÓ.23 ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·,
ÔÊ›ÏÔ˘Ì ӷ Ï¿‚Ô˘Ì ÛÔ‚·Ú¿ ˘fi„Ë ÙÔ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎfi ·›ÙËÌ· ÁÈ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛË.24 ∞Ó ‰ÂÓ ÙÔ Î¿ÓÔ˘ÌÂ,
ı· ¯¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ Â˘Î·ÈÚ›· Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈΤ˜
·Ú·Ì¤ÙÚÔ˘˜ Ù˘ ›‰È·˜ Ù˘ ʇÛ˘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜.
∂›Ó·È Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎfi˜;
Ÿˆ˜ ›‰·ÌÂ, ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ÂȉÈÒÎÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË
ÙÔ˘ ÂÎÏÔÁÈÎÔ‡ ÛÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙˆÓ Î·Ùfi¯ˆÓ Ù˘ ÂÍÔ˘™Y°XPONA

61

£EMATA

004ÎORMOS

01-11-10

15:33

™ÂÏ›‰·62

··ÈÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘. ™ÙÔ ˘fiÏÔÈÔ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ¿ÚıÚÔ˘ ÚÔÙ›ıÂÌ·È Ó· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿Ûˆ ÌÈ· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈ΋ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙˆÓ ÂÚÈÏÔÎÒÓ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ï·Ì‚¿ÓÔÓÙ·˜ ˘fi„Ë ÙȘ ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ˜ ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÂȘ, Ì ÙÚfiÔ fï˜ Ô˘ ı· Ú›ÍÂÈ,
fiˆ˜ ÈÛÙ‡ˆ, ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ Êˆ˜ ÛÙËÓ ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈ΋
Û¯¤ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, Î·È ›Ûˆ˜ ÛÙÔ
Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ·. ∏
‚·ÛÈ΋ ÌÔ˘ ı¤ÛË Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, fiˆ˜ ÙË ÁÓˆÚ›˙Ô˘ÌÂ, ¤¯ÂÈ ‰‡Ô fi„ÂȘ, Ì›· «Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋» Î·È Ì›· «Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋», Î·È fiÙÈ Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ‰›Ô Ô˘
ÔÚ›˙ÂÈ Ë ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ¤ÓÙ·ÛË. ™ÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô ·˘Ùfi ı· ¯ÚÂÈ·ÛÙ› Ó· ·Ú·Î¿Ì„Ô˘Ì ÁÈ· Ï›ÁÔ ÙÔ ı¤Ì· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜,
Ô‡Ùˆ˜ ÒÛÙ ӷ ı¤ÛÔ˘Ì ÙȘ ‚¿ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û‹˜ Ì·˜.

¯¤ÚÈ·. √È ıÈ·ÛÒÙ˜ ÙÔ˘ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓÔ˘ ÛÙ˘Ï ‰˘ÛÊÔÚÔ‡Ó
Ì οı ÓÔÌÈÎÈÛÙÈÎfi ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÌfi Ô˘ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ
ÛÙ·ı› ÂÌfi‰ÈÔ ÛÙÔ ‰ÚfiÌÔ ÁÈ· ÙË ÛˆÙËÚ›·.
∏ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡, ·ÓÙÈı¤Ùˆ˜, Â›Ó·È Î·¯‡ÔÙË ÙfiÛÔ ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙË ÂÍÔ˘Û›· fiÛÔ Î·È ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙÔÓ
ÂÓıÔ˘ÛÈ·ÛÌfi, Î·È ¤¯ÂÈ Ôχ ÌÈÎÚfiÙÂÚ˜ ÚÔÛ‰Ô˘ ˆ˜
ÚÔ˜ ·˘Ù¿ Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÙ‡¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· ΢‚¤ÚÓËÛË. °È·
ÙÔ˘˜ ˘ÔÛÙËÚÈÎÙ¤˜ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÙÔ˘ ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡, Ë
ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯ÂÈ Î·Ó¤Ó·Ó ˘¤ÚÙ·ÙÔ ÛÙfi¯Ô, ÂÎÙfi˜ ·fi ÙË
‰È·Ù‹ÚËÛË Ù˘ Ù¿Í˘ Î·È ÙËÓ Ì›ˆÛË ÙˆÓ ÂӉ¯fiÌÂÓˆÓ
·ÈÙÈÒÓ Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘Û˘ ̤ۈ Ù˘ Û˘ÓÙ‹ÚËÛ˘ Î·È Ù˘ ‚ÂÏÙ›ˆÛ˘ Ù˘ ÔχÙÈÌ˘ ÎÏËÚÔÓÔÌÈ¿˜ ‰ÈÎ·ÈˆÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ıÂÛÌÒÓ.
°È’ ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ÛÙ˘Ï ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜, ·ÔÊ·ÛÈÛÙÈ΋ ÛËÌ·Û›· ¤¯ÂÈ Ë
ÂÌ¤‰ˆÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜ ‰Èη›Ô˘.32
∫·Ó¤Ó·˜ ·Ó·ÁÓÒÛÙ˘ ÙÔ˘ ‰ÔÎÈÌ›Ô˘ ‰Â ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡ÛÂ
Ó· ·ÌÊÈ‚¿ÏÂÈ ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÛÙ˘Ï ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ Ô˘ ÚÔÙÈÌ¿ Ô
Oakeshott. ∆ÔÓ›˙ÂÈ ˆÛÙfiÛÔ Ô Oakeshott fiÙÈ Î·È Ù· ‰‡Ô
ÛÙ˘Ï, fiˆ˜ ·˘Ùfi˜ Ù· ·ÚÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ, Â›Ó·È «·Ê·ÈÚ¤ÛÂȘ» ·fi
Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤Ó˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜, Ë Ôԛ˜ ÛÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·
Â›Ó·È Ôχ ÈÔ ·Ó¿ÌÂÈÎÙ˜.33 ¶·Ú·‰¤¯ÂÙ·È ÂÈϤÔÓ fiÙÈ Î·È
Ù· ‰‡Ô ÛÙ˘Ï Â›Ó·È ·Ó·fiÊ¢ÎÙ·. ∞ÓÂͤÏÂÁÎÙË ·fi ÙÔÓ
ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÌfi, Ë ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘ ı· ·˘ÙÔ¸ÔÓÔÌ¢fiÙ·Ó
ÂÍ ·ÈÙ›·˜ ÙˆÓ ÔÏÔÎÏËÚˆÙÈÎÒÓ Ù˘ ·ÍÈÒÛˆÓØ ˆÛÙfiÛÔ,
«¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ¤ÏÍË Ô˘ ·ÛΛ Ë ›ÛÙË […] Ë ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË
ηٿ ÙÔ ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÙÈÎfi ÛÙ˘Ï ı· ‹Ù·Ó ÂÎÙÂıÂÈ̤ÓË ÛÙË
Ó¤ÌÂÛË ÙÔ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡ ·Ó·¯ˆÚËÙÈÛÌÔ‡».34 Èڛ˜ ·ÌÊÈ‚ÔÏ›· Ô Oakeshott ˘ÂÚÙÔÓ›˙ÂÈ Ù· ÌÂÈÔÓÂÎÙ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘
ÂÓÒ ˘Ô‚·ıÌ›˙ÂÈ ÂΛӷ ÙÔ˘ ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡. ∂ÈϤÔÓ, ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ, ÂÊfiÛÔÓ Ë ‰È¿ıÂÛË Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜
Ú¤ÂÈ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ›ÛÙË, fiÔÈÔ˜ ·ÓËÛ˘¯Â› ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Â˘ÛÙ¿ıÂÈ·
ÙÔ˘ ÏÔ›Ô˘ ÙÔ˘ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÊ›ÏÂÈ Ó· Ú›ÍÂÈ ÙÔ ‚¿ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘
ÛÙË ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿.35 ªÔÏ·Ù·‡Ù·, Ë ÎÂÓÙÚÈ΋ ı¤ÛË
ÙÔ˘ ‰ÔÎÈÌ›Ô˘ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ, ·Ú¿ ÙË ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ¤ÓÙ·ÛË, Ù·
‰‡Ô ÛÙ˘Ï Â›Ó·È ·‰È·¯ÒÚÈÛÙ· ÛÙËÓ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ÔÏÈÙÈ΋.
∏ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ·˘Ù‹ ÌÔÚ›, ηٿ ÙË ÁÓÒÌË ÌÔ˘, Ó· ‰È·ÊˆÙ›ÛÂÈ ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ÛÎÔÙÂÈÓ¤˜ ÂÚÈÔ¯¤˜ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜
ÂÌÂÈÚ›·˜. ¶ÈÔ Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ӷ, ı· ˘ÔÛÙËڛ͈ fiÙÈ ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ηχÙÂÚ· ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ˆ˜
Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ, Î·È È‰È·›ÙÂÚ· ÙËÓ ÙÚˆÙfiÙËÙ¿ Ù˘ ·fi ÙËÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚfiÎÏËÛË, ·Ó ÙË ‰Ô‡Ì ˆ˜ ÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô Û˘Ó¿ÓÙËÛ˘
‰‡Ô ·ÓÙÈÙÈı¤ÌÂÓˆÓ ÛÙ˘Ï ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜. ∫·ıÒ˜ ÚÔÙ›ıÂÌ·È Ó·
ÂÎÌÂÙ·ÏÏ¢ÙÒ ·ÏÒ˜ ÙË ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË Ô˘ ÂÈÛ¿ÁÂÈ Ô
Oakeshott, Î·È fi¯È Ó· ÙËÓ ˘ÈÔıÂÙ‹Ûˆ ÂÍ ÔÏÔÎÏ‹ÚÔ˘, ı·
ÌÂÙÔÓÔÌ¿Ûˆ ·˘Ù¿ Ù· ·ÓÙÈÙÈı¤ÌÂÓ· ÛÙ˘Ï, ·ÔηÏÒÓÙ·˜ Ù·
·ÓÙÈÛÙÔ›¯ˆ˜ «Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈÎfi» Î·È «Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈÎfi» ÛÙ˘Ï_
ÂΛÓÔ ‰Â Ô˘ ı· Ì·˜ ··Û¯ÔÏ‹ÛÂÈ ÛÙË Û˘Ó¤¯ÂÈ· Â›Ó·È Ó·
ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÈ ÚÔ·ÙÂÈ Â¿Ó ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ·fi ÙË Ì›· ‹ ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË ÛÎÔÈ¿. ¶ÚÈÓ ·Ê‹ÛÔ˘ÌÂ,
ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, ÙÔÓ Oakeshott Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÂÈÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ÚÔÛÔ¯‹ Û ̛· ÂÚ›ÂÚÁË Î·È ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ· ÙÔ˘ ÙÚfiÔ˘ Ì ÙÔÓ ÔÔ›Ô ¯·ÚÙÔÁÚ·Ê› ÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi Ê¿ÛÌ·. ∏

§˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Î·È Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋
∂ȯÂÈÚÒÓÙ·˜ Ó· ÂÓٿ͈ ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Û ¤Ó· ¢ڇÙÂÚÔ
Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÌÂϤÙ˘ Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·Ù‡ÂÙ·È ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο ÛÙ˘Ï
ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜, ı· ¯ÚËÛÈÌÔÔÈ‹Ûˆ ˆ˜ ‚¿ÛË ÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ÙÔ˘ Michael
Oakeshott. √ Oakeshott Â›Ó·È Â˘Ú‡ÙÂÚ· ÁÓˆÛÙfi˜ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ
ÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi «ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÌfi» Î·È ˆ˜ ˘ÂÚ·ÛÈÛÙ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ˘ ÛÙ˘Ï ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ Ô˘ Ô ›‰ÈÔ˜
¤¯ÂÈ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›ÛÂÈ ˆ˜ «ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ¤ÓˆÛË» [civil association].31
∂ÓÒ fï˜ Ë ÚÔÙ›ÌËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘ ÁÈ· ÌÈ· Û˘ÁÎÚ·ÙË̤ÓË, ·ÚÈÛÙÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Â›Ó·È Úfi‰ËÏË, ÛÙ· ÈÔ ÂÂÍÂÚÁ·Ṳ̂ӷ
¤ÚÁ· ÙÔ˘ ÛÙÔ ‰›Ô Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÛΤ„˘ ·›ÚÂÙ·È ˘ÂÚ¿Óˆ
ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ÙÔ˘ Û˘Ì·ıÂÈÒÓ Î·È ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ Ù· ·ÓÙ·ÁˆÓÈÛÙÈο Ú‡̷ٷ Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ Â›Ó·È Î·È
Û˘ÌÏËڈ̷ÙÈο: fiÙÈ ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜, ˆ˜ ηٿ ÛÎÔfiÓ «ÂÁ¯ÂÈÚËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ¤ÓˆÛË» [enterprise association], ‰ÂÓ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ÔÙ¤ Ó· ·ÓÙÈηٷÛÙ·ı› Ï‹Úˆ˜ ·fi ÙËÓ «ÔÏÈÙÈ΋
¤ÓˆÛË», Ô‡ÙÂ Ë ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ·fi ÙËÓ «ÔÏÈÙÈ΋
Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘».
∂‰Ò Ì·˜ ÂӉȷʤÚÂÈ ·˘Ù‹ Ë ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛË. ™Â
¤Ó· ‰ÔΛÌÈÔ Ô˘ ‰ËÌÔÛȇÙËΠÌÂÙ¿ ı¿Ó·ÙÔÓ, Ô
Oakeshott ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ Î·Ù¿ Ù· ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÂÓÙ·ÎfiÛÈ·
¯ÚfiÓÈ· ÔÈ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ∂˘ÚÒ˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÛËÌ·‰Â˘Ù› ·fi ÙËÓ
¤ÓÙ·ÛË ‰‡Ô ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ÛÙ˘Ï, Ì›· ¤ÓÙ·ÛË Ô˘ ¤¯ÂÈ ÂËÚ¿ÛÂÈ ÙfiÛÔ ÙË ıˆڛ·, fiÛÔ Î·È ÙËÓ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘, ÎÏËÚÔ‰ÔÙÒÓÙ·˜ Ì·˜ ¤Ó· ÂÍ·ÈÚÂÙÈο ·Û·Ê¤˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi ÏÂÍÈÏfiÁÈÔ. ∞˘Ù¿ Ù· ‰‡Ô ÛÙ˘Ï Ù· ÔÓfiÌ·Û «ÔÏÈÙÈ΋
Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘» Î·È «ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÌÔ‡». ™ÙËÓ ÚÒÙË
ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË, Ë ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÂÎÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÙ·È ˆ˜ ÙÔ Ì¤ÛÔ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ
Â›Ù¢ÍË Ù˘ ÙÂÏÂÈfiÙËÙ·˜ ‹ Ù˘ χÙÚˆÛ˘ Û ÙÔ‡ÙÔÓ Â‰Ò
ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ. ∏ χÙÚˆÛË ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ Á›ÓÂÈ Î·Ù·ÓÔËÙ‹
Ì fiÚÔ˘˜ ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ‹ ÎÔÛÌÈÎÔ‡˜, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÛÙȘ ‰‡Ô
ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ˘ÔÙ›ıÂÙ·È fiÙÈ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÙËÓ ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›ÛÂÈ Ë
΢‚ÂÚÓËÙÈ΋ ‰Ú¿ÛË. ∏ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘ ÏÔÈfiÓ Û˘ÓÂ¿ÁÂÙ·È ÙËÓ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÔ‡ ÂÓıÔ˘ÛÈ·ÛÌÔ‡ ÁÈ·
¤Ó· Ù¤ÙÔÈÔ ÂÁ¯Â›ÚËÌ·, ÙËÓ Âȉ›ˆÍË ·˘ÍË̤Ó˘ ÈÛ¯‡Ô˜ ÁÈ·
ÙËÓ Â›Ù¢͋ ÙÔ˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙËÓ ‚‚·ÈfiÙËÙ· fiÙÈ ÌÈ· Ù¤ÙÔÈ·
ÈÛ¯‡˜ ÌÔÚ› Ì ·ÛÊ¿ÏÂÈ· Ó· ÂÓ·ÔÙÂı› Û ·ÓıÚÒÈÓ·
™Y°XPONA

62

£EMATA

004ÎORMOS

01-11-10

15:33

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ÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ÍÂηı·Ú›Ûˆ ÙÈ ÂÚÈÏ·Ì‚¿ÓÂÈ Ë ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË ·˘Ù‹,
ı· ÂÈÛËÌ¿Óˆ ÙÚÂȘ Ù˘¯¤˜ Ù˘ ·ÓÙ›ıÂÛ˘ Î·È ı· ÙȘ ˘Ô‚¿Ïψ Û ÏÂÙÔÌÂÚ‹ ÂͤٷÛË:
(1) ∏ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈÎfi fiÚ·Ì·, ÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô
·Ó‹ÎÂÈ ÛÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÁ¤ÓÂÈ· ÙˆÓ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓˆÓ È‰ÂÔÏÔÁÈÒÓ Ô˘
˘fiÛ¯ÔÓÙ·È ÙË ÛˆÙËÚ›· ̤ۈ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜. ¶Ú·ÎÙÈο,
ÂÓÙÔ‡ÙÔȘ, ·ÔÙÂÏ› Î·È Ì¤ÛÔ ÂÈÚËÓÈ΋˜ Â›Ï˘Û˘ ÙˆÓ
Û˘ÁÎÚÔ‡ÛÂˆÓ ÛÙȘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ÎÔÈӈӛ˜ ̤ۈ ÌÈ·˜ ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈ΋˜ Û˘Ó¿ÚıÚˆÛ˘ ηÓfiÓˆÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ.
(2) ∏ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙÔÓ ˘Ú‹Ó· ÙÔ˘ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈÎÔ‡ ÔÚ¿Ì·ÙÔ˜: Ô Ï·fi˜ Â›Ó·È Ë ÌfiÓË ËÁ‹
ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ˘ ÙˆÓ ·Ú¯ÒÓ (authority), Î·È Ë ÛˆÙËÚ›· ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÌÈ· Â·ÁÁÂÏ›· ÛÙÔÓ ‚·ıÌfi Ô˘ Ô Ï·fi˜ ·›ÚÓÂÈ ÙËÓ
Ù‡¯Ë ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙÔ˘. ∞fi Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ fï˜ ¿Ô„Ë, Ë
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È ·ÏÒ˜ ÌÈ· ÌÔÚÊ‹ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘, ¤Ó·˜
ÙÚfiÔ˜ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ˘ ÂΛÓÔ˘ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙÔÙ ÌÈ· Û˘ÁÎÂÎÚÈ̤ÓË ÔÏÈÙ›· ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û ¿ÏϘ Û ¤Ó·Ó ÂÚ›ÏÔÎÔ
ÎfiÛÌÔ.
(3) ¶Ú·ÎÙÈο, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜:
ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜, fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÁÈ· Ó· ÂÚÈÔÚÈÛÙ› Ë ÂÍÔ˘Û›·, ·ÏÏ¿ ηÈ
ÁÈ· Ó· Û˘ÓÙ·¯ı› Î·È Ó· ηٷÛÙ› ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈ΋. ™ÙËÓ
Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ fï˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· (fiˆ˜ Î·È ÛÙËÓ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋
ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÁÂÓÈÎfiÙÂÚ·) ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ·ÓÙÈıÂÛÌÈ΋
·ÚfiÚÌËÛË: Ë ÚÔÌ·ÓÙÈ΋ ÚÔ‹ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ·ÌÂÛfiÙËÙ·, ÙÔÓ
·˘ıÔÚÌËÙÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙËÓ ˘¤Ú‚·ÛË Ù˘ ·ÏÏÔÙÚ›ˆÛ˘.
¶·Ú·Î¿Ùˆ ı· ˘ÔÛÙËڛ͈ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ‰‡Ô fi„ÂȘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Â›Ó·È Û·Ó ¤Ó· ˙‡ÁÔ˜ ¿ÚÚËÎÙ· Û˘Ó‰Â‰ÂÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÛÈ·Ì·›ˆÓ ‰È‰‡ÌˆÓ Ô˘ ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜ η˘Á·‰›˙Ô˘Ó, Î·È fiÙÈ Û˘ÓÂÒ˜ ·ÔÙÂÏ› „¢‰·›ÛıËÛË Ë ˘fiıÂÛË fiÙÈ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û·Ì ӷ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ÙË Ì›· ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ¿ÏÏË. øÛÙfiÛÔ, ÔÈ ÌÂٷ͇
ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÓÙ¿ÛÂȘ Â›Ó·È Ôχ ÌÂÁ¿Ï˜, Î·È ·˘Ù¤˜ ·ÎÚÈ‚Ò˜ ÔÈ
ÂÓÙ¿ÛÂȘ ‰›ÓÔ˘Ó ÙÔ ÂÚ¤ıÈÛÌ· ÁÈ· ÙȘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ Ô˘ Û˘ÓÔ‰Â‡Ô˘Ó ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Û·Ó ÛÎÈ¿. ∞˜
ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÙÒÚ· ÏÂÙÔÌÂÚ¤ÛÙÂÚ· ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ÙÚÂȘ ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ˜ ÂÓÙ¿ÛÂȘ, Î·È Ì ÔÈÔ ÙÚfiÔ Û˘Ì‚¿ÏÏÂÈ Ë Î¿ı ÌÈ·
·fi ·˘Ù¤˜ ÛÙËÓ ÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡. £· ·ÎÔÏÔ˘ı‹Ûˆ ÌÈ· ‰È·‰ÚÔÌ‹ ˙ÈÁÎ-˙·ÁÎ, ÌÚÔ˜ Î·È ›Ûˆ, ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘
Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÚÔÔÙÈ΋˜, ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ
ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Â˘ÎÔÏ›· Ù˘ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÁÈ· Ó· ·ÔʇÁˆ
ÙËÓ ÂÓÙ‡ˆÛË fiÙÈ Ë ÌÈ· ÚÔÔÙÈ΋ Â›Ó·È ıÂÌÂÏÈ҉˘ Î·È Ë
¿ÏÏË ‰Â˘ÙÂÚÂ‡Ô˘Û·.
(1) ∞fi Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ¿Ô„Ë, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ›ӷÈ
Ô˘ÛÈ·ÛÙÈο ¤Ó·˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ ÂÈÚËÓÈ΋˜ ‰È¢ı¤ÙËÛ˘ ·ÓÙÈÙÈı¤ÌÂÓˆÓ Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ Î·È ·fi„ÂˆÓ ÛÂ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ Ì·˙È΋˜
ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛ˘ Î·È ÂÈÎÔÈÓˆÓ›·˜. ∏ ÌÂÁ¿ÏË Ù˘ ·ÚÂÙ‹ ›ӷÈ
ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÙËÓ ÂÓ·ÏÏ·ÎÙÈ΋ χÛË ÛÙÔÓ
ÂÌʇÏÈÔ fiÏÂÌÔ ‹ ÙËÓ Î·Ù·ÛÙÔÏ‹. √ Bobbio ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ
ηϿ ·˘Ù‹ ÙËÓ ¿Ô„Ë, fiÙ·Ó ·Ó·Ê¤ÚÂÙ·È ÛÙÔ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎfi
ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ ˆ˜ «ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ Ô˘ ȉڇÂÙ·È Ì ‚¿ÛË ¤Ó· Û‡ÌʈÓÔ ÌË ‚›·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈÎÒÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ÔÌ¿‰ˆÓ
Î·È ÛÙËÓ ·Ô‰Ô¯‹ ·fi ÙËÓ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÓfi˜ Û˘ÓfiÏÔ˘

«ÛÎÂÙÈÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋» ÙÔ˘ ‰ÔÎÈÌ›Ô˘ Ô˘ ÂÍÂÙ¿Û·ÌÂ
¤¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· ÚÔÊ·Ó‹ Û˘Ó¿ÊÂÈ· fi¯È ÌfiÓÔ Ì ÙËÓ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ Ù˘
«ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ¤ÓˆÛ˘» Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛÂÈ ÛÙÔ ¤ÚÁÔ ÙÔ˘
Human Conduct, ·ÏÏ¿ Î·È Ì ÙË «ÊÚÔÓÙ›‰· ÁÈ· ÙȘ ‰È¢ıÂÙ‹ÛÂȘ» Ô˘ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÈ ÛÙÔ Rationalism in Politics, ÛÙÔ
Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÌÈ·˜ ·Ú¿‰ÔÛ˘ Ù˘ Û˘ÌÂÚÈÊÔÚ¿˜. ªÔÚ› Ó·
·ÏËı‡ÂÈ, ÂÔ̤ӈ˜, fiÙÈ Î·È Ù· ·ÓÙ›ıÂÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ¤¯Ô˘Ó
ÔÏÏ¿ ÎÔÈÓ¿, Î·È fiÙÈ (·Ú¿ ÙȘ ÂÓÙ˘ÒÛÂȘ), Ô «ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÌfi˜» Î·È «Ë ›ÛÙË» ‰ÂÓ ·¤¯Ô˘Ó Î·È ÙfiÛÔ Ôχ ÌÂٷ͇
ÙÔ˘˜ ˆ˜ ÂÊ·ÏÙ‹ÚÈ· ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ÈÂÍ·ÁˆÁ‹ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜. £·
˘ÔÛÙËڛ͈ ·Ú·Î¿Ùˆ fiÙÈ Â‰Ò Ï·Óı¿ÓÂÈ ÌÈ· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈ΋
ȉ¤·, Î·È fiÙÈ Ë «Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋» ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÎÔÌ›˙ÂÈ ¤Ó·Ó
ÚÔÌ·ÓÙÈÛÌfi Ô˘, ·Ê’ ÂÓfi˜, ÌÂÙ·›ÙÂÈ ‚·ıÌÈ·›ˆ˜ ÛÙË Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚËÙÔÚÈ΋, ÂÓÒ, ·Ê’ ÂÙ¤ÚÔ˘, Û˘ÓÙËÚ› ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÈΤ˜ Ô˘ÙÔ›Â˜. √ ¿ÌÂÛÔ˜ ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ Ì·˜, ÂÓÙÔ‡ÙÔȘ, ›ӷÈ
Ó· ÂÓÙ¿ÍÔ˘Ì ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÛÙÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ Ô˘
¤¯Ô˘Ì ¯·ÚÙÔÁÚ·Ê‹ÛÂÈ Î·È Ó· ‰È¢ÎÚÈÓ›ÛÔ˘Ì ÙȘ Û˘Ó¤ÂȘ Ù˘ ΛÓËÛ˘ ·˘Ù‹˜.
√È ‰‡Ô fi„ÂȘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜
ªÂ ‚¿ÛË ·˘Ù¤˜ ÙȘ ȉ¤Â˜ ÁÈ· Ù· ‰‡Ô ÛÙ˘Ï Ù˘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˘
ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ Î·È ÙË Û˘ÛÙËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ·ÌÊÈÛËÌ›· ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ
ÂÓÓÔÈÒÓ Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ·˘Ù¿, ÌÔÚÔ‡ÌÂ,
ÈÛÙ‡ˆ, Ó· ηٷÓÔ‹ÛÔ˘Ì ÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·
(ȉ¤· Î·È Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓÔ) ˆ˜ ÙÔ ÛËÌÂ›Ô ‰È·ÛÙ·‡ÚˆÛ˘ ÌÂٷ͇
ÙˆÓ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÌÔÚÊÒÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜. ™Â ÙÔ‡ÙË ÙËÓ ÂÓfiÙËÙ·, ı· ˘ÔÛÙËڛ͈ fiÙÈ Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÂÈ ‰‡Ô fi„ÂȘ, Ì›· Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ Î·È Ì›· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈÎ‹Ø fiÙÈ ÌÔÏÔÓfiÙÈ ÔÈ fi„ÂȘ ·˘Ù¤˜ ·ÓÙÈÙ›ıÂÓÙ·È, ›ӷÈ
Î·È ·ÏÏËÏÔÂÍ·ÚÙÒÌÂÓÂ˜Ø Î·È fiÙÈ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜ ˘Ê›ÛٷٷÈ
¤Ó· ÎÂÓfi ÂÓÙfi˜ ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ÌÔÚ› Ó· ¢‰ÔÎÈÌ‹ÛÂÈ Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜.
ªÂ ‰˘Ô ÏfiÁÈ·, ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ηÓ›˜ Ó· ·ÂÈÎÔÓ›ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ
Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ fi„Ë Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ì ÙÔ ÛÏfiÁÎ·Ó «Î¿Ï˜, fi¯È ÛÊ·›Ú˜», ‹ (Ì ÈÔ ·Î·‰ËÌ·˚ÎÔ‡˜ fiÚÔ˘˜) ˆ˜
«¤Ó· Û‡ÛÙËÌ· Â›Ï˘Û˘ ‰È·ÊÔÚÒÓ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ·ÏÏËÏÔÛÎÔÙˆÌÔ‡˜».36 ªÈ· ·ÓÙ›ÛÙÔÈ¯Ë Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈ΋ ·Ó··Ú¿ÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘
Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ fi„˘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ›ӷÈ
ÙÔ ·fiÊıÂÁÌ· «vox populi vox dei», ‹ ÙÔ ÛÏfiÁηÓ
«Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡, ·fi ÙÔÓ Ï·fi, ÁÈ· ÙÔÓ Ï·fi». ∞˜
ÛËÌÂȈı› fiÙÈ Ë ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿ Î·È Ë ¤ÓÙ·ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô
·˘ÙÒÓ fi„ÂˆÓ ‰ÂÓ ·ÓÙÈÛÙÔȯ› Ì ÙËÓ (ÚÔ·Ó·ÊÂÚı›۷)
¤ÓÙ·ÛË ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘ ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌÔ‡ Î·È Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, ηıfiÛÔÓ Ô ›‰ÈÔ˜ Ô ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌfi˜ ¤¯ÂÈ ÌÈ· Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ Î·È ÌÈ· Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ fi„Ë.37 √‡Ù ÈÛÔ‰˘Ó·Ì› Ì ÙËÓ
¤ÓÙ·ÛË (Ô˘ ÂÚÈÁÚ¿ÊÂÙ·È ·fi ÙÔÓ Sartori) ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÒÓ È‰·ÓÈÎÒÓ Î·È Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ·˜. ª¿ÏÈÛÙ·, Ë ›‰È· Ë Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ fi„Ë Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒÓÂÈ ÔÏÈÙÈο ȉ·ÓÈο (ηْ ÂÍÔ¯‹Ó: ÙËÓ ÂÈÚ‹ÓË, ÙË ÛÙ·ıÂÚfiÙËÙ·, ÙË ÌÂÙÚÈÔ¿ıÂÈ·)38 Ô˘ ‰È·Ê¤ÚÔ˘Ó ·fi ÙȘ
ηÙ¢ı˘ÓÙ‹ÚȘ ȉ¤Â˜ Ù˘ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ¶ÚÔ™Y°XPONA

63

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15:33

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ηÓfiÓˆÓ Ô˘ ÂÈÙÚ¤Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÈÚËÓÈ΋ Â›Ï˘ÛË ÔÔÈ·Û‰‹ÔÙ ۇÁÎÚÔ˘Û˘ Ô˘ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÚÔ·„ÂÈ ÌÂٷ͇
ÙÔ˘˜».39 ∆Ô ÂÓ ÏfiÁˆ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ÙËÓ ÙÔÈ΋ ·Ú·ÏÏ·Á‹ ÌÈ·˜ ηı·Ú¿ ÂӉ¯ÔÌÂÓÈ΋˜ Û˘ÏÏÔÁ‹˜ ıÂÛÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ (ÚÔ˚fiÓÙÔ˜ ÙˆÓ È‰È·›ÙÂÚˆÓ ·Ú·‰fiÛÂˆÓ Ù˘ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ¢ÙÈ΋˜ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡¯ıËÎ·Ó ÛÂ
ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ‰˘ÙÈÎÔÂ˘Úˆ·˚Τ˜ ¯ÒÚ˜ Î·È ÙȘ ˘ÂÚfiÓÙȘ
·Ú·Ê˘¿‰Â˜ ÙÔ˘˜), ıÂÛÌÒÓ Î·È Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ Ô˘ ¤¯Ô˘Ó
‚ÚÂÈ ÙÚfiÔ˘˜ Ó· ηٷÛÙ‹ÛÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· Û ¤Ó·Ó
‚·ıÌfi ˘fiÏÔÁË, ‰È¢ڇÓÔÓÙ·˜ ÙÔ Ê¿ÛÌ· Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ
Ô˘ ÂÓۈ̷ÙÒÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ·Ú¤Ó· Î·È ‰ÂÛ̇ÔÓÙ·˜ ÌÂÁ·Ï‡ÙÂÚÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÏËı˘ÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi
Û‡ÛÙËÌ·. ∞fi ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙËÓ ¿Ô„Ë, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ
ÔÏ˘ÎÔÌÌ·ÙÈο Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù·, ÂχıÂÚ˜ ÂÎÏÔÁ¤˜, ÔÌ¿‰Â˜
›ÂÛ˘, ÏfiÌ˘ Î·È fiÏË ÂΛÓË ÙË Û˘ÛÙÔȯ›· ıÂÛÌÒÓ Î·È
Ú·ÎÙÈÎÒÓ ‚¿ÛÂÈ ÙˆÓ ÔÔ›ˆÓ ‰È·ÎÚ›ÓÔ˘Ì ÙËÓ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ·fi ¿ÏϘ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓ˜ ÌÔÚʤ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜.
°È· ÔÏÏÔ‡˜ ·Ó¿ ÙÔÓ ÎfiÛÌÔ Ô˘ ˘Ê›ÛÙ·ÓÙ·È ÙÔÓ ÂÌʇÏÈÔ fiÏÂÌÔ ‹ ÙË ‚›·ÈË Î·Ù·ÛÙÔÏ‹, Ë Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÌÔÚ› Ó· Ê·ÓÙ¿˙ÂÈ ·ÍÈÔ˙‹Ï¢ÙË. ∞ÏÏ¿ ÁÈ· ÂΛÓÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ‚ÈÒÓÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ηٷÎÙ‹ÛÂȘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ˆ˜
‰Â‰Ô̤Ó˜, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ‰ÂÓ ı· ‹Ù·Ó Â·ÚÎÒ˜ ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔÈË̤ÓË Â¿Ó ·˘Ù‹ ‰ÂÓ ÚÔÛ¤ÊÂÚÂ Î·È Î¿ÙÈ ÂÈϤÔÓ.
¢ÈfiÙÈ Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È Î·È ˘Ô‰Ô¯¤·˜ ÙˆÓ ÚÔÛ‰ÔÎÈÒÓ
Ô˘ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚ›˙Ô˘Ó ÙË Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ÔÏÈÙÈ΋. ŒÌÊ˘ÙË ÛÙË
Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, Î·È Û˘Ó¿Ì· Û ¤ÓÙ·ÛË Ì ÙËÓ
Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ Ù˘ fi„Ë, Â›Ó·È Ë ›ÛÙË ÛÙËÓ ÎÔÛÌÈ΋
χÙÚˆÛË: Ë Â·ÁÁÂÏ›· ÂÓfi˜ ηχÙÂÚÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ ̤ۈ Ù˘
‰Ú¿Û˘ ÙÔ˘ ΢ڛ·Ú¯Ô˘ Ï·Ô‡. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë fi„Ë Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÂÚÈ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È ·fi ÌÈ· ·›ÁÏË. ŒÓ·ÓÙÈ ¿ÏÏˆÓ Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓˆÓ
Ô¯ËÌ¿ÙˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÛˆÙËÚ›·˜, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È Û¯ÂÙÈο ·Û·Ê‹˜. ø˜ ÚÔ˜ ÙËÓ ·Ú·ÛÙ·ÙÈ΋ ·ÂÈÎfiÓÈÛË Ù˘
Ô˘ÙÔ›·˜ ÎÔÌ›˙ÂÈ Ôχ ÏÈÁfiÙÂÚ· ·fi ÙȘ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ˜
ÌÔÚʤ˜ ÛÔÛÈ·ÏÈÛÌÔ‡Ø Û·Ó›ˆ˜ ÂÈÛÙÚ·Ù‡ÂÈ ÙÔ˘˜ ‰‹ıÂÓ
ÈÛÙÔÚÈÎÔ‡˜ ̇ıÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ıÚ¤ÊÔ˘Ó ÙÔÓ ÂıÓÈÎÈÛÌfi, ÂÓÒ ·fi
ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ Ù˘ ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› Ó·
Û˘ÁÎÚÈı› Ì ÙÔ ÊÈÏÂÏ¢ıÂÚÈÛÌfi. ∂ÓÙÔ‡ÙÔȘ, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÛÙ¤ÊÂÙ·È Ì ¤Ó· ʈÙÔÛ٤ʷÓÔ Î·ı·ÁÈ·Ṳ̂Ó˘ ·˘ıÂÓÙ›·˜, Î·È Â›Ó·È ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙ› ηÓ›˜ Ò˜ ı· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ӷ ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ·ÔÙÂÏÂÛÌ·ÙÈο ¯ˆÚ›˜ ·˘Ùfi. √
Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ ·ÚfiÚÌËÛË Ô‰ËÁ›
ηÙ¢ı›·Ó ÛÙË ‰È·ÊıÔÚ¿. ∞˜ ÛÎÂÊÙÔ‡ÌÂ, ÁÈ· ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·, ÙÔÓ ıÂÛÌfi ÙˆÓ ÂÎÏÔÁÒÓ. ™Â ¤Ó· ηı·Ú¿ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈÎfi Â›‰Ô, ÔÈ ÁÂÓÈΤ˜ ÂÎÏÔÁ¤˜ Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ ÌË ‚›·ÈÔ˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ ηٷÓÔÌ‹˜ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜. ™˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜ fï˜
Â›Ó·È Î·È ¤Ó· ÙÂÏÂÙÔ˘ÚÁÈÎfi ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ·Ó·Ó¤ˆÛ˘, ηÈ
·Ó ÙÔ ÙÂÏÂÙÔ˘ÚÁÈÎfi ·˘Ùfi ‰ÂÓ ·ÓÙÈÌÂÙˆÈÛÙ› Ì ÛÔ‚·ÚfiÙËÙ· ·fi ¤Ó· ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ÔÛÔÛÙfi „ËÊÔÊfiÚˆÓ Î·È ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ, ÔÈ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÔ› ıÂÛÌÔ› ·Ô‰˘Ó·ÌÒÓÔÓÙ·È. ∂¿Ó
ηٷÛÙ› ۷ʤ˜ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂÌÏÂÎfiÌÂÓÔÈ ‰ÂÓ ‚ϤÔ˘Ó ÙË
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ·Ú¿ ÌfiÓÔ ˆ˜ ¤Ó· «¿ÚÂ-‰ÒÛ», ÙfiÙ ·˘ÙÔ›,
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·ÏÏ¿ Î·È ÙÔ ›‰ÈÔ ÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÂÓ Ù¤ÏÂÈ, ‰È·ÙÚ¤¯Ô˘Ó ÙÔÓ Î›Ó‰˘ÓÔ Ó· ¯¿ÛÔ˘Ó ÙË ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ‹ ÙÔ˘˜. ŸÙ·Ó ·ÓÔ›ÁÂÈ ¤Ó·
˘ÂÚ‚ÔÏÈο ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ ¯¿ÛÌ· ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ ηı·ÁÈ·Ṳ̂Ó˘
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ Ú˘·Ú‹˜ ηıËÌÂÚÈÓfiÙËÙ·˜ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜, ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Ù›ÓÔ˘Ó Ó· ηٷϿ‚Ô˘Ó ÙÔ ÎÂÓfi ¤‰·ÊÔ˜, ¢·ÁÁÂÏÈ˙fiÌÂÓÔÈ, ·ÓÙ› ÙÔ˘ ‚ÚÒÌÈÎÔ˘ ÎfiÛÌÔ˘ Ù˘
ÎÔÌÌ·ÙÈ΋˜ Ì·ÓÔ‡‚Ú·˜, ÙÔ ··ÛÙÚ¿ÙÔÓ È‰·ÓÈÎfi Ù˘ ·Ó·Óˆ̤Ó˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ∞ÎfiÌË Î·È ·fi ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ Ù˘
Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜, ÔÈ ˙ˆÙÈ΋˜ ÛËÌ·Û›·˜ Ú·ÎÙÈΤ˜
Ù˘ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛ˘ Î·È Ù˘ ÏÔÁÔ‰ÔÛ›·˜ ·Ô‰˘Ó·ÌÒÓÔÓÙ·È
¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ÂÓ¤ÚÁÂÈ· Ô˘ ÂÎχÂÙ·È ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÌÓ¤Ô˘Û·,
ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈËÙÈ΋, Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ ÏÂ˘Ú¿ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜.40
(2) ªÔÚ› ÏÔÈfiÓ Â‡ÏÔÁ· Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚȯı› fiÙÈ, ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ Û ¤Ó·Ó ‚·ıÌfi, Ë Â·ÁÁÂÏ›· Ù˘ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÁÈ· ÛˆÙËÚ›· Â›Ó·È fiÓÙˆ˜ ··Ú·›ÙËÙË ÁÈ· Ó·
ÏÈ·Óı› Ô Ì˯·ÓÈÛÌfi˜ Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜,
Î·È fiÙÈ fiÙ·Ó ·˘Ù‹ ·Ô˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ ·fi ¤Ó· ηÙÂÛÙË̤ÓÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi Û‡ÛÙËÌ·, ÌÔÚ› οÏÏÈÛÙ· Ó· Â·ÓÂÌÊ·ÓÈÛÙ› ˘fi ÙË
ÌÔÚÊ‹ ÌÈ·˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÚfiÎÏËÛ˘. ∞ÏÏ¿ Ë ›‰È· Ë ·Ó·ÁηÈfiÙËÙ· ·˘Ù‹˜ Ù˘ Â·ÁÁÂÏ›·˜ ÚÔηÏ› ÙËÓ ÂfiÌÂÓË
·ÓٛʷÛË ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· Î·È ÙÚ¤ÊÂÙ·È Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜. ¢ÈfiÙÈ
ÙÔ ÂÚȯfiÌÂÓÔ Ù˘ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ Â·ÁÁÂÏ›·˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Â›Ó·È Ë Ï·˚΋ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·: ÂÌ›˜, Ô Ï·fi˜, ı· ·Ó·Ï¿‚Ô˘Ì ÙÔÓ
¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô Ù˘ ˙ˆ‹˜ Ì·˜ Î·È ı· ·ÔÊ·Û›ÛÔ˘Ì ÁÈ· ÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ Ì·˜.
¢˘ÛÙ˘¯Ò˜ ·˘Ù‹ Ë Â·ÁÁÂÏ›· ¤Ú¯ÂÙ·È Û ‚·ıÈ¿ Î·È ·Ó·fiÊ¢ÎÙË Û‡ÁÎÚÔ˘ÛË Ì ÙË ÌÔÚÊ‹ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ô˘
ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È ˘fi ÙÔ «„˘¯Úfi» ʈ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÌÔ‡, Î·È ÙÔ
¯¿ÛÌ· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ ‰‡Ô ·ÔÙÂÏ› ÚfiÛÊÔÚÔ ¤‰·ÊÔ˜ ÁÈ·
ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ù˘ÍË Ù˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ‰È·Ì·ÚÙ˘Ú›·˜.
∏ ‰Â‡ÙÂÚË ·˘Ù‹ ·ÌÊÈÛËÌ›· ·ÊÔÚ¿ ÙËÓ ·ÓٛʷÛË ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ ‰‡Ó·Ì˘ Î·È Ù˘ ·‰˘Ó·Ì›·˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ∞Ê’
ÂÓfi˜, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È ÙÔ È‰·ÓÈÎfi Ï·˚΋˜ ΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›·˜.
øÛÙfiÛÔ (ÁÈ· Ó· ·Ú·ı¤Ûˆ Ù· „˘¯Ú¿ Û¯fiÏÈ· ÙÔ˘ Ralf
Dahrendorf ÁÈ· ÙȘ Ï·˚Τ˜ Â·Ó·ÛÙ¿ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ 1989), «Ë
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· ÌÔÚÊ‹ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ Î·È fi¯È ¤Ó·
·ÙÌfiÏÔ˘ÙÚÔ ÙˆÓ Ï·˚ÎÒÓ Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ¿ÙˆÓ».41 ªÂ ¿ÏÏ·
ÏfiÁÈ·, Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ ÙÚfiÔ˜ ‰È·¯Â›ÚÈÛ˘ ÌÈ·˜ ÔÏÈÙ›·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ ¿ÏÏˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÂÈÒÓ Û ¤Ó·Ó Û‡ÓıÂÙÔ ÎfiÛÌÔ. ∏ Â·ÁÁÂÏ›·
Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Û ÌÈ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ı· ›̷ÛÙ Û ı¤ÛË Ó· ¤¯Ô˘ÌÂ, Û ¤Ó·Ó ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎfi ‚·ıÌfi, ÙÔÓ ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô Â› ÙˆÓ ÛËÌ·ÓÙÈÎÒÓ ˙ËÙËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ Ì·˜ ÂËÚ¿˙Ô˘Ó. ∞ÏÏ¿ ·ÎfiÌË Î·È Â¿Ó
˘ÔÙÂı› fiÙÈ, «ÂÌ›˜, Ô Ï·fi˜», ÌÔÚԇ̠ӷ Û˘Ó‰˘¿ÛÔ˘ÌÂ
Ù· ‰È·ÊÔÚÂÙÈο Ì·˜ Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ¿ Î·È ·fi„ÂȘ Û ÌÈ· Û˘ÓÂÎÙÈ΋ Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈ΋ ‚Ô‡ÏËÛË,42 Ù· ÛÎÏËÚ¿ ‰Â‰Ô̤ӷ Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋˜ ·ÏÏËÏÂÍ¿ÚÙËÛ˘ Û˘¯Ó¿ ÙËÓ Î·ıÈÛÙÔ‡Ó ˘fiÛ¯ÂÛË ÎÂÓ‹. ∞˘Ù‹ Ë ·ÌÊÈÏÔÁ›· Ï‹ÙÙÂÈ ÙȘ ‰ËÌÔÎڷٛ˜ ·ÓÂÍ¿ÚÙËÙ· ·fi ÙËÓ Îϛ̷ο ÙÔ˘˜, Î·È ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ›
Ó· ·ÔÊ¢¯ı› Ô‡Ù ̤ۈ Ù˘ Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜
ÙˆÓ ÌÈÎÚÒÓ ÎÔÈÓÔًوÓ, Ô‡Ù ̤ۈ Ù˘ ·ÁÎfiÛÌÈ·˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ô˘ ÚÔ‚¿ÏÏÂÙ·È Û‹ÌÂÚ· ·fi ÔÚÈṲ̂ÓÔ˘˜
·ÎÏÔ˘˜.43 ™ÙÔ Â›Â‰Ô ÙˆÓ ÂıÓÈÎÒÓ ÎÚ·ÙÒÓ ÙÔ Úfi‚ÏËÌ·
64

£EMATA

004ÎORMOS

01-11-10

15:33

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ηı›ÛÙ·Ù·È Î·Ù·Ê·Ó¤˜ ˆ˜ ÙÔ ¯·›ÓÔÓ ¯¿ÛÌ· ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘
·ÍÈÒÌ·ÙÔ˜ fiÙÈ ÌÈ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ΢‚¤ÚÓËÛË ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÂÈ ÙÔÓ Ï·fi Î·È Ù˘ Ôχ ÂÚÈÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˘ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ¿˜ Ù˘ Ó·
ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›ÛÂÈ ÙËÓ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ÙÔ˘ ¢ËÌÂÚ›·.
∂›Ó·È Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ „ËÊÔÊfiÚÔ˘˜ Û ÌÈ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·
Ó· ˘Ôı¤ÙÔ˘Ó fiÙÈ ÂÊfiÛÔÓ ÂÎϤÁÔ˘Ó Ì›· ΢‚¤ÚÓËÛË ÁÈ· Ó·
ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÓÙÈÚÔÛˆ‡ÂÈ, Ë Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË ·˘Ù‹ ı· ¤ÚÂ ӷ
ÊÚÔÓÙ›˙ÂÈ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Â͢ËÚ¤ÙËÛË ÙˆÓ Û˘ÌÊÂÚfiÓÙˆÓ ÙÔ˘˜.
∂›Ó·È ÂÍ›ÛÔ˘ Ê˘ÛÈÎfi ÁÈ· ÙÔ˘˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Ó· ˘fiÛ¯ÔÓÙ·È
ÛÙÔ˘˜ „ËÊÔÊfiÚÔ˘˜ fiÙÈ ı· Ú¿ÍÔ˘Ó Ù· ‰¤ÔÓÙ·. ÕÏψÛÙÂ,
fiˆ˜ ÌfiÏȘ ›‰·ÌÂ, ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ·›ÛıËÛË Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜
·Ó·Ó¤ˆÛ˘ –¤Ó· ÊÚ¤ÛÎÔ ÍÂΛÓËÌ· Ô˘ ı· οÓÂÈ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈο ÙË ‰È·ÊÔÚ¿– Â›Ó·È ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· ·ÔÙÚ·› Ô ÂÎÊ˘ÏÈÛÌfi˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÎÏÔÁÒÓ Û ̛· ‰È·‰Èηۛ· ‰È·ÊıÔÚ¿˜. √È
΢‚ÂÚÓ‹ÛÂȘ fï˜ ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó ÛÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ó·
ÂϤÁÍÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈΤ˜ Û˘Óı‹Î˜, Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜ ¯·ÏÂÔ‡˜
ηÈÚÔ‡˜ Ù· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈο Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù· Â›Ó·È Â˘¿ÏˆÙ· Û Ϸ˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ·ÓÙȉڿÛÂȘ. √ ·Ú¯ÂÙ˘ÈÎfi˜ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈÎfi˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ 1890 Û˘ÓÈÛÙ¿ ¤Ó· ÎÏ·ÛÈÎfi ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ·. √È ·ÁÚfiÙ˜ ÛÙËÓ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈ΋ ¢‡ÛË Î·È ÙÔÓ ¡fiÙÔ
‹Ù·Ó Û ‰ÂÈÓ‹ ÔÈÎÔÓÔÌÈ΋ ηٿÛÙ·ÛË, ·Ú¿ ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ
›¯·Ó ÌÈ· ÂÎÏÂÁ̤ÓË Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË. Ÿˆ˜ ‹Ù·Ó ·Ó·ÌÂÓfiÌÂÓÔ,
·ÓÙ·ÔÎÚ›ıËÎ·Ó ÛÙÔ Ì‹Ó˘Ì· fiÙÈ ÙÔ ÔÏÈÙÈÎfi ηÙÂÛÙË̤ÓÔ
‰ÂÓ ÊÚfiÓÙÈ˙ ÁÈ· Ù· Û˘ÌʤÚÔÓÙ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ÂÂȉ‹ ›¯Â ÙËÓ
‰È΋ ÙÔ˘ ·Ù˙¤ÓÙ·. °È· ÙÔ˘˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Ë ·¿ÓÙËÛË ‹Ù·Ó
ÚÔÊ·Ó‹˜. •ÂÊÔÚÙˆı›Ù «ÙÔ˘˜ ÏÔ˘ÙÔÎÚ¿Ù˜, ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÚÈÛÙÔÎÚ¿Ù˜, Î·È fiÏÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ¿ÏÏÔ˘˜ ·ÚÔ˘Ú·›Ô˘˜»,44 ·ÔηٷÛÙ‹ÛÙ ÙÔÓ Ï·fi ÛÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·, Î·È fiÏ· ı· ¿Ó ηϿ.
ŒÎÙÔÙ ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜ ÔÈ ·ÓÙȉڿÛÂȘ ÛÙËÓ ·ÌÊÈÛËÌ›· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·˜ Â·ÓÂÌÊ·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È
ÂÚÈÔ‰ÈÎÒ˜, fiÔÙ ÔÈ Î·ÈÚÔ› Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔÈ. ∂¿Ó Ë
΢‚¤ÚÓËÛË Â›Ó·È Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡, ÁÈ·Ù› ‰ÂÓ ÊÚÔÓÙ›˙ÂÈ
ÙÔÓ Ï·fi; ∂Âȉ‹ Â›Ó·È ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙˆÓ ‰ÈÂÊı·ÚÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ, ÙˆÓ ÂηÙÔÌÌ˘ÚÈÔ‡¯ˆÓ, ÙˆÓ ∂‚Ú·›ˆÓ, ÙˆÓ politically
correct ·ÙÚÒÓˆÓ ÙˆÓ ÌÂÙ·Ó·ÛÙÒÓ, ÂÂȉ‹ Â›Ó·È fiÚÁ·Ó·
ÙÔ˘ ¢¡∆, Î.Ô.Î.: Ë Ï‡ÛË Â›Ó·È Ë ÂÎÏÔÁ‹ ÌÈ·˜ Ï·˚΋˜ ΢‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘, Ô˘ ı· ‰ÈÒÍÂÈ ÂΛÓÔ˘˜ Ô˘ ‰ÚÔ˘Ó Ì ÁÓÒÌÔÓ· ÙÔ
›‰ÈÔÓ fiÊÂÏÔ˜, ı· ÛÙ›ÏÂÈ ›Ûˆ ÛÙȘ ·ÙÚ›‰Â˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜
ÌÂÙ·Ó¿ÛÙ˜, ‹ ÔÔÈ·‰‹ÔÙ ¿ÏÏË Ê·ÓÙ¿˙ÂÈ Ó· Â›Ó·È Ë
ÙÔÈ΋ ÁÈ·ÙÚÂÈ¿ ÛÙË ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹. ∫·ıfiÛÔÓ Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ÂÎÌÂÙ·ÏχÂÙ·È ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ¯¿ÛÌ· ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ Â·ÁÁÂÏ›·˜ Î·È Ù˘ ÂÈÙ¤ÏÂÛ˘ ÛÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, ÔÈ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜
Â·ÓÂÌÊ¿ÓÈÛ‹˜ ÙÔ˘ Â›Ó·È ·ÓÂÍ¿ÓÙÏËÙ˜. ¢ÈfiÙÈ ·ÎfiÌË Î·È
ÛÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÙˆÛË Ô˘ ¤Ó· Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎfi ΛÓËÌ· ·Ô‰Âȯı›
ÙfiÛÔ ÂÈÙ˘¯¤˜ ÛÙÔÓ ·ÁÒÓ· ÙÔ˘ ÂÓ·ÓÙ›ÔÓ ÙˆÓ Î·ÙÂÛÙËÌ¤ÓˆÓ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÒÓ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂˆÓ ÒÛÙ ӷ ηٷϿ‚ÂÈ ÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·,
ı· ·ÔÎ·Ï˘Êı› ÂÓ Ù¤ÏÂÈ Î·È Ë ‰È΋ ÙÔ˘ ·‰˘Ó·Ì›· Ó· ·ÓÙ·ÔÎÚÈı› ÛÙȘ Â·ÁÁÂϛ˜ ÙÔ˘, ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÒÓÙ·˜ ¤ÙÛÈ ÂÎ
Ó¤Ô˘ ÙȘ Û˘Óı‹Î˜ ÁÈ· Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ.
ø˜ ÚÔ˜ ·˘Ù‹Ó ÙËÓ Ù˘¯‹ Ù˘ ·ÌÊÈÛËÌ›·˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, Â›Ó·È Â‡ÎÔÏÔ Ó· ‰ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÁÈ·Ù› Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ıˆ™Y°XPONA

ÚÂ›Ù·È Û˘¯Ó¿ ˆ˜ ·Úˆ‰›· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, ›Ûˆ˜ Î·È ˆ˜
·ÂÈÏ‹ ÁÈ· fiÏÔ ÙÔ Û‡ÛÙËÌ·. Ÿˆ˜ fï˜ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ ¿ÓÙÔÙ fiÙ·Ó ¤¯Ô˘Ì ӷ οÓÔ˘Ì Ì ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·, Ë Î·Ù¿ÛÙ·ÛË Â›Ó·È ‰ÈÊÔÚÔ‡ÌÂÓË, Î·È «Ô Ú·ÏÈÛÌfi˜» ÌÔÚ› ÎÈ
·˘Ùfi˜ Ó· ·Ô‰Âȯı› ·ÏÔ˚Îfi˜. ¢ÈfiÙÈ Ë Â·ÁÁÂÏ›· Ù˘
Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ ··ÙËÏ‹: ›ӷÈ
fiÓÙˆ˜ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ÔÈ ¿ÓıÚˆÔÈ Ô˘ ÈÛÙÂ‡Ô˘Ó ÛÙË ‰‡Ó·ÌË Ù˘ Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ‰Ú¿Û˘ Î·È ÂÓÒÓÔ˘Ó ÙȘ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂȘ ÙÔ˘˜,
ÌÔÚÔ‡Ó ÙÂÏÈο Ó· ·Û΋ÛÔ˘Ó ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚË ÂÍÔ˘Û›· ·’
fiÙÈ Â¿Ó ·Ú·ÈÙÔ‡ÓÙ·Ó Î·È ·ÊÔÛÈÒÓÔÓÙ·Ó ÛÙȘ ȉȈÙÈΤ˜
ÙÔ˘˜ ˘Ôı¤ÛÂȘ. ∆· Ï·˚ο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· ·Ô‰ÂÈÎÓ‡Ô˘Ó Û˘¯Ó¿
ÙÔ˘ ÏfiÁÔ˘ ÙÔ ·ÏËı¤˜, ÂÓÒ ¤Ó·˜ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÏfiÁÔ˘˜ ÁÈ· ÙË
Û˘ÁÎÚÈÙÈ΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË ÌÂÚÈÎÒÓ ÎÚ·ÙÒÓ Î·È ÙËÓ ·‰˘Ó·Ì›·
¿ÏÏˆÓ Â›Ó·È Ë ·ÚÔ˘Û›· ‹ Ë ·Ô˘Û›· ·˘ÙÔ‡ ÙÔ˘ ›‰Ô˘˜
Û˘ÏÏÔÁÈ΋˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ‚Ô‡ÏËÛ˘. ™Â ÔÏÏ¿ ÔÏÈÙÈο
Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·Ù·, ÔÈ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ˜ ÁÈ· Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯‹ ÛÙËÓ ÂÍÔ˘Û›·
‰È·Ï‡ÔÓÙ·È ÂÏÏ›„ÂÈ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓ‹˜ ›ÛÙ˘ ÛÙË Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·. ∆· ÌË Ú·ÏÈÛÙÈο ÔÚ¿Ì·Ù· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ›ӷÈ
ÚÔ¸fiıÂÛË Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÈÙ¢ÁÌ¿ÙˆÓ, ·ÏÏ¿ Ù·˘Ùfi¯ÚÔÓ· Î·È Û˘ÓÙ·Á‹ ÁÈ· ·ÔÁÔ‹Ù¢ÛË. ∏ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·,
›ӷÈ, ·’ fiÙÈ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È, ˘Ô¯Úˆ̤ÓË Ó· ÛÙÚ¤ÊÂÙ·È Û ‰‡Ô
·ÓÙ›ıÂÙ˜ ηÙ¢ı‡ÓÛÂȘ, Î·È Ì¿ÏÈÛÙ· Û˘Á¯ÚfiÓˆ˜.
(3) ªÈ· ÙÚ›ÙË Ù˘¯‹ Ù˘ ¤ÓÙ·Û˘ ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ fi„˘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ·ÊÔÚ¿
ÙÔ˘˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ·ÏÏÔÙÚ›ˆÛË ÙËÓ
ÔÔ›· ·Ó·fiÊ¢ÎÙ· ÚÔηÏÔ‡Ó. ∂›Ó·È ÚÔÊ·Ó¤˜ fiÙÈ Ë
˘ÏÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ Â·ÁÁÂÏ›·˜ ÁÈ· Ï·˚΋
΢ÚÈ·Ú¯›· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ÂÈÙ¢¯ı› ÌfiÓÔ Ì¤Ûˆ ıÂÛÌÒÓ Ô˘
ı· ηıÈÛÙÔ‡Û·Ó ÙË Ï·˚΋ ÂÍÔ˘Û›· ‰Ú·ÛÙÈ΋ Î·È ÌfiÓÈÌË.45
™ÙÂÓ¿ fï˜ Û˘Ó‰Â‰Â̤ÓË Ì ÙË Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ Ù˘¯‹ Ù˘
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ê·›ÓÂÙ·È ˆ˜ Â›Ó·È Î·È ÌÈ· ‚·ıÈ¿ ·ÔÛÙÚÔÊ‹
ÚÔ˜ ÙÔ˘˜ ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜ Ô˘ ·ÚÂÌ‚¿ÏÏÔÓÙ·È ÌÂٷ͇ ÙˆÓ
·ÓıÚÒˆÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÂÓÂÚÁÂÈÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜, Î·È Ë Ï·¯Ù¿Ú· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ
¿ÌÂÛË, ·‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ¿‚ËÙË ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË Ù˘ ı¤ÏËÛ˘ ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡.
À¿Ú¯ÂÈ Â‰Ò ÌÈ· ÚÔ‹ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔÓ ÚÔÌ·ÓÙÈÛÌfi Â‰Ò Ô˘
ÂÈηÏÂ›Ù·È ÙË ˙ÒÛ· ʈӋ ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡ Î·È ÙËÓ ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙË
‰Ú¿ÛË ÙÔ˘.
Œ¯ÂÈ ÛËÌ·Û›· ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛË Ó·
ıˆÚÂ›Ù·È Ë ÔÏÈÙ›· ηٿ οÔÈÔ ÙÚfiÔ ˆ˜ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË ÙÔ˘
Ï·Ô‡: ·ÓÂÍ·Úًو˜ ‰ËÏ·‰‹ ÙÔ˘ ÙÈ ÈÛÙ‡ԢÌ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ
ÂοÛÙÔÙ ΢‚¤ÚÓËÛË, Ó· ıˆÚԇ̠ÙÔ ÎÚ¿ÙÔ˜ ‰ÈÎfi Ì·˜
Î·È fi¯È οÙÈ ÂÓÙÂÏÒ˜ ͤÓÔ.46 ŸÙ·Ó ‰ÂÓ Û˘Ì‚·›ÓÂÈ ·˘Ùfi,
˘ÔÓÔ̇ÂÙ·È Ë Ú·ÎÙÈ΋ ‰˘Ó·ÙfiÙËÙ· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ó·
ÂÈχÂÈ ÙȘ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ‰È·ÊˆÓ›Â˜ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ‚›·. ∆· ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚ·
ÚÔÙ¿ÁÌ·Ù· ÁÈ· ‚ÂÏÙȈ̤Ó˜ ÂΉԯ¤˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜
ÂȉÈÒÎÔ˘Ó ÙË Ì›ˆÛË Ù˘ ·ÏÏÔÙÚ›ˆÛ˘ ÂÚÈÔÚ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ
·fiÛÙ·ÛË Ï·Ô‡ Î·È ÔÏÈÙ›·˜ Î·È Î·ıÈÛÙÒÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›· ÈÔ Â˘·›ÛıËÙÔ ‰¤ÎÙË ÙˆÓ Ï·˚ÎÒÓ ‰È·ı¤ÛˆÓ. ∆Ô Úfi‚ÏËÌ· Ì ÙËÓ ·Ù˙¤ÓÙ· ·˘Ù‹ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜. ∂›Ó·È ‰‡ÛÎÔÏÔ Ó· Ê·ÓÙ·ÛÙ›
ηÓ›˜ ÙÈ ı· ¤Î·Ó ÙËÓ ∂ÊÔÚ›·, ÙÔ ÿ‰Ú˘Ì· ∫ÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜
65

£EMATA

004ÎORMOS

01-11-10

15:33

™ÂÏ›‰·66

∞ÛÊ¿ÏÈÛ˘ ‹ ·ÎfiÌ· Î·È ÙËÓ ›‰È· ÙË µÔ˘Ï‹ Ó· ÓÈÒÛÔ˘Ó
ÂÎÊÚ·ÛÙ¤˜ Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜ ‚Ô‡ÏËÛ˘. £ÂÛÌÔ›, fiˆ˜ ·˘ÙÔ›,
·Ó·Î·ÏÔ‡Ó ÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙÔ˘ Marx ÁÈ· ÙÔ ÎÂÊ¿Ï·ÈÔ ˆ˜
·ÏÏÔÙÚȈ̤ÓË ÂÚÁ·Û›· Ô˘ ‚ÈÒÓÂÙ·È ·fi ÙÔÓ ÂÚÁ¿ÙË fi¯È
ˆ˜ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË ÙˆÓ ÂχıÂÚˆÓ ‰ËÌÈÔ˘ÚÁÈÎÒÓ ‰˘Ó¿ÌÂÒÓ ÙÔ˘,
·ÏÏ¿ ˆ˜ ͤÓÔ ·ÓÙÈΛÌÂÓÔ Ô˘ ÙÔÓ ÂÍÔ˘ÛÈ¿˙ÂÈ.47 ∏ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÌÔÚ› Ó· Â›Ó·È ÌÈ· Ôχ ÈÛ¯˘Ú‹ ÌÔÚÊ‹ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÙÚÔ Ô˘ ‰È·ı¤ÙÂÈ ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛË Î·È ·Ó·ÁÓˆÚ›˙ÂÙ·È ˆ˜ Ë ‰È΋ Ì·˜ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË. ∞ÏÏ¿ ÁÈ· Ó· ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ˆ˜ ‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛË Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· Ï¿‚ÂÈ ıÂÛÌÈΤ˜ ÌÔÚʤ˜
Ô˘ ·¤¯Ô˘Ó Ôχ ·fi ÙËÓ ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙË Ï·˚΋ ¤ÎÊÚ·ÛË.
Ÿˆ˜ ·Ú·ÙËÚ› Ô Beetham «Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ˆ˜ ̤ıÔ‰Ô˜
‰È·Î˘‚¤ÚÓËÛ˘ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÔÙȉ‹ÔÙÂ Ù˘¯·›ÓÂÈ Ó· ·ÔÊ·Û›ÛÂÈ Ô Ï·fi˜ Û ÌÈ· ‰Â‰Ô̤ÓË ÛÙÈÁÌ‹, ·ÏÏ¿ ÙÔ Û‡ÓÔÏÔ ÙˆÓ
Ú˘ıÌ›ÛÂˆÓ Ô˘ ÂÍ·ÛÊ·Ï›˙ÂÈ ÙÔÓ ¤ÏÂÁ¯Ô ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÔ‡ ·Ú¿ÁÔÓÙ· Â› Ù˘ ‰ËÌfiÛÈ·˜ ‰È·‰Èηۛ·˜ Ï‹„˘ ÙˆÓ ·ÔÊ¿ÛÂˆÓ Û ÙÚ¤¯Ô˘Û· ‚¿ÛË».48 ¢Â ı· Ú¤ÂÈ ÏÔÈfiÓ Ó· ÍÂÓ›˙ÂÈ
ÙÔ ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ fiÙÈ ¿ÓÙÔÙ ˘¿Ú¯ÂÈ ÙÔ ÂÚÈıÒÚÈÔ Ó· Á›ÓÔÓÙ·È
ÂÎÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ÎfiÏÔ˘˜ ÙˆÓ ıÂÛÌÒÓ ÛÙË Ï·˚΋ ‚Ô‡ÏËÛË ‹ ÛÙËÓ ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙË ‰Ú¿ÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡.
∞˜ ÛÎÂÊÙÔ‡ÌÂ, ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜ ¯¿ÚÈÓ, ¤Ó· ı¤Ì· Ô˘
ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ› ÙÔ˘˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Û ÔÏÏ¿ ‰˘ÙÈο ÎÚ¿ÙË, ÙË
ı¤ÛË Ù˘ ÔÈÓÈ΋˜ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡Ó˘ ÛÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·. ªÂ
ıÂÛÌÈÎÔ‡˜ fiÚÔ˘˜, ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ‰ÈηÈÔÛ‡ÓË ÛËÌ·›ÓÂÈ Ú˘ıÌ›ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÍ·ÛÊ¿ÏÈÛË Ù˘ ›Û˘ ÚÔÛÙ·Û›·˜ ÙˆÓ
ÓfiÌˆÓ Û fiÏÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Ôϛ٘. ªÂ ¿ÏÏ· ÏfiÁÈ·, ÙÔ Ï·˚Îfi
ÂÚ› ‰Èη›Ô˘ ·›ÛıËÌ· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÌÂÛÔÏ·‚Ëı› ̤۷ ·fi
ÙȘ ‰·È‰·ÏÒ‰ÂȘ ·ÙÚ·Ô‡˜ ÙˆÓ ÚÔ‚ÏÂfiÌÂÓˆÓ ÓÔÌÈÎÒÓ
‰È·‰ÈηÛÈÒÓ. ∆· ·ÔÙÂϤÛÌ·Ù· fï˜ Ù˘ ¢ı˘‰ÈΛ·˜ ηÈ
Ù˘ ÈÛÔÓÔÌ›·˜ Û˘¯Ó¿ Û˘ÁÎÚÔ‡ÔÓÙ·È Ì ÙÔ ·˘ıfiÚÌËÙÔ
Ï·˚Îfi ·›ÛıËÌ· ÂÚ› ‰Èη›Ô˘. ∞˘Ùfi ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ ·ÓÔȯÙfi ÙÔ
‰›Ô ÁÈ· ÙË Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛË Ù˘ ˙ÒÛ·˜ Ï·˚΋˜
‚Ô‡ÏËÛ˘ ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙÔ ÓÂÎÚfi ÁÚ¿ÌÌ· ÙÔ˘ ÓfiÌÔ˘. √È ÊÈÏÂχıÂÚÔÈ Ô˘ ÊÔ‚Ô‡ÓÙ·È ÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi ‚·Û·Ó›˙ÔÓÙ·È ·fi
ÙÔ ÂÊÈ·ÏÙÈÎfi Ê¿ÛÌ· ÙÔ˘ fi¯ÏÔ˘ Ô˘, ˘ÔÎÈÓÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ˜ ·fi
‰ËÌ·ÁˆÁÔ‡˜, ·›ÚÓÂÈ ÙÔÓ ÓfiÌÔ ÛÙ· ¯¤ÚÈ· ÙÔ˘, ‹ ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÔ‡ Ù˘Ú¿ÓÓÔ˘ Ô˘ ÂÚÈÊÚÔÓ› ÙÔ˘˜ ÓÔÌÈÎÔ‡˜ Ù‡Ô˘˜.
∏ Ù˘¯‹ ·˘Ù‹ Ù˘ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÌÔÚ› Ó·
ʈÙÈÛÙ› ·fi ÙËÓ ÂÚ›ÊËÌË ‚ÂÌÂÚÈ·Ó‹ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙˆÓ
ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈÎÒÓ ıÂÛÌÒÓ. ™‡Ìʈӷ Ì ÙÔÓ Weber, Ë ∂ÎÎÏËÛ›· Â›Ó·È ¤Ó·˜ ıÂÛÌfi˜ ÛÙÔ˘˜ ÎfiÏÔ˘˜ ÙÔ˘ ÔÔ›Ô˘ ÙÔ ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈÎfi ¯¿ÚÈÛÌ· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤ÂÙ·È Û ÚÔ˘Ù›Ó·. ∏ ÂÎÎÏËÛÈ·ÛÙÈ΋ ÈÂÚ·Ú¯›· Î·È ÙÂÏÂÙÔ˘ÚÁ›· ·ÓÙÏÔ‡Ó ÙË ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛ‹
ÙÔ˘˜ ·fi ÙË ı›· ·Ú¯‹, ·ÏÏ¿ Ë vox Dei ‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ·‚›ٷÈ
·fi ·˘Ù¤˜. ∫·Ù¿ Û˘Ó¤ÂÈ·, Ë ∂ÎÎÏËÛ›· Â›Ó·È ¿ÓÙÔÙ ÂÎÙÂıÂÈ̤ÓË ÛÙËÓ ·ÌÊÈÛ‚‹ÙËÛË ÂÎÂ›ÓˆÓ Ô˘ ÂÈηÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·’
¢ı›·˜ ÙÔ ı›Ô. √ ¯·ÚÈÛÌ·ÙÈÎfi˜ ÈÂÚÔ΋ڢη˜ Ô˘ ËÁÂ›Ù·È ÂÓfi˜ ÎÈÓ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈ΋˜ ·Ó·Ó¤ˆÛ˘ ·ÎÔ‡ÂÈ ÙËÓ
›‰È· ÙË ÊˆÓ‹ ÙÔ˘ £ÂÔ‡, ·Ú·Î¿ÌÙÔÓÙ·˜ ÙËÓ ÈÂÚ·Ú¯›· ηÈ
ÙȘ ÙÂÏÂÙÔ˘ÚÁ›Â˜ Ù˘ ÂÎÎÏËÛ›·˜Ø ÂÓ Ù¤ÏÂÈ fï˜ Î·È ÙÔ ‰ÈÎfi
™Y°XPONA

ÙÔ˘ Ì‹Ó˘Ì· ı· ÚÔ˘ÙÈÓÔÔÈËı› Î·È Ô Î‡ÎÏÔ˜ ı· ÍÂÎÈÓ‹ÛÂÈ
·fi ÙËÓ ·Ú¯‹.49
∏ ı¤ÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ÛÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Â›Ó·È ·fi ÔÚÈṲ̂Ó˜ ·fi„ÂȘ ·ÚfiÌÔÈ·. √È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ ·Ú·Î¿ÌÙÔ˘Ó
ÙÔ˘˜ ·ÔÛÙˆ̤ÓÔ˘˜ ıÂÛÌÔ‡˜ Î·È ·¢ı‡ÓÔÓÙ·È ÛÙÔÓ
˙ÒÓÙ· Ï·fi, ÎËÚ‡ÛÛÔÓÙ·˜ ·‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ¿‚ËÙ· ÙË vox populi.
Ÿˆ˜ ›‰·Ì ӈڛÙÂÚ·, Ù¤ÙÔÈ· ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· ¤¯Ô˘Ó Û˘¯Ó¿
ËÁ¤Ù˜ ηٿ ÙÔ Ì¿ÏÏÔÓ ‹ ‹ÙÙÔÓ ¯·ÚÈÛÌ·ÙÈÎÔ‡˜, ÈÛ¯˘Ú¤˜
ÚÔÛˆÈÎfiÙËÙ˜ ÈηӤ˜ Ó· ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤„Ô˘Ó ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÛÂ
˘fiıÂÛË ÚÔÛˆÈ΋ Î·È ¿ÌÂÛË Î·È fi¯È ·fiÌ·ÎÚË Î·È
ÁÚ·ÊÂÈÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋. √ ÂÚ·ÛÈÙ¯ÓÈÛÌfi˜ Î·È Ë ¤ÏÏÂÈ„Ë ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜ ÂÌÂÈÚ›·˜ ÌÂÙ·ÙÚ¤ÔÓÙ·È ÂÓ ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ӈ Û ÏÂÔÓÂÎÙ‹Ì·Ù·. ∏ ÂÈÚˆÓ›· ÙÔ˘ Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÔ˜ Â›Ó·È ÂÌÊ·Ó‹˜: ·˘Ù‹
ηı·˘Ù‹Ó Ë ÚfiÎÚÈÛË Ù˘ ¿ÌÂÛ˘ Î·È ÚÔÛˆÔÔÈË̤Ó˘
·ÓÙÈÚÔÛÒ¢Û˘ ¤Ó·ÓÙÈ Û‡ÓıÂÙˆÓ ‰È·ÌÂÛÔÏ·‚ËÙÈÎÒÓ
ıÂÛÌÒÓ ‰›ÓÂÈ ÛÙÔÓ ËÁ¤ÙË ÌÈ·˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔ›ËÛ˘
¤Ó·Ó ‚·ıÌfi ÚÔÛˆÈ΋˜ ‰‡Ó·Ì˘ Ô˘ ‰‡ÛÎÔÏ· Û˘Ì‚È‚¿˙ÂÙ·È Ì ٷ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈο ȉÂÒ‰Ë. ªÂ Ì›· ¤ÓÓÔÈ· ÏÔÈfiÓ ÔÈ
ÚÔÌ·ÓÙÈΤ˜ ·˘Ù¤˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÂÎÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ Â›Ó·È Ì˘ˆÈΤ˜,
‰ÈfiÙÈ Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ‰ÂÓ ÌÔÚ› ÛÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÎfiÙËÙ· Ó·
ÏÂÈÙÔ˘ÚÁ‹ÛÂÈ ¯ˆÚ›˜ ÙËÓ ·ÏÏÔÙÚ›ˆÛË ÙˆÓ ıÂÛÌÒÓ Î·È Ù˘
Â·ÁÁÂÏÌ·ÙÈ΋˜ ÁÓÒÛ˘. £· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û ˆÛÙfiÛÔ Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚȯÙ› fiÙÈ, fiˆ˜ ÔÈ ıÚËÛ΢ÙÈÎÔ› ıÂÛÌÔ› ÛÙËÓ ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙÔ˘ Weber, ¤ÙÛÈ Î·È ÔÈ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈÎÔ› ıÂÛÌÔ› ¤¯Ô˘Ó
·Ó¿ÁÎË ÙËÓ ÂÚÈÔ‰È΋ ·Ó·˙ˆ‡ÚˆÛË Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘ ÚÔÎÂÈ̤ÓÔ˘ Ó· ·Ó·ÓˆıÔ‡Ó. ™ÙȘ ÂÚÈÙÒÛÂȘ ηٿ ÙȘ Ôԛ˜
ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈΤ˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ ÂÓ¿ÓÙÈ· ÛÙËÓ
ÎÔÌÌ·ÙÔÎÚ·Ù›· Ô‰ËÁÔ‡Ó ÛÙÔÓ Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi Ó¤ˆÓ ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ ‹ ÛÙË ÌÂÙ·ÚÚ‡ıÌÈÛË ÙˆÓ ıÂÛÌÈÎÒÓ ‰ÔÌÒÓ, Ë ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Ú¿ÁÌ·ÙÈ ·Ó·‰ÂÈÎÓ‡ÂÙ·È ˆ˜ ¤Ó· ·˘ÙÔ‰ÈÔÚıÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ
Û‡ÛÙËÌ· ÛÙÔ ÔÔ›Ô Î·È ÔÈ ‰‡Ô Ù˘¯¤˜ ·›˙Ô˘Ó ÙÔÓ ÚfiÏÔ
ÙÔ˘˜.50
§·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎÔ› Î·È Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯ÈÎÔ› ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈÛÌÔ›
Œ¯ˆ ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›ÍÂÈ Ì¤¯ÚȘ Â‰Ò fiÙÈ o ÚÔ‚ÏËÌ·ÙÈÛÌfi˜ ÁÈ·
ÙȘ ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈΤ˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ Ô˘ ÛÙÔȯÂÈÒÓÔ˘Ó ·ÎfiÌË Î·È ÙȘ ÈÔ Â‰Ú·ÈˆÌ¤Ó˜ ‰ËÌÔÎڷٛ˜
ÌÔÚ› Ó· Ì·˜ ¢·ÈÛıËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂÈ ·¤Ó·ÓÙÈ ÛÙËÓ ·Ó·fi‰Ú·ÛÙË ·ÌÊÈÛËÌ›· ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ Î·È Ù˘ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋˜ fi„˘ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Î·È ÙËÓ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘˜
¤ÓÙ·ÛË Ô˘ ÂÓı·ÚÚ‡ÓÂÈ ÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi. ¶Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ÛËÌÂȈı›, ÂÓÙÔ‡ÙÔȘ, fiÙÈ Ô Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜ ‰ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ ÌfiÓÔ Â›‰Ô˜
ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Ô˘ ·Óı› Û ·˘Ùfi ÙÔ ¯¿ÛÌ·. ¶ÔÏϤ˜
Ù˘¯¤˜ ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ Â›Ó·È ·Ú·‰fi͈˜ ÔÈΛ˜ Û οıÂ
Û‡Á¯ÚÔÓÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Ù˘ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜. ¶Ô‡ ·ÏÏÔ‡ ¤¯Ô˘ÌÂ
Û˘Ó·ÓÙ‹ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ·Ó¿ÏÔÁË ·¤¯ıÂÈ· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋
ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ ÙˆÓ ÎÔÌÌ¿ÙˆÓ Î·È ÙÔ˘˜ Û˘Ì‚È‚·ÛÌÔ‡˜ Ù˘; ¶Ô‡
·ÏÏÔ‡ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ‰ÂÈ Û¯¤‰È· ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ÂÓ‰˘Ó¿ÌˆÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·Ô‡
Î·È ÙËÓ Â·Ó·ÊÔÚ¿ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎڷٛ˜ ÛÙȘ Ï·˚Τ˜ Ù˘ Ú›˙˜;
¶Ô‡ ·ÏÏÔ‡ ¤¯Ô˘Ì ·ÎÔ‡ÛÂÈ ÂÎÎÏ‹ÛÂȘ ÁÈ· ‰È·Ê¿ÓÂÈ·, ÁÈ·
ÙËÓ ·ÔηٿÛÙ·ÛË Ù˘ ·ÌÂÛfiÙËÙ·˜ ÌÂٷ͇ Ù˘ Ï·˚΋˜
66

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01-11-10

15:33

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ηٷϋÍÂÈ Û ·˘ÙÔÌ·Ù·›ˆÛË. ∆Ô Ó· ÚÔÛÂÁÁ›˙ÂÈ Î·Ó›˜ ÙË
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ηْ ·˘ÙfiÓ ÙÔÓ ÙÚfiÔ Â›Ó·È Û·Ó Ó· ÚÔÛ·ı› Ó· ‰È·ÙËÚ‹ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ∂ÎÎÏËÛ›· ¯ˆÚ›˜ ›ÛÙË. ™ÙËÓ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋, fiˆ˜ Î·È ÛÙË ıÚËÛΛ·, Ë ·ÒÏÂÈ· Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘ Ô‰ËÁ›
Û˘Ó‹ıˆ˜ ÛÙË ‰È·ÊıÔÚ¿ Î·È ÂίˆÚ› ÙÔ ¤‰·ÊÔ˜ Û ·Ó·ÁÂÓÓËÙÈο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù·.57

‚Ô‡ÏËÛ˘ Î·È Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋˜ Ú¿Í˘, ÁÈ· ÙËÓ ˘¤Ú‚·ÛË Ù˘ ·ÏÏÔÙÚ›ˆÛ˘; ¶Ô‡ ·ÏÏÔ‡, ·Ú¿ ÛÙȘ ıˆڛ˜ Ù˘
Û˘ÌÌÂÙÔ¯È΋˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ô˘ ÚԤ΢„·Ó ·fi Ù· ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· Ù˘ ‰ÂηÂÙ›·˜ ÙÔ˘ ’60 Î·È ‰ÂÛfi˙Ô˘Ó
¤ÎÙÔÙ ÛÙȘ ÊÈÏÔÛÔÊÈΤ˜ Û˘˙ËÙ‹ÛÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ı¤Ì·ÙÔ˜;51
ªÔÚ› Ó· Ì·˜ ·ÓÙÈÙ›ÓÔ˘Ó Â‰Ò fiÙÈ Ë ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋
‰ËÌÔÎÚ·ÙÈ΋ ıˆڛ· Î·È Ë Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋ ÚËÙÔÚÈ΋ ‰ÂÓ ¤¯Ô˘Ó
Ù›ÔÙ· ÎÔÈÓfi, Î·È fiÙÈ Â›Ó·È ÂÍÔÚÁÈÛÙÈÎfi Ó· ÙȘ Û˘Ó‰¤Ô˘ÌÂ.
Ÿ¯È ÌfiÓÔ ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜ Ú¤Ô˘Ó ÚÔ˜ ÙË ‰Ú¿ÛË Î·È Û¿ÓÈ·
ηٷʇÁÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ ıˆڛ·, ·ÏÏ¿ ÙÔ ¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈÎfi ÙÔ˘˜
ÛÙ˘Ï Â›Ó·È ¤Ó· Ì›ÁÌ· ·ÏÔ˚΋˜ ÎÔÈÓ‹˜ ÏÔÁÈ΋˜ Î·È Û˘Ó·ÈÛıËÌ·ÙÈÎÒÓ ÂÎÎÏ‹ÛˆÓ, ÂÓÒ ÔÈ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ› Ù˘ ÚÈ˙ÔÛ·ÛÙÈ΋˜ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ı¤ÙÔ˘Ó ÙËÓ ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ‰È·‚ԇϢÛË
ÛÙÔ Â›ÎÂÓÙÚÔ ÙˆÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ ÙÔ˘˜. ∞˜ ı˘ÌËıÔ‡ÌÂ, ˆÛÙfiÛÔ, fiÙÈ (ÛÙÔ ıˆÚËÙÈÎfi Ï·›ÛÈÔ ÙÔ˘ Oakeshott) Ô «ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÌfi˜» ·¤¯ÂÈ ·fi ÙËÓ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ fiÛÔ
·¤¯ÂÈ ·fi ·˘Ù‹Ó Î·È Ë «ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ù˘ ›ÛÙ˘», Î·È fiÙÈ
‡ÏÔÁ· ÌÔÚ› Ó· ıˆÚËı› ˆ˜ ÂΉԯ‹ Ù˘ ÙÂÏÂ˘Ù·›·˜. √
ÔÚıÔÏÔÁÈÛÌfi˜ ÙˆÓ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚˆÓ ıˆÚÈÒÓ Ù˘ «‰È·‚Ô˘Ï¢ÙÈ΋˜» ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÂÌÂÚȤ¯ÂÈ ‚‚·›ˆ˜ Î·È ÌÈ· ÁÂÓÓ·›· ‰fiÛË Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋˜ ›ÛÙ˘: ›ÛÙË ÛÙË ÌÂÙ·Û¯ËÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ‰‡Ó·ÌË Ù˘ ‰È·‚Ô‡Ï¢Û˘, ›ÛÙË ÛÙËÓ È‰¤· fiÙÈ, ÂÎÙÈı¤ÌÂÓÔ˜ Ô ·Ïfi˜ Ï·fi˜ ÛÙË Û˘˙‹ÙËÛË, ı· ¿ÏÏ·˙ ÙȘ ·fi„ÂȘ ÙÔ˘ ÛÙËÓ ÔÚı‹ (·ÓÙÈÏ·˚ÎÈÛÙÈ΋) ηÙ‡ı˘ÓÛË.52 ªÔÏÔÓfiÙÈ ÔÈ ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔÈ ·fi ÙÔ˘˜ ıˆÚËÙÈÎÔ‡˜ ·˘ÙÔ‡˜ ı·
‰›ÛÙ·˙·Ó Ó· ÂÌÈÛÙ¢ÙÔ‡Ó ÙÔÓ Ï·fi ÛÙËÓ ·ÚÔ‡Û· ÙÔ˘
ηٿÛÙ·ÛË (ÂÌÊÔÚÔ‡ÌÂÓÔ ·fi ÙȘ ·fi„ÂȘ Ô˘ ·ÔηχÙÔ˘Ó ÔÈ ‰ËÌÔÛÎÔ‹ÛÂȘ Î·È ÂÎÌÂÙ·ÏχÔÓÙ·È ÔÈ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙ¤˜),53 ÛÙfi¯Ô˜ ÙÔ˘˜ Â›Ó·È Ë Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÔÔ›ËÛË ÙˆÓ Ï·˚ÎÒÓ
fiıˆÓ ÛÙÔ Ì¤ÏÏÔÓ, ·ÊÔ‡ ÚÔËÁÔ˘Ì¤Óˆ˜ Ô Ï·fi˜ ÂÓËÌÂÚˆı› Î·È ‰È·ÊˆÙÈÛÙ› ̤ۈ ‰È·‚Ô˘Ï‡ÛÂˆÓ ÛÂ Û˘ÓÂχÛÂȘ ÚfiÛˆÔ Ì ÚfiÛˆÔ.54
¢ÂÓ Â›Ó·È ÙÔ˘ ·ÚfiÓÙÔ˜ Ó· ÂÍÂÙ¿ÛÔ˘Ì ÙȘ ÂÚÂıÈÛÙÈΤ˜ Û˘ÁÁ¤ÓÂȘ Î·È ·ÓÙÈÊ¿ÛÂȘ ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· Û ÂΛÓÔ˘˜ Ô˘
Ô Sartori ·ÔηÏ› «ÂÚÊÂÍÈÔÓÈÛÙ¤˜» Î·È «Ú·ÎÙÈÎÔ‡˜ Ù˘
ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜» [politicos],55 ηıÒ˜ ·ÌÊfiÙÂÚÔÈ ¤ÏÎÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙË
Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ fi„Ë Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ¶ÈÔ Û˘Ó·Ê›˜ Ì ÙÔ
ı¤Ì· Ì·˜ Â›Ó·È ›Ûˆ˜ ÔÈ ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ Ó· ·Ó·‚·ıÌÈÛÙ›
ıˆÚËÙÈο Ë Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ fi„Ë Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜, ηıfiÛÔÓ ÌÂÁ¿ÏÔ Ì¤ÚÔ˜ ÙˆÓ ÚfiÛÊ·ÙˆÓ ‰ÔÎÈÌ›ˆÓ ÂÚ› ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ÁÚ¿ÊÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙË ÛÎÔÈ¿ Ù˘ «·ÔÌ¿Á¢Û˘».
£ÂˆÚ›Â˜ Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ Ô˘ ÂÌÓ¤ÔÓÙ·È ·fi ÙÔÓ ÌÂÙ·Ì·ÚÍÈÛÌfi Î·È ÙÔÓ ÌÂÙ·ÌÔÓÙÂÚÓÈÛÌfi ÂȉÈÒÎÔ˘Ó ÚËÙ¿ Ó·
·ÔÁ˘ÌÓÒÛÔ˘Ó ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ·fi Ù· Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈο Ù˘
¯·Ú·ÎÙËÚÈÛÙÈο, ˘ÔÁÚ·ÌÌ›˙ÔÓÙ·˜ ÙË ÌË ÌÂÛÛÈ·ÓÈ΋
ÏÂ˘Ú¿ Ù˘. ¶ÚfiÎÂÈÙ·È ÁÈ· ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ¯ˆÚ›˜ ıÂ̤ÏÈ·,
ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ÂÓÓÔÔ‡ÌÂÓË ˆ˜ ·ÓÔȯً ÔÏÈÙÈ΋ Ú·ÎÙÈ΋,
ÌÈ· ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· ·fi ÙËÓ ÔÔ›· ‰ÂÓ ı· Ú¤ÂÈ Ó· ·Ó·Ì¤ÓÔ˘ÌÂ Î·È ÔÏÏ¿.56 Àfi ÙÔ Ú›ÛÌ· fï˜ Ù˘ ·Ó¿Ï˘Û˘
Ô˘ ÚÔËÁ‹ıËÎÂ, ÙÔ Èı·ÓfiÙÂÚÔ Â›Ó·È fiÙÈ Î¿ı ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· Ó· ÂÍ·ÏËÊı› Ë Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈ΋ fi„Ë Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ı·
™Y°XPONA

™˘Ì¤Ú·ÛÌ·
™ÙÔ ¿ÚıÚÔ ·˘Ùfi ˘ÔÛÙ‹ÚÈÍ· fiÙÈ Ë ÂͤٷÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡
ʈٛ˙ÂÈ ÙËÓ ·Ó·fiÊ¢ÎÙË ·ÌÊÈÛËÌ›· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜. ∏
¤ÓÙ·ÛË ·Ó¿ÌÂÛ· ÛÙȘ ‰‡Ô fi„ÂȘ Ù˘ ˘Ôı¿ÏÂÈ ‰È·ÚÎÒ˜
Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓËÙÔÔÈ‹ÛÂȘ. √È ‰Â ÚÔÛ¿ıÂȘ ‰È·Ê˘Á‹˜
Û ÌÈ· ·ÌÈÁÒ˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈ΋ ÂÚÌËÓ›· Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜
Â›Ó·È ··ÙËϤ˜, ηıfiÛÔÓ Ë ‰‡Ó·ÌË Î·È Ë ÓÔÌÈÌÔÔ›ËÛË
Ù˘ ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›·˜ ˆ˜ Ú·ÁÌ·ÙÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡ Û˘ÛÙ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ Û˘Ó¯›˙ÂÈ Ó· ÂÍ·ÚٿٷÈ, ÂÓ Ì¤ÚÂÈ ÙÔ˘Ï¿¯ÈÛÙÔÓ, ·fi Ù· Ï˘ÙÚˆÙÈο
Ù˘ ÛÙÔȯ›·. ∆Ô ÁÂÁÔÓfi˜ ·˘Ùfi ·Ê‹ÓÂÈ ¿ÓÙÔÙ ‰›Ô
‰Ú¿Û˘ ÛÙÔÓ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi Ô ÔÔ›Ô˜ Î·È Û˘Óԉ‡ÂÈ ÙË ‰ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Û·Ó ÛÎÈ¿.
MÂÙ¿ÊÚ·ÛË: °ÈÒÚÁÔ˜ ∫·ÙÛ·Ì¤Î˘,
°ÚËÁfiÚ˘ ∞Ó·ÓÈ¿‰Ë˜
™∏ª∂πø™∂π™
* ∆Ô ¿ÚıÚÔ ÚˆÙÔ‰ËÌÔÛȇÙËΠÛÙË ‚ÚÂÙ·ÓÈ΋ ÂÈıÂÒÚËÛË
Political Studies, Ù.¯. 47, 1999, Û. 2-16.
∂›Ì·È ¢ÁÓÒÌˆÓ ÁÈ· Ù· ÎÚÈÙÈο ÙÔ˘˜ Û¯fiÏÈ· ÛÙÔ˘˜ Û˘ÌÌÂÙ¤¯ÔÓÙ˜ ÛÙ· ÛÂÌÈÓ¿ÚÈ· ÙˆÓ ·ÓÂÈÛÙËÌ›ˆÓ ÙÔ˘ ª¿ÓÙÛÂÛÙÂÚ, ÙÔ˘
°Ô˘¤ÛÙÌÈÓÛÙÂÚ, ÙÔ˘ ª¤ÚÌÈÁ¯·Ì Î·È ÙÔ˘ ™¤ÊÈÏÓ٠ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÛÙ·
workshops ÙÔ˘ ECPR ÛÙË µ¤ÚÓË, fiÔ˘ ÚˆÙÔÂÈÛËÁ‹ıËη ÙȘ
ȉ¤Â˜ Ô˘ ·Ó·Ù‡ÛÛˆ ‰Ò. ∂›Ì·È ȉȷ›ÙÂÚ· ˘Ô¯Úˆ̤ÓË ÛÙÔ˘˜
Û˘Ó·‰¤ÏÊÔ˘˜ ÌÔ˘ John Horton Î·È Andrew Dobson Î·È ÛÙÔ˘˜
ÎÚÈÙ¤˜ Ù˘ ÂÈıÂÒÚËÛ˘ Political Studies ÁÈ· Ù· Û¯fiÏÈ¿ ÙÔ˘˜ ÛÂ
ÚÔËÁÔ‡ÌÂÓ˜ ÂΉԯ¤˜ ÙÔ˘ ·ÚfiÓÙÔ˜.
1 H.-G. Betz, Radical Right-Wing Populism in Western Europe
(Houndmills, Macmillan, 1994), Û. 4. ∆· ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· Ù· ÔÔ›· ηχÙÂÈ Ë ¤Ú¢ӷ ÙÔ˘ Betz Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Á·ÏÏÈÎfi Front National, ÙÔ
·˘ÛÙÚÈ·Îfi FPÖ, Ë Lega Nord ÛÙËÓ πÙ·Ï›·, ÙÔ Vlaams Block ÛÙÔ
µ¤ÏÁÈÔ, Ù· ÂÏ‚ÂÙÈο Autopartei Î·È Tessin League, ÙÔ ÁÂÚÌ·ÓÈÎfi
Republikaner, Ù· ¶ÚÔԉ¢ÙÈο ∫fiÌÌ·Ù· Ù˘ ¢·Ó›·˜ Î·È Ù˘
¡ÔÚ‚ËÁ›·˜, Î·È Ë ¡¤· ¢ËÌÔÎÚ·Ù›· Ù˘ ™Ô˘Ë‰›·˜. ÕÏϘ ÔÏÈÙÈΤ˜ ÎÈÓ‹ÛÂȘ Ô˘ Â›Ó·È Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈΤ˜ Ì ÙËÓ ¤ÓÓÔÈ· Ô˘ ·Ô‰›‰Ô˘Ì ÛÙÔÓ fiÚÔ Â‰Ò Â›Ó·È ÙÔ Reform Party Ù˘ ∞ÏÌ¤ÚÙ·˜, ÙÔ One
Nation Party Ù˘ Paulin Hanson ÛÙËÓ ∞˘ÛÙÚ·Ï›·, ηıÒ˜ Î·È ÔÈ
˘Ô„ËÊÈfiÙËÙ˜ ÙÔ˘ Ross Perot Î·È ÙÔ˘ Pat Buchanan ÛÙȘ ·ÌÂÚÈηÓÈΤ˜ ÚÔ‰ÚÈΤ˜ ÂÎÏÔÁ¤˜.
2 T. S. Di Tella, «Populism into the twenty-first century»,
Government and Opposition, 32 (1997), 187-200, Û. 190.
3 °È· ÌÈ· ÊÈÏfi‰ÔÍË ÚfiÛÊ·ÙË ÚÔÛ¿ıÂÈ· ‚Ï. D. Westlind, The
Politics of Popular Identity: Understanding Recent Populist Movements
in Sweden and the United States (Lund, Lund University Press,
1996). ∆Ô ‚È‚Ï›Ô ÙˆÓ G. Ionescu and E. Gellner (ÂÈÌ.), Populism:
its Meanings and National Characteristics (§ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ, Weidenfeld ηÈ
Nicholson, 1969), ·ÔÙÂÏ› Ì›· ÎÏ·ÛÈ΋, ·ÏÏ¿ ·Úˆ¯Ë̤ÓË
ϤÔÓ ÂÈÛÎfiËÛË ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎ›ÏˆÓ ÎÈÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Ô˘ ·ÔηÏÔ‡ÓÙ·È
«Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈο». °È· ÌÈ· Ê·ÈÓÔÌÂÓÔÏÔÁÈ΋ ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË, Ô˘ Ù·ÍÈÓÔÌ› Ù· Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈο ÎÈÓ‹Ì·Ù· Û ›‰Ë Î·È ‰ÂÓ ÂȯÂÈÚ› Ó· ÂÎÔÓ‹ÛÂÈ ÌÈ· ÁÂÓÈ΋ ıˆڛ· ‚Ï. M. Canovan, Populism (¡¤· ÀfiÚÎË,

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Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981) Î·È M. Canovan, «Two
strategies for the study of populism», Political Studies, 30 (1982),
544-52. ªÂ ‚¿ÛË ÙËÓ ‰È¿ÎÚÈÛË Ô˘ Á›ÓÂÙ·È ÛÙ· ¤ÚÁ· ·˘Ù¿ ÌÂٷ͇ ÙÔ˘ «·ÁÚÔÙÈÎÔ‡» Î·È ÙÔ˘ «ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡» Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi, Ù· Ê·ÈÓfiÌÂÓ· Ô˘ Ú·ÁÌ·Ù¢fiÌ·ÛÙ ÛÙÔ ·ÚfiÓ ¿ÚıÚÔ ÂÌ›ÙÔ˘Ó ÛÙËÓ
ηÙËÁÔÚ›· ÙÔ˘ «ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡» Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡.
P. A. Taggart, The New Populism and the New Politics: New Protest
Parties in Sweden in a Comparative Perspective (§ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ,
Macmillan, 1996), Û. 32.
µÏ. J. Haider, The Freedom I Mean (Pine Plains, Swan, 1995), Û.
104, 88.
√ Taggart ˘ÔÛÙËÚ›˙ÂÈ fiÙÈ Ë «Ó¤· ÔÏÈÙÈ΋» ÙˆÓ ÔÈÎÔÏÔÁÈÎÒÓ,
ÙˆÓ ÂÈÚËÓÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ Î·È ÙˆÓ ÊÂÌÈÓÈÛÙÈÎÒÓ ÎÈÓËÌ¿ÙˆÓ Â›Ó·È «ÂÚÈÏËÙÈ΋», ÂÓÒ Ô «Ó¤Ô˜ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌfi˜» Ú¤ÂÈ ÚÔ˜ ÙÔÓ ·ÔÎÏÂÈÛÌfi ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈÎÒÓ ÔÌ¿‰ˆÓ fiˆ˜ ÔÈ ÌÂÙ·Ó¿ÛÙ˜ ‹ ÔÈ ·Ô‰¤ÎÙ˜ Ù˘ ÎÔÈÓˆÓÈ΋˜ ÚfiÓÔÈ·˜. £· ÌÔÚÔ‡Û fï˜ Ó· ˘ÔÛÙËÚȯı› fiÙÈ Î·È
ÔÈ ÊÔÚ›˜ Ù˘ «Ó¤·˜ ÔÏÈÙÈ΋˜» ÔÚÔıÂÙÔ‡ÓÙ·È ·ÚÓËÙÈο ÚÔ˜
ÙËÓ ·‰·‹ ÏÂÈÔ„ËÊ›· Ô˘ ‰˘ÛÊÔÚ› Ì ÙȘ ÚÔÙÂÚ·ÈfiÙËÙ˜ ÙˆÓ
ÂÏ›Ù, fiˆ˜ Î·È Ô ›‰ÈÔ˜ Ô Taggart ·Ú·‰¤¯ÂÙ·È (The New Populism,
ÛÛ. 33, 35).
J. Marcus, The National Front and French Politics (§ÔÓ‰›ÓÔ,
Macmillan, 1995), Û. 54. °È· ¿ÏÏ· ÚfiÛÊ·Ù· ·Ú·‰Â›ÁÌ·Ù· ‚Ï. P.
Manning, The New Canada (Toronto, Macmillan, Canada, 1992),
Û. 2 Î·È «Paulin’s People», The Weekend Australian,17-18 May
1997, review section, Û. 1.
™¯ÂÙÈο Ì ÙÔ ·Ú¿‰ÂÈÁÌ· Ù˘ ™Î·Ó‰ÈÓ·‚›·˜ ‚Ï. Betz, Radical
Right- Wing Populism, Û. 42-47, 110-2; Taggart, The New Populism,
Û. 34.
°È· ·Ú·ÏÏ·Á¤˜ Ù˘ ȉÂÔÏÔÁ›·˜ ·˘Ù‹˜ ‚Ï. C. Lasch, The True and
Only Heaven: Progress and its Critics (¡¤· ÀfiÚÎË, Norton, 1991)
Î·È P. Piccone, «From the New Left to the New Populism», Telos
101 (1994), 173-208. °È· ÌÈ· ÚÒÈÌË Î·Ù·ÁÚ·Ê‹ ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÙÈÎÔ‡
·˘ÙÔ‡ ÚÂÂÚÙÔÚ›Ô˘ ÓˆÚ›ÙÂÚ· ÛÙÔÓ ÂÈÎÔÛÙfi ·ÈÒÓ· ‚Ï. M.
Canovan, G. K. Chesterton: Radical Populist (¡¤· ÀfiÚÎË, Harcourt
Brace Jovanovich, 1977).
Kazin, Populist Persuasion, Û. 4. ª›· ÂÚÈÛÛfiÙÂÚÔ ıˆÚËÙÈ΋
ÚÔÛ¤ÁÁÈÛË ÙÔ˘ Ï·˚ÎÈÛÌÔ‡ ˆ˜ ÔÏÈÙÈÎÔ‡ ÏfiÁÔ˘, ÌÔÚ› Ó· ·Ó·˙ËÙËı› ÛÙÔ Westlind, The Politics of Popular Identity.
°È· ÌÈ· ·Ó¿Ï˘ÛË ÙÔ˘ ÎÈÓ‹Ì·ÙÔ˜ ÙÔ˘ ÷ÚÙÈÛÌÔ‡ Ì ·ÚÂÌÊÂÚ›˜
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