You are on page 1of 12

SOLID MECHANICS LAB

HARDNESS TEST
Vickers and Rockwell Hardness

Name : Ravi Agarwal


Roll No : 9003017

Objective:
To determine hardness number of metal specimen by Vickers and Rockwell hardness test.

Introduction:
Hardness is usually defined as the resistance of a material to plastic penetration of its surface. There are three main types of tests used to determine hardness: Scratch tests are the simplest form of hardness tests. In this test, various materials are rated on their ability to scratch one another. Mohs hardness test is of this type. This test is used mainly in mineralogy. In Dynamic Hardness tests, an object of standard mass and dimensions is bounced back from a surface after falling by its own weight. The height of the rebound is indicated. Shore hardness is measured by this method. Static Indentation tests are based on the relation of indentation of the specimen by a penetrator under a given load. The relationship of total test force to the area or depth of indentation provides a measure of hardness. The Rockwell, Brinell, Knoop, Vickers, and ultrasonic hardness tests are of this type. For engineering purposes, mostly the static indentation tests are used.

About Vickers Hardness Test:The Vickers hardness is widely employed as a measure or indicator of material properties and performance. For example the sensitivity of the steel weld HAZ ( Heat Affected Zone) to hydrogen delayed cracking, a major factor controlling the weldability of high strength steel, is a function of maximum Vickers hardness of HAZ, which is limited below 300 HV in many cases. However the application of the Vickers hardness test has a limit coming from the size of the residual impression.

Procedure:
1. Place the specimen on anvil of Vickers machine and adjust the focus of the microscope, so that surface of the specimen is clearly visible from the microscope. 2. Bring the indenter (diamond, in this case) over the specimen and apply the load. 3. Again, bring the microscope exactly over the position the of indentation. 4. Measure the diagonals of the square shaped indentation visible on the screen with the help of cross hairs.

Observations and Calculations:

(where the diameter, d is in mm force, F=9.807 kg-f)

Sample-A
Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 D1(m) 413.8 410.2 425.5 426.6 420.1 D2(m) 418.0 419.7 418.6 419.7 420.1 Average Davg(m) 415.9 415.0 422.0 423.2 420.1 HRV(by formula) 107.2 107.6 104.1 103.5 105.1 105.5 HRV(by Machine) 107 108 104 104 105 105.6 HRB 59.9 60.4 58.3 58.3 58.8

Sample-B Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 D1(m)


283.5 278.0 284.2 275.9 275.1

D2((m)
283.0 281.9 284.5 277.4 279.5

Davg(m)
283.2 280.0 284.3 276.6 277.3

HRV(by HRV(by HRB formula) machine) 231.1 231.0 96.7 236.4 237.0 97.6 229.4 229.0 96.4 242.3 242.0 241.1 241.0 236.0 236.0

Average Sample-C Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 D1(m)


361.8 359.9 370.0 350.0 362.2

D2((m)

Davg(m)
361.9 359.7 370.7 352.2 362.6

HRV(by HRV(by HRB formula) machine)


141.5 143.3 134.9 149.4 141.0 142.0 142.0 143.0 135.0 149.0 142.0 142.2 75.5 75.9 72.7 78.3 75.5

362.0 359.5 371.5 354.4 363.1 Average

Sample-D
Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 D1(m) 413.7 416 423.7 427.5 413 D2((m) 412.7 415 421 422.5 428.7 Average Davg(m) 413.2 415.5 422.3 425 420.8 HRV(by formula) 108.6 107.4 103.9 102.6 104.7 105.4 HRV(by machine) 109 107 104 103 106 105.8 HRB 60.9 59.9 58.3 57.8 59.3

Sample-E
Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 D1(m) 327.3 340.4 331.2 346.2 299.8 D2((m) 325.2 340.4 334.4 331.4 312.5 Average Davg(m) 326.2 340.4 332.8 338.8 306.1 HRV(by formula) 174.2 160.0 167.4 161.5 197.8 172.2 HRV(by machine) 174.0 160.0 168.0 162.0 198.0 172.4 HRB 85.4 81.5 83.7 82.1 91.1

Sample-F Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 D1(m)


312.3 312.3 318.6 317.6 319.6

D2((m)

Davg(m)
308.2 314.1 318.5 321.8 321.0

HRV(by HRV(by HRB formula) machine)


195.2 187.9 182.7 179.0 179.9 184.9 195.0 188.0 183.0 179.0 180.0 185.0 90.4 88.9 87.8 86.8 87.1

304.1 316.0 318.5 326.0 322.5 Average

Sample-G
Sr.No 1 2 3 4 5 D1(m) 327.2 348.1 329.8 328.9 316 D2((m) 318.4 338.7 341.1 351.0 316.4 Average Davg(m) 322.8 343.4 335.4 340.0 316.2 HRV(by formula) 177.9 157.2 164.8 160.4 185.4 169.1 HRV(by machine) 177.0 157.0 165.0 161.0 186.0 169.2 HRB 86.3 80.7 82.9 81.8 88.4

Result:
Sample No. Vickers Hardness Number Standard Deviation A 105.5 B 236.0 C 142.0 D 105.4 E 172.2 F 184.9 G 169.1

1.62

5.21

4.44

2.135

13.60

5.90

10.74

Discussions:

The specified value of duration taken by Vickerss hardness test for different materials is as shown below:

Steel, copper and copper alloys Lighter metals and their alloys Grey cast iron

10 to15 seconds 302 seconds 15 to 30 seconds

The indenter used is a diamond in the shape of a right circular pyramid with square base.

(where the diameter, d is in mm force, F=9.807 kg-f) Looking at the mathematical results obtained above, specimen B is the hardest and specimens A and D are least hard.

Surface observations of the materials:-

Sample no A Smooth Surface appearance Finished

B Smoot h

C D Polishe Rough d Finished

Probable material

Aluminiu m

Cast Iron

Brass

Aluminiu m

E Mirror smooth finishedS hiny Mild Steel

F G Rough Unpolishe compare d d to E Mild Steel Brass

Uncertainty of the results: The uncertainties of the results are grouped into two main categories:-

Parameters depending on the Vickers hardness testing machine (including the uncertainty of the verification of the testing machine and of calibration of the reference blocks ); Parameter depending on the application of the test method (variation of operating condition).

Conclusions: On the basis of mathematical values, B is the hardest and A and D are the least hard materials. So, we can say that B is Cast Iron, E and F are Mild Steel, C and G are Brass, A and D are aluminium. The mathematical arguments are also supported by the ASTM standards as we can observe the same pattern in them also. Also as observed in the lab the surface properties of the specimen predict B to be Cast Iron, E and F to be Mild Steel, C and G to be brass, A and D to be Aluminium. However it should be noted that this is not the only criteria to categorise a material, it just give a mere indication of the mentioned material. The mathematical and the surface observation argument also support each other. Hence we can predict the materials to be:-

Sample no Material

A Aluminiu m

B Cast Iron

C Brass

D Aluminiu m

E Mild Steel

F Mild Steel

G Brass

Rockwell Hardness Test About the Test:This hardness test uses a direct reading instrument based on the principle of differential depth measurement. Rockwell testing differs from Brinell testing in that the Rockwell hardness number is based on an inverse relationship to the measurement of the additional depth to which an indenter is forced by a heavy (major) load beyond the depth resulting from a previously applied (minor) load. Initially a minor load is applied, and a zero datum position is established. The major load is then applied for a specified period and removed, leaving the minor load applied. The resulting Rockwell number represents the difference in depth from zero datum position as a result of the application of major load.The entire procedure requires only 5 to 10 s.

1. Depth of indentation under preliminary load (10 kg) 2. Increase in depth of indentation under additional load (140 kg) 3. Permanent increase of depth of indentation under preliminary load after removal of additional load, the increase being expressed in units of 0002 mm 4. Rockwell hardness HRC = 100e

Procedure: Place the specimen on the anvil and apply the minor load so as to ensure proper holding of the load to the specimen. Adjust the pointer at set position and set the dial to zero position. Apply major load by operating handle without any interference. Read the position of the pointer on the appropriate dial, which gives the Rockwell hardness number. Sample No A 51.1 Machine Reading(HRB) 57.4 50.4 50.9 52.0 Average(HRB) 51.9 2.61 Standard Deviation B 94.1 94.5 94.7 94.5 93.8 94.5 0.37 C 71.1 70.9 71.9 70.6 71.2 71.1 0.43 D 50.1 50.5 50.3 50.8 50.7 50.5 0.27 E 88.2 89.1 82.2 91.3 88.7 87.7 3.01 F 84.8 85.1 80.7 79.9 84.5 83.6 2.30 G 70.2 72.1 72.4 73.7 72.3 72.1 1.12

Calculations:
Take the average of the values obtained and tabulate them.

Results:
Sample HRB A 51.9 B 94.5 C 71.1 D 50.5 E 87.7 F 83.6 G 72.1

Discussion:
There are 30 different Rockwell scales, defined by the combination of the indenter and minor and major loads. The suitable scale is determined due to the type of the material to be tested. The majority of applications are covered by the Rockwell C and B scales for testing steel, brass, and other materials.

Scale A

Major Load 60

Indenter Diamond Cone

100

1.588mm dia steel ball

C D

150 100

Diamond cone Diamond cone

100

3.175mm dia steel ball 1.588mm dia,steel ball 1.588mm dia steel ball 3.175mm dia steel ball

60

150

60

Typical applications of scale Cemented Carbides, thin steel, shallow depth case-hardened steel Copper alloys, soft steels,aluminium alloys, malleable iron Steel, hard cast iron Thin steel, medium depth case-hardened steel Cast iron,aluminium and magnesium alloys Annealed copper alloys,thin soft sheet metals Phosphor bronze,beryllium copper Aluminium,lead zinc

Typically, most Rockwell hardness testing problems can be separated into three categories accuracy, repeatability, and correlation and traced to five main causes machine, operator, environment, sample preparation, and calibration.

Fig. 1 Left: Broken Rockwell diamond indenter. Note interrupted radius and angle, which will create greater resistance to penetration. Right: Unbroken diamond indenter. Note nicely formed radius and smoothed edges to form angle.

Conclusion:
Advantages of the Rockwell hardness method include the direct Rockwell hardness number readout and rapid testing time. Disadvantages include many arbitrary non-related scales and possible effects from the specimen support anvil.

Bibliography:
Strength of Materials Laboratory Manual, Nirma University of Science and Technology Common Problems in Rockwell Hardness Testing by Doughlas.B.Mcghee Advanced Hardness Testing Technologies by Qualitfest (www.worldoftest.com) Mechanical Testing of Materials, A. J. Fenner, Philosophical Library Inc., 1965 Pollack, H. W., Materials Science and Metallurgy, Reston Pub. Co., Reston:1981 Van Vlack, L. H., Materials Science for Engineers, Addison Wesly Pub. Co., Mass:1970 Galvinfonote 5.1 by GalvinfoCenter Web Links:www.google.com www.osun.org