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SOLID MECHANICS LAB

Strain Measurement
Using Strain Gauges

Name : Ravi Agarwal Roll No : 9003017

Objective:
To calculate stress, strain and strain gauge output (millivolts) theoretically and verify these values with meter output readings of strain gauge meter.

Introduction:
A strain gauge is a device used to measure the strain of an object. Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern. The gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive. As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change. This resistance change, usually measured using a Wheatstone bridge, is related to the strain by the quantity known as the gauge factor. In our experimental setup the strain gauges are attached to a cantilever beam which is put under a bending moment by applying a load at its free end. The bending moment causes elongation of the beam and with it a change in Wheatstone voltage.

Procedure:
1) A cantilever beam is already set with four strain gauges that form a wheat stone bridge configuration. 2) Make sure the switch is put to 4-arm configuration. 3) Set up the reading to zero with the help of coarse and fine adjustments. 4) Now place the weight of 500gms in the pan and note down the voltmeter reading. Add the weight in the difference of 500gms and note down the corresponding voltmeter readings until the total weight in the pan is 3 kgs. 5) Now unload the beam by removing weights of 500 gms and note down the voltmeter readings every time. Continue this until the pan is emptied.

Extension in a strain gauge foil upon application of loads

Specimen: The experiment was done on a cantilever beam of mild steel, with strain
gauges attached on it. Following are the dimensions of the specimen: Length (L): 17.8 cm Thickness (D): 0.92cm Width (B): 3.86 cm Effective length(l):15.5 cm

Observations:
Effective length, l= 15.5 cm
Average value of the voltmeter reading in millivolts, E1+E2 =

Serial No.

Weight(Load) in Kg

Voltmeter Reading (Ascending Order) in millivolts, E1

Voltmeter Reading (descending Order) in millivolts, E2

1 2 3 4 5 6

0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0

67 130 199 268 331 398

71 130 200 263 332 -

69.0 130.0 199.5 265.5 331.5 398.0

Calculations:
Stress, = where, = = = 3.86
.

= 0.5445 m3

= Strain, =

Serial no.

Bending Moment(M) In Kgcm 7.750 15.500 23.250 31.000 38.750 46.500

Stress, in kg/cm2 14.233 28.466 42.700 56.933 71.166 85.399

Strain, (10-6) 7.117 14.233 21.350 28.466 35.583 42.700

R/R (10-6) 14.233 28.466 42.700 56.933 71.166 85.399

Eout (Theoretical) in V 71.166 142.332 213.499 284.665 355.831 426.997

Eout (Experimental) in V 69.000 130.000 199.500 265.500 331.500 398.000

True error (%) 3.044 8.665 6.557 6.732 6.838 6.791

1 2 3 4 5 6

Results:
Load (in kgs) 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Eout (Experimental) in V 69.000 130.000 199.500 265.500 331.500 398.000 True error (%) 3.044 8.665 6.557 6.732 6.838 6.791

Serial no. 1 2 3 4 5 6

450.000 400.000 350.000 Eout (in microvolts) 300.000 250.000 200.000 150.000 100.000 50.000 0.000 0.000 Theoretical Eout Experimental Eout

0.500

1.000

1.500

2.000

2.500

3.000

3.500

Load (in kgs)

Discussion:
The number of active strain gages that should be connected to the bridge depends on the application. For example, it may be useful to connect gages that are on opposite sides of a beam, one in compression and the other in tension. In installations where all of the arms are connected to strain gages, temperature

compensation is automatic, as resistance change due to temperature variations will be the same for all arms of the bridge. As temperature changes, the gauge factor decreases. For the experimental conditions gauge factor was taken as 2 from the standards. Temperature effects on the lead wires can be cancelled by using a "3-wire bridge" or a "4-wire Ohm circuit". As the instrument is very sensitive to small changes in strain in the material being tested, the test should be done carefully in a controlled manner. The balance plate should be made stationary before taking down readings.

Conclusion:
The Eout values measured experimentally were very close to the theoretical values, with an acceptable error of 3-6%. Thus, strain gauges provide an easy and efficient way of measuring small strains in materials.

Bibliography:
Strength of Materials Laboratory Manual, Nirma University of Science and Technology Introduction to strain and strain measurement, by Acromag Incorporated Introduction to strain gages, by Kyowa Electronic Instruments Co. Ltd. Web links: o www.google.com o www.wikipedia.org o www.osun.org