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BASIC HYDRAULICS WORKSHOP


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201,"SIGMA", echnologyStreet,HiranandaniGardens,Powai,Mumbai-400 T 076. 5570 Fax: 91-22-25705547 E-mail: imtc.mumbai@barbership.comWebsite: imtcmumbai.org

International Maritime Training Centre


Tel. : 91-22-2570

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O,

CONTENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. M 17. Hos 18. Se 19. 20. Advantages of hydraulic systems... ... ... ...1 Fundamental principles... ... ... ... ... '" ... ... 2-7 Block diagram of hydraulic systfi!:i\ns... Component and circuit symbols Hydraulic fluid Re

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..9-14 ;~".,16

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

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RevO.O July 03

AIM OF THE COURSE:


1. 2. TO UNDERSTAND FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF HYDRAULICS TO READ HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAMS WITH THE HELP OF SYMBOLS KNOW THE CONSTRUCTION COMPONENTS USED IN HYDRAU FUNCTION OF IMPORTANT

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4. 5. 6.

10. CONSTANT TORQUE WIT PRESSURE AND SPEEDoc FLOW 11. INBUILT SAFETY - actuator can be stalledrat full load (even if relief valve lifts - it will reset immediately when overIQi:~d removed. is 12. AUTOMATIC BRAKING - by blocking flow, no brakes, linings etc. required. 13. CAN BE USED IN HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS.

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INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

Re.{).O .hdy 03

PASCALS LAW
Pressure applied to a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all directions, and acts with equal force on equal areas, and at right angles to,them

1. The bottle with a IIqui


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is not com

bottom

an area each ushed on e, the entire receives a ~OOlb. push.

INTERNATIONALMARITIMETRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAVUC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES
1.
PASCAL'S LAW: Pressure exerted on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished in all direction and acts with equal force on equal areas & at right angles to them. Hydraulics is a means of power tran,; Work is force acting through a distan~. WORK = FORCE x OIST,

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

15. 1 H.P. = 746 WATTS = 16. KW = L.P.M. x BAR/600. 17. H.P. = G.P.M. x PSI x 0.000583. 18. H.P. of a prime mover = GPM x PSI x 0.0007.

INTERNA TION}\[MARITIME TRAINING CENTF<E

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO. 0 July 03

Hvdraulic Principle I: Movement de{!ends on Flow


For anything to move in a hydraulic machine, the actuators must be supplied with
fluid flow.

Nothing moves without flow.

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"" '" l ...,) .,..:?'., ,'.0;;.;/ This cylinder is retracted. It ca'h"eXt~l1g i:9~lyjifittJ!3re%Ts"ffow into port A. If there is no flow into port A, the piston will not move.

INTERNATIONA[-IIIIARITIMETRAINlf..I~CENTRE

BASIC HYDRA VLIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

Hvdraulic Principle II: Rate of Flow Determines S~eed


Actuator speed depends upon rate of flow. The faster fluid fills the cylinder, the faster the piston will move. The faster fluid fills the expanding spaces in a hydraulic motor, the faster the shaft will turn.

--"-1-x=;r=;r-

Notice that in this case speed may be affected in one direction only. If the valve shifts fully the other way, cylinder speed will be normal in the other direction.

TAP

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MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAVUC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

Hvdraulic Principle III: Load Determines Pressure


The pressure developed in an actuator depends on the load. That is, pressure will rise until the force is exerts on the piston in a cylinder can move the load. The greater the load, the higher the pressure will rise.

Or, the load may be normal but there is not enough pressure available to
move it. The relief valve may be leaking or set too low. The pump may be slipping its total volume. Other leaks in the system may be absorbing all pump output and preventing the pressure in the cylinder from rising enough to move the load.

INTERNAtiONAL JJlARITIMETRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

5. A pilot line operates a valve or other control.

4. A drain line returns leakage oil to the reservoirs


3. The pressure line is working line

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1. The pu: Inlet Ii a worki line.

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Pilot: In many cases, movem

essure signal taken from

the system. This line is shown siml a edrain line but not connected to tank thus we can differentiate between a drain line and a pilot line. The pilot line can be likened to the starting circuit of an electric motor - where control voltages are much less than the main motor voltage. i Piloting is done in two ways: Internal - this is done from the same circuit as the one in which the component is located. External - this is when the pilot signal is taken from another pumps' circuit or from a remote location.

INTERNATiONALMARITIMETRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

BLOCK DIAGRAM OF HYDRAULIC SYSTEM:

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PUMP Gear Vane Piston

Hvd.
Energy

Pressure Control

Direction Control

Flow Control

ACTUATOR Cylinder Motor

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Mech. Mech. Energy

a. b. c. d. e. f. DIRE a. 1, b. 2 01 c. Diffe Manl FLOW C a. Meter in b. Meter out c. Bleed off d. Non-compensated e. Pressure compensated f. Pressure & temp. compensated.

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INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

Circuit - Representation

Using Graphical Symbols

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Hydraulic motor

Pushing

PuIH ng

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H't<! Flf

CD Att

Tilting

Press'oll

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INTERNATIONALMARITIMETRAINING CENTRE

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BASIC HYDRA VLlC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

ACTUA TORS & PUMPS

SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER SPRING EXTENSION

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SINGLE ACTING CYLINDER SPRING RETURN

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IRECTION MP, FIXED ELiVERY 'ARIABLE DELIVERY, UNIDIRECTION PUMP VARIABLE DELIVERY, BI DIRECTION PUMP

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IIIIARlflME TRAINING CENTRE

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DIRECTIONALCONTROLS

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3 PORT,

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2 POSITIOND.C. v/v

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

METHODS OF OPERATION

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MANUAL

SOLENOID

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PUSH BUTTON

COOLER

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RESERVOIR

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

12

BASIC HYDRA ULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

PRESSURE CONTROLS

Name

Pilot
INTERNAL

Drain
INTERNAL

RELIEF VALVE Limits max. syste. pressure

UNLOADING v/v

. EXTERNAL

INTERNAL

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

FLOW CONTROLS

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CHECK VALVE

PILOI OPERTED CHECK VALVE

6PUMP
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MOTOR UNIT

(FLOW DIVIDER)

INTERNATIONAL MARitiME TRAINING CENTRE

14

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

FUNCTIONS AND PROPERTIES OF HYDRAULIC OIL


FUNCTIONS:
1. 2. 3. TRANSMITS POWER LUBRICATES COMPONENTS REMOVES AND AIDS IN DISSIPA HEAT FROM THE SYSTEM

4. 5. 6.

1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7.
8. 9. 10. COMPRESSIBILITY Additives are added to the oil to improve the abo~e properties and thus extend

the life of the oil.

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MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

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EFFECT OF VISCOSITY ON HYDRAULIC SYSTEMS:


IF THE VISCOSITY IS TOO HIGH: 1. The internal friction of the fluid will increase resulting in increase in the flow resistance. The machine and fluid temperat~re will increase.

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INTERNATIONAL. -JIJIARltIME TRAfNING CENTRE

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BASIC HYDRA ULlC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

IMPORTANCE OF RESERVOIRS RESERVOIR: Functions:


1. To aid in expelling entrained ai.. 2. Cooling the hydraulic 3. Aids in,removin

1. Tank 2. It s en 3. B Ii
4. 5. 6. 7.

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INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

PUMP INLET LINE(OPTION)

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RETURN LINE SEALED FLANGE

THERMOMETER AND SIGHT GLASS

END PLATE EXTENSION

Typical Industrial Reservoir

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

18

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

FILTERS AND CONTAMINANTS


Filter types:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Suction line filter - about 100 - po microns. . . Pressure line filter - about 5 - 1 Icrons. Return line filter - about 20 - 4 Icrons. Off line filtration. Full flow filters. PropoJ&tiJilaal flo Filte

Maximum abrasion occurs due to particles slightly smaller or the same size as the clearance between moving parts.

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INTERNATIONALMARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

BASICHYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

AIR BREATHER

START

...

TO AVOID THE INGRESS OF CONTAMINATIONFROM

AIR ENTERS THROUGH THE PERFORATIONS IN THE


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THEATMOSPHERE A
BREATHER IS USED

BREATHER

PASSES THROUGH THE ELEMENT, .THEN INTO THE RESERVOIR

INLET FILTER

START

FLU ID ENTERS THE


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THEN PASSES INTO FILTER HOUSING


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ANDFINALLY THROUGH THEFILTER I


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WITHCONT.A.MINATION,
THE PRESSURE DIFFRENCE ACROSS THE ELEMENT INCREASES
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RED INDICATESFULLY BY-PASSING

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RETURN LINE FILTER

START

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FLUID ENTERS THE FILTER AND FLOWS INTO THE BOWL CONTAINING THE FILTER ELEMENT

FLUID THEN PASSES THROUGH THE ELEMENT AND OUT OF THE FILTER

AS THE ELEMENT CLOGS WITH CONTAMINATION THE RESISTANCE TO FLOW INCREASES

AT A POINT DETERMINED BY THE SPRING TENSION, THE BY-PASS .. VALVE OPENS THUS PROTECTING THE FILTER FROM COLLAPSE

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THIS CAUSES A RISE IN PRESSURE

BASIC HYDRA ULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

Hydraulic Fluid Cleanliness Requirements


Cleanliness requirements for hydraulic fluids have changed significantly in recent years. The standard of cleanliness that was acceptable a few years ago is no longer sufficient for many of today's hydraulic systems. This is especially true for highly-automated facilities, such as electrohydraulic servo valves, numerically controlled machines, and aircraft and missiles system. A hydraulic system may be perfect with respect to the design and construction, but if the fluid that is used in the system contains excessive contamination, either the operation of the equipment may be unsatisfactory or damage to the unit may occur used by various organization and individual A number of different classification system have il for the hydraulic and lubricating fluids that companies to define and measure the cleanlines are used in equipment. To standardize the me od used to express the level of particulate rds Organization (ISO) developed contamination in hydraulic fluid, the" .' rd that not only expresses standard IS04406. ISO 4406 i to specitVwthe required the level of particulate cont cleanliness wides a consistent

Hydr; custc clear recol follow hydral Drums.


dirt and ( Drums s effects of The top of1 from falling i Hydraulic oi Equipment pumps, etc of any hOSE

be thoroughlyCieaned prior be covered after use to prevent f Because many facilities use different typ'es1'ofjiflyara~nc'&fj'UIas in different system, equipment that is used to transfer fluid to these systems should be designatedand used for each different fluid to prevent cross-contaminatingnoncompatiblefluids. Even though fluid suppliers are careful to deliver only clean fluid, a filtration system should be used to transfer the fluid to the reservoir. The degree of,filtration should be the same as the filtration system that is used on the equipment. Manl, fluid suppliers will provide hydraulic fluid filtration system specifically designedfor filtering fluid as it is added to the system. Facilities should establish and follow hydraulic fluid standards and practices to prevent the
contamination of hydraulic system from the improper storage and handling of hydraulic fluids.

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

INGRESS FROM CYLINDER ROD SEALS

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PUMP INLET LINE FILTER

PUMP TENDS TO GRIND EXISTING D!RT AND GENERATE MORE AS A RESUL

BASIC FILTRATION OF A HYDRAULIC SYSTEM

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PARTICLE SIZE, mlcrometres

ISO solid contaminant

code.

Example: Sample size = 100 ml Particle size ranQe 5-15/lm 15 - 25 /l m 25 -: 50 /l m 50 - 100 /l m >100/lm

Number of particles 150,000 5,000 1,250 250 50

Thus, total number of particles... .

> 5 /l m = 156,550

>15 J.1 = 6,550 m These two values are plotted on the graph as shown, which gives the code as '18/13'

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

R,

Number of partioles per 100 mlllllltrns Code


20/17 20/16 20/15 20/14 19/16 19/15 19/14
19/13 18/15 18114 18/13 18/12 17/14 17/13

Over 5 p.m More than & up to


500k 500k 500k 500k 250k 250k 2501<
250k 1301<. 130k 130k 130k 64k 64k 64k 641<

Over 15 p'm More than & up to


64k 32k 16k 8k 32k 16k
81<
I

1M 1M 1M '1 M 500k 500k 500k


500k 250k 250k 250k 250k 130k 130k 130k 130k

1301< 64k

16k
I

41< 16k 8k 41< 21< 8k 4k 2k 11\

8k 32k 16k 8k 4k 161< 81< 4k 21<

32k 32k 16/11 16/10


15/12

64k 64k 64k 64k


32k 32k

4k 2k 1k 500
2k Ik

32k 32k

2k

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11\ 4k 21<

"16k
'16k 16k

15/11 15/10

15/9
14/11

16k
8k

32k 32k
16k

500 250
11<

1k 500
21<

14/10 14/9 14/8 13/10 13/9 1318 12/9 12/8 11/8

8k 81\ 8k 4k 4k 4k 2k

16k 16k 16k 8k 8k 8k 4k 4k 2k

500 250 130 500 250 {130 250 130 130

1k 500 250 1k 500 250 500 250 250

TABLE OF ISO CODES AND CORRESPONDING


CONTAMINATIONLEVELS
INI~Rr-rATIONAL MARITIMETRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

3.1 Classification systems for the degree of contamination in a fluid Classification systems (standardized cleanliness classes) are used to help determine the amount of solid particles present in a fluid. The most commonly used standards today are NAS 1638 and ISO DIS 4406. 3.1.1 Classification to NAS 1638 Fourteen cleanliness clas classify fluids. number of pa . each of 5 range1 Table 6 shows' are formed to

3.1.2 Classification to ISO DIS4406


Here the sizes larger than 5 11mand larger than 15 11mare cumulatively provided. The cleanliness class of the fluid is determined on the basis of both particle counts. are available for Twenty-six ranges classification. The designation of the s class comprises only two first nym!:>er indicates the . Ie size larger mber indicates than 15 11m.
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Cleanliness class 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

5-15 125 250 500 1000 : 2000 4000 8000 16000 32000 64000 128000 256000 512000 1024000

Table6: Cleanliness clas Maximum numberofdirtp


1 2 5 10 15 20

20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 " :J 2 1

. . . . ~ ~

Pr~cticle size in 11m Diagram 1: Cleanliness classes to ISO DIS 4406


Both classification systems may be represented graphically.

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

Q: What should be the Hydraulic Oil Cleanliness Standard for our type of
Hydraulic System? And what should be the micron ratings of the Filter for such systems? A: Following are the recommended Oil Cleanliness Levels for different Hydraulic Systems and absolute micron ratings of the filters used in the system. However as a thumb. rule Oil Cleanliness Level required for the most sensitive component of the system should be maintained. Recommended Oil Cleanliness levels for different Components are as per next tabl rt for SYSTEMS

Sr. No.

:0-

Attainable Oil cleanliness


s '---ISO 4406

1 2 3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9. 10

Ge Cy Di Rei Throttle Valves Piston Pumps Vane Pumps Proportional Valves Servo Valves Servo Cylinders 9 9 if) 19/16 18/15 18/15 18/15 16/13 16/13

20 20 20 20 20 10 10 5 3 3

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7

Source: Principles & Application of Hydraulic Filters-

INTERNATiONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

28

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

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STANDARD NAS ISO 1638 4406 Contamination 00 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1

Number of Particles per 100 MLof Oil. MICRONRANGE 5 to15 125 250 500 10 15 to 25 2 25 to 50 4 8 16 32 50 to 100 1 2 3 6 1 >100

1 1 2 4 8 16 32 64 128 56 ,12 24 -

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

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TYPES OF PUMPS

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Hydrostatic Positivedisplacement Reciprocating
Hi-press., low speed 250/500 strokes/min upto 700 bar

Hydrodynamic Non-positivedisplacement
Centrifugal

Rotary

Axialflow

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Hi speed, Hi volume Low press. upto 200 bar

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BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July I

COMMON PROBLEMS WITH PUMPS:


1. 2. Contqrnination - This willresult in I clearances. Cavitation of lubrication & increase in

3.

INTERNATIONAL ARITIME TRAINING CENTRE M

31

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

SIMPLE POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP

START

BY PULLING THE PISTON ROD NUT

.
,

THIS IS A POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT PUMP AS THERE IS A MECHANICAL SEAL (BALL VALVES) BETWEEN THE INLET AND OUTLET PORTS OF THE PUMP

THERE IS VACUUM CREATED IN THE CHAMBER

4.
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IF A PIPE CONNECTED TO A SUPPLY TANK WERE CONNECTED TO THE CHAMBER

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THEN FLUID WOULD BE PUSHED INTO THE CHAMBER BY ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE

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WITH THE FURTHER INCREASE IN PRESSURE THE DISCHARGE VALVE WOULD OPEN ALLOWING THE TRAPPED VOLUME OF FLUID IN THE CHAMBER TO BE DISCHARGED TO THE ACTUATOR

~
WHICH WOULD UPSET THE BALL VALVE AND FLUID WOULD ENTER THE CHAMBER

IF THE PLUNGER WAS PUSHED FORWARD THE PRESSURE WOULD RISE' IN THE CHAMBER ABOVE

r
... THIS WOULD CAUSE THE BALL VALVE TO REST

1. INLET

2. OUTLET 3. PUMPINGCHAMBER 4.. MECHANISIMTO ACTIVATETHE-PUMPINGCHAMBER

INTERNATIONAL

MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

32

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

DIRECTION CONTROL VALVES


These valves start, stop and control the direction (path) of fluid flow. They are classified according to their principal characteristics as given below: 1. Type of internal valving element: a. Poppet (ball or piston) b. Rotary spool c. Sliding spool (this is th

2.

3.

4.

T
Four port, two position valve

Four port, three position valve

INTERNA TIONACMARITIME

TRAINING CENTRE

33

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

TWO - POSITION FOUR PORT VALVE

A.

It

p,,~ i I

X ITIJ
P T
'<;). 2.

~'~
Th. ne... pol1-..., P'A ."d a.T

!ly ,cd.nq lel/f't.., .u Ih, ;><,":bl, ne... $'111\'wllh

II<,."" II th. u","""

t".

tOIi" i. lev' Giv\"~ . lovf WI)'

1
ev 'h'!tJn~ tl->.."'=< oc'".. ",..0 ,/I.",.".,. 110-.0. POI'" 1~

",1"

It A~T'

Ih tnoYI"1I". .pool

..

to ,!>I. '!V.Ih,~ p<>lftJon

To'Qfl0" pc,!1j III 1V'f1,.blt Lt. '.~A..T

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

34

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

THREE - POSITION4 - WAYVALVES


Three position valves, with center neutral, are used in circuits where the cylinder must be stopped in mid travel. The 3 - position valve pictured below has all ports blocked in center neutral, but several other choices of center porting are commonly used, and these are illustrated in diagrams on the following pages. The two side positions give the same cylinder reversing action as the two - position valve previously described. The center position is considered the "normal" position, a.!1!d drawing diagrams, all external circuit in connections should be made to the center bl

{Tj Tank

Tank
Spoof Can1zr Portini Di.Jgram; Portini Diagram lor'

j
I
.

Por1In9 Ol.gram for ldt Spcol Position A 8

All Poru Block.d. S

Right SpOol Position '. A a

-OO---l
. T
I

r-~
PiT

I
A

II [~[
Mallu,' LI"'" SQllnoid Spf'.c.nt.

lev., Spr.Cent.

Trli.!ldl. Actuato;

Jj~A B

Pilot Oper. Spr. Cant;

S<:>lenoid Spr. Cant.

The three flow blocks s flow in the three working pOSt are placed side by side, then actuator symbols are added on one or both ends as needed. The valve shown is a double solenoid, spring centered valve with closed center spool.

INTERNATIONAL MARITIME 'tRAINING CENTRE

35

BASIC HYDRAUliC

WORKSHOP

RiMI0.hJ;

03

SOLENOIDS FOR DIRECTION CONTROL VALVE ACTUATION.

These are the most common actuators for direction control valves. The ones used in this application are of the 'on - off' type. The solenoids always actuate the spool by PUSHING on it. They can be DC (generally round s~';pe & black) or AC (generally flat sided and blue) Solenoids are made u~

the suppl~}naQd th
Two sol Air gap t

..

system. .
help of with t Wet sole sun (whl mar into arm about In both tl its end p (A.C. C Reasons 1. Contamination in med. 2. Misalignment between solenOI ange & spool. 3. All 4 bolts of above flange not equally tight. 4. Excessive ambient temperature. 5. If both coils are energised at the same time (this is normally prevented with an interlock arrangement - but to be safe, both supply wires should not run together.

INTERNATIONAL MARlrIMI:-TAAINlNGCENTRE .

36

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

DIRECT

ACTING SOLENOID VALVES


COIL
Pl.ASTlC CASE

Figure: A direct-acting solenoid valve is one where the solenoid armature is directly linked to the spool and provides the necessary push or pull "muscle" for shifting it. In this single solenoid valve the spool is driven in one direction by the solenoid force and in the other by spring action after the solenoid is deenergized. Porting through the valve when deenergized and energized is shown by the left and right blocks respectively of the symbol. This is the same as for an way valve. The valves naturall) discharge path valves these d out individually, simplify plumbin internally and,' connection,T

TUBE

FlUID

Maximu size. Th electricall

aximum s both

LAND AREAS

PWNGER PULLED IN

INTERNATIONALMARITIMETRAINING CENTRE

37

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

l
,
1 1

PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES


These valves perform functions such as limiting maximum system pressure or regulating reduced pressure in certain sections of the circuit and other functions wherein tbteir actuation is a result of a change in operating pressure.

t
1

i f f t I I

4.

5.

8. Unloadingvalve -

usea"t(:jfcsaveTtpOWer unloading the by pump or pumps when large flows are not required ( otherwise the extra oil will go over the relief valve at high pressure).

o.G-4l~
~~lN
INTERN~NAL

{~

p~\j~

~
.

J~WJ1

~~

~
38

l~

~~

MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

PRESSURE CONTROL VALVES

L--,

4. and can be adjusted.

3. Spring tension determines setting...

-..'

~
2. When pressure here Is less than valve setting, valve remains closed.

INLET (FROM PUMP)

5. When valve setting Is reached, pump flow Is directed to tank.

~
~ (J
tJ
:J:::

~ ~ ~

~
~

~
'"6

/"

~It>

"
f
'\

~ ,",~-~

, '--'

, , , , , , ',
~_J.

IllUSTRATION OF A COUNTERBALANCEVALVE CIRCUIT


.

A counterbalancevalve 'C' is usedwhen there is a tendencyof the hangingloadW to causethe actuatorto 'creep'
due to slight leakage at the spool of the direction control valve.

This can also I:>e achievedwith a pilot operatedcheckvalve in placeof the counterbalance valve.

::tI

~ ~ c ~ ~ c .....

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

General description These modules provide pilot operated check functions in one or both service lines (A and B), the pilot supply coming from opposite service line to that in which the check acts. When closed, the check prevents flow from the actuator port to which it is externally connected. The construction of a dual check module is shown below:

2. F

T.

-. 8

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

~
-

A. LOWERING CYLINDER

B. RAISING CYLINDER

Counterbalance valve.

Spool Is held wide open. (No restriction to motor exhaust.)

Low pressure here when directional valve Is centered.

"

".

Pressure created here equall that required to 11ft spool allowing exhaust flow. (Braking force.)

Remote control pressure Is directly under spool. (Large area.)

A. ACCELERATION OR CONSTANT SPEED Brake valve.

B. BRAKING

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

COUNTERBALANCE

VALVE

opens to permit free When the cylinder is be e valve can be internally flow for returning the cylin drained. In the lowering position, when the valve must be open, its secondary port is connected to tank. In the reverse condition, it does not matter tl:lat load pressure is effective in the drain passage, because the cheek valve bypasses the spool. .

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

Pilot Operated Check Valves


These valves act like conventional non-return valves (i.e. aloe flow in one direction only), but can be opened by pilot pressure to allow flow in the reverse direction Being poppet type they are virtually leak-free when closed and are thus useful in preventing creep or inadvertent njpvement of an actuator. They may also be used to prevent movement of an A1iuator if a hose fails.
0

Flow into port


passes fl

~ \

A.

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

FLOW CONTROL VALVES


The function of these valves is to controlthe flowof oiland thus, the speed of the actuators. They are normally fitted after the direction control valve to prevent

power loss.

Flow control valves are essential direction only and this direc1. thus care should be t

designed to control flow in one the body by an arrow & d correctly.

1. 2. 3.

Since, Flow a L\P any change in ...thepressure drop across the


I

orifice of the flow control valve will result in change in flow. To prevent this, we have valves called Pressure compensated flow control valves.

BASIC HYDRA ULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

TYPES OF FLOW CONTROL


A

METER IN

.1\.

-y

l\b!",.Our

CIrcuit

Ijf ~

BLEED-OFF
CONTROL

>B

BI"ed-Off Circuit

INTERNATiONAL MARlfIME:fAAfNIN~ CENfRE

46

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

ACTUATORS
These convert hydraulic energy into mechanical energy. There are two types of actuators: 1. Cylinders: these are linear hydraulic actuators. 2. Motors: these are rotary hydraulic actuators.

CYLINDERS:
There are various types of cylindl 1. Single acting 2. Spr. 3. Do 4. Do 5. Tan

('J

~ ~

::J::

~ ~ ~
ROD END HEAD ROD END PORT OPTIONAL AIR VENTS (FOR BLEEDING AIR FROM CYLINDER) PISTONSEALS CAP END HEAD TIE ROD CAP END PORT
?=s

CUSHION COLLAR

~
~
S5

BODY Typical cVll der construction. n

::tJ

~ c::. ~ ~

~IJ

1. Exhaust flow passes freely out of cylinder until. . .

5. Check valve allows free flow to piston for

extension.

2..Plunger enters cap.. .

4. Rate of deceleration
is controlled by adjustable opening.

3. Nowflowmust take restricted path causing the piston to decelerate.

CYLINDER CUSHIONS - ROD RETRACTING


INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE 49

CYLINDER PORT

CUSHION NOTE:Closingof the ADJUSTMENT cushionadjustment screw SCREW shouldbe donewithcare.

,-;<;-'7.";<;',-,-,-,

':~~::::::::::'::::::::::::::::: :::':':':':':,:,;.:,:,:,:::,:,:,:,:,:,:,:.::""",-,-,-,-.-,-,-.-,-,'.-,'.-,-,',',-,
:.::::::::::::::::::::::::::,:::::;::::::':::::::;::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: ,'., , . , , , , , , , , , : , , , , , ,', , , , , . . , , , , , , , , , , . . , , , . ::::::::::::::: .::;::::::::::: ,::;:::::::::::::::::::::::::::: , , , , , . , , , , , , , . , , , , . , , , , . . . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , :::::::: :::::::: ::::::::::

-,-,'.

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

.,

,""",',' , , , , ,..""".."",., , , , , , , ,,.".".", , , , ,.""" , , , , ,,,,, , ,,,, ,,, ,,,,, ,,, ,'0',',',',',',',',',',',',';',',',',',',', ',',' ,',',' ,',', ',' ,',',', ',' ,',',' ,',',' ,',' ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,0,,,,,,,,.,.. ,.,.., ,,...0,,,,,..,,,,.. .,...,.. ,,,.. ,,,,,,,,,.,,," , , , , , , , , . .. ,, , .. , ,.. ,.. , ,, , . . ,, .. , ,, ., , .. , .. , . .. .
, , , , , , , , , , , , . , , " , , , , , , , , 0, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

, , , , ,. .. "U..'.'..'..' , ,'.','.'.','.'."', .. .. . ,.',.. . . , ...'.'. ,',0'.',"... ,'." . .. .. .. '-'-' '-',','.'.' , , , , . " , , , ..

INTENSIFIEDRESSURE P
Cylinder cushions-rodextending.

CONN~cr\NG p.OO v.I\NOOV'l

pof{{S

PistoN

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

ACCUMULATORS
Since hydraulic fluids are essentially incompressible, they do not have"the ability to store power. Hydraulic accumulators store the potential energy that is in the incompressible fluid for subsequent conversion to useful work.

Functions:
1. Pulsation damper and shock absorber: It dampens the pulsations pressure surges can would this st Combl Safety failure. POW~j rea olerable levels. Also, heavy Ive in the system - this
rs.~.bs:~f:;111&:cushion

2. 3. 4.

1. 2. 3. 4. The

Note: Never open any componenllflliJlim71i'ltl'n::I@tne hydraulic ensuring that the accumulator fluid has been drained to tank.
Other ways of reducing vibration:

system

before

1. - Clamp pipes at short intervals...


2. 3. If possible pump to have flexible hoses at suction at delivery ends for about 1/2 mtr. Motor and pump to be mounted on foundation using shock absorbers.

.....

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

TYPES OF ACCUMULATORS
Air /Vent
Spring

1
1
Gas Port

i ,
~

Pinon

.
Oil

Shelt

..' 'Oil Port A.BLADDER

-.::=

Oil Port

B. SPRING LOADED

C. WEIGHT LOADED

D. DIAPHRAGM

Types of Although types ar in popul


Bladder between a valve 1 always rE and floats bag closes lesigned to g its life.

Diaphragm A
diaphragm se limited. The sc.
Charging an On hydraulic system using a charging and gauging assembly to accumulator used should be on hand for use of maintenance people. A pressure bottle of oil pumped (dry) nitrogen should also be on hand. The assembly may also contain a shut off valve between the gauge and bottle adapter so the assembly can be left attached to monitor gas pre-charge. All oil must be discharged before checking or adjusting precharge pressure.
INTERNATIONAL MARITIME TRAINING CENTRE

device. Rubber laximum size is harged.

Thread to Fit Gas Port on Ac:c:umu~tor

Threld to Fit Preuure Sonles

Adapter for Bo~.. Wit:L.H7

1m
54

CHARGING AND GAGUING ASSEMBLY

ACCUMULATOR

START -~

THE ACCUMULATOR CONSISTS OF TWO COMPARTMENTS

ONE THE BAG WHICH ... CONTAINS THE GAS

(NITrOGEN) THE OTHER A STEEL SHELL INTO WHICH THE FLUID IS PUMPED

-+
THE GAS IN THE BAG PRODUCES A RESISTANCE TO THE PUMP FLOW THERE BY CREATING PRESSURE

TO ENSURE THE B~G DOES NOT EXTRUDE AND BURST, A VALVE IS FITTED TO ELIMINATE THIS

SO THAT THE ENERGY CAN BE STORED IN THE ACCUMULATOR

WHEN FULLY DISCHARGED THE GAS IN THE BAG INFLATES IT TO FILL THE ENTIRE STEEL SHELL

ACCUMULATORS
Function A hydraulic accumulator is a vessel in which a fluid may be kept under pressure. When liquid is supplied to the accumulator through the oil valve, the rubber bag is compressed, and the pressure of the oil mounts. When the oil pressure drops, the rubber bag expands, and the accumulator delivers oil to the hydraulic system into which it is connected. Hydraulic Ac Components The hydraulic components 1. A stel 2. Arul the 3. A bj t 4. 2. There is a slit or tear some 10-40 cm from the bottom end of the bag. Causes: After installing the bag it has been charged too rapidly. During installation, tre entire oil valve must be introduced into the accumulator. The nether part of the bag may then be forced upwards or even folded on itself. With a high charging rate, the bag is not 'me to assume its correct shape, but is 'ned in its lower peripheral parts. own the middle nto the g of the bag must slow rate in order to open up into its

e is tightened alve proper bag will be of the bag ,hen cause bag. e vented!

Malfun Faulty relative. compon malfuncti and may

installation

surveillance Typical dam 1. The I at a charc ~, Cause: T to nothing (through diffusl years of operation or because 0 charging valve or through failure to check the tightness of the valve after charging). The bag has been compressed by the hydraulic circuit pressure until the upper part of the bag has folded itself over the charging valve

.:I

and been punctured by it.

There is a slit or tear some 10-40 cm from the bottom end of the bag.

HYDRAULIC

PRESSURE ACCUMULATOR

BASIC HYDRA vue

WORKSHOP

RevO.O July 03

ACCUMULATORS
N.B. Check the charging pressure of the bag every year (approx. 1000-hour intervals) and also when replacing the oil cooler in the system. Insufficient gas pressure in the bag may cause the following kinds of damage: 1. The rubber bag in the accumulator i compressed by the hydraulic circ pressure, and is torn by the charging val A new accumulator must be installed. 2. Hydraulic pumps and motors down. They require a pressurl 3. Excessj eventua.~, '!fuP" too fa(~)f operati ' To charge a h' of Fig. HAGGLUN bar (600 k 2 meters) W24 co bottle. W24/14 Chargin (N2). (Ail 1. C ac , 9. Close the nitrogen bottle shut-oft valve tightly 10. Open the discharge valve of the 3-way valve to vent the pressure in the filling hose to the outside air. 11. Return the reducing valve to zero. 12. Remove the charging equipment from the nitrogen bottle and from the accumulator. 13. Use a soap solution in water to check that e accumulator charging valve is perfectly d safety screw

ag to the f filling, and erator. cessary to fit bottle.

2.

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

scn oper tight. . Connei nitroge reducin Open until t Open t Adjust theieducing v charging pressure (see table obtained. Turn the 3-way valve filling screw clockwise, but not too tightly as this may damage the accumulator chargingvalve. Fill the accumulator bag with nitrogen. Check the nitrogen pressure in the bag when the temperature and pressure of the gas have stabilized. When the correct pressure has been obtained, back out the filling screw of the 3-way valve.

Connector nitrogen

W24 for' bottle

NITROGEN HARGINGQUIPMENT C E

INTERNATIONALMARITIMETRAINING CI:I\I"TRE

57

Maintenance tip: watch gage to monitor precharge pressure


The precharge pressure in a bladder should be checked at least once in a month according to one accumulator manufacturer. This simple preventive maintenance action will assure consistent flow to the cirGuit and extended bladder life. The conventional way to check prechar! all pressures from hydraulic circuit. Then install a gage head assembly, the precharge pressure fl the next a to shut of the pump and discharge cap the accumulator charge value, Ive with its tee handle. If cedures and go to

For multiple-accumulatorcircuitsln'~'ge~iII indicate the condition of the lowest precharge pressure. If that pressure shows less than required, checks of each individualaccumulatorwill be necessary.

SAFETY AND PRECAUTIONS


BEWARE OF :

1.

leaks

: can make the afe}rSlippery. : can constitute a ~pour and fire hazard. : leaki

RELIEVING SYSTEM PRESSURE


Pressure may be due to external loads or forces. Eliminate them. . Lower or move all parts to the rest, 2r untensioned position before shutting the system down. ay be counterbalancing loads. . Carefully open adjustable valves t an be reset). (Note the setting first, so the valv . Jack or wedge the load ulic pressure mechanically, if n

Pressure or charge . Se . We di .

Eve

LOWER OR MECHANICALLY SECURE ALL SUSPENDED LOADS

ISOLATE THE ELECTRICAL POWER SUPPLY

SAFETY PROCEDURE FOR SHUTTING DOWN MACHINES

BASIC HYDRAULIC WORKSHOP SYSTEM INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE CLEANING OF HYDRAULIC FLUIDS

RevO.O July 03

How clean should the Hyd. Fluid be ? Hydraulicfluid serves as a medium for transmittingforce from one place to another. It must quicklyreflectchanges in force's directionand magnitude. To meet these needs, a fluidmust have: . enough viscosity to efficientlytransmit fo~ce, prevent cavitation and guard against overheating m components sufficientlubricatingcapabilityto protect and 60 deg.C - ideal range is 50-55 . temperature between the fluid's pour deg.C anti-wear protection,ifne oxidatio . adequ

. . .
. . .
.

good d

rust inh resistal comp

..

Res Freqi Envir Equipt Onlyn Whydo Results

. .
.

10%

5% - u

10% -

5%-

inade 70% poo

WARNING- Before breaking a cTrc'f:iif~r:m~6ti."*m'*aKepower is off and system sure

pressure is released. Lower all vertical cylinders and discharge accumulators.


CAUTION - Absolute cleanliness is essential when working on a hydraulic system. The presence of dirt and foreign materials in a system can result in serious damage or inadequate operation.

NOTE - Discard and replace all '0' rings, gaskets and back up rings removed during disassembly.

INTERNATIONAL MARfTrri/f~iAAINING CENTRE

62