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Biomedical Engineering

Technical Communications

Ma

th e

ma t ic s

P s hy

ic s

Hands-On

Engineering Discovery

Minds-On

Engineering Measurement

Social Science

Teamwork

Mechanical Engineering

Professionalism

Civil & Environmental Engineering

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

What is a System?

A system is an assemblage of components or elements intended to act together to accomplish an objective. The view of a system as a set of interconnected elements is what has been called the systems approach to problem solving. The behavior of a system is specified by its input-output relation, which is a description usually mathematical of how the output is affected by the input. There are two types of systems: static and dynamic. Engineering dynamic systems can be small-scale and large-scale.

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 2

Block Diagram A block diagram of a system is a pictorial representation of the functions performed by each component and of the flow of signals. It describes a set of relationships that hold simultaneously. A block diagram contains information concerning dynamic behavior, but it does not include any information on the physical construction of the system. Many dissimilar and unrelated systems can be represented by the same block diagram. A block diagram of a given system is not unique.

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 3

Note the three methods of engineering communication: picture, schematic, & block diagram!

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

What is Simulink?

Simulink is an extension to MatLab that allows engineers to rapidly and accurately build computer models of dynamic physical systems using block diagram notation. linear and nonlinear systems continuous-time and discrete-time components graphical animations are possible Previously, a block diagram of the dynamic system mathematical model was created and then the block diagram was translated into a programming language. In Simulink, the computer program is the block diagram and this eliminates the risk that the computer program may not accurately implement the block diagram.

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 6

START HERE

Physical System

System Measurement Physical Model

Parameter Identification

Mathematical Model

Mathematical Analysis

Simulink uses the Mathematical Model represented in Block Diagram form and predicts the dynamic response (solves the equations) of the physical model (not the actual physical system).

YES

Design Changes

NO

K. Craig 7

Introduction to Simulink

Rigid support Pure and ideal spring Pure and ideal viscous damper One degree-of-freedom motion; x direction Rigid attached mass System is vertical; g acts down in +x direction

K. Craig 8

Ma Bv Kx

Mathematical Model

Introduction to Simulink

To Workspace Block sends selected output to workspace for plotting, analysis, etc. Gain Block multiplies the input by the gain value

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 9

Numerical Integration

Rectangle Approximation

Assumes the function has a constant value within each interval Break the interval into a number of pieces of equal width, T Evaluate the function at x, the start of each piece, i.e., f(x) Calculate the area of a rectangle for each piece Area = T f(x) Add up the areas of all the rectangles

f(x)

T

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 10

Trapezoid Approximation

Assumes the function may change linearly within each interval Break the interval into a number of pieces of equal width, T Evaluate the function at x1, the start of each piece, i.e., f(x1) Evaluate the function at x2, the end of each piece, i.e., f(x2) Calculate the area of a box with a linearly sloping top for each piece Area = T [f(x1) + f(x2)] Add up the areas of all the boxes

f(x2) f(x1)

T

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 11

Engineers typically use two inputs to evaluate dynamic systems: a step input and a sinusoidal input. By a step input of any variable, we will always mean a situation where the system is at rest at time t = 0 and we instantly change the input quantity, from wherever it was just before t = 0, by a given amount, either positive or negative, and then keep the input constant at this new value forever. This leads to a transient response called the step response of the system. When the input to the system is a sine wave, the steadystate response of the system, after all the transients have died away, is called the frequency response of the system. These two input types lead to the two views of dynamic system response: time response and frequency response.

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 12

Step Response

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

13

The potential productivity improvement and cost savings realized from the block diagram approach to programming is dramatic. There are two principal strategies for Simulink employment. Rapid Prototyping This is the application of productivity tools to develop working prototypes in the minimum amount of time. Here we optimize for development speed, rather than execution speed or memory use. A hierarchy of physical models is used in this phase. Physical system design and control design are optimized simultaneously.

Introduction to Simulink K. Craig 14

Rapid Application Development Here the final computer program is the Simulink model or is derived from the Simulink model through automatic C-code generation.

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

15

Command Window

MatLab Desktop

Command History

Simulink Icon

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Some Simulink Block Diagram Suggestions Careful arrangements of blocks and signal lines can make relationships easier to follow. Naming blocks and signal lines and adding annotations to the model can make the purpose of the model elements easier to understand. The Best Way to ensure that your Simulink Block Diagram accurately represents your mathematical model equations is to write your mathematical model equations directly from the Simulink Block Diagram and then compare your result to the actual equations. This will uncover any errors before you start to use your block diagram to investigate model behavior.

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

20

F ma Ma a Bv Kx F(t) dv dx v dt dt Ma Bv Kx F(t) 1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

a v

v x

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Initial Conditions

a

Introduction to Simulink

x

K. Craig 22

1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

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1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

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1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

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1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

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1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

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1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

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1 ( Bv Kx F(t)) M

Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Introduction to Simulink

K. Craig

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Start Simulation

Introduction to Simulink

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Introduction to Simulink

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