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Formulas

to find given formula legend

sfm

D rpm D sfm ipm rpm ipt rpm nt nt ipm rpm nt ipr

sfm = π x D x rpm 12 rpm = 12 x sfm πxD ipr = ipm rpm ipm = ipt x nt x rpm ipm nt x rpm

rpm

ipr

sfm rpm D ipr ipm ipt nt π

= = = = = = = =

surface feet per minute revolutions per minute cutter diameter inch (advance) per revolution (feed) inches per minute inch per tooth (chip load) number of effective teeth or inserts in cutter 3.1416

ipm

ipt

ipt = ipr nt

given

calculated

rpm = 6" cutter diameter 8 teeth in cutter 600 sfm .010 ipt

12 x 600 3.1416 x 6 .010 x 8 x 382 30.6 382

= 382 = 30.6 = .080

ipm = ipr =

It’s very important to maintain a chip load which is great enough to ensure heat dissipation and prevent work hardening. A sufficient chip load will also create stability between the cutter and the workpiece. The formulas shown below are used to determine the programmed chip load, or feed rate necessary to obtain the desired load on the insert cutting edge as it enters the workpiece. These formulas should be applied whenever an arbor mounted slotting cutter is being used, or when less than half the diameter of a face mill or end mill is engaged in the cut. The lighter the radial depth of cut, the more important it becomes to apply these productivity formulas. Productivity Formulas

slot milling

chip load (ipt) =

(dia. – y) x (y) radius

x

ipm rpm

nt or ipm = rpm x nt x ipt (dia. – y) x (y) radius

(

)

M445

Index

Mat’l Database

(

)

( )

Technical Data

Accessories

Vintage Cutters

Slotting or Periphery Milling True or actual chip load on the cutting edge of the insert is equal to the programmed chip load only when 50% or more of the cutter’s diameter is engaged in the cut (lead angle not considered). Anything less than half the diameter of the cutter means that the actual chip load is reduced by some percentage. The smaller the radial depth of cut, the greater the decrease in actual chip load.

Widia Cutters

Thread Milling

Slotting

example:

Die and Mold

ipt

ipt =

End Mills

Face Mills

Inserts

.750 .0 1. .59 .3 19.56 1.67 3.100 . .1 E .0040 .050 .9 33.64 x 19.0011 .28 1.83-.10 .42 2.90) A suitable formula for calculating horsepower (HPc) at the cutter is: example: HPc = mrr width of cut . .030 .19 1.33 2.8 0% 109% 178% 256% 335% 515% Thread Milling Formulas—Horsepower metal removal rate The metal removal rate (mrr) calculation is a good basis for determining metalcutting efficiency.8 In determining horsepower consumption.25-3. .1 HPm = c HPm = = 5. cobalt base iron base nickel alloys aluminum alloys magnesium alloys copper copper alloys Technical Data HPc = Mat’l Database Index For horsepower at the motor (HPm ). .27 2.76 .6 23.56 “K” Factors work material hardness HB “K” factor steels.54 1.Technical Information Feed Rate Compensation Inserts Operations such as periphery milling with a light radial depth of cut or slotting with an arbor mounted cutter require a calculation for feed rate compensation to maintain the proper chip load on the insert edge at entry into the cut. and tool steels) precipitation hardening stainless steels cast irons (gray.88 .1 HP at the cutter 1.004 ipt increase 1. Very often it is the lack of horsepower that is the limiting factor when deciding on a particular operation.91-. . nickel. . ductile.54-. For instance. .4 = 4. NOTE: “K” factors vary depending on the hardness of the material.33-. or chatter problems if the following formula is not applied. . mrr = doc x woc x ipm = cu.48 . M446 . 19.69 .0014 .53 .0006 5.“K” factor 1.87 . .200 x 1. and martensitic) titanium high-temperature alloys.4 cu. ./min.52 1. . use formula: HP 4. the actual chip load on entry for a 3/4" diameter cutter taking a .91-.74-. depending on the radial depth and the cutter diameter. .010 . . Minimal cutter runout is critical to obtaining an equal chip load on each flute of the cutter too. . .53 6. The “K” factor is a power constant that represents the number of cubic inches of metal per minute that can be removed by one horsepower.64" K depth of cut .27 1. in.200 feed . (E = . .64 1.004 ipt 5. and wrought and cast irons (plain carbon alloy steels.56 mrr = . . It is not uncommon to encounter built-up edge. .5" end mill – 6 flutes 90 sfm 230 rpm .5 ipm Die and Mold End Mills Face Mills Slotting . A side benefit to applying this formula is increased productivity as feed rates can increase dramatically.0009 .010 radial depth cut is only 23% of the calculated chip load. 1. The calculated chip load and actual chip load can be dramatically different. . radial depth of cut actual chip load (ipt) feed required (ipm) to maintain . inches/min. and malleable) 85-200 201-253 254-286 287-327 328-371 372-481 482-560 561-615 150-450 150-175 110-190 176-200 201-250 251-300 301-320 135-275 286-421 250-375 200-360 180-320 80-360 30-150 (500 kg) 40-90 (500 kg) 150 100-150 151-243 Vintage Cutters 1. austenitic. 6. .75 to .0-6.5 ipm 4140 220 HB.5 = 6. . .5 11.33 3.50 1.5 15.33 10. . “K” factors must be used.0 Accessories Widia Cutters stainless steels. On applications where large diameter cutters or heavy stock removal is necessary. horsepower consumption Milling cutters can consume significant amounts of horsepower.020 . .0020 . NOTE: Spindle efficiency “E” varies from 75 to 90%. it’s advantageous to first calculate the necessary horsepower requirements. and wrought and cast irons (ferritic. work-hardening.89 1.27-.

2.15 = 150). calculating torque Ft = S x A x Zc x Cm x Cw (lbs. Using this tangential force formula is a quick way to determine the approximate forces that fixtures. at the 3000-kgf load. number of inserts in cut (Zc) The number of inserts in the cut (simultaneously engaged with work material) depends on the number of inserts in the cutter “Z” and the engagement angle ( ).. metal removal rates (mrr) and power constants have served as the conventional values used to calculate horsepower. cross-sectional area of the chip (A) Cross-sectional area of the chip (Fig..) End Mills Face Mills where: d = axial depth of cut (in. If hardness is given in Rockwell “B” or Rockwell “C” numbers. ultimate material strength (psi) The approximate relationship between the ultimate material strength and hardness of the most commonly used work materials such as steels. or mm2) f = feed per tooth (in.2) Zc = number of inserts in cut Cm = machinability factor Cw = tool wear factor Widia Cutters Thread Milling Calculation of tangential force is important since it produces torque at the spindle and accounts for the greatest portion of machining power at the cutting tool. titanium alloys (Ti – 6Al – 4V). or mm) Inserts . Torque. calculating tangential force (Ft) 2. When testing soft metals such as aluminum alloys. This angle is found from the geometry of figure 2 (formulas to calculate engagement angle and the number of inserts in the cut at any width of cut are given in Appendix 2. 1 = milling cutter 2 = workpiece = engagement angle 1 = the angle between cutter centerline and cutter radius to the peripheral point of exit or entry W = width of cut (woc) D = cutter diameter fm = workpiece feed motion M447 Index Mat’l Database Figure 2: Schematic for calculating the number of inserts in cut Technical Data Accessories Vintage Cutters where: S = ultimate strength of the work material (psi) A = cross-sectional area of the chip removed by the milling insert (in.-lbs. calculating horsepower at cutter 9. and aluminum alloys (2024. Although this is a relatively common method of calculating horsepower. Tangential force is calculated with the following formula: Slotting Tangential Force. see Appendix 1 (page M462). where HB = Brinell hardness numbers obtained. or spindle bearings will endure.15. primarily. Hardness obtained at the 500-kgf load should be converted into the hardness equivalent of the 3000-kgf load by using the load factor of 1. page M462). This new approach utilizes the following information: 1. irons (for example: gray cast iron). ultimate material strength 3. cross-sectional area of the chip 4. 5052) can be expressed by the empirical formula: S = 500 x HB (psi) 360° The engagement angle depends on the width of cut “W” and cutter diameter “D”. and Horsepower Calculations In Face Milling with High Shear Milling Cutters 1. part wall sections. For example. machinability factor 6. tool wear factor 8. a more accurate method has been developed when milling with high shear cutters. 2) is defined by: A = d f (in. the 500-kgf load is used. calculating horsepower at motor Die and Mold Figure 1: Cross-sectional area of the chip and insert’s shape 3. or mm) 7. calculation of tangential force (ft.) 4. This relationship is shown by the formula: Zc = Zx ° 2. 130 HB at the 500-kgf load is equivalent to 150 HB at the 3000-kgf load (130 x 1.Technical Information Formulas–Horsepower: New Method for Calculating When Using High-Shear Cutters Over the past 50 years. number of inserts in the cut 5.

The optimal cutting conditions are obtained when W/D = 2/3 = .56 .000 = conversion factors 9. It has been found that machinability factor depends on type of work material and the ratio of radial width of cut to cutter diameter (W/D).15 2.000 and 63. machinability factor (Cm ) Machinability factor is used to indicate degree of difficulty in machining various workpiece materials. The required power at the motor is calculated using the following formula (HPm ): HPc HPm = ____ E where E = machine tool efficiency factor (E = . Table 2 workpiece material W/D≤.67<W/D<1.0).67 .3 2.15 1.0.000 T x rpm 63.20Z .14Z .30Z .0 1.0 W/D=1.80 .0 1.) The torque “T” generated by tangential force is calculated using the following formula: T = Ft x D/2 (in.35Z .0 where D = cutter diameter 8.) End Mills W/D Zc .67 Cm . If the 360° width of cut is equal to half of the cutter’s diameter (W/D = 0. Table 2 shows machinability factor values for some of the most common workpiece materials.3 1.33Z . Torque.75 .20 1. calculating horsepower (HPc or HPm ) The machining power at the cutter (sharp edges) is calculated by either of these two formulas: 1.3 1.3 7.05 Thread Milling HPc = or HPc = Ft x sfm 33.12Z Die and Mold 5. and machinability factor decreases to its minimum value.4 1.Technical Information Inserts Tangential Force. the engagement angle = 90° and Zc = Z x 90° = .27Z .90) NOTE: Spindle efficiency varies from 75 to 90%.1 Slotting carbon and alloy steels stainless steel gray cast iron titanium alloys aluminum alloys 1. For a longer operation (before the inserts are indexed).25Z. The thickness of the chip is practically uniform.5). This ratio determines the uniformity of the chip thickness. Index M448 Mat’l Database Technical Data Accessories Vintage Cutters . tool wear factor Cw = 1. the friction is minimal.000 Widia Cutters The values of Cm are based on milling tests with a torque dynamometer at different cutting conditions.2 Face Mills • heavy-duty face milling Cw = 1. the chip at the point of entry starts off at zero thickness. are shown in Table 1.21Z .38 . the engagement angle = 180° and Zc = Z x 180° = 0. When W/D = 1. and Horsepower Calculations In Face Milling with High Shear Milling Cutters If the width of cut equals cutter diameter (W/D = 1. depending on the given W/D ratios. calculation of torque (in. This type of cut generates maximum friction at the cutting edge.125 . It increases to a maximum thickness at the centerline of the cutter. the following tool wear factors are considered: • light face milling • general face milling Cw = 1. and thins off to zero again at the point of exit.75 to .-lb.0 2. More extensive testing will determine machinability factors for a larger variety of work materials and improve the accuracy for calculating tangential force and power consumption.-lb. 360° The values of Zc.0 1.15 1. and machinability factor reaches its maximum value.0.88 .5Z.38Z . tool wear factor (Cw) For milling with sharp cutting tools (short time operation).0 1.1 Cw = 1. where sfm = peripheral cutting speed (sfm) rpm = spindle speed (rpm) 33.19 . Table 1 6.67.33 .

000 psi 1.. NOTE: Cm = 1.2 cross-sectional area of the chip A = doc x ipt = .75 to .000 = Ft x sfm 33.33.1 ultimate strength of the work material S = 500 x HB = 500 x 220 = 110. 1.5 hp 63.5 .) Now use Zc value shown in Table 1 under . Torque.5 hp 33.200 in.92 = . NOTE: Z = number of inserts in cutter.90) HPm = HPc ____ = E 3.1 x 1.0016 x 1.20 x Z = .92 = 630 in.33 Step-By-Step Calculations 1.2 1.1 = 256 lbs.Technical Information Example for Calculating Horsepower given values milling cutter KSSISR – 492 – SE443 – 45 – 06: D = 4.1 and Cw = 1.0016 in.) . effective diameter number of inserts Z =6 workpiece material: AISI 4140 alloy steel 220 HB hardness machining conditions: spindle speed cutting speed machine feed rate inch per tooth (chip load) axial depth of cut radial width of cut W/D ratio rpm sfm ipm ipt doc woc W/D = = = = = = = 349 450 19.008 = .5 .008 in.4 tangential force Ft = S x A x Zc x Cm x Cw Ft = 110.8 = 4.000 x .reference formula in paragraph 9 on page M448 Vintage Cutters Widia Cutters Slotting Die and Mold End Mills Face Mills Inserts Tangential Force.33 (See Table 1.000 = 256 x 450 = 3.4 hp Index Mat’l Database Technical Data Accessories • At the motor. and Horsepower Calculations In Face Milling with High Shear Milling Cutters (cont’d.reference formulas in paragraph 8 on page M448 HPc or HPc = T x rpm 63. . . calculating horsepower • At the cutter. 1. page M448.92 in.2 inserts in cut. Zc = . 2 3...3 number of inserts in cut: width of cut-to-diameter ratio (w/d) W/D = 1. calculating torque at the cutter T = (Ft x D)/2 = 256 x 4. calculating tangential force 1.2 x 1.20 x 6 = 1.-lb.64 in.000 = 630 x 349 = 3.000 Thread Milling M449 where E = machine tool efficiency factor (E = .1 2..64 / 4.200 x .

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