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Firefighter I

Introduction to Hazardous Materials

Chapter 22 Introduction to Hazardous Materials


Lesson Goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to identify the responsibilities of both Awareness-Level and Operations-Level personnel at hazardous materials incidents, summarize types of clothing and protection necessary at hazardous materials incidents, and discuss various clues for detecting the presence of and identifying hazardous materials. Objectives Upon successful completion of this lesson, the student shall be able to: 1. Summarize Awareness-Level and Operations-Level responsibilities at hazardous materials incidents. 2. Describe types of respiratory protection. 3. Summarize respiratory equipment limitations. 4. Describe types of protective clothing. 5. Discuss U.S. EPA levels of protective equipment. 6. Describe NFPA 1994 PPE ensemble classifications. 7. Describe the U.S. military mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) ensembles. 8. Discuss PPE selection factors. 9. Discuss health and safety issues when wearing PPE. 10. Explain proper procedures for inspection, testing, and maintenance of protective clothing and equipment. 11. Describe health and physical hazards that may be present at haz mat incidents. 12. Describe physical properties of hazardous materials.
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13.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24.

Explain how the General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model (GEBMO) can help firefighters understand the likely course of an incident. Explain locations or occupancies clues to the presence of hazardous materials. Explain container shapes clues to the presence of hazardous materials. Explain transportation placards, labels, and markings clues to the presence of hazardous materials. Explain other markings and colors (non-transportation) clues to the presence of hazardous materials. Explain how written resources can be used to assist firefighters in identifying hazardous materials. Explain how the senses can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials. Explain how monitoring and detection devices can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials. Summarize indicators of terrorist attacks. Discuss identifying illicit laboratories. Discuss secondary attacks. Obtain information about a hazardous material using the Emergency Response Guide (ERG). (Skill Sheet 22-I-1)

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Instructor Information This is the lesson covering hazardous materials for the Firefighter I course. This lesson covers personnel responsibilities at hazardous materials incidents, as well as protective gear and respiratory protection necessary at these incidents. This lesson also introduces students to the detection and identification of hazardous materials. Important instructor information is provided in shaded boxes throughout the lesson plan. Carefully review the instructor information before presenting the lesson. Use this lesson to introduce students to various hazardous materials incidents. This chapter has one skill sheet related to hazardous materials. Review the skills evaluation checklist for this skill before teaching this lesson. Ensure that all needed equipment is prepared before students practice the skills or are evaluated. To review more indepth photographs and graphics of the skills, refer to the IFSTA Firefighter I and II Skills Handbook.

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Methodology This lesson uses lecture, discussion, and skills practice. The level of learning is application. Estimated Total Time: 10 hours 50 minutes Classroom teaching/written evaluation: 9 hours 50 minutes Skills Practice: 1 hour Time 10 min. 10 min. 180 min. 60 min. 60 min. 180 min. 15 min. 15 min. 60 min. 1 hour Section/Activity Section I: Introduction to Chapter 22 Section II: Introduction to Hazardous Materials Section III: Personal Protective Equipment Section IV: Health and Physical Hazards Section V: Properties and Behavior Section VI: Hazardous Materials Identification Section VII: Summary and Review Chapter 22 Quiz Chapter 22 Test Skills Practice 1060 1062-1084 1084-1102 1102-1113 1114-1203 Pages

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Audiovisuals

Visuals 22.1 to 22.131 (PowerPoint Presentation) Evaluation Chapter 22 Quiz Chapter 22 Test Skill Sheet 22-I-1

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Section I: Introduction to Chapter 22 I.

10 min.

INTRODUCTION TO CHAPTER 22
A. Lesson Goal

Instructor Note: Briefly review the lesson goal. Emphasize that the purpose of the lesson is to introduce students to hazardous materials. 1. Chapter 22 lesson goal After completing this lesson, the student shall be able to identify the responsibilities of both Awareness-Level and Operations-Level personnel at hazardous materials incidents, summarize types of clothing and protection necessary at hazardous materials incidents, and discuss various clues for detecting the presence of and identifying hazardous materials. B. Objectives 1. Summarize Awareness-Level and Operations-Level responsibilities at hazardous materials incidents. 2. Describe types of respiratory protection. 3. Summarize respiratory equipment limitations.
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4. Describe types of protective clothing. 5. Discuss U.S. EPA levels of protective equipment. 6. Describe NFPA 1994 PPE ensemble classifications. 7. Describe the U.S. military mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) ensembles. 8. Discuss PPE selection factors. 9. Discuss health and safety issues when wearing PPE. 10. Explain proper procedures for inspection, testing, and maintenance of protective clothing and equipment. 11. Describe health and physical hazards that may be present at haz mat incidents. 12. Describe physical properties of hazardous materials. 13. Explain how the General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model (GEBMO) can help firefighters understand the likely course of an incident. 14. Explain locations or occupancies clues to the presence of hazardous materials.

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15. Explain container shapes clues to the presence of hazardous materials.

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16. Explain transportation placards, labels, and markings clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 17. Explain other markings and colors (non-transportation) clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 18. Explain how written resources can be used to assist firefighters in identifying hazardous materials. 19. Explain how the senses can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 20. Explain how monitoring and detection devices can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials. 21. Summarize indicators of terrorist attacks. 22. Discuss identifying illicit laboratories. 23. Discuss secondary attacks. 24. Obtain information about a hazardous material using the Emergency Response Guide (ERG). (Skill Sheet 22-I-1)

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Section II: 10 min. II.

Introduction to Hazardous Materials INTRODUCTION TO HAZARDOUS MATERIALS

Instructor Note: The purpose of this section is to briefly describe the responsibilities of both Awareness- and Operations-Level responders at hazardous materials incidents.

p. 1060

Objective 1 Summarize Awareness-Level and OperationsLevel responsibilities at hazardous materials incidents.


A. Awareness-Level responsibilities 1. Recognize a hazardous materials incident or terrorist attack. 2. Protect themselves from the hazards at the incident. 3. Call for additional help. 4. Secure the incident scene. B. Operations-Level responsibilities 1. All of the requirements for Awareness Level, plus initiate defensive actions to protect the public, the environment, and property from the effects

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of the hazardous material(s) involved in the incident

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2. Some may be trained to perform additional functions at a haz mat incident depending on their assigned missions or functions at such incidents. Instructor Note: Emphasize that Operations-Level responders primarily perform defensive operations at hazardous materials incidents. The exception is at flammable liquids incidents.

Section III: Personal Protective Equipment III.

180 min.

PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT

Instructor Note: The purpose of this section is to describe the many various types of protective equipment that responders may use during hazardous materials incidents.

pp. 1062-1068 Objective 2 Describe types of respiratory protection.


A. Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) 1. Must be National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) certified to be used at haz mat incidents

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2. Must meet the design and testing criteria of NFPA 1981, Standard on Open-Circuit SelfContained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) for Emergency Services 3. Only positive-pressure opencircuit or closed-circuit SCBA is allowed in incidents where personnel are exposed to hazardous materials. Instructor Note: Stress to students that SCBA must always be worn during emergency operations at haz mat and terrorist incidents until the atmospheric hazards of these incidents are fully understood. 4. Advantages a. Independence b. Maneuverability 5. Disadvantages a. Weight of the units b. Limited air-supply duration c. Change in profile that may hinder mobility d. Limited vision caused by facepiece fogging e. Limited communications if the facepiece is not equipped with a microphone or speaking diaphragm

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6. Certification program for SCBA used in emergency response to terrorist acts a. Being worked on by NIOSH, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and the National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) b. The group developed a new set of respiratory protection standards and test procedures for SCBA used in situations involving weapons of mass destruction (WMD). c. NIOSH issues a special approval and label identifying the SBCA as appropriate for use against chemical, radiological, and nuclear agents. d. SCBA certified under this program must meet a list of requirements. i. Approval under NIOSH 42 CFR 84, Subpart H ii. Compliance with NFPA 1981 iii. Special tests under NIOSH 42 CFR 84.63(c)

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e. NIOSH maintains and disseminates an approval list, CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radiological, and Nuclear agents) SBCA (SelfContained Breathing Apparatus), for the SCBAs approved under this program. f. NIOSH authorizes the use of an additional approval label on apparatus that demonstrate compliance to the CBRN data. The label is placed in a visible location on the SCBA backplate. B. Supplied-Air Respirators (SARs) 1. Atmosphere-supplying respirator in which the user does not carry the breathing air source 2. Components a. Facepiece b. Belt-or facepiece-mounted regulator c. Voice communications system d. Up to 300 feet (100 m) of air supply hose e. Emergency escape pack or emergency breathing support system (EBSS)

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f. Breathing air source 3. Classified as Type C respirators, which are further divided into two types a. Regulator and facepiece only b. Regulator, facepiece, and EBSS i. May also be referred to as a SAR with escape capabilities ii. Used in confined-space environments, IDLH environments, or potential IDLH environments 4. SARs used at haz mat incidents or terrorist events must provide positive pressure to the facepiece. 5. Advantage Reduce physical stress to the wearer by removing the weight of the SBCA 6. Disadvantages a. Air supply line has potential for mechanical or heat damage b. Length of airline restricts mobility c. Restricted vision d. Restricted communications

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C. Air-Purifying Respirators (APRs) 1. Contain an air-purifying filter, canister, or cartridge that removes specific contaminants found in ambient air as it passes through the airpurifying element Ask Students: Why cant APRs be used during emergency operations? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that APRs should only be used after specific contaminants have been identified in the atmosphere. During emergency operations, there is not time to test for specific contaminants. 2. Based on which cartridge, canister, or filter is being used, generally divided into three types a. Particulate-removing APRs b. Vapor- and gas-removing APRs c. Combination particulateremoving and vapor- and gas-removing APRs 3. May be powered (PAPRs) or non-powered 4. Do not supply oxygen or air from a separate source and protect only against specific
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contaminants at or below certain concentrations

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5. Respirators with air-purifying filters may have either full facepieces that provide a complete seal to the face and protect the eyes, nose, and mouth or half-facepieces that provide a complete seal to the face and protect the nose and mouth. Instructor Note: Remind students that halfface respirators will NOT protect against chemical, biological, and radiological (CBR) materials that can be absorbed through the skin or eyes. 6. Do not protect against oxygen deficient or oxygen-enriched atmospheres, and they must not be used in IDLH situations 7. Limitations a. Limited life of filters and canisters b. Require constant monitoring of the contaminated atmosphere c. Require a normal oxygen content of the atmospheres before use

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Instructor Note: Remind students not to wear APRs during emergency operations where unknown atmospheric conditions exist. APRs are to be worn only in controlled atmospheres where the hazards present are completely understood and at least 19.5 percent oxygen is present. SCBA must be worn during emergency operations. 8. Precautions to be taken before using APRs a. Know what chemicals/air contaminants are in the air. b. Know how much of the chemicals/air contaminants are in the air. c. Ensure that the oxygen level is between 19.5 and 23.5 percent. d. Ensure that atmospheric hazards are below IDLH conditions. 9. May be used at haz mat incidents after emergency operations are over and the hazards at the scene have been properly identified

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10. Particulate-removing filters a. Protect the user from particulates (including biological hazards) in the air b. May be used with half facepiece masks or full facepiece masks c. Require eye protection when the full facepiece mask is not worn d. Divided into nine classes, three levels of filtration, and three categories of filter degradation e. May be used to protect against toxic dusts, mists, metal fumes, asbestos, and some biological hazards f. If used for medical emergences, must be 99.97 percent efficient g. Include particle masks (dust masks) i. Protect the respiratory system from large-sized particulates ii. Provide very limited protection and should not be used to protect against chemical hazards or small particles such as asbestos fibers

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Instructor Note: Emphasize that particle masks do not protect against chemical hazards or small particles such as asbestos. Therefore, they do not provide adequate protection at incidents involving chemicals or explosions that may have damaged asbestoscontaining materials. 11. Vapor- and gas-removing filters a. Designed to protect against specific vapors and gases b. Typically use some kind of sorbent material to remove the targeted vapor or gas from the air c. Designed to protect against related groups of chemicals such as organic vapors or acid gases d. May be color-coded to identify what contaminant(s) the canister or cartridge is designed to protect against D. Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPRs) 1. Use a blower to pass contaminated air through a canister or filter to remove the contaminants and supply the purified air to the full facepiece 2. Offer a greater degree of safety than standard APRs in
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case of leaks or poor facial seals

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3. May be of use at CBR incidents for personnel conducting decontamination operations and long-term operations 4. More comfortable to wear 5. Types a. Some are supplied with a small blower and are battery operated. b. Others have a stationary blower (usually mounted on a vehicle) that is connected by a long, flexible tube to the respirator facepiece. 6. Should only be used in situations where the atmospheric hazards are understood and at least 19.5 percent oxygen is present 7. Not safe to wear in atmospheres where potential respiratory hazards are unidentified 8. Should not be used during initial emergency operations Instructor Note: Remind students that PAPRs are never to be used in explosive or potentially explosive atmospheres. 9. Require continuous atmospheric monitoring to ensure the safety of the responder
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E. Supplied-Air Hoods 1. Provide loose fitting, lightweight respiratory protection that can be worn with glasses, facial hair, and beards 2. Used as an alternative to other respirators because they require no fit testing and are ready to use F. Escape Respirators 1. Designed for escaping the hot zone 2. Can be self-contained or airpurifying 3. Generally designed for a short duration of protection and are commonly designed in a hood style 4. Have filter canisters that are usually not designed to be replaced 5. Some include cases that can be strapped onto the body and worn as part of an emergency PPE ensemble

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pp. 1068-1069 Objective 3 Summarize respiratory equipment limitations.


A. Limitations of equipment and air supply 1. Limited visibility Facepieces reduce peripheral vision, and facepiece fogging can reduce overall vision. 2. Decreased ability to communicate Facepieces hinder voice communication. 3. Increased weight Depending on the model, the protective breathing equipment can add 25 to 35 pounds (11 kg to 16 kg) of weight to the emergency responder. 4. Decreased mobility The increase in weight and splinting effect of the harness straps reduce the wearer's mobility. 5. Inadequate oxygen levels APRs cannot be worn in IDLH or oxygen-deficient atmospheres. 6. Chemical specific APRs can only be used to protect against certain chemicals.

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7. Open- and closed-circuit SBCA have maximum air-supply durations that limit the amount of time a first responder has to perform the tasks at hand. 8. Non-NIOSH certified SCBAs may offer only limited protection in environments containing chemical warfare agents. B. Physical, medical, and mental limitations 1. Physical condition The wearer must be in good physical condition in order to maximize the work that can be performed and to stretch the air supply as far as possible. 2. Agility Wearing a protective breathing apparatus with an air cylinder or backpack restricts wearers movements and affects their balance. Good agility can overcome these obstacles. 3. Facial features The shape and contour of the face affect the wearer's ability to get a good facepiece-to-face seal. 4. Neurological functioning Good motor coordination is necessary for operating effectively in protective breathing equipment.

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5. Mental soundness First responders must be of sound mind to handle emergency situations that may arise. 6. Muscular/skeletal condition First responders must have the physical strength and size required to perform necessary tasks while wearing protective breathing equipment. 7. Cardiovascular conditioning Poor cardiovascular conditioning can result in heart attacks, strokes, or other related problems during strenuous activity. 8. Respiratory functioning Proper respiratory functioning maximizes the wearers operation time while wearing respiratory protection.

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pp. 1069-1072 Objective 4 Describe types of protective clothing.


A. Structural fire fighting protective clothing 1. Not a substitute for chemical protective clothing, but may provide limited protection against some hazardous materials Instructor Note: Stress to students that no one type of protective clothing will protect against all hazards. 2. Limitations a. Structural fire fighting clothing is neither corrosiveresistant, nor vapor tight. b. Any liquids can soak through, acids and bases can dissolve or deteriorate the outer layers, and gases and vapors can penetrate the garment. c. Gaps in structural fire fighting clothing occur at the neck, wrists, waist, and the point where the pants and boots overlap.

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d. Can be permeated by some hazardous materials i. Can subject the wearer to repeated exposure or to a later reaction with another chemical ii. Can permeate rubber or neoprene in boots, gloves, kneepads, and SBCA facepieces and render them unsafe Ask Students: What should be done to equipment exposed to permeating types of chemicals? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that it may be necessary to discard any equipment exposed to permeating types of chemicals. 3. May be appropriate for use at haz mat incidents when certain conditions are met a. Contact with splashes of extremely hazardous materials is unlikely b. The material's hazards have been identified, and will not rapidly damage or permeate structural fire fighting protective clothing

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c. Total atmospheric concentrations do not contain high levels of chemicals that are toxic to the skin, and there are no adverse effects from chemical exposure to small areas of unprotected skin d. There is a chance of fire or there is a fire and this type of protection is appropriate

e. When structural fire fighting protective clothing is the only PPE available and CPC is not immediately available 4. At terrorism events a. Will provide protection against thermal damage in an explosive attack b. Provides limited or no protection against projectiles, shrapnel, and other mechanical effects from a blast

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5. Provides adequate protection against some types of radiological hazards, but not others Instructor Note: Remind students that at most radiological incidents, SCBA and firefighter PPE is sufficient protection. However, monitoring is important to determine radiological hazards and type of radiation present. 6. When biological agents are strictly respiratory hazards, may provide adequate protection 7. Not sufficient in any case where skin contact is potentially hazardous Instructor Note: Materials must be properly identified in order to determine biological agents. Any time a terrorist attack is suspected and not positively identified, it should be assumed that firefighters wearing structural fire fighting protective clothing with SCBA are still at some degree of risk. B. High-temperature protective clothing 1. Designed to protect the wearer from short-term hightemperature exposures in situations where heat levels exceed the capabilities of standard fire fighting protective clothing

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2. Usually of limited use in dealing with chemical hazards

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3. Proximity suits a. Permit close approach to fires for rescue, fire suppression, and property conservation activities such as in aircraft rescue and fire fighting or other fire fighting operations involving flammable liquids b. Provide greater heat protection than standard structural fire fighting protective clothing 4. Fire-entry suits a. Allow a person to work in total flame environments for short periods of time b. Provide short-duration and close-proximity protection at radiant heat temperatures as high as 2,000F (1 093C) c. Not designed to protect the wearer against chemical hazards 5. Limitations a. Contributes to heat stress by not allowing the body to release excess heat b. Bulky c. Limits wearers vision d. Limits wearers mobility
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e. Limits communication f. Requires frequent and extensive training for efficient and safe use g. Expensive C. Chemical-Protective Clothing (CPC) 1. Shields or isolates individuals from the chemical, physical, and biological hazards that may be encountered during hazardous materials operations 2. Made from a variety of different materials Instructor Note: Remind students that none of the materials that make up chemicalprotective clothing protects against all types of chemicals. 3. Must include a list of chemicals for which the suit is effective 4. Designed to afford the wearer a known degree of protection from a known type, concentration, and length of exposure to a hazardous material

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Ask Students: Why should CPC be fitted properly and worn correctly? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Stress that improperly worn equipment can expose and endanger the wearer. 5. Must be decontaminated before storage or disposal 6. Liquid-splash protective clothing a. Primarily designed to protect users from chemical liquid splashes, but not against chemical vapors or gases b. Can be encapsulating or nonencapsulating c. Limitations i. Not resistant to heat or flame exposure ii. Does not protect against projectiles or shrapnel d. May use an SCBA, an airline (SAR), or a full-face, airpurifying, canister-equipped respirator

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7. Vapor-protective clothing Instructor Note: While vapor-protective clothing offers the highest degree of protection against chemical hazards, it still has limitations. a. Designed to protect the wearer against chemical vapors or gases and offers a greater level of protection than liquid-splash protective clothing b. Must be worn with positivepressure SCBA or combination SCBA/SAR c. Limitations i. Do not protect the user against all chemical hazards ii. Impair mobility, vision, and communication iii. Do not allow body heat to escape; can contribute to heat stress, which may require the use of a cooling vest Instructor Note: Stress that responders must have sufficient training to operate in conditions that require use of vaporprotective ensembles.

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pp. 1073-1078 Objective 5 Discuss U.S. EPA levels of protective equipment.


A. Level A 1. Provides the highest level of protection against vapors, gases, mists, and particles for the respiratory tract, eyes, and skin 2. Components a. Positive-pressure, fullfacepiece, SCBA, or positivepressure airline respirator with escape SCBA, approved by NIOSH b. Vapor-protective suits: Totally encapsulated suits constructed of protectiveclothing materials i. Cover the wearers torso, head, arms, and legs ii. Include boots and gloves that may either be an integral part of the suit or separate and tightly attached iii. Enclose the wearer completely or in combination with the wearers respiratory equipment, gloves, and boots

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iv. Provide equivalent chemical-resistance protection for all components of a totally encapsulated suit (such as relief valves, seams, and closure assemblies) v. Meet the requirements in NFPA 1991, Standard on Vapor-Protective Ensembles for Hazardous Materials Emergencies. c. Coveralls (optional) d. Long underwear (optional) e. Chemical-resistant outer gloves f. Chemical-resistant inner gloves g. Chemical-resistant boots with steel toe and shank h. Hardhat (under suit) (optional) i. Disposable protective suit, gloves, and boots (can be worn over totally encapsulating suit, depending on suit construction) j. Two-way radios (worn inside encapsulating suit) 3. Provides the highest available level of respiratory, skin, and
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eye protection from solid, liquid and gaseous chemicals

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4. Used in certain situations a. Chemical hazards are unknown or unidentified b. Chemical(s) have been identified and have high level of hazards to respiratory system, skin, and eyes c. Site operations and work functions involve a high potential for splash, immersion, or exposure to unexpected vapors, gases, or particulates of material that are harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through intact skin d. Substances are present with known or suspected skin toxicity or carcinogenicity e. Operations that are conducted in confined or poorly ventilated areas B. Level B 1. Requires a garment that includes an SCBA or a SAR and provides protection against splashes from a hazardous chemical 2. Worn when the highest level of respiratory protection is necessary but a lesser level of skin protection is needed

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3. Provides liquid-splash protection, but little or no protection against chemical vapors or gases to the skin 4. May be encapsulating or nonencapsulating 5. Components a. Positive-pressure, fullfacepiece, SCBA, or positivepressure airline respirator with escape SCBA approved by NIOSH b. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing that meets the requirements of NFPA 1992, Standard on Liquid SplashProtective Ensembles and Clothing for Hazardous Materials Emergencies (overalls and long-sleeved jacket, coveralls, one- or twopiece chemical-splash suit, and disposable chemicalresistant overalls) c. Coveralls (optional) d. Chemical-resistant outer gloves e. Chemical-resistant inner gloves f. Chemical-resistant boots with steel toe and shank

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g. Disposable chemicalresistant outer boot covers (optional)

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h. Hardhat (outside or on top of nonencapsulating suits or under encapsulating suits) i. Two-way radios (worn inside encapsulating suit or outside nonencapsulating suit) j. Faceshield (optional) 6. Provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but has less skin protection 7. Provides liquid-splash protection, but no protection against chemical vapors or gases 8. Used in certain situations a. Type and atmospheric concentration of substances have been identified and require a high level of respiratory protection but less skin protection b. Atmosphere contains less than 19.5 percent oxygen or more than 23.5 percent oxygen

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c. Presence of incompletely identified vapors or gases is indicated by a direct-reading organic vapor detection instrument, but the vapors and gases are known not to contain high levels of chemicals harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through intact skin d. Presence of liquids or particulates is indicated, but they are known not to contain high levels of chemicals harmful to skin or capable of being absorbed through intact skin C. Level C 1. Differs from Level B in the area of equipment needed for respiratory protection 2. Composed of a splashprotecting garment and an airpurifying device (APR or PAPR) 3. Includes any of the various types of APRs 4. Should not be used unless the specific material is known, it has been measured, and this protection level is approved by the incident commander (IC) after all qualifying conditions for APRs and PAPRs have been met

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5. Requires periodic air monitoring 6. Components a. Full-face or half-mask APRs, NIOSH approved b. Hooded chemical-resistant clothing (overalls, two-piece chemical-splash suit, and disposable chemical-resistant overalls) c. Coveralls (optional) d. Chemical-resistant outer gloves e. Chemical-resistant inner gloves f. Chemical-resistant boots with steel toe and shank g. Disposable, chemicalresistant outer boot covers (optional) h. Hardhat i. Escape mask (optional) j. Two-way radios (worn under outside protective clothing) k. Faceshield (optional) 7. Provides the same level of skin protection as Level B but has a lower level of respiratory protection

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8. Provides liquid-splash protection but no protection from chemical vapors or gases on the skin 9. Used in specific situations a. Atmospheric contaminants, liquid splashes, or other direct contact will not adversely affect exposed skin or be absorbed through any exposed skin b. Types of air contaminants have been identified, concentrations have been measured, and an APR is available that can remove the contaminants c. All criteria for the use of APRs are met d. Atmospheric concentration of chemicals does not exceed IDLH levels. The atmosphere must contain between 19.5 and 23.5 percent oxygen. D. Level D 1. Consists of typical work uniforms, street clothing, or coveralls 2. Used for nuisance contamination only 3. Can be worn only when no atmospheric hazards exist

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4. Components a. Coveralls

b. Gloves (optional) c. Chemical-resistant boots/shoes with steel toe and shank d. Disposable, chemicalresistant outer boot covers (optional) e. Safety glasses or chemicalsplash goggles f. Hardhat g. Escape device in case of accidental release and the need to immediately escape the area (optional) h. Faceshield (optional) 5. Provide no respiratory protection and minimal skin protection 6. May not be worn in the hot zone and are not acceptable for haz mat emergency response above the Awareness Level

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pp. 1078-1079 Objective 6 Discuss NFPA 1994 PPE ensemble classifications.


A. NFPA 1994 PPE 1. Ensemble classifications apply very specifically to the different performance standards of chemical (and biological) protective clothing 2. Ensembles a. Must be designed to protect the wearer's upper and lower torso, head, hands, and feet; ensemble elements must include protective garments, protective gloves, and protective footwear b. Can be either encapsulating or nonencapsulating and must accommodate appropriate respiratory protection c. Bears a label describing the class to which it belongs and the circumstance for which it is designed to be used d. Must include i. Safety considerations ii. PPE limitations iii. Storage practices

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iv. Recommended inspection procedures v. Directions for use vi. Storage life vii.Care and maintenance instructions B. Class 1 ensemble 1. Provides the highest degree of protection 2. Designed to protect responders at chemical/biological terrorism incidents in specific situations a. Whenever the identity or concentration of the vapor or liquid agent is undetermined or in question b. When vapor protection is needed c. Anytime liquid contact is expected and no direct skin contact can be permitted because exposure may present a serious health threat such as death or incapacitation (as with chemical nerve agents)

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C. Class 2 Designed to protect responders at chemical/biological terrorism incidents in specific situations 1. To provide necessary sufficient vapor protection for the intended operation 2. When direct contact with liquid droplets is likely 3. When victims are not ambulatory but are showing signs or symptoms of exposure D. Class 3 Designed to protect responders at chemical/biological terrorism incidents in specific situations 1. To provide necessary sufficient liquid protection for the intended operation is necessary 2. When direct contact with liquid droplets is likely 3. When victims are impaired but ambulatory

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pp. 1079-1081 Objective 7 Describe the U.S. military mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP) ensembles.
Instructor Note: Unless in the U.S. military, the following information may not pertain to firefighters. You may omit this information as you see fit. A. MOPP ensembles 1. Protect against chemical, biological, and radiological hazards 2. Consist of an overgarment, mask, hood, overboots, and protective gloves 3. Provide six flexible levels of protection based on threat level, work rate for the mission, temperature and humidity Ask Students: What do the MOPP levels mean? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that the higher the MOPP level, the greater the protection (and the lower the rate of work productivity and efficiency).

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B. Joint service lightweight integrated suit technology (JSLIST) overgarments 1. Provide protection against liquid, solid, and/or vapor CB agents and radioactive alpha and beta particles 2. Manufactured of lightweight 50% Nylon and 50% cotton ripstop water repellant permeable materials 3. Equipped with a charcoal/carbon lining designed to absorb harmful materials, much like the carbon filter/canister on an APR 4. Will degrade when in contact with certain solvents such as sweat and petroleum products 5. Can be laundered up to six times for personal hygiene 6. May be worn 45 consecutive days with a total out-of-the-bag available usage of 120 days

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C. With the additional wear and tear of firefighting protective equipment that is commonly found by firefighters wearing the JSLIST, firefighters will use only three MOPP levels (0,1,4). 1. When the typical wearer is in MOPP 2, firefighters will remain in MOPP 1 until directed to proceed to a higher level. 2. When MOPP 3 is directed, firefighters will immediately proceed from MOPP 1 and don the appropriate MOPP 4 attire. 3. When a need to conduct firefighting operations arises, firefighters will proceed to MOPP 4 firefighter mode where they will don their firefighting protective jacket and SCBA.

p. 1081

Objective 8 Discuss PPE selection factors.


A. PPE selection factors 1. First-arriving responders often rely upon information in the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) to determine the minimum type of protection required for defensive operations.

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2. The use of PPE itself can create significant wearer hazards such as heat stress and physical and psychological stress, in addition to impaired vision, mobility, and communication. 3. The higher the level of PPE is, the greater the associated risks. For any given situation, select equipment and clothing that provide an adequate level of protection.

pp. 1081-1083 Objective 9 Discuss health and safety issues when wearing PPE.
A. Health and safety issues 1. Most types of PPE inhibit the body's ability to disperse heat. 2. Wearing PPE usually increases firefighters' risks of developing heat-related disorders. 3. When working in cold climates, considerations must be taken to protect responders from cold-related disorders, as well. B. Heat disorders 1. Wearing PPE or other special full-body protective clothing puts the wearer at considerable risk of developing heat stress.

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2. First responders need to be aware of several heat disorders, including heat stroke (the most serious), heat exhaustion, heat cramps, heat rashes, and heat fatigue. C. Heat-exposure prevention 1. Firefighters wearing protective clothing need to be monitored for effects of heat exposure. 2. Fluid consumption a. Use water or commercial body-fluid-replenishment drink mixes to prevent dehydration. b. First responders should drink generous amounts of fluids both before and during operations. c. Drinking 7 ounces (200 ml) of fluid every 15 to 20 minutes is better than drinking large quantities once an hour. 3. Body ventilation Wear long cotton undergarments or similar types of clothing to provide natural body ventilation.

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4. Body cooling a. Mobile showers and misting facilities should be provided to reduce the body temperature and cool protective clothing. b. Wearing cooling vests beneath CPC can also help cooling. 5. Rest areas Provide shaded and air-conditioned areas for resting. 6. Work rotation Rotate responders exposed to extreme temperatures or those performing difficult tasks frequently. 7. Proper liquids Avoid liquids such as alcohol, coffee, and caffeinated drinks (or minimize their intake) before working. 8. Physical fitness Encourage responders to maintain good physical fitness. D. Cold disorders 1. Cold temperatures caused by weather and/or other conditions such as exposure to cryogenic liquids are also environmental factors that must be considered when selecting PPE.

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2. Prolonged exposure to freezing temperatures can result in health problems as serious as trench foot, frostbite, and hypothermia. 3. The four primary environmental conditions that cause cold-related stress are low temperatures, high/cool winds, dampness, and cold water. 4. Wind chill, a combination of temperature and velocity, is a crucial factor to evaluate when working outside. 5. A dangerous situation of rapid heat loss may arise for any individual exposed to high winds and cold temperatures. E. Medical monitoring 1. Must be provided for responders who may be at risk because of environmental hazards (heat/cold stresses) as well as potential exposure to CBR materials 2. Should be conducted before responders wearing chemical liquid-splash or vaporprotective clothing enter the warm and hot zones as well as after leaving these zones

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pp. 1083-1084 Objective 10 Explain proper procedures for inspection, testing, and maintenance of protective clothing and equipment.
Ask Students: What are the potential consequences if PPE is not routinely inspected, tested, and properly maintained? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that PPE may fail to function correctly if not inspected and properly maintained. Clothing may also become damaged or degraded, thereby allowing chemicals to penetrate or permeate. A. Inspection, testing, and maintenance 1. Must be conducted in accordance with manufacturer's recommendations 2. Should include records of all inspection procedures 3. Should include, at a minimum a. Clothing or equipment item identification number b. Date of inspection c. Person making the inspection d. Results of the inspection e. Any unusual conditions noted

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B. Respiratory equipment 1. Inspected when purchased 2. Should be inspected after each use, daily or weekly, monthly, and annually 3. Guidelines a. Clean respiratory protection equipment as needed during the daily/weekly inspections at the beginning of the work period. b. Inspect, clean, and disinfect respiratory protection equipment following use before placing it back into service. c. Clean respiratory protection equipment units that are used infrequently during the weekly inspection when required. d. Clean units before placing them in storage. e. Clean as needed when units are removed from storage.

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Section IV: Health and Physical Hazards IV. HEALTH AND PHYSICAL HAZARDS

60 min.

Instructor Note: The purpose of this section is to discuss the health and physical hazards that responders may encounter at haz mat incidents.

pp. 1084-1102 Objective 11 Describe health and physical hazards that may be present at haz mat incidents.
A. Health hazards 1. May be acute or chronic a. Acute health effects are short-term effects that appear within hours or days, such as vomiting or diarrhea. b. Chronic health effects are long-term effects that may take years to appear, such as cancer. B. Thermal hazards Related to temperature extremes 1. Can be caused by hazardous materials themselves 2. Can also be caused by conditions on the scene such as extreme ambient air temperature, especially when using fully-encapsulating PPE

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Ask Students: Which type of protective clothing provides the greatest level of protection against thermal hazards? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that high-temperature protective clothing provides the greatest protection. C. Radiological hazards 1. Exist when firefighters respond to incidents at medical centers, certain industrial operations, nuclear power plants, and research facilities 2. Ionizing radiation a. Most energetic b. Of greatest concern to firefighters c. Types i. Alpha Energetic, positively charged alpha particles emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay that rapidly lose energy when passing through matter. Instructor Note: Alpha particles are primarily an inhalation hazard.

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ii. Beta Fast-moving, positively or negatively charged electrons (beta particles) emitted from the nucleus during radioactive decay. iii. Gamma High-energy photons (weightless packets of energy like visible light and X-rays); often accompany the emission of alpha or beta particles from a nucleus. iv. Neutron Ultrahigh energy particles that have a physical mass like alpha or beta radiation but have no electrical charge. Neutrons are highly penetrating. Fission reactions produce neutrons along with gamma radiation. Neutron radiation is difficult to measure in the field and is usually estimated based on gamma measurements. Instructor Note: Emphasize that neutron radiation is the most difficult to shield against. 3. Radiation health hazards a. The effects of ionizing radiation occur at the cellular level.
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b. Radiation can damage a cell by ionizing the atoms and changing the resulting chemical behavior of the atoms and/or molecules in the cell. c. The biological effects of ionizing radiation depend on how much and how fast a radiation dose is received. d. Acute doses i. Exposure to a large dose of radiation received in a short period of time ii. Extremely high levels can result in death within a few hours, days, or weeks e. Chronic doses i. Small amounts of radiation received over a long period of time ii. Are handled better by the body than an acute radiation dose because the body has enough time to replace dead or nonfunctioning cells with healthy ones iii. Do not result in the detectable health effects seen with acute doses

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4. Radiation protection strategies a. Time The amount of radiation exposure increases or decreases according to the time spent near the source of radiation. b. Distance The farther from the source, the less the exposure. Instructor Note: Explain to students that generally, doubling the distance from a gamma source reduces the exposure by a factor of four. Halving the distance increases the exposure by a factor of four. c. Shielding Certain materials such as lead, earth, concrete, and water prevent penetration of some types of radiation. D. Asphyxiation hazards 1. Asphyxiants are substances that affect the oxygenation of the body and generally lead to suffocation. 2. Simple asphyxiants a. Gases that displace the oxygen necessary for breathing b. Dilute or displace the oxygen concentration below the level required by the human body

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3. Chemical asphyxiants Substances that prohibit the body from using oxygen, and some of these chemicals may be used by terrorists for an attack Ask Students: What are some situations in which firefighters need to be concerned about simple asphyxiants? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Confined spaces are examples. E. Chemical hazards 1. Exposure to hazardous chemicals may produce a wide range of adverse health effects. 2. The likelihood of an adverse health effect occurring and the severity of the effect depend on several factors. a. Toxicity of the chemical b. Pathway or route of exposure c. Nature and extent of exposure d. Factors that affect the susceptibility of the exposed person such as age and the presence of certain chronic diseases

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3. Routes of entry a. Inhalation Process of taking in materials by breathing through the nose or mouth b. Ingestion Process of taking in materials through the mouth by means other than simple inhalation c. Contact Occurrence when a chemical or hazardous material (in any state solid, liquid, or gas) contacts the skin or exposed surface of the body d. Absorption Process of taking in hazardous materials through the skin or eyes; includes taking in materials via punctures (such as with a contaminated needle) or tears in the skin Ask Students: Which articles of PPE protect against which routes of entry? Briefly discuss the answers with students. 4. Poisons/toxic chemicals a. Toxic (poisonous) chemicals often produce injuries at the site where they come into contact with the body.

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b. A chemical injury at the site of contact (typically the skin and mucous membranes of the eyes, nose, mouth, or respiratory tract) is termed a local toxic effect. c. Exposure to chemical compounds can result not only in the development of a single systemic effect but also in the development of multiple systemic effects or a combination of systemic and local effects. Some of these effects may be delayed. d. Exposures to poisons can cause damage to organs or other parts of the body and may even cause death. e. The methods by which poisons attack the body vary depending on the type of poison. f. The effect produced by a toxic compound is primarily a function of the dose (amount of a substance ingested or administered through skin contact) and the concentration (amount of the substance inhaled in this context) of the compound. This principle, termed the dose-response relationship, is a key concept in toxicology.
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g. Established measurements of toxicity may be used to set exposure limits to certain chemicals. h. Exposure limits may be expressed in terms such as threshold limit value (TLV), short-term exposure limit (STEL), threshold limit valueceiling (TLV/C), and permissible exposure limit (PEL). i. Concentrations that are high enough to kill or cause serious injury or illness are expressed in terms of immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH). 5. Corrosives a. Chemicals that destroy or burn living tissues and have destructive effects by virtue of their corrosivity (ability to cause corrosion, particularly to metals) b. Commonly divided into two broad categories: acids and bases c. Often measured or expressed in terms of pH

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6. Irritants a. Toxins that cause temporary but sometimes severe inflammation to the eyes, skin, or respiratory system b. Often attack the mucous membranes of the body such as the surfaces of the eyes, nose, mouth, throat, and lungs 7. Convulsants a. Toxic materials that can cause convulsions (involuntary muscle contractions Ask Students: What kinds of chemicals are convulsants? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Some chemicals considered to be convulsants are strychnine, organophosphates, carbamates, and infrequently used drugs such as picrotoxin. b. Can result in death from asphyxiation or exhaustion

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8. Carcinogens a. Cancer-causing agents b. Exact data is not available on the level and duration or dose of exposure needed for individual chemicals to cause cancer. c. Disease and complications can occur as long as 10 to 40 years after exposure. Ask Students: What are some examples of known carcinogens? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Emphasize that individuals can take positive actions to reduce their exposure to some carcinogens. 9. Sensitizers/Allergens a. Allergens Substances that cause allergic reactions in people or animals b. Sensitizers Chemicals that cause a substantial proportion of exposed people or animals to develop an allergic reaction after repeated exposure to the chemical

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F. Etiological/biological hazards 1. Microorganisms such as viruses or bacteria (or their toxins) that may cause severe, disabling disease or illness a. Viral agents The simplest types of microorganisms that can only replicate themselves in the living cells of their hosts; do not respond to antibiotics b. Bacterial agents Microscopic, single-celled organisms. Most bacteria do not cause disease in people, but when they do, two different mechanisms are possible: invading the tissues or producing poisons (toxins). c. Rickettsias Specialized bacteria that live and multiply in the gastrointestinal tract of arthropod carriers (such as ticks and fleas); smaller than most bacteria, but larger than viruses Instructor Note: Remind students that not all vector transmitted diseases are rickettsias. Mosquitoes, for example, transmit West Nile Virus. Ticks can transmit rickettsia, other types of bacteria, viruses, and protozoa.

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d. Biological toxins Poisons produced by living organisms; however, the biological organism itself is usually not harmful to people. Some biological toxins have been manufactured synthetically and/or genetically altered in laboratories for purposes of biological warfare. 2. Infectious diseases are caused by the growth of microorganisms in the body and may or may not be contagious. 3. Some biological hazards cause illness through their toxicity. 4. Exposure to biological hazards may occur in biological and medical laboratories or when dealing with people who are carriers of such diseases. Most of these diseases are carried in body fluids and are transmitted by contact with the fluids. 5. Firefighters may also be exposed to biological agents used as weapons in terrorist attacks and criminal activities. Instructor Note: Emphasize that handwashing is extremely important in preventing exposure to biological hazards and that firefighters should always use body substance isolation.

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G. Mechanical hazards 1. Can cause trauma that occurs as a result of direct contact with an object 2. Can cause mild, moderate, or severe trauma; this trauma can occur in a single event 3. Most common types Striking and friction exposures a. Striking injuries Resulting from an explosion caused by the failure of a pressurized container, a bomb (or improvised explosive device [IED]), or the reactivity of the hazardous material itself b. Friction injuries Resulting from portions of the body rubbing against an abrasive surface, causing raw skin (abrasions), blisters, and burns. 4. An explosion can cause four hazards (three mechanical and one thermal). a. Blast pressure wave (shock wave) Gases being released rapidly create a shock wave that travels outward from the center. As the wave increases in distance, the strength decreases. This blast pressure wave is the primary
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reason for injuries and damage.

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b. Shrapnel fragmentation Small pieces of debris thrown from a container or structure that ruptures from containment or restricted blast pressure. Shrapnel may be thrown over a wide area and great distances (fragmentation), causing personal injury and damage to surrounding structures or objects. Shrapnel can result in bruises, punctures, or even avulsions. c. Seismic effect Earth vibration similar to an earthquake. When a blast occurs at or near ground level, the air blast creates a ground shock or crater. As shock waves move across or underground, a seismic disturbance is formed. The distance the shock wave travels depends on the type and size of the explosion and type of soil. d. Incendiary thermal effect During an explosion, thermal heat energy in the form of a fireball is the result of burning combustible gases or flammable vapors and ambient air at very high temperatures. The thermal heat fireball is present for a

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limited time after the explosive event.

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Section V: Properties and Behavior V.

60 min.

PROPERTIES AND BEHAVIOR

Instructor Note: The purpose of this section is to discuss the properties and behaviors of hazardous materials.

pp. 1102-1107 Objective 12 Describe physical properties of hazardous materials.


Ask Students: Why is the state of matter important at haz mat incidents? The potential outcomes associated with haz mat incidents are often determined by the behavior of the materials involved. This behavior is a function of the materials physical properties. A. Physical state 1. Matter is found in three physical states. a. Gas Fluid that has neither independent shape nor volume b. Liquid Fluid that has no independent shape but does have a specific volume c. Solid Substance that has both a specific shape (without a container) and volume

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2. Hazardous materials may come in any one of these states, and each behaves differently. This behavior in turn can influence the nature of the hazards presented by the material. B. Vapor pressure 1. Pressure exerted by a saturated vapor above its own liquid in a closed container 2. Can be viewed as the measure of the tendency of a substance to evaporate C. Boiling point 1. The temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid is equal to or greater than atmospheric pressure 2. Usually expressed in degrees Fahrenheit (Celsius) at sea level air pressure 3. Flammable materials with low boiling points generally present special fire hazards. 4. Boiling liquid expanding vapor explosion (BLEVE) a. Can occur when a liquid within a container is heated, causing the material inside to boil or vaporize

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b. If the resulting increase in internal vapor pressure exceeds the vessels ability to relieve the excess pressure, it can cause the container to fail catastrophically. c. As the vapor is released, it expands rapidly and ignites, sending flames and pieces of tank flying in a tremendous explosion. d. BLEVEs most commonly occur when flames contact a tank shell above the liquid level or when insufficient water is applied to keep a tank shell cool. D. Vapor density 1. The weight of a given volume of pure vapor or gas compared to the weight of an equal volume of dry air at the same temperature and pressure 2. A vapor density less than 1 indicates a vapor lighter than air, while a vapor density greater than 1 indicates a vapor heavier than air. Ask Students: Why is vapor density important to consider at haz mat incidents?

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Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that vapor density determines whether vapors will rise into the air or stay low to the ground.

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E. Solubility/miscibility 1. Solubility a. The percentage of a material (by weight) that will dissolve in water at ambient temperature. b. Can be useful in determining spill cleanup methods and extinguishing agents i. When a non-water-soluble liquid such as a hydrocarbon (gasoline, diesel fuel, pentane) is in the same container with water, the two liquids remain separate. ii. When a water-soluble liquid such as a polar solvent (alcohol, methanol, methyl ethyl ketone [MEK]) is in the same container with water, the two liquids mix easily. c. Affects whether it mixes in water 2. Miscibility The degree or readiness to which two or more gases or liquids are able to mix with or dissolve into each other

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F. Specific gravity 1. Ratio of the density (heaviness) of a material to the density of some standard material at standard conditions of pressure and temperature 2. The weight of a substance compared to the weight of an equal volume of water is an expression of the density of a material. 3. Materials with specific gravities less than 1 will float in (or on) water. 4. Materials with specific gravities greater than 1 will sink in water. 5. Most (but not all) flammable liquids have specific gravities less than 1 and, if not soluble, will float on water. This fact is an important consideration for fire suppression activities. G. Persistence A chemicals ability to remain in the environment Instructor Note: Remind students that persistence is a property that is particularly important when gauging the effectiveness and behavior of chemical weapons.

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H. Reactivity 1. A substances relative ability to undergo a chemical reaction with another material 2. May cause undesirable effects such as pressure buildup, temperature increase, and/or formation of noxious, toxic, or corrosive byproducts 3. Substances referred to in the industrial world as reactive commonly react vigorously or violently with air, water, heat, light, each other, or other materials. 4. Fire is just one type of chemical reaction, and a reactivity triangle can be used to explain the basic components of many (though not all) chemical reactions: an oxidizing agent (oxygen), a reducing agent (fuel), and an activation energy source (often heat, but not always so). 5. All reactions require some energy to get them started, commonly referred to as activation energy. How much energy is needed depends on the particular reaction. 6. Reactions that have very low activation energies happen

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very easily or need very little help to begin the process.

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7. The oxidizing agent in the reactivity triangle provides the oxygen necessary for the chemical reaction. 8. Strong oxidizers are materials that encourage a strong reaction (by readily accepting electrons) from reducing agents (fuels). 9. Oxidation-reduction reactions can be extremely violent and dangerous because they are releasing a tremendous amount of energy.

pp. 1109-1113 Objective 13 Explain how the General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model (GEBMO) can help firefighters understand the likely course of an incident.
Instructor Note: The General Hazardous Materials Behavior Model (GEBMO) can help firefighters understand the likely course of an incident, thereby enabling them to successfully mitigate it. A. Stress 1. If a container is stressed beyond its design strength, it fails or breaches. 2. Types a. Thermal b. Chemical
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c. Mechanical

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B. Breach 1. The way in which a container breaches is based on the material of which it is constructed, the type of stress it is exposed to, and pressure inside the container at the time it fails. 2. A breach or failure of the container may be partial (as in a puncture) or total (as in disintegration). 3. A breached container releases its contents. 4. Types a. Disintegration Container suffers a general loss of integrity such as a glass bottle shattering or a grenade exploding b. Runaway cracking A crack develops in a container as a result of some type of damage, which continues to grow rapidly, breaking the container into two or more relatively large pieces c. Attachments (closures) open or break Attachments (such as pressure-relief devices, discharge valves, or other related equipment) fail, open, or break off when subjected to stress, leading
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to a total failure of a container

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d. Puncture Mechanical stress coming into contact with a container causes a puncture; for example, a forklift puncturing a drum e. Split or tear Welded seam on a tank or drum fails or a seam on a bag of fertilizer rips. Mechanical or thermal stressors may cause splits or tears. C. Release 1. When a container is breached or fails, its contents, stored energy, and pieces of the container may release. The released product disperses. 2. Ways in which containers release their contents a. Detonation Instantaneous and explosive release of stored chemical energy of a hazardous material b. Violent rupture Immediate release of chemical or mechanical energy caused by runaway cracks. The results are ballistic behavior of the container and its contents and/or localized projection of container pieces/parts and hazardous material such as with a BLEVE.

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c. Rapid relief Fast release of a pressurized hazardous material through properly operating safety devices caused by damaged valves, piping, or attachments or holes in the container d. Spill/leak Slow release of a hazardous material under atmospheric or head pressure through holes, rips, tears, or usual openings/attachments D. Dispersion/engulf 1. When released, the product inside the container, any stored energy, and the container disperse. 2. The patterns of dispersion are based on the laws of chemistry, physics, and the characteristics of the product. 3. Common dispersion patterns a. Hemispheric Semicircular or dome-shaped pattern of airborne hazardous material that is still partially in contact with the ground or water b. Cloud Ball-shaped pattern of the airborne hazardous material where the material has collectively risen above the ground or water

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c. Plume Irregularly shaped pattern of an airborne hazardous material where wind and/or topography influence the downrange course from the point of release. Dispersion of a plume (generally composed of gases and vapors) is affected by vapor density and terrain (particularly if vapor density is greater than 1) as well as wind speed and direction. d. Cone Triangular-shaped pattern of a hazardous material with a point source at the breach and a wide base downrange e. Stream Surface-following pattern of liquid hazardous material that is affected by gravity and topographical contours. Liquid releases flow downhill whenever there is a gradient away from the point of release. f. Pool Three-dimensional (including depth), slowflowing liquid dispersion. Liquids assume the shape of their container and pool in low areas. g. Irregular Irregular or indiscriminate deposit of a hazardous material (such as
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that carried by contaminated responders)

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E. Exposure/contact 1. Anything (such as persons, the environment, or property) that is in the area of the release is exposed 2. Exposure and contact with hazardous materials is often discussed in the context of the three timeframes. a. b. c. F. Harm 1. Depending on the container, product, energy involved, and duration of exposure/contact, exposures may be harmed. 2. Estimations of potential harm should always begin with a worst-case scenario based on the hazards (or potential hazards) present at the incident. Short-term Seconds, minutes, and hours Medium-term Days, weeks, and months Long-term Years

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Section VI: Hazardous Materials Identification VI.

180 min.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS IDENTIFICATION

Instructor Note: The purpose of this section is to describe the various ways in which responders can identify hazardous materials.

pp. 1115-1117 Objective 14 Explain locations or occupancies clues to the presence of hazardous materials.
A. Locations or occupancy clues 1. Hazardous materials are found everywhere. Not all locations or occupancies are obvious. 2. Preincident surveys (sometimes called preplans) and the occupancy type for a particular structure may provide the first clue to the emergency responder that hazardous materials may be involved in an incident. 3. Community emergency response plans can help firefighters identify specific sites where hazardous materials are located, used, and stored.

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4. Certain occupancies are always highly probable locations for finding significant quantities of hazardous materials. a. Fuel storage facilities b. Gas/service stations (and convenience stores) c. Paint supply stores d. Plant nurseries, garden centers, and agricultural facilities e. Pest control and lawn care companies f. Medical facilities g. Photo processing laboratories h. Dry cleaners i. Plastics and high-technology factories j. Metal-plating businesses k. Mercantile concerns (hardware stores, groceries stores, certain department stores) l. Chemistry (and other) laboratories in educational facilities (including high schools) m. Lumberyards

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n. Feed/farm stores o. Veterinary clinics p. Print shops q. Warehouses r. Industrial and utility plants s. Port shipping facilities (with changing cargo hazards) t. Treatment storage disposal (TSD) facilities 5. Private property is not exempt from danger because hazardous chemicals are common household products. B. Terrorist attacks 1. Certain occupancies are also more likely to be targeted for terrorist attacks. 2. Firefighters must be able to identify those locations where a targeted attack has the potential to do the greatest harm and predict the consequences of such an attack. 3. Harm is defined as: a. Killing or injuring persons b. Causing panic and/or disruption c. Damaging the economy
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d. Destroying property e. Demoralizing the community 4. There are many potential terrorist targets. Incidents reported at these occupancies should be scrutinized closely for potential terrorist involvement. Ask Students: What are some occupancies and locations that might be potential terrorist targets? Briefly discuss the answers with students.

pp. 1118-1137 Objective 15 Explain container shapes clues to the presence of hazardous materials.
Instructor Note: It is important for firefighters to be familiar with the shapes of the different types of packaging and containers in which hazardous materials are stored and transported. A. Bulk-capacity fixed-facility containers 1. Containers at fixed facilities include buildings, aboveground storage tanks, machinery, underground storage tanks, pipelines, reactors, open piles or bins, vats, storage cabinets, and other fixed, on-site containers.

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2. Aboveground storage tanks a. Nonpressure tanks If these tanks are storing any product, they will normally have a small amount of pressure (up to 0.5 psi [3.45 kPa] {0.03 bar}) inside. b. Pressure tanks i. Low-pressure storage tanks that have pressures between 0.5 psi to 15 psi (3.45 kPa to 103 kPa) {0.03 bar to 1.03 bar}. ii. Pressure vessels that have pressures above 15 psi (103 kPa) {1.03 bar}. 3. Underground storage tanks may be atmospheric or pressurized. Ask Students: Where are you likely to encounter underground storage tanks? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that one example is residential propane tanks. It is becoming more common to bury these underground. 4. Cryogenic liquid storage tanks have varying pressures, but some can be very high. They are usually heavily insulated with a vacuum in the space between the outer and inner shells.
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B. Bulk transportation containers 1. Tank and other rail cars (railroad) a. Nonpressure tank cars with vapor pressures below 25 psi (172 kPa) {1.7 bar} at 105 to 115F (41C to 46C) b. Pressure tank cars with pressures greater than 25 psi (172 kPa) {1.7 bar} at 68F (20C) c. Cryogenic liquid tank cars d. Hopper cars e. Box cars f. Special service cars 2. Cargo tanks Instructor Note: MC and Department of Transportation (DOT)/Transport Canada (TC) designations indicate the construction specifications to which these cargo tanks are manufactured. a. Nonpressure liquid tanks (DOT/TC 406, MC 306) b. Low-pressure chemical/liquid tanks (DOT/TC 407, MC 307) c. Corrosive liquid tanks (DOT/TC 412, MC 312)

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d. High-pressure tanks (MC/TC 331) e. Cryogenic liquid tanks (MC/TC 338) f. Compressed-gas/tube trailers g. Dry bulk cargo tanks h. Vacuum Loaded Tank (DOT/TC 407, DOT/TC 412) 3. Intermodal containers (highway, railroad, or marine vessel) a. Nonpressure intermodal tanks b. Pressure intermodal tanks c. Specialized intermodal tanks d. Freight containers C. Intermediate bulk containers (IBC) 1. Either a rigid or flexible portable packaging (other than a cylinder or portable tank) designed for mechanical handling 2. The maximum capacity of an IBC is not more than 3 cubic meters (3,000 L, 793 gal, or 106 ft3). 3. The minimum capacity is not less than 0.45 cubic meters

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(450 L, 119 gal, or 15.9 ft3) or a maximum net mass of not less than 400 kilograms (882 lbs).

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4. IBCs are divided into two types: flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBCs) and rigid intermediate bulk containers (RIBCs). 5. Rigid portable tanks may be used to carry liquids, fertilizers, solvents, and other chemicals, and they may have capacities up to 400 gallons (1 514 L) and pressures up to 100 psi (689 kPa) {6.9 bar}. D. Ton containers 1. Tanks that have capacities of 1 short ton or approximately 2,000 pounds (907 kg or 0.9 tonnes) 2. Have convex or concave ends and have two valves in the center of one end 3. Structural fire fighting gear does not provide adequate protection against the hazardous materials commonly stored in ton containers. E. Nonbulk packaging 1. Containers that are used to transport smaller quantities of hazardous materials than bulk or IBCs are called nonbulk packaging. The majority of these incidents occur during highway transport.

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2. Common types a. Bags b. Carboys and jerry cans c. Cylinders d. Drums e. Dewar flasks (cryogenic liquids) Instructor Note: Emphasize that the quantity of produce and the size of the package is not necessarily a reflection of the danger associated with it. F. Containers for radioactive materials 1. In the U.S., all shipments of radioactive materials (sometimes called RAM) must be packaged and transported according to strict regulations. 2. The type of packaging used to transport radioactive materials is determined by the activity, type, and form of the material to be shipped.

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3. Depending on these factors, most radioactive material is shipped in one of four basic types of containers/packaging. a. Type A b. Type B c. Industrial d. Excepted 4. Type C packages are very rare. a. Used for high-activity materials (including plutonium) transported by aircraft b. Have performance that requirements are significantly more stringent than those for Type B packages c. Not authorized for domestic use but are authorized for international shipments of radioactive material Instructor Note: Most responders will never see a Type C package.

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pp. 1137-1158 Objective 16 Explain transportation placards, labels, and markings clues to the presence of hazardous materials.
A. Regulations of hazardous materials transportation 1. In the U.S., transportation of hazardous materials is regulated by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). 2. In Canada they are regulated by Transport Canada (TC). 3. The Ministry of Communications and Transport is responsible in Mexico. B. UN system 1. Class 1: 2. Class 2: 3. Class 3: Explosives Gases Flammable liquids

4. Class 4: Flammable solids, substances liable to spontaneous combustion, substances that emit flammable gases on contact with water 5. Class 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides 6. Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances

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7. Class 7: Radioactive materials 8. Class 8: Corrosive substances

9. Class 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles C. Placards 1. Required on specific bulk quantities of hazardous materials that are transported by tank cars, cargo tanks, and other bulk packages and portable tanks 2. May be required on certain non-bulk containers Instructor Note: Most hazardous materials have more than one hazard, but the DOT classifies them by the most severe or prominent. For example, gasoline is classified and placarded as a flammable liquid, but it is also a carcinogen. Firefighters must be aware of ALL the hazardous properties of the materials involved at the incident. D. U.S. DOT labels 1. 3.9-inch (100 mm), square-onpoint diamonds 2. May or may not have written text that identifies the hazardous material within the packaging

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E. Markings 1. A descriptive name, an identification number, a weight, or a specification 2. Includes instructions, cautions, or UN marks (or combinations thereof) required on outer packagings of hazardous materials F. Four-digit UN identification numbers 1. Used in conjunction with illustrated placards in North America 2. Each individual hazardous material is assigned a unique four-digit number. This number will often be displayed on placards, labels, orange panels, and/or white diamonds in association with materials being transported in cargo tanks, portable tanks, tank cars, or other containers and packages. 3. In some cases, on orange panels, the number may be preceded by the letters NA for North America (which means it is not recognized for international transportation except in North America) or UN for United Nations (which

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means it is recognized for international transportation).

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4. The ERG provides a key to the four-digit identification numbers in the yellow section. 5. The four-digit UN identification number will appear on shipping papers, and it should match the numbers displayed on the exteriors of tanks or shipping containers. G. Other North American highway vehicle identification markings 1. In addition to UN commodity identification numbers, highway transportation vehicles may have other identification markings. 2. These markings may include company names, logos, specific tank colors for certain tanks, stenciled commodity names (such as Liquid Propane), and manufacturers specification plates. 3. Specification plates provide information about the standards to which the container/tank was built.

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H. North American railroad tank car markings 1. There may be a variety of markings on railroad tank cars that responders can use to gain valuable information about the tank and its contents. a. Initials (reporting marks) and number b. Capacity stencil c. Specification marking 2. The ERG provides a key to these markings in the railcar identification chart. 3. Manufacturers' names on cars may provide some contact information. 4. Dedicated railcars transporting a single material must have the name of that material painted on the car. 5. A number of hazardous materials transported by rail are required to have their names stenciled on the sides of the car in 4-inch (102 mm) letters.

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6. Initials and numbers (reporting marks) a. May be used to get information about the cars contents from the railroads computer or the shipper Instructor Note: Tank cars (like all other freight cars) are marked with their own unique sets of reporting marks. b. Should match the initials and numbers provided on the shipping papers for the car c. Stenciled on both sides (to the left when facing the side of the car) and both ends (upper center) of the tank car tank d. May also be stenciled on the top of the car to help identify the car in case an accident turns it on its side 7. Capacity stencil a. Shows the volume of the tank car tank b. Includes the volume in gallons (and sometimes liters) on both ends of the car under the cars initials and number

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c. Includes the volume in pounds (and sometimes kilograms) on the sides of the car under the cars initials and number d. May include water capacity (water weight) of the tank, in pounds (and typically kilograms) on the sides of the tank near the center of the car 8. Specification marking a. Indicates the standards to which a tank car was built b. Stenciled on both sides of the tank When facing the side of the car, the marking will be to the right (opposite from the initials and number). c. Stamped into the tank heads where it is not readily visible Instructor Note: Firefighters can also get specification information from the railroad, shipper, car owner, or the Association of American Railroads (from the cars Certificate of Construction) by using the cars initials and number.

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I.

International intermodal container/tank markings 1. Used in addition to DOTrequired placards on intermodal tanks and containers 2. Generally found on the righthand side of the tank or container as the emergency responder faces it from either the sides or the ends 3. Either on the tank/container or the frame 4. Can be used in conjunction with the shipping papers or computer data to identify and verify the contents of the tank or container

pp. 1158-1166 Objective 17 Explain other markings and colors (nontransportation) clues to the presence of hazardous materials.
A. NFPA 704 system 1. Gives a widely recognized method for indicating the presence of hazardous materials at commercial, manufacturing, institutional, and other fixed-storage facilities 2. Commonly required by local ordinances for all occupancies

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that contain hazardous materials

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3. Designed to alert emergency responders to health, flammability, instability, and related hazards (specifically, oxidizers and water-reactive materials) that may present as short-term, acute exposures resulting from a fire, spill, or similar emergency 4. Not designed for certain situations or hazards a. Transportation b. General public use c. Nonemergency occupational exposures d. Explosive and blasting agents, including commercial explosive materials e. Chronic health hazards f. Etiologic agents, and other similar hazards 5. Uses a rating system of numbers from 0 to 4 a. The number 0 indicates a minimal hazard, whereas the number 4 indicates a severe hazard.

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b. This rating is assigned to three categories: health, flammability, and instability. c. The rating numbers are arranged on a diamondshaped marker or sign. i. Health Blue ii. Flammability Red iii. Instability Yellow d. As an alternative, the backgrounds for each of these rating positions may be any contrasting color, and the numbers (0 to 4) may be represented by the appropriate color (blue, red, and yellow). e. Special hazards are located in the six oclock position and have no specified background color; white is most commonly used. i. W Unusual reactivity with water ii. OX The material is an oxidizer Instructor Note: While the NFPA 704 system only authorizes the use of W and OX, firefighters may see other symbols in the white diamond.

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B. Hazard communications labels and markings 1. The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration's Hazard Communication Standard (HCS) a. Requires employers to identify hazards in the workplace and train employees how to recognize those hazards b. Requires the employer to ensure that all hazardous material containers are labeled, tagged, or marked with the identity of the substances contained in them along with appropriate hazard warnings c. Does not specify what system (or systems) of identification must be used, leaving that to be determined by individual employers C. Canadian Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System 1. Requires that hazardous products be appropriately labeled and marked 2. Spells out requirements for MSDSs

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3. Most commonly uses two types of labels a. Supplier label b. Workplace label 4. Includes information such as the product name, a statement that an MSDS is available, and other information that will vary depending on the type of label D. Manufacturers labels and signal words 1. Under the HCS, chemical manufacturers and importers are required to provide appropriate labels on their product containers. 2. Manufacturers labels provide a variety of information to firefighters, including the name of the product, manufacturers contact information, and precautionary hazard warnings. 3. These labels may also provide directions for use and handling, names of active ingredients, first aid instructions, and other pertinent information.

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4. Under the U.S. Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA), labels on products destined for consumer households must incorporate one of four signal words to indicate the degree of hazard associated with the product. a. Caution Indicates the product may have minor health effects (such as eye or skin irritation) b. Warning Indicates the product has moderate hazards such as significant health effects or flammability c. Danger Indicates the highest degree of hazard (used on products that have potentially severe or deadly effects); also used on products that explode when exposed to heat d. Poison Required in addition to danger on the labels of highly toxic materials

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E. Military markings 1. Used on fixed facilities 2. May be seen on military vehicles, although they are not required 3. Are not a uniform system; caution must be exercised Instructor Note: Emphasize that some buildings and areas that store hazardous materials on military bases may not be marked due to security reasons.

Instructor Note: The military ships some hazardous materials and chemicals by common carrier. When this is done they are not required to be marked with DOT and TC transportation markings! F. Pipeline identification 1. Many types of materials, particularly petroleum varieties, are transported across both the U.S. and Canada in an extensive network of pipelines, most of which are buried in the ground.

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2. Where pipelines cross under (or over) roads, railroads, and waterways, pipeline companies must provide markers. a. Must be in sufficient numbers along the rest of the pipeline to identify the pipes location b. Do not always mark the exact location of the pipeline 3. Pipeline markers in the U.S. and Canada a. Include the signal words caution, warning, or danger b. Contain information describing the transported commodity and the name and emergency telephone number of the carrier G. Pesticide labels 1. Regulated by the EPA 2. Must contain the manufacturers name for the pesticide and one of the following signal words: a. Danger/poison Highly toxic materials b. Warning Moderate toxicity c. Caution Relatively low toxicity

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d. The words extremely flammable are also displayed on the label if the contents have a flash point below 80F (27C). Ask Students: Why is it important to be able to understand how to read a pesticide label? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Explain that one reason is that some of these pesticides can act as nerve agents on the body. 3. List an EPA registration number, which is used to obtain information about the product from the manufacturer's 24-hour emergency contact 4. Contain an establishment number that identifies the manufacturing facility 5. May contain other information a. Routes of entry into the body b. Precautionary statements (such as Keep out of the reach of children) c. Active ingredients d. Requirements for storage and disposal

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e. First aid information f. Antidotes for poisoning (if known) g. Hazard statements indicating that the product poses an environmental hazard 6. Canadian labels a. Carry a Pest Control Products (PCP) Act number The Canadian Transport Emergency Centre (CANUTEC) provides information when given this number. b. Have the same signal words and required information as the U.S.

pp. 1166-1177 Objective 18 Explain how written resources can be used to assist firefighters in identifying hazardous materials.
A. Written resources that can be used to assist firefighters 1. Fixed facilities should have MSDSs, inventory records, and other facility documents in addition to signs, markings, container shapes, and other labels.

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2. The ERG and shipping papers can be used at transportation incidents to both identify and verify the materials involved in the incident. 3. Operations-Level responders needing response information directly from the manufacturer or shipper can gather contact information from shipping papers and MSDSs or by contacting an emergency response center. B. Shipping papers 1. Must accompany shipments of hazardous materials 2. Can be provided on a bill of lading, waybill, or similar document 3. Vary in location and type of according to the mode of transport 4. Exceptions Hazardous waste shipments, which must be accompanied by a Uniform Hazardous Waste Manifest document 5. Instructions for describing hazardous materials are provided in the DOT/TC regulations. a. Proper shipping name of the material
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b. Hazard class represented by the material c. Packing group assigned to the material d. Quantity of material 6. Special description requirements apply to certain types of materials and modes of transportation. 7. When firefighters know that a close approach to an incident is safe, they can then examine the cargo shipping papers. Instructor Note: Remind students that they may need to check with the responsible party in order to locate these documents. If the responsible party is not carrying them, firefighters will need to check other appropriate locations. 8. Common locations a. Trucks and airplanes Near the driver or pilot b. Ships and barges On the bridge or in the pilothouse of a controlling tugboat c. Trains Waybills (each cars cargo lists), wheel reports, and/or consists (also called wheels) (entire trains cargo lists) may be placed in the engine, caboose, or both

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C. Material safety data sheets (MSDS) 1. Also called safety data sheets (SDS) 2. A detailed information bulletin prepared by the manufacturer or importer of a chemical that describes or gives pertinent information a. Hazardous ingredients b. Physical and chemical properties (including fire and explosion hazard data) c. Physical and health hazards d. Routes of exposure e. Precautions for safe handling and use f. Emergency and first-aid procedures g. Control measures for the product 3. Often the best sources of detailed information about a particular material to which firefighters have access. 4. Required by both OSHA and Canada; however, both countries are switching to a Globally Harmonized System (GHS) SDS format

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D. The GHS for Hazard Classification and Communication 1. Sets forth recommendations for minimum information to be provided on SDSs 2. These sheets are being used worldwide. SECTIONS 1. Identification 2. Hazard(s) identification 3. Composition / information on ingredients 4. First aid measures 5. Firefighting measures 6. Accidental release measures 7. Handling and storage 8. Exposure controls / personal protection 9. Physical and chemical properties 10. Stability and reactivity 11. Toxicological information 12. Ecological information 13. Disposal considerations

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14. Transport information 15. Regulatory information 16. Other information E. OSHA MSDS requirements 1. Top Chemical identity a. Chemical and common name(s) must be provided for single chemical substances b. Identity on the MSDS must be cross-referenced to the identity found on the label 2. Section I Manufacturers Information and Chemical Identity a. Manufacturers name and address b. Emergency telephone number c. Date prepared 3. Section II Hazardous Ingredients a. Chemical and common names of hazardous components b. Permissible exposure limits (PELs) and other recommended exposure limits

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4. Section III Physical and Chemical Characteristics a. Boiling point b. Vapor pressure c. Vapor density d. Specific gravity e. Melting point f. Evaporation rate g. Solubility in water h. Physical appearance and odor 5. Section IV Fire and Explosion Hazard Data a. Flashpoint b. Flammability limits (lower explosive limit [LEL], upper explosive limit [UEL]) c. Extinguishing media d. Special fire fighting procedures e. Unusual fire and explosion hazards

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6. Section V Reactivity (Instability) Data a. Stability (stable/unstable conditions to avoid) b. Incompatibility (materials to avoid) c. Hazardous decomposition or byproducts d. Hazardous polymerization (may or may not occur, conditions to avoid) 7. Section VI Health Hazard Data a. Routes of entry b. Health hazards (acute and chronic) c. Carcinogenicity d. Signs and symptoms of exposure e. Medical conditions generally aggravated by exposure f. Emergency and first aid procedures. 8. Section VII Precautions for Safe Handling and Use a. Steps to be taken in case of a release or spill

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b. Waste disposal method c. Precautions to be taken in handling or storage, and other precautions 9. Section VIII Control Measures a. Engineering controls such as ventilation, safe handling procedures, and PPE b. Work/hygienic practices F. Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) Instructor Note: Be sure that you are using the most current version of the ERG. If a more current version is available, be sure to discuss the differences between the newer version and the one used in the manual. 1. Developed jointly by TC, DOT, and the Secretara de Comunicaciones y Transportes (SCT) of Mexico 2. For use by firefighters, law enforcement, and other emergency services personnel who may be the first to arrive at the scene of a transportation incident involving dangerous goods/hazardous materials

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3. Primarily a guide to aid emergency responders in quickly identifying the specific or generic hazards of materials involved in an emergency incident and protecting themselves and the general public during the initial response phase of the incident 4. Can be used by firefighters to locate the appropriate initial action guide page a. Identify the four-digit U.N. identification number on a placard or shipping papers and then look up the appropriate guide in the yellow-bordered pages of the guidebook. b. Search for the name of the material involved (if known) in the blue-bordered section of the guidebook. Instructor Note: Firefighters must exercise extreme care when using this method because many chemical names differ only by a few letters, so exact spelling is important.

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c. A third method involves identifying the transportation placard of the material and then using the three-digit guide code associated with the placard in Table of Placards and Initial Response Guide to Use On-Scene located in the front of the ERG. Instructor Note: The ERG rail car and road trailer identification charts should only be used as a last resort after all other means of identifying the material have failed. 5. Does not address all possible circumstances that may be associated with a dangerous goods/hazardous materials incident 6. Primarily designed for use at a dangerous goods/hazardous materials incident occurring on a highway or railroad 7. ERG ID Number Index (Yellow Pages) a. Provides an index list of hazardous materials in numerical order of ID number b. Quickly identifies the Guide to consult for the ID Number/material involved

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c. Enables firefighters to quickly identify the Guide (orange-bordered pages) to consult for the ID number of the substance involved d. If a material in the yellow or blue index is highlighted, it means that it releases gases that are toxic inhalation hazard (TIH) materials. These materials require the application of additional emergency response distances. 8. ERG Material Name Index (Blue Pages) a. Provides an index of dangerous goods in alphabetical order of material name so that the firefighter can quickly identify the Guide to consult for the name of the material involved b. Displays the name of the material followed by its assigned emergency response Guide and fourdigit ID number

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9. ERG Initial Action Guides (Orange Pages) a. The most important because it provides firefighters with safety recommendations and general hazards information b. Comprises a total of 62 individual guides presented in a two-page format c. The left-hand page provides safety related information. d. The right-hand page provides emergency response guidance and activities for fire situations, spill or leak incidents, and first aid. e. The first section (Potential Hazards) describes potential hazards that the material may display in terms of fire/explosion and health effects upon exposure. The highest potential is listed first.

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f. The second section (Public Safety) outlines suggested public safety measures based on the situation at hand. i. Provides general information regarding immediate isolation of the incident site and recommended type of protective clothing and respiratory protection ii. Lists suggested evacuation distances for small and large spills and for fire situations (fragmentation hazard) iii. When the material is one highlighted in the yellowbordered and bluebordered pages, this section also directs the reader to consult the tables on the greenbordered pages listing TIH materials and waterreactive materials

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g. The third section (Emergency Response) covers emergency response areas, including precautions for incidents involving fire, spills or leaks, and first aid. i. Lists several recommendations to further assist the responder in the decisionmaking process ii. Provides general guidance on first aid before seeking medical care 10. ERG Table of Initial Isolation and Protective Action Distances (Green Pages) a. Contains a table that lists (by ID number) TIH materials including certain chemical warfare agents and waterreactive materials that produce toxic gases upon contact with water b. Provides two different types of recommended safe distances: initial isolation distances and protective action distances c. These materials are highlighted for easy identification in both numeric (yellow-bordered) and

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alphabetic (blue-bordered) ERG indexes.

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pp. 1179-1181 Objective 19 Explain how the senses can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials.
A. Senses 1. Vision is definitely the safest of the five senses to use in the detection of a hazardous material. 2. While many products release odors well below dangerous levels, there is a good chance that if firefighters are this close to a hazardous material, they are too close for safetys sake. Instructor Note: It should also be noted that many hazardous materials are invisible, have no odor, and cannot readily be detected by the senses. 3. Warning properties of chemicals include visible gas clouds, pungent odors, and irritating fumes. Instructor Note: Stress that deliberately using the human senses to detect the presence of hazardous materials is both unreliable and unsafe. Remind students that this practice could result in death. B. Visual/physical chemical indicators of the presence of hazardous materials 1. Visual indicators

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a. Spreading vapor cloud or smoke b. Unusual colored smoke

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c. Flames d. Gloves melting e. Changes in vegetation f. Container deterioration g. Containers bulging h. Sick humans i. Dead or dying birds, animals, insects, or fish j. Discoloration of valves or piping 2. Physical indicators a. Rainbow sheen on water surfaces b. Wavy vapors over a volatile liquid c. Frost or ice buildup near a leak d. Containers deformed by the force of an accident e. Activated pressure-relief devices f. Pinging or popping of heatexposed vessels 3. Chemical reactions convert one substance to another. a. Exothermic heat

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b. Unusual or unexpected temperature drop (cold)

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c. Extraordinary fire conditions d. Peeling or discoloration of a containers finish e. Spattering or boiling of unheated materials f. Distinctively colored vapor clouds g. Smoking or self-igniting materials h. Unexpected deterioration of equipment i. Peculiar smells j. Unexplained changes in ordinary materials k. Symptoms of chemical exposure 4. Physical signs and symptoms of chemical exposure may also indicate the presence of hazardous materials. a. Changes in respiration Difficult breathing, increase or decrease in respiration rate, tightness of the chest, irritation of the nose and throat, and/or respiratory arrest b. Changes in level of consciousness Dizziness, lightheadedness, drowsiness,

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confusion, fainting, and/or unconsciousness

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c. Abdominal distress Nausea, vomiting, and/or cramping d. Change in activity level Fatigue, weakness, stupor, hyperactivity, restlessness, anxiety, giddiness, and/or faulty judgment e. Visual disturbances Double vision, blurred vision, cloudy vision, burning of the eyes, and/or dilated or constricted pupils f. Skin changes Burning sensations, reddening, paleness, fever, and/or chills g. Changes in excretion or thirst Uncontrolled tears, profuse sweating, mucus flowing from the nose, diarrhea, frequent urination, bloody stool, and/or intense thirst h. Pain Headache, muscle ache, stomachache, chest pain, and/or localized pain at sites of substance contact Instructor Note: Emphasize to students the importance of reporting any symptoms of potential chemical exposure when working at haz mat incidents.

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pp. 1181-1184 Objective 20 Explain how monitoring and detection devices can provide clues to the presence of hazardous materials.
A. Monitoring and detection devices 1. Can be useful in determining the presence of hazardous materials as well as the concentration(s) present 2. Require actual contact with the hazardous material (or its mists, dusts, vapors, or fumes) in order to measure it 3. Therefore outside the scope of action for most OperationsLevel responders unless additional training is provided and appropriate PPE used 4. Can help determine the scope of the incident a. What materials are involved in the incident b. How far the materials have traveled (areas that have been contaminated) c. What concentrations are present (and how that might affect victims and exposures)

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d. Where the materials are absent (areas that are free of contamination, areas that are safe; this can also be used to determine the effectiveness of decontamination operations) 5. No single device will detect all materials. It is important that response agencies be equipped with devices that will detect a variety of materials. 6. Advantages and disadvantages a. Some can be easily used in the field, whereas others are less portable. b. Some instruments may not be very sensitive (able to identify low concentration/dose of materials), or specific (able to distinguish between different types of material) whereas others may be extremely so. c. Some may be user friendly; others may have a long response time; and yet others may be extremely expensive. d. All of these factors must be considered when selecting detection equipment.

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7. Types a. Combustible gas indicators (CGIs) Used to detect the concentration of combustible gases and vapors in the air b. Two-, three-, and four-gas monitors Often combined with other common gas sensors to form monitors that can detect two, three, or four gases, depending on the combination of sensors c. Biological immunoassay indicators Indicate the presence of biological agents and toxins by detecting the presence of specific antibodies d. Chemical agent monitors (CAMs) Utilize various technologies to specifically detect chemical warfare agents e. Flame ionization detectors (FIDs) Utilize a hydrogen flame to which gaseous materials are exposed f. Photo-ionization detectors (PIDs) Use an ultraviolet lamp to ionize samples of gaseous materials

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g. Infrared spectroscopy devices Use infrared spectroscopy technology to compare the infrared spectra of chemical samples against a library of known spectral signatures h. Raman spectroscopy Uses light to illuminate a sample thereby creating a spectral signature that is unique to each material i. Ion-mobility spectrometers Use a radioactive source to ionize samples in order to determine their spectra j. Mass spectrometers Ionize samples in order to determine their composition k. Specific chemical monitors Sound an alarm when the presence of a specific chemical is detected l. Indicator papers and pH meters Change colors to indicate the presence of specific hazards such as oxidizers, hydrogen sulfide, and peroxides m. Detector tubes (colorimetric tubes) Detect a variety of gases and vapors

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n. Radiation monitors Detect levels of alpha, beta, or gamma radiation by collecting and counting the number of ions present; readings are provided in cpm (counts per minute), R/hr (microrem per hour), mR/hr (milliroentgens per hour), or rem (roentgens per hour) o. Field chemistry testing kits Contain portable chemistry sets designed to enable logical and progressive testing of a sample in order to identify it p. DNA fluoroscopy devices Have the ability to identify specific DNA sequences, thereby detecting and identifying types of biological agents q. Polymerase chain reaction devices (PCRs) Used to identify DNA r. Surface acoustical wave devices Utilize surface acoustical wave technology; are used to detect nerve agents, blister agents, blood agents, choking agents, and some toxic industrial materials/toxic industrial chemicals (TIMs/TICs)

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s. Personal dosimeter Generally worn to measure (and sometimes identify) an individuals exposure to a particular radiation t. Other personal detection devices Include organic vapor badges (or film strips, wrist bands, stick pins, etc.), mercury badges, and formaldehyde badges or strips used to measure individual exposure to certain chemicals B. Responders assigned monitoring, detection, and sampling duties 1. Must be trained to use the instruments available to them correctly 2. Must also be able to interpret the data provided to them correctly 3. Must be able to properly maintain, field test, and calibrate the devices per manufacturers' instructions 4. Must be able to use the devices in accordance with predetermined procedures based on the availability, capabilities, and limitations of personnel, appropriate PPE, and other resources available

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at the incident in accordance with the incident action plan

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Instructor Note: All personnel assigned to conduct monitoring and sampling must have proper training to do so, and they must wear appropriate personal protective equipment when operating in potentially hazardous areas.

Instructor Note: Remind students that personnel who conduct sampling activities at terrorist attacks or crime scenes must follow appropriate protocols in regards to chain of custody, packaging, labeling, and transportation to the testing authority.

pp. 1184-1191 Objective 21 Summarize indicators of terrorist attacks.


A. Response to a terrorist incident is essentially the same as that for response to other haz mat incidents; however, there are critical differences that must be understood by firefighters. 1. Terrorist incident sites are crime scenes; therefore, law enforcement organizations must be notified and included in the initial response. 2. Other differences a. Size and complexity b. Number of casualties

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c. Presence of extremely hazardous materials d. Potential for armed resistance, booby traps, secondary devices, and the use of weapons e. Overall levels of increased risk due to contaminated victims, structural collapse hazards, and other dangers B. Firefighters must try to identify incidents involving terrorism as quickly as possible. 1. Report of two or more medical emergencies in public locations such as a shopping mall, transportation hub, mass transit system, office building, assembly occupancy, or other public buildings 2. Unusually large number of people with similar signs and symptoms coming or being transported to physicians' offices or medical emergency rooms 3. Reported explosion at a movie theater, department store, office building, government building, or a location with historical or symbolic significance

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Ask Students: What should be done if criminal or terrorist activity is suspected at the scene of an incident? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Remind them that they must forward that information to the incident commander (IC) as quickly as possible. It is also critical that this information be passed on to law enforcement representatives. C. Chemical attacks 1. May utilize chemical warfare agents (nerve agents, blister agents, blood agents, choking agents, and riot control agents) as well as toxic industrial materials/toxic industrial chemicals (TIMs/TICs) 2. Usually result in readily observable features including signs and symptoms that develop very rapidly a. Warning or threat of an attack or received intelligence b. Presence of hazardous materials or laboratory equipment that is not relevant to the occupancy c. Intentional release of hazardous materials

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d. Unexplained patterns of sudden onset of similar, nontraumatic illnesses or deaths (the pattern could be geographic, by employer, or associated with agent dissemination methods) e. Unexplained odors or tastes that are out of character with the surroundings f. Multiple individuals exhibiting unexplained signs of skin, eye, or airway irritation g. Unexplained bomb or munition-like material, especially if it contains a liquid h. Unexplained vapor clouds, mists, and plumes, particularly if they are not consistent with their surroundings i. Multiple individuals exhibiting unexplained health problems such as nausea, vomiting, twitching, tightness in chest, sweating, pinpoint pupils (miosis), runny nose (rhinorrhea), disorientation, difficulty breathing, or convulsions.

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j. Some people teach the symptoms of exposure to chemical warfare agents with the acronym SLUDGEM: i. Salivation (drooling) ii. Lacrimation (tearing) iii. Urination iv. Defecation v. Gastrointestinal upset/aggravation (cramping) vi. Emesis (vomiting) vii.Miosis (pinpointed pupils) or Muscular twitching/spasms k. Unexplained deaths and/or mass casualties l. Casualties distributed downwind (outdoors) or near ventilation systems (indoors) m. Multiple individuals experiencing blisters and/or rashes n. Trees, shrubs, bushes, food crops, and/or lawns that are dead (not just a patch of dead weeds), discolored, abnormal in appearance, or withered (not under drought conditions)

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o. Surfaces exhibiting oily droplets or films and unexplained oily film on water surfaces p. Abnormal number of sick or dead birds, animals, and/or fish q. Unusual security, locks, bars on windows, covered windows, and barbed wire enclosures 3. May use TIMs/TICs as chemical weapons; may be identified through: a. Identification of occupancy types and locations b. Container shapes c. Hazardous materials placards, labels, and markings d. Written resources e. Sensory indicators f. Use of monitoring and detection devices D. Biological attacks 1. Utilize viruses, bacteria, and/or biological toxins 2. May not have readily noticeable effects

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3. Signs and symptoms may take many days to develop. a. Warning or threat of an attack or received intelligence b. Presentation of specific unusual diseases (such as smallpox) c. Unusual number of sick or dying people or animals (often of different species) d. Multiple casualties with similar signs or symptoms e. Dissemination of unscheduled or unusual spray f. Abandoned spray devices (devices may have no distinct odors) g. Non-endemic illness for the geographic area (for example, Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Europe) h. Casualty distribution aligned with wind direction i. Electronic tracking of signs and symptoms (syndromic surveillance) reported to hospitals, pharmacies, and other health care organizations

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j. Illnesses associated with a common source of food, water, or location k. Large numbers of people exhibiting flu-like symptoms during non-flu months 4. Depending on the agent used and the scope of an incident, emergency medical services (EMS) responders and healthcare personnel may be first to realize that there has been a biological attack. E. Radiological attacks 1. Utilize weapons that release radiological materials, most likely in the form of dust or powder 2. May accomplish dispersal by including the material in a bomb or explosive device, i.e., a radiological dispersal device (RDD), sometimes called a dirty bomb 3. Indicators a. Warning or threat of an attack or received intelligence b. Individuals exhibiting signs and symptoms of radiation exposure

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c. Radiological materials packaging left unattended or abandoned in public locations

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d. Suspicious packages that appear to weigh more than they should (such packages may contain lead to shield a radiation source) e. Activation of radiation detection devices, with or without an explosion f. Material that is hot or seems to emit heat without any sign of an external heat source g. Glowing material strongly radioactive material may emit or cause radioluminescence Ask Students: How can it be determined that radiation is involved at an incident? Briefly discuss the answers with students. Monitoring can determine if radiation is involved. Stress that monitoring must be conducted at all explosive incidents. F. Nuclear attacks 1. The intentional detonation of a nuclear weapon 2. Indicators a. Warning or threat of an attack or received intelligence b. Mushroom cloud

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c. Exceptionally large/powerful explosion d. Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) G. Explosive/incendiary attacks 1. Encompass the majority of terrorist attacks 2. Considered conventional attacks 3. May be classified as weapons of mass destruction when used to inflict high casualties and large-scale damage 4. May also be used to disseminate chemical, biological, and radiological materials 5. Indicators a. Warning or threat of an attack or received intelligence b. Reports of an explosion c. Explosion d. Accelerant odors (gasoline smells and other similar odors) e. Multiple fires or explosions

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f. Incendiary device or bomb components (such as broken glass from a Molotov cocktail or wreckage of a car bomb) g. Unexpectedly heavy burning or high temperatures h. Unusually fast burning fires i. Unusually colored smoke or flames j. Presence of propane or other flammable gas cylinders in unusual locations k. Unattended packages/backpacks/objects left in high traffic/public areas l. Fragmentation damage/injury m. Damage that exceeds that usually seen during gas explosions, including shattered reinforced concrete or bent structural steel n. Crater(s) o. Scattering of small metal objects such as nuts, bolts, and/or nails used as shrapnel

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pp. 1191-1201 Objective 22 Discuss identifying illicit laboratories.


A. Illicit laboratories 1. Established to produce or manufacture illegal or controlled substances such as drugs, chemical warfare agents, explosives, or biological agents 2. Can be found virtually anywhere a. Abandoned buildings b. Hotel rooms c. Rural farms d. Urban apartments e. Rental storage units f. Upscale residential neighborhoods 3. Can be so portable that they have even been found in campgrounds, highway rest stops, and vehicles

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B. Drug labs 1. It is estimated that a significant majority (80 to 90 percent) of all illegal clandestine drug labs are set up to produce methamphetamine (meth). 2. Meth is easy to make and uses a variety of ingredients commercially available in local stores. 3. Because of the increasing hazard of meth labs, some U.S. states have placed restrictions on the purchase of items used in making meth. 4. Meth labs present a danger to the meth cook, the community surrounding the lab, and emergency response personnel who discover the lab. 5. Flammability is perhaps the most serious hazard associated with meth labs, and many labs are discovered only after a fire or explosion has occurred. Other products used in making meth are highly corrosive acids or bases, while others are extremely toxic.

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6. Firefighters should be familiar with the types of equipment used in the process. a. Condenser tubes Used to cool vapors produced during cooking b. Filters Coffee filters, cloth, and cheesecloth c. Funnels/turkey basters Used to separate layers of liquids d. Gas containers Propane bottles, fire extinguishers, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) tanks, plastic drink bottles (often attached to some sort of tubing) e. Glassware Particularly Pyrex or Visions cookware, mason jars, and other laboratory glassware that can tolerate heating and violent chemical reactions f. Heat sources Burners, hot plates, microwave ovens, and camp stoves g. Grinders Used to grind up ephedrine or pseudoephedrine tablets

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h. pH papers Used to test the pH levels of the reactions i. Tubing Glass, plastic, copper, or rubber 7. Other clues to the presence of meth labs in structures a. Windows covered with plastic or tinfoil b. Knowledge of renters who pay landlords in cash c. Unusual security systems or other devices d. Excessive trash e. Increased activity, especially at night f. Unusual structures g. Discoloration of structures, pavement, and soil h. Strong odor of solvents i. Smell of ammonia, starting fluid, or ether j. Iodine- or chemical-stained bathroom or kitchen fixtures

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8. It is estimated that for every pound (0.5 kg) of meth produced, 6 pounds (2.7 kg) of hazardous waste is generated. a. Disposal of this waste is very expensive, and the cleanup process is potentially very dangerous. b. Many law enforcement departments have contracts with private hazardous materials waste disposal contractors to handle the cleanup and decon of seized illegal meth labs and dumps. C. Chemical agents labs 1. Some chemical warfare agents are surprisingly easy to make. 2. Chemical agent labs might be identified by the presence of military manuals, underground cookbooks, chemicals (such as organophosphate pesticides) that would not normally be used to make meth or other illegal drugs, and more sophisticated lab equipment that is necessary to conduct some of the chemical reactions needed to make the agents. 3. Responders should be suspicious if a laboratory seems to have unusual equipment or chemicals.

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D. Explosives labs 1. May lack the glassware, tubing, Bunsen burners, chemical bottles, and other trappings traditionally associated with the term laboratory 2. Do not need to heat or cook any of their materials; might look more like a traditional industrial or university chemistry lab 3. Clues to the presence of an explosives lab a. Literature on how to make bombs b. Significant quantities of fireworks c. Ammunition like shotgun shells, black powder, smokeless powder, blasting caps, commercial explosives, incendiary materials, or other explosive chemicals Instructor Note: Discuss peroxide explosives with students. These explosives (such as triacetone triperoxide, or TATP) can be manufactured in illicit laboratories and have become an increasing area of concern. This explosive may be mistaken for crack cocaine.

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E. Biological labs 1. May look very similar to chemical agent or drug labs, but a trained and experienced person would see some significant differences a. More likely to be equipped with petri dishes (used to grow biological organisms and materials), microscopes and glass slides (etiological agents are microscopic), autoclaves, and centrifuges b. May also be cleaner than any other type of lab because keeping a sterile environment may be important in avoiding contamination of samples

pp. 1201-1203 Objective 23 Discuss secondary attacks.


A. Secondary devices 1. Always a possibility at terrorist attacks or illicit laboratories 2. Usually explosives of some kind, most likely an IED. Booby traps utilizing other weapons are also possible, and some may use chemical, biological, or radiological materials.

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3. Often designed to impact an ongoing emergency response in order to create more chaos and injure responders and bystanders 4. May also be deployed as a diversionary tactic to route emergency responders away from the primary attack area 5. May be used to lure personnel to a specific area where a less obvious IED is hidden B. Protecting against possible secondary devices 1. Anticipate the presence of a secondary device at any suspicious incident. 2. Visually search for a secondary device (or anything suspicious) before moving into the incident area. 3. Avoid touching or moving anything that may conceal an explosive device (including items such as backpacks and purses). 4. Effectively manage the scene with cordons, boundaries, and scene control zones.

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5. Evacuate victims and nonessential personnel as quickly as possible. 6. Preserve the scene as much as possible for evidence collection and crime investigation. C. Responders should be very cautious of any item(s) that arouse curiosity. 1. Containers with unknown liquids or materials 2. Unusual devices or containers with electronic components such as wires, circuit boards, cellular phones, antennas and other items attached or exposed 3. Devices containing quantities of fuses, fireworks, match heads, black powder, smokeless powder, incendiary materials or other unusual materials 4. Materials attached to or surrounding an item such as nails, bolts, drill bits, marbles, etc. that could be used for shrapnel 5. Ordinance such as blasting caps, detcord, military explosives, commercial explosives, grenades, etc.

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6. Any combination of the above described items Instructor Note: Firefighters should NEVER approach or move suspicious objects. Notify appropriate personnel (law enforcement/bomb techs) and evacuate the area immediately.

Section VII: Summary and Review VII. SUMMARY AND REVIEW


A. Chapter Summary

15 min.

1. Because hazardous materials could be involved in virtually any emergency, and because these materials may be highly toxic, it is critical that firefighters have at least a basic understanding of the potential threats and possible solutions. 2. Firefighters should be aware of the vast quantities of these materials that are shipped, stored, and used every day in North America. They should also be aware of the various placards, labels, and signs that are required.

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3. Firefighters should be familiar with the various references that are available to assist them. Finally, they must know what specialized resources will be needed to mitigate a hazardous materials release and be prepared to assist. B. Review Questions 1. What are persons trained to the Awareness Level expected to do? 2. What are persons trained to the Operations Level expected to do? 3. What is a supplied-air respirator? 4. What U.S. EPA level of protective equipment provides the highest level of protection? 5. List three methods to prevent and/or reduce the effects of heat exposure while wearing protective clothing. 6. Describe the four main routes through which hazardous materials can enter the body. 7. What are the seven clues to the presence of hazardous materials? 8. What are the three ways to use the ERG to locate the

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appropriate orange-bordered guide page?

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9. List four chemical attack indicators. 10. What are the clues to the presence of meth labs?

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Chapter 22 Quiz Answers


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. A B A A B B A A A B A B A B B Answer should include any four of the following: Fuel storage facilities Gas/service stations (and convenience stores) Paint supply stores Plant nurseries, garden centers, and agricultural facilities Pest control and lawn care companies Medical facilities Photo processing laboratories Dry cleaners Plastics and high-technology factories Metal-plating businesses Mercantile concerns (hardware stores, groceries stores, certain department stores) Chemistry (and other) laboratories in educational facilities (including high schools) Lumberyards

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17.

Feed/farm stores Veterinary clinics Print shops Warehouses Industrial and utility plants Port shipping facilities (with changing cargo hazards) Treatment storage disposal (TSD) facilities Answer should include the following:

Class Class Class Class

Class Class Class Class Class

1: Explosives 2: Gases 3: Flammable liquids 4: Flammable solids, substances liable to spontaneous combustion, substances that emit flammable gases on contact with water 5: Oxidizing substances and organic peroxides 6: Toxic and infectious substances 7: Radioactive materials 8: Corrosive substances 9: Miscellaneous dangerous substances and articles

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Chapter 22 Test Answers


Objective 1
1. 2. A D

Objective 2
3. 4. 5. A B A

Objective 3
6. 7. A D

Objective 4
8. 9. 10. 11. C A B A

Objective 5
12. 13. 14. 15. A B B A

Objective 6
16. 17. 18. 19. A A B C

Objective 7
20. C
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21. 22.

A B

Objective 8
23. 24. D D

Objective 9
25. 26. 27. A B B

Objective 10
28. 29. B D

Objective 11
30. 31. 32. 33. D A A B

Objective 12
34. 35. 36. 37. C A B A

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Objective 13
38. 39. 40. 41. C D B D

Objective 14
42. 43. C C

Objective 15
44. 45. 46. C B C

Objective 16
47. 48. 49. 50. 51. A D D C D

Objective 17
52. 53. 54. B D D

Objective 18
55. 56. 57. D B C

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Objective 19
58. 59. 60. D A B

Objective 20
61. 62. 63. 64. D C B A

Objective 21
65. 66. 67. 68. A A B D

Objective 22
69. 70. 71. 72. D D C D

Objective 23
73. 74. 75. B A A

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