1 2010 SAJC H2 Physics Prelims Examiner’s Report Paper 1 : Q1 B

35.1%

Q2 A
52.0%

Q3 B
91.3%

Q4 A
45.3%

Q5 D
70.4%

Q6 B
68.5%

Q7 D
37.7%

Q8 A
32.6%

Q9 A
54.2%

Q10 A
32.4%

Q11 B
62.0%

Q12 C
45.8%

Q13 D
71.3%

Q14 C
80.1%

Q15 A
82.2%

Q16 D
51.1%

Q17 A
74.1%

Q18 D
69.8%

Q19 D
50.5%

Q20 C
54.8%

Q21 A
58.9%

Q22 B
62.2%

Q23 C
32.4%

Q24 A
23.4%

Q25 C
51.3%

Q26 B
62.9%

Q27 B
88.5%

Q28 A
89.7%

Q29 D
36.1%

Q30 B
79.6%

Q31 B
80.1%

Q32 C
61.3%

Q33 B
94.1%

Q34 B
40.3%

Q35 B
55.2%

Q36 D
44.2%

Q37 C
87.2%

Q38 A
41.4%

Q39 A
68.8%

Q40 B
83.2%

Average score = 24/40, figures in % refers to % of cohort who got answer correct. 1 B A typical saloon car, like a Nissan Sunny, is about 1500 kg. Mrs Quek’s car has an unladen mass of 1410 kg. A Mercedes Benz weighs about 2250 kg. An old SAF military truck used to weigh 3 tonnes (which is why it was called a 3-tonner but these days the new version is 5 tonnes (ie. 5000 kg) The cultural centre has a ground floor area of 709.5 m2. A yellow bunsen flame is typically above 1000 ºC and a blue flame can go as high as 1500 ºC. The upthrust is ρgV. Density of water, ρ = 1000 kg m-3. g is 9.81 and the volume of a tube float (totally submerged) is estimated by taking the diameter of its cross-section to be 15 cm and the diameter of the whole tube (top-view) to be 70 cm. This will give a volume of 0.0389 m3 and an upthrust of 381 N. 2 A Identify the formula => Calculating v => Fractional error of v => Uncertainty of v, v => v in one sig. fig => v in same dec. pl => Hence, (v ± v) =>

u = 0, hence, v2 = 2as v2 = u2 + 2as, v = (2as) = (2)(23.1)(100) = 67.97 v a s v =½a +½s 1.075 1 68 (68 ± 1) m s-1

SAJC 2010

Prelims/9646 Solutions

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2 3 B Option A => g will always be overstated (error in one direction) Option B => The experimenter’s timing could be below or above the true value, thus, its error can be in either direction. This constitutes random error. Option C => timing will always be understated (error in one direction) Option D => measure will either be always overstated or always understated (error in one direction) A The ball rebounds at 0.6 s. Area under trapezium in first 0.6 s where the ball drops to the ground = 3.6 m. The ball reaches a maximum height at 1.5 s. Hence, area of triangle from 0.6 s to 1.5 s is the upward trajectory of the ball before it changes direction, and it is also 3.6 m. Therefore, the vertical displacement between the starting point and highest point is zero. D The equation that links the height and time is sy = uyt + ½gt2 In this case, for both x and y, they have the same sy (height) and uy (both zero) and g (constant at 9.81 m s-2), Hence, the time will be same for x and y. B For the ball travelling to X from either Y or Z, there is no friction or other resistive forces. Hence, the speed at X comes purely from the loss in GPE from Y or Z. Loss in GPE = Gain in KE mgh = ½mv2 v' 2h Hence, v α √(h) => = √( h ) => v’ = √(2) v = 1.41v v D Note that answer cannot be C because the air resistance cannot cause an object to change direction horizontally. This is because when an objected afflicted by air resistance slows down to zero speed, air resistance will then cease to act on the object, as air resistance is proportional to velocity (or square of velocity). Therefore, the air resistance acting horizontally will drop to 0 when the horizontal component of the velocity is 0. A If the resultant force acting on charge X is horizontal to the left, the force that charge at Z acts on X (ie FZX) must be repulsive, hence, Q must be a negative charge (since X has a negative charge). Also, for vertical equilibrium => FXY = vertical component of FZX qq Qq = sin45° ,where r = side of the square 2 2 4πε 0 (r ) 4πε 0 2r Q = 2.8q

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SAJC 2010

Prelims/9646 Solutions

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For that to be possible. Graph C gives the more accurate relative shapes for U and F. 11 B thrust. options A or B) and when the vehicle is at the bottom of the track (ie. form an equation for if the vehicle is at the top of the track (ie. The weight is not included as it is exerted by the Earth and not the cage. and N would have been negative. T – mgsin20° . However. the resultant force acting on the person must be pointing towards centre of circular motion path (ie. 1 1 Since F α r2 and Uα r . answer is between options B and C. the force can be either positive or negative with respect to the declared direction. to the right).3 9 A When the passenger feels weightless. mg The slope is at an incline of 20° Since car is travelling at a constant speed. The option where N would have been negative is the answer. To do this question. potential energy U is a scalar and gravitational potential energy is always negative. N = 0). Hence.22 N Power. there is no normal reaction force on him (ie. A friction normal reaction 10 weight Since person is moving in a circle. option A is the answer.R In option A. options C or D). 500 N weight. hence. P = Tv = (3855.500 = 0 T = mgsin20° + 500 = 3855. T Friction. the resultant force = 0 (because there is no acceleration). SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . Hence. the forces exerted by the cage are normal reaction and friction and the resultant of these two will be arrow A. v > √(gR). there must be a frictional force (upwards) to counter the weight.22)(8) = 30842 W 12 C Force is a vector and depending on the direction declared. . At the top => mv2 mv2 mg – N = R => N = mg .

Hence. From Y to Z. Work done = m Φ = (1)[ΦY – ΦX] = (1)[(-4) – (-8)] = 4 kJ Also note that the work done has to be positive because it is by an external agent and energy is required to bring an object against the gravitational field. ΦX. the C pressure could not possibly be zero. A Work done by gas refers to an expansion. at constant volume and no change in gas quantity. hence. However. meaning there is no change in internal energy from A to B and U = 0. the temperature scale is in Celsius. its acceleration is maximum. at R where the speed is zero.4 13 D If the gravitational potential at X. there is expansion from A to B so W is negative. the answer is option A.r . The net work done by the gas is the area of the rectangle WXYZ and it is 600 J. the KE would be different even if the velocity is the same. then ΦY would be -4 kJ kg-1. the KE is zero. It is positive because the work done through expansion process from W to X is larger than the work done through compression from Y to Z. the work done by gas should be negative. KE = ½mv2) so if the mass is different. and at t = 0° or 273 K. GM according to the formula. afterall. the graphs that shows a direct relationship between p and T is A or B. critical damping. hence. With reference to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics. C Kinetic energy depends also on mass (ie. a = -ω2x and a is max. and p α T. which means Q must be positive. the effect took place so fast that the passenger hardly noticed it. Work done on gas refers to a compression. Thus. Φ = . hence. indicating that heat is supplied to the gas. when x is max. (Note that each particle vibrates vertically in SHM) 14 15 17 18 19 D Critical damping requires the object to return to equilibrium immediately and in the case of option D. S is a point of maximum displacement. Also. 16 D U = Q + W. A Since pV = nRT. D Option A => Option B => Option C => Option D => speed at P is zero as it is a turning point for particle displacement at Q is zero only at that instant. SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . work done by gas from Y to Z = -300 J. = -8 kJ kg-1. both V and n as well as R are constants. thus. the temperature at both A and B are similar. and the area under YZ is 300 J. it is a compression. not always.

dsinθ = nλ. so the total number is 4+1+4=9 A The path difference between S1X and S2X is 1 m or 2λ. or dx .050 ε2 P= = 4. Hence. meaning they are in anti-phase. A v2 Bev = m r => Be = mv r => Be = mrω r => Be 2π =ω= T m 24 2πm Hence. but for nmax. Now trace the current round the circuit in the other direction and you will realise that the force is also acting downwards.8806 x 10-9 W R 21 22 23 C To do this question. If the two sources are in phase. B The diameter of the kink is 1. the outcome is destructive interference. the two sources have a phase difference of π radians. sinθ = 1 0. the maximum on either side. its gradient there would be zero and the electric field there would be zero. the path difference is in the form of nλ so it would be constructive interference. hence. SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . T = Be and independent of velocity.0075 m. trace on the diagram the path of the current in one cycle and then using Fleming’s LHR. NBA (1)(2. hence. n must be an integer so nmax = 4.8369 x 10-5 t 0.015 m.545.001 400 d nmax = λ = 550 x 10-9 = 4. the radius is 0.5 20 C Let the maximum number of bright fringe on either side be nmax. In this case. But the total number of bright fringes that can be observed includes the central bright fringe and all the fringes on the other side. if the potential around the point is constant. figure out that the magnetic force acting on P is downwards.5 x 10-2)(π0. 25 C dV Electric field at a point is its potential gradient at that point.00752) ε= = = 8.5 cm or 0.

5 .6 26 B Bx B P By B = B-field due to wire X acting on point P Bx = horizontal component of B-field By = vertical component of B-field Bx is parallel to the direction of the current on wire Y. 2 µC P X . The magnitudes of EQY and EPY would be the same since Y is equidistant from P and Q. 27 B Q1Q2 F = 4πε r2 => o 28 1 F α r2 => F' r 2 F = (r' ) => 1 F = (2 )2(1. Option B => If another resistor. is connected in parallel to AC. Since VCD = 0. the resultant resistance is 0.462 . Option D => This statement contradicts the factual statement in option C. Option C => RAD is indeed 1 . so there is no force on P due to Bx. the force is into the page.2 µC Q EQY Y EPY Also. 2µ -2µ Potential at a point due to P = VP = 4πε r . IBC = 0. VQ = 4πε r o o VTotal = VP + VQ is always zero because rPX = rQX and rPY = rQY. 29 D Option A => RBC is indeed 0. Hence. Note that resistor between B and C serves no purpose as no current will go through there because the potential at B and C are equal.375 N A Electric field always points from higher to lower potential. we can see that the vertical components of the electric fields at Y would cancel out. EPX and EXQ are both to the right. hence. leaving only the horizontal components pointing to the right. by Fleming’s LHR.5) = 0. say 1 . The magnetic force on P is contributed by By (downwards) and IY (to the right). SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . Also.

consider that the atom is raised to the -5. C This is a reiteration of this fact which many students got wrong in BT2. R= = 31 B Flux linkage is the main function of the soft-iron core. so the ‘all-or-nothingrule does not apply.4 x 10-19 J level.4 x 10-19 J level. Hence. 37 SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions √ [Turn Over .4 x 10-19 J level or the -2.4 x 10-19 J – (-21.0 x 10-19 J . the ke transferred to the free electron is 20. π4 Since L and d are both doubled.16. 20. C For steady (dc) current : ρL A 32 P = I2R Io 2R For alternating current : P=( ) 2 4 Equating them : Io = √8 I = 2√2 I B This is one of the four observations of the Photoelectric Effect Experiement. B The probability of the electron tunnelling the barrier depends on the transmission coefficient.4 x 10-19 J is being absorbed by the atom.8 x 10-19 J) = 16.6 x 10-19 J 36 D It is a fact that heating and cutting is usually takes place at the energy level of the infrared region. resistance is halved. L 8π 2 m(U − E) h2 Hence. and current is doubled. 33 34 and k = 35 B It is an electron (not photon) incident on the gas atom. T = exp(-2kd).7 30 B ρL L Hence.4 x 10-19 J level. If it is raised to the -2. Hence. R α d2 d2 . which means that -5. which is not one of the four answer options given. where d = barrier thickness. for X=> T α exp(-√(5E – E) L) = exp(-2EL) for Y=> T α exp(-√(17E – E) 2L) = exp(-8EL) for Z=> T α exp(-√(2E – E) 3L) = exp(-3EL) Thus. X has the greatest T value (transmission coefficient) followed by Z and then Y.6 x 10-19 J.0 Xx 10-19 J of mechanical energy can raise the atom to the -5. the remaining energy which becomes the kinetic energy is 0.4 x 10-19 J = 3.

39 A Equation Binding Energy : : 1 143 90 1 U+ 0n 55 Cs + 37 Rb + 3 0 n 235(7. as the holes in the p-type semi-conductor migrate to the positive terminal of the battery. Hence.502 MeV 235 92 40 B After 16 years. N = No 31250 = 500000 1 = 16 1 (2 )4 = n = 1 (2 )n 1 (2 )n 1 (2 )n 1 (2 )n 4 Therefore. t1/2 = 4 yrs After 12 years.8 38 C During reverse bias condition of a p-n junction. the p-type semiconductor becomes more (rather than less) negative. N = No M 500000 = M 500000 = M = 1 (2 )n 1 (2 )12/4 1 (2 )3 62500 t / years 0 4 8 12 16 N 500000 250000 125000 62500 31250 SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . statement A is false.6) + 0 + 195 = 143X + 90X + 0 X = 8. The depletion region widens. 16 years is 4 half-lives.

481 J = −12.00 × 9.500 sin 40° + 5.The body travels at a constant speed.00 × 9. there is a large negative force experienced by the body before it remains at rest with zero resultant force.500 sin50°) = −12.65 m s-1 (3 sig fig) SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over .so zero subsequent acceleration {A common wrong example is a body/car accelerating and suddenly stopped by an obstacle. • give a sensible example which illustrates how the graph can arise} Graph A : . . Due to its large mass. It is difficult for anybody to maintain a trolley at constant speed or acceleration.example : ball bouncing horizontally against wall / ball hit by racquet .500 x 3.00 1 2 2 (2. The lower speed after the collision shows that KE is lost.} Graph B : .481 (b) x2 v = 1.00 + 5. students must: • explain what is happening.example taking foot off car accelerator/ceasing to pedal bicycle .constant force being applied drops to zero suddenly. .acceleration going from zero to a high value.00) v = 9. {A poor example: a car moving in one direction and suddenly turn around and move in the opposite direction. In this case.} Graph C : . a car cannot possibly achieve such a stunt in an extremely short time. .81× 0.81× ( −0.example : dropping an object from rest .481 – 0.This occurs when there is a collision. suddenly reverses and travels with a lower constant speed in the opposite direction.9 Paper 2 : { } Tutor’s comments/Common Mistakes Section A 1 {Generally.acceleration changes suddenly as the force holding the object in place is removed {A poor example: a boy pushing a supermarket trolley at constant speed and suddenly push it with a constant acceleration.5 J (3 sig fig) Loss in GPE = Gain in KE + Work done against friction 1 2 2 mv = 12.} 2 (a) ∆GPE = mA g ( ∆hA ) + mB g ( ∆hB ) = 2.

00)(6. Ep should curve in the way shown above.10 { Alternatively : ΣF = ma => 5gsin50° .0 W f (∝ t2) Ep 0 Time 1 1 { Ek = 2 mv2 = 2 m (u + at)2 = 2 m (0 + at)2 = 2 ma2t2 ⇒ Ek ∝ t2.709 m s-2 2 2 v = u + 2as => v2 = 02 + 2(2. The question should have defined W f as work done against frictional force to obtain a positive work done. So. The three graphs should add up to 12.65 m s-1 } (c) Energy / J 12.59 N Part of the gravitational force on the mass supplies the centripetal force for the mass to move in circular motion.} 3 (a) (i) dθ 2π ω = dt = 24 x 60 x 60 = 7. • No (normal) reaction force experienced by the astronaut.5 J.3 x 2 = (5 + 2)a a = 2.} SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . {Both astronaut and spacecraft are falling at the same rate towards the centre of the Earth and hence.27x10-5)2 = 19. students were not penalized for drawing a (. 1 1 1 1 1 (ii) (iii) (b) • Astronaut and spacecraft are both accelerating at the same value towards the Earth.kt2) graph as the question mentioned work done by frictional force.2gsin40° .37x106)(7. are not pushing against each other. W f = F x d = F x (ut + 2 at2) = F x (0 + 2 at2) = 2 Fat2 ⇒ Wf ∝ t2.709)s v = 1.66 – (2. Hence.5 9.27 x 10-5 rad s-1 (Gravi force) – (Tension) = m r ω2 Tension = 19.5 Ek (∝ t2) 3.

11 4 (a) The magnetic flux density is defined as the force experienced by a conductor of unit length and carrying unit current. In this case. placed at right angles to the magnetic field.30 = 5330 T (b) (iii) Advantage: no wear and tear due to moving parts. (i) (ii) pointing upwards F = BIL 16000 B = 10 x 0.} Disadvantage: high magnetic field is required {“High current needed” is not a good answer as 10 A is not considered large for such a huge vehicle. Students should at least state why it is environmentally friendly such as no fossil fuel is needed and therefore no emission of harmful gases. The energy lost is not recovered by the system. one cycle of SHM corresponds to one cycle of the graph. the amplitude decreases with time. (ii) Changing direction: As the south pole approaches. When the South pole withdraws from the coil. the induced current produced in the coil flows in such a way that a repulsive force is produce. The induced current flowing in the coil will generate heat in the coil. low noise {Two-word answer such as “environmentally friendly” will not be accepted. the induced current flows in the opposite direction so as to produce an attractive force. students could have mentioned that it is an inefficient vehicle compared to propeller-powered crafts. SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . Hence.} (c) (i) y f(x)=5*sin(2*x)*exp(-x/5) x Changing directions Decreasing magnitude The graph above assumes that only the South-pole oscillates in and out of the loop. In fact.

} 5 (a) A.C. Vload = 80 kW. Pc 250 kW = IcVload + Ic2Rc = Ic (80 x 103) + Ic2(6 x 103) Solving.1 x 105 W . if it interpreted that the whole magnet goes right through the loop. (ii) (iii) Ic = 2.612 x 6 x 103 = 41 x 103 W {or. can be easily stepped up or down using a transformer {Some students only mention “stepped-up”.61 A By principle of conservation of energy/power. (i) Given: Rc = 6 k .Ploss = 250 kW – Ans in (iii) } (iv) Power delivered to load { or. It is important to mention “stepped-down” as well as a. one cycle of SHM corresponds to 2 cycles of the graph.} To reduce power loss as the transmission current is reduced. Total voltage drop across cables = Ic Rc = 2. = Ic x Ans in (ii)} = Ic x Vload = 2.12 {However. Power delivered = 250 kW To show: Ic = 2. can be stepped-down to desired values. then the graph may look like the one shown below.61 x 80 x 103 = 2. Pgen = Power Output + Power Loss in cables.7 kV Power dissipated in cables = Ic2 Rc = 2. I t In this second case.61 x 6 x 103 = 15. = Pgen SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over .c.61A (b) (c) ie.

} (ii) GMm 2 r2 = m r ω 2π GM = r3 ( T )2 4π2r3 T2 = GM SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . These photons will pass through the insulator without being absorbed. If fact. negatively charged. The valence band is the highest energy band that is completely populated (by electrons).} 7 (a) (i) F= GMm r2 Or F=- GMm r2 where F is the gravitational force M and m are two point masses r is the separation between the point masses {Common error: not realizing that M and m should be point masses. Photons of all visible light wavelengths have sufficient energy to excite an electron in the conduction band to a higher energy state. (i) The energy gap between the valence and conduction band in an insulator may be greater than the photon energy of all the given wavelengths. both types are electrically neutral.13 6 (a) The conduction band is the lowest energy band that is empty or partially filled when the atoms are unexcited. students should avoid using positive or negative ion sites of a p-n junction to distinguish the two types of semiconductors. Furthermore. The majority charge carriers in a p-type semiconductors are holes while the majority charge carriers in a n-type semiconductors are electrons. Photons are re-emitted from the surface as reflected light. Energy levels of electrons in the conduction band are finely spaced. {It is wrong to say that p-type semiconductors are positively charged while n-type. It is also wrong to simply say that p-type has more holes while n-type has more electrons. (b) (ii) (c) The impurities in a p-type semiconductors are trivalent atoms while the impurities in a n-type semiconductors are pentavalent atoms.

530 10.7 11.22 0.00) • • Graph should show 5 plots Graph should show a straight line.248 -0.88 log10(r/m) 10. -1.05 9.77 0. 3.00) (7.27 8.63 8.1 1.37 2.45. passing almost perfectly through all the 5 plots SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over .38 1.80.295 Mean distance from centre of Jupiter r/109m 23.422 0.88 0.14 (b) (i) moon Sinope Leda Callisto Lo Metis period T/days 758 239 16.128 log10(T/days) 2.7 1.11 (ii) (10.

00 .5 is obtained (d) When T = 7.80 = 1.85 (e) • No. From the graph.43 to 1.45 .59) 4π2r3 T2 = GM 4π2 2 lg T = lg ( GM ) + 3 lg r 4π2 3 lg T = ½ lg( GM ) + 2 lg r (ii) Show: Conclusion: Data support the relation because • straight line graph with non-zero intercept is obtained • gradient of about 1.15 (c) (i) gradient 3. lg r = 9. because a different planet has a different mass M.16 days. • Although the gradient remains the same.05 x 109 m (accept 0.(-1.95 – 1. the y-intercept changes. SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over .00) = 10.51 (accept 1.7.16 x 109 m) lg T = 0.02 r = 1.

16 8 Suggested diagram: glass pressure chamber vacuum pump tap spark gap. or Keep type of gas constant (if specifically mentioned) {Temp. and taking the average Total Marks 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 mark each.} Keep pressure constant (or set p to a certain value). Repeat experiment several times using different pressure Analysis: Plot a graph of lg V against lg p. vary voltage V slowly until sparks occur. need not be kept constant as the pressure gauge will always give the pressure within the chamber. Good design/experimental details 1) perform experiment in the dark {hence enhance visibility of spark} 2) increase V slowly from an initial low value until sparks are seen 3) describe a suitable pressure chamber (eg air-tight container with {toughened} glass sides) 4) repeat reading for minimum voltage and take the average 5) use goggles to view spark {possible danger of uv radiation} 6) use safety screen around pressure chamber {in case of explosion/implosion} 7) use rubber gloves when touching the circuit 8) repeat measurement of voltage V. d V pressure gauge digital voltmeter variable high voltage suppy Diagram and Procedure Labelled diagram of workable (with high voltage source) experimental arrangement {Note : Battery as voltage source is not acceptable} Measure pressure p using pressure gauge (instrument shown on diagram is acceptable) Measure high voltage V using a voltmeter/CRO (instrument shown on diagram is acceptable) Increase/decrease pressure using {air/vacuum} pump Keep air gap constant. with or without temperature change. 4 12 SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . max.

238 Thus Mass of sample required = N = 6.0 x 10-13 = 2.17 Paper 3 : Key: ( ) optional but good to include. Thus 1 A∝ . M ∝ No of nuclei in sample. Once inside the body. Mr ∝ NA ) N Mr 1.040 kg [1] {Molar mass Mr = mass number expressed in g = 238 g =0. N (iv) Rocket may burn up in atmosphere during launch or re-entry [ 1 ] The plutonium would be vaporized. [1] Thus the number of active Iodine nuclei decreases much more slowly that that of caesium.238 kg} Number of nuclei required.693 = 88 x 365 x 24 x 3600 = 2. in the 2 samples are about the same.02 x 1023 A = 0. t1 2 Since half-life of Iodine >> that of caesium. Given that both their initial activities are high enough to be hazardous.6 x 10-19 J = 8. the initial activity of Iodine << that of caesium. α-particles become hazardous.} (b) A= λN = Nln 2 t1 2 Since masses are similar & the mass no are also approx the same.0 x 1023 [1] ( Since sample mass.5 x 10 = 2.0 x 10-13 J [1] (Power of α beam = No of α emitted per sec x Energy of each α = Activity x Energy of each α) 20 Thus activity required = 8.0 x 1023 x 0. {before the no of active nuclei decreases to a safe level} and hence should be stored {in a secure place} for a longer time {before it can be allowed to be released into the open. the Iodine waste would remain hazardous for a longer time. it could then be ingested by people.5 x 1013 Bq [1] (ii) (i) Using λ = ln 2 t1 2 0.} [1] [Turn Over SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions . N Molar mass. 1 (a) (i) { } Tutor’s comments Energy of each alpha particle in joules = 5 x 106 x 1.5 x 10-10 s-1 = [1] A [1] λ 13 2. the number of active nuclei .5 x 10-10 = 1. N. [1] {Note that α-particles are not hazardous to us when they are outside our body as they cannot penetrate through our skin.

at the fundamental frequency.02 0. [1] {A diagram to illustrate will be helpful} By generating sound at these resonant frequencies and with similar amplitudes [1] but 180º out of phase. 236×2 = 472 Hz and 236×3 = 708 Hz.18 2 (a) (i) Amplitude = 0. [1] destructive interference occurs which causes both sound waves to cancel each other out.70 {A diagram to illustrate will be helpful} 2 v 330 [1] f = = = 236 Hz λ 1. λ = 0.4 × 10 −19 2 1 m(2π × 500 × 2 × 10 −11 )2 = 2.02 (b) Since the Vuvuzela can be considered as a tube with two open ends.4 × 10 −19 2 m = 1.22 × 10 −4 kg (3 sig fig) [1] [ 1 ] for correct v0 [1] (iii) [ 1 ] for elliptical shape {Some are still confused about the v-x & v-t graphs} [ 1 ] for value of amplitude −0.02 nm = 2×10-11 m Frequency = 1/T = 500 Hz Max KE = 1 mv 0 2 = 2. ie.4 × 10 −19 2 [1] [1] (ii) 1 m(2π fx0 )2 = 2. {A lot of explanations lacked the key ideas!} SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over .4 The next 2 harmonics will be integer multiples of the fundamental frequency.

The current is thus reduced to zero. t N Thus when f increases at constant power. This force increases with the negative pd.8 mW. [1] The decreasing current in the region of negative pd is due to a decelerating force opposing the motion of the electrons (which have a range of ke) towards the collector. t I -Vs 0 V ext (d) (i) Given: Photon energy = 4. current must decrease. I = 0.7 x 1. Vs must increase in magnitude [1] N )hf .6 x 10-19 = 7.52 x 10-19 J [1] Since power P = ( N ) hf .19 3 (a) (For that given light intensity.8 x 10-3 P N = = energy of photon t hf = 5. this opposing force increases to a point where even the fastest electron is prevented from reaching the collector. Power = 3. when f increases for a given metal (ie constant φ ). [1] t Since eVs = hf .7 eV. energy of each photon = 4. [1] (b) (c) {Power P = ( N = rate of incidence of photons. → must decrease.φ . t N Since current is proportional to .1 x 1015 s-1 [1] SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . thus increasing to higher positive V values will make no difference to the saturation current.) all electrons ejected are already collected by the collector electrode even for a low positive voltage {ie none has managed to “escape”}.8 x 10-8 A Thus. t Rate of incidence of photons 3. [1] As the pd becomes more and more negative.

[2] {One mark per underlined.0 + 2. This energy loss prevents it from overcoming the work function & so such electrons are absorbed by the metal. On the way out to the metal surface.} [1] [1] hence. maximum two marks} 4 (a) (i) (Current in the 2 identical lamps {ie same resistance} in parallel must be the same.m.50 = 1.0 V – 1.00 = 0. ) Current through A1.0 = ( 8.40 V} but the Examiner requires the answer in mV! You need to be mindful of the specified unit of all calculated quantities and abide by it!} SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . Not every photon would hit an electron. by Kirchoff’s 1st law. t = e { I = t = ( )e } t 0. ie = 0. = PD across L1 + Itot r PD across L1 = 2. an electron may lose its kinetic energy to ions and other electrons it encounters along the way. most are reflected by the metal or miss hitting any electron.50 + 0.2) = 1.40 V = 400 mV {Some candidates gave their answer in terms of volts {0.f.0 x 1010 s-1 (ii) [1] {Quite a number of candidates are confused about the rate of incidence of photons & the rate of emission of electrons} (ii) {Why rate of electron emission<<rate of incidence of photons} 1.80 V (ii) Connecting L3 in parallel to L1 and L2 will lower the effective/total resistance of the whole circuit {Some thought there will be no change. 2.5 A.0(0.20 n I Q n Max rate of electron emission. Thus. Itot = 0. total current (A1) increases {Itot = Emf/Effective resistance [1] (b) (i) VAB = R AB x PD across Total R {potential divider} Total R [1] 2.0 A [1] Applying Kirchoff’s 2nd law to the left loop. E.8 x 10-8 = 1.0 ) 2.6 x 10-19 = 5.

) it is desirable that the balance length be long rather than short.} 5 (a) (i) Newton’s 1st law: Every object continues in its state of rest or uniform motion/const speed in a straight line. [1] {Most did not know how this law leads to the concept of force} (ii) Mathematically. e. thus. [1] [1] [1] {Changing the cell Y to one of smaller emf is considered an invalid (ie illegal) modification due to the “context of the question”.21 (ii) At balance. of Cell Y = PD across balance length R = JB x VAB R AB ρl L = JB x VAB {since R= A .m. unless a net (external) force acts on it to change that state. which is to determine the emf of cell Y. 1 N = k x 1 kg x 1 m s-2 ⇒ k=1 [1] SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . many incorrectly thought that the balance length is given by AJ.f.f. [1] The law implies that a “force” is that quantity which is required to change the velocity of an object. use a thicker wire of the same resistivity { R= A } • Replace Cell X with one of lower e. resultant force. R ∝ length} L AB (100 − 30) = x 400 mV 100 = 280 mV [2] (iii) {If contact J is closer to A.) Since the definition of the newton was chosen as “the force which causes a mass of 1 kg to have an acceleration of 1 m s-2. F ∝ d ( mv ) d ( mv ) =k [1] dt dt (where the value of the proportionality const k would depend on the definition of the unit of force.m.0 Ω resistor with one of higher resistance. ⇒ balance length is to be made longer. Emf of cell under test (ie Y) = PD per unit length of potentiometer wire x Balance length). Additional Question: Suggest why in an expt to determine the emf of an unknown source (like Y in this case. when it is actually JB. • Replace the 8.} (Since. to increase the balance length. at balance. we can: • Replace the resistance wire with one of lower resistivity. ρl or.

the sum of all the anticlockwise moments about any point must be equal to the sum of all the clockwise moments about that same point. where mα = 4u = 4x1. the Earth must accelerate upwards towards the falling stone.2 x10 −13 4 x1. its downward momentum is increasing from an initial value of zero momentum.1 x 105 m s-1 [1] (d) (i) (ii) Centre of gravity of an object is defined as that point through which the entire weight of the object may be considered to act.2 x 10-13 J. & since total momentum before decay = zero (as Ra is initially stationary). 0 = mαvα .67 x 107 = 1.2 x 10-13 J Thus ½ mαvα2 = 9.mRnvRn {scalar form of the principle} [1] Thus. vRn mαvα = m Rn (4u)(1. [1] Principle of Moments: For a body to be in (rotational) equilibrium. ie = 0.22 dv F = 1 d (mv) = m dt (since m = const) dt = ma (shown) Thus.7 x 107 m s-1 (shown) (iii) Since no net force is involved in radioactive decay. [1] (b) As the stone accelerates towards Earth.66x10-27 kg [1] → Vα = 2 x9.66 x10 − 27 [1] = 1. “For a body to be in equilibrium” must not be omitted!} SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . [1] Thus. [1] {The condition. [ 1 ] {Assume air resistance is negligible} (c) (i) 224 88 Ra → 220 86 4 Rn + 2 He [1] (ii) Given KEα = 9. [1] by principle of conservation of momentum.7 x 107) = 220u = 3. [1] Since there is no net force acting on the system of stone & Earth. the total momentum of the stone-Earth system must remain unchanged.

e. [1] the corresponding minimum absolute temperature is also 0.e. internal energy is increasing ALL THE TIME but what is happening to the ke & the pe. referred to as the absolute zero {or. + k.9 x 103 N m (shown) (iv) Applying the principle of moments about the base. The above facts & the deduction of the phase at the various sections of the temp-time graph were not well understood by the majority. of molecules [ 1 ] For ideal gas. recall that according to Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle.23 (iii) Moment exerted by the weight about the base = mg x (2. the molecules cannot be at rest}. its internal energy rises} k.3cos450 = 2.0 sin350) = 2. the molecular pe = 0 [1] Since ke of molecules ∝ its absolute temperature. {½ m <c2> ∝ T}. with no force of attraction between molecules. of molecules is 0 {assuming classical physics is applicable. and thus p.3cos450) = 180 x 9.} (i) AB: {As temp of the pure liquid H2O rises from room temp to its bp.e. T x (4.9 x 103 3 → T = 1.3 x 103 N [1] [1] [1] [1] 6 (a) (i) In general.e. cannot be negative}.81 x 2. internal energy ∝ absolute temperature {ie in Kelvin} [1] (ii) Since the minimum k. internal energy = sum of p. [1] (b) {“heated steadily” means thermal energy is being supplied at const rate.e. increases with the temperature [1] separation. bearing in mind that U = ke + pe for this non-ideal gas system? Recall that pe depends on the intermolecular force which increases as the intermolecular separation increases while ke ∝ T. remains constant SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over .26 x 10 = 1.

any new symbol introduced by the candidate .e. increases with temperature [1] As separation remains constant. and thus p. in this case .} (ii) {This question proved to be one of the most challenging questions because candidates did not know how to use the data to verify the following 2 characteristics of an exponentially decreasing function. ie volume remains const} k. Alternatively. then the pe can be said to be increasing very slightly. ln p = lnp0 – kh.e increases greatly as volume expands during vaporisation [1] CD: {Temp of the gas increases within the sealed container. that the time for each value to decrease to half its value is the same {or approx equal} (iii) (c) (i) SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over . remains constant as temperature is constant [1] separation.} [1] (ii) BC: {Thermal energy supplied is being used to vaporise the liquid to gaseous state} k. so candidates could tabulate at least 4 sets of lnp & h values to verify this. pe remains constant [1] m Amount of gas in moles.m. where m is the mass of the gas {In a question which requires candidates to “show”. n = M . Recall the radioactive decay law} The exponential function can be represented by: p = p0e-kh where k & p0 are positive constants. Thus.MUST be defined. ρRT = M [1] {Note that the symbol M should have been defined as the mass PER mole of gas.24 {If you consider the expansion as not negligible. using the concept of half-life. show for 3 values of p. A graph of lnp vs h must then be a straight line with a negative gradient.e.} m ( V )RT nRT m p= V = M [1] Density ρ = V .

455 kg m-3 p ρT = constant 3 x 104 ρ x 250 0.3 x 293 At summit.25 (iii) p at 8 km = 3.44 x 107 m s-1 [1] [1] (iii) (Ave vert) Acceleration = Vy − 0 t = 4.02 x 103 = 40 x 10-3x 2.457 kg m-3 [1] [1] [1] [1] 105 = 1. ρ = {Some converted the temp in 0C to Kelvin incorrectly} 7 (a) (i) (ii) Time taken tan 30º vy = = = = 80 x 10-3 2.50 x 107 Vy 2.3 = 0.03 x 10-3 T [1] (ii) SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions [Turn Over .51 x 1015 m s-2 {Quite a number used vy2 = uy2 + 2aysy .} (iv) a = eE m (assuming mg<<qE for electron here) = V (b) (i) = e(V/d) m adm = 1.2 x 10-9 s { tan θ = vy vx } [1] [1] tan 30º x 2.5 x 107 = 1.5 x 107 1.5 ± 0. T & M are constants} ρ (iv) = 0.35 x 1.02 x 103 V e [1] [1] Pointing perpendicularly into the page [1] {Apply FLH rule with FB (thumb) pointing vertically down the page & current finger pointing from right to left horizontally} electric force = magnetic force (since there is no deflection) ie eE = Bev {v= velocity as electron as it enters plates}[ 1 ] E V B = = v dv 1. Substituting ½ x40x10-3 m for sy is incorrect as Sy can’t be assumed to be = ½ the plate separation.50 x 107 = 3.3 x 104 Pa p ρ po = ρo {since R.

138 m [1] [1] No change to speed because the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the velocity {recall FLH rule} and hence cannot change the speed/ cannot do any work on the electron. (d) (i) (ii) SAJC 2010 Prelims/9646 Solutions End[Turn Over of Solutions . ie. FB will be vertically down the page. by FLH rule. there must not be a hint of a linear path within the magnetic field! {Why is it incorrect to use λ = All diagrams used to illustrate a key point must not be ambiguous. [1] {a “wider pattern” means that θ in dsin θ = nλ is larger} Using electrons with longer wavelength.99 x 10-10 m [1] [1] (c) (i) h here as some did? } mv {Since the electron is moving horizontally from left to right. [2] {In all such questions. [1] The electron wave diffracts upon passing the micro-grid [1] The diffracted waves interfere/superpose with each other to produce an interference pattern. the gravitational force is typically considered negligible} Each electron behave like a wave. or. by reducing the accelerating potential difference that is applied to the electrons.} Thus λ ½ mv2 = = hc λ 6. The arc must begin right from the point of entry into the B field.26 (iii) {The most energetic X-ray photon is produced when a bombarding electron loses ALL its KE in one single collision with the tungsten target. causing a circular path as shown.} [1] (ii) Bevsin900 r (iii) = mv2 = r 0. [1] h Since λ = an alternative answer is: reduce the speed of the mv electrons v.

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