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Phagocytosis The pseupodia are also used for feeding. Amoeba sp. engulfs food by phagocytosis. Amoeba sp.

is a holozoic organisms which feed on microscopic organisms such as bacteria. The presence of food causes Amoeba advance by extending its pseupodia. The pseupodia encloses the food which is then packaged in food vacoule. The food vacoule fuses with lysosome and the food is digested by hydrolitic enzyme called lysozyme. The resulting nutrients are absorbed into the cytoplasm.

Simple Diffusion Net movement of molecules or ions from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration. Going down concentration gradient until an equilibrium is achieved. The particles are distibuted equally throughout the system. The concentration gradient provides energy to move the molecules into and out of the cells.

Osmosis: the diffusion of water Net movement of freely moving water from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration through a semi-permeable membrane.// Net movement of water from region higher water concentration to a region of lower water concentration.// Net movement of water from hypotonic region to hypertonic region.

Facilitated Diffusion For water soluble molecules//molecules which are not soluble in lipids (ions, nucleic acid, amino acids and glucose) Carrier Protein The carrier protein function by binding to the molecules to pass through the plasma membrane. The molecules move to the carrier protein which is specific for the molecules. Molecules bind with the carrier protein at the active site. Carrier protein changes its shape and pass the molecules through the plasma membrane.

Active Transport Movement of molecules or ions against the concentration gradient across the plasma membranes. Requires both carrier proteins and expenditure of energy. Energy from ATP (adenosine triphosphate) that is generated during respiration in the mitochondria. Has active sites which bind to the ATP molecules. The carrier protein changes shape when the phosphate group from the ATP molecule binds to it Then the solute is moved across the plasma membrane.

Animal and plant cells in an isotonic solution Solution in which the solute concentration is equal to that of the cytoplasmic fluid. Water diffuse in and out of the cells at equal rate. No net movement of water. Cells retain its normal shape.

Hypotonic solution Concentration of solute outside a cell is lower than concentration of solute inside cell. Animal cells Is said to be hypotonic solution. Cell placed in hypotonic solution. Net movement of water into the cells via osmosis. Cell swells up. When extremely hypotonic, cells will eventually burst Cannot withstand the osmotic pressure because of thin plasma membrane. E.g : red blood cells (haemolysis) Plant cells Do not burst Rigid cell wall. Water diffuse into vacoule of cell via osmosis. Cell swells up and becomes turgid Tugor pressure in plant. Supporting the plant.

Hypertonic solution The concentration of solute in the solution is higher than the concentration of solutes within the cell. Animal cells Net movement of water from inside to the outside of the cell. Cells shrink//shrivel, internal pressure decrease. Red blood cells immersed in hypertonic solution , the cell shrink and the plasma membrane crinkles up. Cell undergone crenation. Plant cells Water diffuse out via osmosis. Vacoule and cytoplasm shrink and plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall. This process called plasmolysis. Cell becomes flaccid.

Preservation of fish and vegetables Fish Fish is covered by salt solution which is hypertonic to body fluid/cell/tissue. More water diffuses out from tissues into salt solution via osmosis. Fish becomes hydrated. Prevents bacterial growth in fish tissues. Bacteria cells are also plasmolysed//crenated. Prevent decay/last longer.

Vegetables Vegetables are immersed in vinegar which is acidic//has low pH. Vinegar diffuses into vegetables tissues. Vegetables tissues becomes acidic//has low pH. Prevents bacterial growth in tissues. Preventing decay//last longer.

Differences between facilitated diffusion and active transport Facilitated diffusion Down the concentration gradient Molecules moves from higher concentration to lower concentration Molecules move in both direction across the plasma membrane Molecules can move through pore protein or/and carrier protein No ATP/energy used Molecule can move through pore protein without binding Molecules need carrier protein and pore protein to help the movement Could achieve equilibrium Not depended in cellular respiration Active transport Against the concentration gradient Molecules moves from lower concentration to higher concentration Molecules move in one direction across the plasma membrane Molecules move through carrier protein But ATP/energy is used Energy needed for binding/bind with active site Need carrier protein only to help movement Will not achieve equilibrium/result in accumulation Depend on cellular respiration/energy

D1 E1 D2 E2 D3 E3 D4 D5 D6

Similarities between facilitated diffusion and active transport Both (ways of transportation)need carrier protein. To bind with molecules/ion/substrate/examples Both transport specific molecules only. Because the carrier protein have specific site to certain molecules. Both processes occur in living cell. Because carrier protein need/can change shape to allow substances to move across.

The Importance of water Water is a polar molecule and act as a solvent. Transport medium in the blood, lymphatic, excretory and digestive systems and in the vascular tissues of plant. As a medium for biochemiocal reaction. Helps in lubricant. Regulates body temperature.

General characteristics of enzymes Alter or speed up the rates of chemical reactions Remain unchanged at the end of reaction. Do not destroyed by reactions they catalysed. Have specific sites called active site to bind with specific substrates. Needed in small quantities. Reaction are reversible Can be slowed down or stopped by inhibitors. E.g: lead and mercury Require helper molecules, called cofactors. Inorganic cofactor : ferum, copper Organic cofactor: water soluble vitamins, B vitamins . 3

Extracellular enzyme Extracellular enzyme is produced in a cell, then packed and secreted from the cell. It catalyses its reaction outside the cell. An example is amylase. The instruction for making the extracellular enzyme is transcribed from the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) to ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus. The RNA then leaves the nucleus through the nuclear pore and attaches itself to the ribosome located on the endoplasmic reticulum. When the synthesis of the enzymes is completed it is encapsulated in a transport vesicle which fuses with the golgi body. In the golgi body, the enzyme is further modified before being packed in a secretory vesicle. The secretory vesicle transports the enzyme to the plasma membrane, where it fuses with it and the enzyme is released outside the cell. Prophase Chromosomes in the nucleus condense. Chromosomes appear shorter and thicker. Consist of sister chromatid joined at the centromere. Spindle fibres begin to form. Centrioles migrate at opposite poles. At the end, nucleolus disappears and the nuclear membrane disintegrates.

Lock and key hypothesis The substrate molecule fits into the active site of the enzyme molecule. The substrate is the key that fits into the enzyme lock. Various types of bonds such as hydrogen and ionic bonds hold the substrate in the active site forming the enzymesubstrate complex. Once the complex is formed, the enzyme changes the substrate to its product. The product leaves the active site. The enzyme is not altered by the reaction and it can be reused.

Effects of temperature on enzyme activity At low temperature, reaction takes place slowly. As temperature increases, movement of substrate increase. Increase their chances of colliding with each other and with the active site of the enzymes. At optimum temperature, the reaction is at maximum rate. Beyond the optimum temperature, rate of reaction will not increase. Bonds that hold enzyme molecules begin to break. Actives sites destroyed. Enzyme denatured.

Metaphase Chromosomes align at the metaphase plate//equatorial plate//middle of the cell. Mitotic spindle are fully formed. Two sister chromatids are still attached to one another at the centromere. Ends when the centromere divides.

Anaphase Two sister chromatids separate at the centromere. Sister chromatids pulled apart at opposite poles. Chromatids are referred to as daughter chromosomes.

Telophase Chromosomes reach the opposite poles of the cell. Chromosomes uncoil and revert to their extended state(chromatin).

Cytokinesis Process of cytoplasmic division. Begins before nuclear division is completed. Actin filament formed contractile ring. Contracts and constrict pull aring of plasma membrane inwards. Groove of cleavage furrow pinches at the equator between two nuclei. Vesicles join to form a cell plate. Cell plate grows until it edges fuse with the plasma membrane of the cell. Cell divides. Cellulose are produced by the cell to strengthen the new cell walls. Tissue culture Small part of plant is cut. E.g : shoots, bud. The part is called explant. Enzymes are used to digest the cell walls of tissue. Cells are naked (protoplast). Explant/protoplast are steriled then placed in a glass container which contains a nutrient solution. Culture medium (glucose, amino acids). Apparatus must be steriled to make sure free from microorganisms (bacteria). pH and temperature must be at optimum level. Explant divides by mitosis. Develops into callus. Callus develops into somatic embryo (planlet). Then transferred to soil for growth.

Uncontrolled mitosis Cell divides through mitosis repeatedly without control. Produce cancerous cells. Cancer is a genetic disease caused by uncontrolled mitosis. Disruption of cell cycle. Cancerous cells divides freely and uncontrollably not according to the cell cycle. These cells compete with surrounding normal cells for energy and nutrients. Cancer cells formed tumour. Tumour invade and destroy neighbouring cells. Advantages of cloning Biotechnologists to multiply copies of useful genes or clones. Clones can be produced in a shorter time and in large numbers. Cloned plants, however, can produced flowers and fruits within a shorter period. Clones are better quality. Delayed ripening. Does not need polinating agents. Propagation can take place at any time.

Animal cloning Somatic cells (from the mammary gland cells) are removed and grown in a culture. Cells stop dividing and enter a non-diving phase. Unfertilised egg is obtained. The nucleus is sucked out, leaving the cytoplasm and organelles without any chromosomes. Electric pulse stimulates the fusion between the somatic cells and egg cell without nucleus. Cells divide repeatedly forming an embryo. The embryo is then implanted in a surrogate mother. The cloned sheep of the somatic cell donor is born.

Disadvantages of cloning Long-term side effects are not yet known. May undergo natural mutations. Disrupt the natural equilibrium of an ecosystem. Clones do not show any genetic variations. Has the same level of resistance towards certain disease. Certain transgenic crops contain genes that are resistant to herbicides. These genes may be transferred to weeds through viruses. These weeds would then become resistant to herbicides. Cloned animals has shorter lifespan.

Meiosis I 1. During prophase I, homologous chromosomes pair up (synapsis) and crossing over between non sister chromatids occurs. 2. During Metaphase I, homologous chromosomes align at the metaphase plate (equator, middle) of the cell. 3. During Anaphase I, homologous chromosomes separates and move to opposite poles. Sister chromatids are still attached together and move as a unit. 4. At the end of Telophase I, two haploid daughter cells are formed. Each daughter cell has only one of each type of chromosomes, either the paternal or maternal chromosomes.

Meiosis II 1. During Prophase II, synapsis of homologous chromosomes and crossing over between non-sister chromatids do not take place. 2. During Metaphase II, chromosomes consisting of two sister chromatids align at the metaphase plate (equator/middle) of cell. 3. During Anaphase II, sister chromatids separate, becoming daughter chromosomes that move to opposite poles. 4. At the end of Telophase II, four haploid daughter cells are formed. Each daughter cell has the same number of chromosomes as the haploid cell produced in Meiosis I, but each has only one of the sister chromatids.

Digestion in mouth Secretion of saliva by three pairs of salivary glands Saliva contains the enzyme salivary amylase Begins the hydrolysis of starch to maltose. Salivary amylase

Starch + water


Digestion in stomach Epithelial lining of the stomach contains gastric glands. These glands secrete gastric juice. Consists of mucus, HCL and enzyme pepsin and renin. HCL make the pH around 2.0. High acidity destroy bacteria. Acidity stop the activity of salivary amylase enzyme. pepsin

An additional digestive process occurs further along the alimentary canal to convert maltose to glucose. pH is maintained at 6.5-7.5


Protein + water

Renin coagulate milk by converting the soluble milk protein, caseinogen into soluble caesin. Stomach contents become a semi-fluid called chyme. Chyme gradually enter the duodenum.

Digestion in small intestine Duodenum received chyme from stomach and secretion from the gall bladder and pancreas. Starch, protein and lipids are digested. Bile which produced by the liver and stored in the gall bladder enter the duodenum via the bile duct. Bile helps neutralise the acidic chyme and optimise the pH for enzyme action in duodenum. Bile salts imulsify lipids, breaking them down into tiny droplets. Providing high TSA for digestion. Pancreas secrete pancreatic juice into duodenum via pancreatic duct. Pancreatic juice contains pancreatic amylase, trypsin and lipase. Pancreatic amylase complete the digestion of starch to maltose. Trypsin digests polypeptides into peptides. Lipase complete the digestion of lipid into fatty acid and glycerol. Glands in the ileum (small intestine) secrete intestinal juice which contain digestive enzyme needed to complete the digestion of peptides and disaccharides. Peptides digested by erepsin into amino acids. Maltose digested by maltase into glucose. Disaccharides digested by its own enzyme into monosaccharides and glucose.

Digestion of cellulose by ruminant Partially chewed food is passed to the rumen (largest compartment of the stomach). Cellulose is broken down by cellulase produced by bacteria. Part of the breakdown products are absobed by bacteria, the rest by the host. Food enters the reticulum. Cellulose undergoes further hydrolysis. The content of the reticulum, called the cud, is then regurgitated bit by bit into the mouth to be thoroughly chewed. Helps soften and break down cellulose, making it more accessible to further microbial action. The cud is reswallowed and moved to the omasum. Here, the large particles of food are broken down into smaller pieces by peristalsis. Water is removed from the cud. Food particles moved into obamasum, the true stomach of the ruminant. (e.g : cow). Gastric juice complete the digestion of protein and other food substances. The food then passes through the small intestine to be digested and absorbed in the normal way.

Digestion of cellulose by rodent Caecum and appendix are enlarged to store the cellulose-digesting bacteria. The breakdown products pass through the alimentary canal twice. The faeces in the first batch are usually produced at night. Faeces are then eaten again. To absorb the products of bacterial breakdown. The second batch of the faeces are harder and drier. Allows rodent (give example) to recover the nutrients initially lost with the faeces.

Digestion Protein - In stomach, pepsin breakdown protein into polypeptides. - HCL being secreted to provide acidic medium for the digestion to occur. - In duodenum, trypsin breakdown polypeptides into peptides. - In small intestine, arepsin break dwon peptides into amino acids. Fats - Bile salts breaking up fats into small fat droplets in the duodenum. - In duodenum/small intestine, lipase breaks lipids into fatty acids and glycerol. Carbohydrates - In mouth, salivary amylase hydrolyse starch into maltose. - In duodenum, pancreatic amylase hydrolyse starch into maltose. - In small intestine, maltase hydrolyse maltose into glucose.

Absorption of digested food Absorption of digested food occur in the ileum. Glucose/amino acids initially diffuse into blood capillaries. The remaining of the glucose/amino acids actively transport into blood capillaries. All blood capillaries converge into hepatic portal vein, which lead to the liver (and transport to all parts o fthe body). Glycerol and fatty acids diffuse to the epithelial cell which lining the ileum) and combine to form fat droplets. Fatty acids and glycerol then enter the lacteal (lymphatic system). Return back to the blood stream at left subclavian vein.

Assimilation of digested food Explain the assimilation of glucose and amino acid in body cells. Glucose is oxidised to produce energy, carbon dioxide and water by cellular respiration. Amino acid is used to synthesis protoplasm (the component of cell). By this way new cells will be synthesised causing growth. Amino acid also can be used to synthesis enzyme, hormone or antibody.

Formation faeces Faeces which contain dead cells that are shed from intestinal linings, toxic substances and bile pigments enter the colon by action of peristalsis. In colon, more water is absorbed. The undigested food residues harden to become faeces. Faeces contain undigestible residues that remain after the process of digestion and absorption of nutrients that take place in the small intestine.

Photosynthesis mechanism The formation of starch in plants is by the process ofphotosynthesis which occurs in chloroplasts. The two stages in photosynthesis are the light and dark reactions. Light reaction: P3:Takes place in grana. P4: Chlorophyll captures light energy which excites the electrons of chlorophyll molecules to higher energy levels. P5: In the excited state, the electrons can leave the chlorophyll molecules. P6: Light energy is also used to split water molecules into hydrogen ion (H+) and hydroxyl ions (OH-) (Photolysis of water). P7: The hydrogen ions then combine with the electrons released by chlorophyll to form hydrogen atoms.

Photosynthesis mechanism P8: The energy from the excited electrons is used to form energy-rich molecules of adenosine triphosphate /ATP. P9: Hydroxyl ion loses an electron to form a hydroxyl group. This electron is then received by chlorophyll. P10: The hydroxyl groups then combine to form water and gaseous oxygen. Dark Reaction: P11: Take place in stroma. P12: Do not require light energy. P13: The hydrogen atoms are used to fix carbon dioxide in a series of reactions catalysed by photosynthetic enzymes P14: and caused the reduction of carbon dioxide into glucose. P15: The glucose monomers then undergo condensation to form starch which is temporarily stored as starch grains in the chloroplasts.

Uses of enzyme (Chapter 4) Enzymes are used as biological detergents. Protease degrades coagulated proteins into soluble short-chain peptides. Lipase degrades fat or oil stains into soluble fatty acid and glycerol. Amylase degrades starch into soluble shorter-chain polysaccharides and sugars. Enzymes are used in the baking industry. Protease is used in the breakdown of proteins in flour for the production of biscuits. Amylase is used in the breakdown of some starch to glucose in flour for making white bread, buns and rolls. Enzymes are used in the medical field. Trypsin is used to remove blood clots and to clean wounds. Various other enzymes are used in biosensors. Enzymes are used in industries because: They are effective. They are cheap and easy to use. They can be re-used, thus only small amounts are needed. They don't require high temperature to work, thus this reduces fuel costs.


Aerobic respiration Continuous supply of oxygen. Glucose molecules are oxidised by oxygen. Complete breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen. A large amount of energy released. Carbon dioxide and water are produced as waste products. Most of the nergy released is used to synthesise adenosine triphosphate (ATP) from adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. ATP acts as instant energy source. ATP consists of phosphate bonds which can be easily broken down to release energy. Energy released


ADP + phosphate + energy

Anaerobic respiration in human muscle During a vigorous exercise (running), the breathing rate is increased. This is to supply more oxygen to the muscles for rapid muscular contraction. However, the supply of oxygen to muscles is still insufficient. and the muscles have to carry out anaerobic respiration to release energy. The glucose is converted into lactic acid, with only a limited amount of energy being produced. An oxygen debt builds up in the body, when no oxygen use in energy production. High level of lactic acid in the muscles cause them to ache. After running, the athlete breathes more rapidly and deeply than normal for twenty minutes. There is recovery period after 10 minutes until it reaches 20 minutes when oxygen is paid back during aerobic respiration. About 1/6 lactic acid is oxidized to carbon dioxide, water and energy.

Anaerobic respiration in yeast Yeast normally respires aerobically. Under anaerobic condition, yeast carry out anaerobic respiration. Produces ethanol. Process known as fermentation. Catalysed by the enzyme zymase. Ethanol produced can be used in making wine and beer. In bread making, the carbon dioxide released during fermentation of yeast causes the dough to rise.

Similarities between the sturucture of digestive and digestion process of ruminants and rodents S1 P1 P2 S2 P1 Both alimentary canal contains bacteria/protozoa To secrete extracellular enzyme//to digest To digest cellulose into glucose Both have large surface area To increase rate of diffusion //hydrolysed food


Differences between the sturucture of digestive and digestion process of ruminants and rodents Aspects Number of stomach chamber Size of caecum Bacteria Number of times yhe food passes through the stomach chamber Regurgitated Ruminant (has) 4 stomach chamber Have to digest cellulose Small//short caecum Do not digest cellulose In reticulum For secrete cellulase enzyme Twice To complete the digestion// Twice in mouth cavity Rodent (has) 1 stomach chamber Do not have to digest cellulose Big//long size caecum A place to digest cellulose In caecum For secrete cellulase enzyme Once To absorb digested food Once in mouth cavity

D1 E1 D2 E2 D3 E3 D4 E4 D5


Breathing mechanism in man Diaphragm is a muscular sheet in the body cavity separating the thorax from the abdomen. At the start of inhalation, the muscles of the diaphragm contract , making it less arched. This helps to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity and reduce the pressure of the thoracic cavity. Air rushes into the lungs. When the muscles of the diaphragm relax , it returns to its arched condition , reducing the volume of the thoracic cavity and increasing the pressure of the thoracic cavity. Air is forced out of the lungs. The muscles between the ribs are known as intercostals muscles. During inhalation the external intercostals muscle contracts and raise the lower ribs.

Breathing mechanism in man (continuation) This helps to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity and reduce the pressure of the thoracic cavity. Air rushes into the lungs. During exhalation the external intercostals muscles contract , the ribs return to their original position , reduce the pressure of the thoracic cavity. Air is forced out of the lungs. The alveoli are thin-walled air sacs with the lungs. These sacs are surrounded by a network of capillaries. During inhalation the alveoli are filled with air and gaseous exchange occurs between the alveoli and the capillaries. Oxygen from the alveoli diffuses into the capillaries while carbon dioxide diffuses from the capillaries into the alveoli.

Transport of O2 and CO2 in human body Gaseous exchange across the alveolus occurs by diffusion. Diffusion of gas depends on differences in partial pressure between two regions. The partial pressure/ concentration of oxygen in the air of the alveoli is higher compared to the partial pressure/ concentration of oxygen in the blood capillaries. Therefore, oxygen diffuse across the surface of the alveolus and blood capillaries into blood. The transport of oxygen is carried out by the blood circulatory system. Oxygen combines with respiratory pigment called haemoglobin in the red blood cells. To form oxyhaemoglobin. When the blood passed the tissue with low partial pressure of oxygen,


Transport of O2 and CO2 in human body (continuation) Oxyhaemoglobin dissociates to release oxygen. Carbon dioxide released by repairing cells can be transported by dissolve carbon dioxide in the blood plasma. Bind to the haemoglobin. As carbaminohaemoglobin. In form of bicarbonate ions. Carbon dioxide is expelled with water vapour from the lung.

Explain how energy flows through the food chain and how it is lost to the environment.

Colonisation and succession in mangrove swamps The pioneer species of a mangrove swamp are the Sonneratia sp. and Avicennia sp. The presence of this species gradually changes the physical environment of the habitat.The extensive root systems of these plants trap and collect sediments, including organic matter from decaying plant parts. As time passes, the soil becomes more compact and firm. This condition favours the growth of Rhizophora sp. Gradually the Rhizophora sp. replaces the pioneer species. The prop root system of the Rhizophora sp. traps silt and mud, creating a firmer soil structure over time. The ground becomes higher. As a result, the soil is drier because it is less submerged by sea water. The condition now becomes more suitable for the Bruguiera sp., which replaces the Rhizophora sp. The buttress root system of the Bruguiera sp. forms loops which extend from the soil to trap more silt and mud. As more sediments are deposited, the shore extends further to the sea. The old shore is now further away from the sea and is like terresterial ground. Over time, terrestrial plants like nipah palm and Pandanus sp. begin to replace the Bruguiera sp.

Energy flows through the food chain in one direction . In the food chain, the plant is the producer, the rat is the primary consumer, the snake is the secondary consumer and the eagle is the tertiary consumer. In the food chain, the plant is the producer, the earthworm is the primary consumer, the bird is the secondary consumer and the snake/ eagle is the tertiary consumer. Each level of food chain is called a trophic level. Energy is transferred from one trophic level to another trophic level. When energy is transferred from one trophic level to another level as much as 90% of the chemical energy in the food consumed by primary consumer is used for its metabolic activities and lost as heat. Only 10% of the energy in an organism is passed on to the organism at the next trophic level.


Green house effects Green house effect. Ultra violet(uv) from solar radiation is absorbed by the earth and some of them is reflected back to the atmosphere in the form of heat/infra red. Heat or infrared radiation cannot be reflected back to the atmosphere. Because it is trapped by green house gases such as CO2, nitrogen dioxide and methane. Heat/infrared warmed the surface of earth. Earth temperature increases.

Explain briefly why humans carry out the activity as shown in diagram above

The human population grows rapidly. The demands for food and housing areas have increased. Vast areas of forest are cleared for agricultural and commercial purposes. Urbanization and industrialization have caused more forests to be cleared for road construction and housing areas. Deforestation is also caused by the demands for timber and fuel wood.

Explain the impacts of the activity shown above on the environment Deforestation causes soil erosion , landslides, flash floods and global warming. Causes the soil to become loose and less stable. Without the protection of green plants, the soil is exposed to the forces of wind and rain. The top layer of soil is washed away gradually by the rainwater. This is known as soil erosion. Soil erosion causes the depletion of minerals from the soil, therefore the soil becomes infertile and unsuitable for agriculture. Landslides may happen on steep hillsides during heavy rain. It is because rainwater flows quickly and causes the top layer of the soil to crumble. Rivers and drains are silted and the flow of water is blocked. Therefore, water flows inland and this causes flash floods in the lower areas during rainy seasons.


Human blood vessels

Arteries - carries blood away from heart - transport blood quickly, at high pressure - muscle of tissue enables the artery to constrict and dilate Differences - walls of arteries are strong and elastic, have small lumen Fish Capillaries Has single circulation - thin walled blood vessels Heart divides into 2 - allow rapid gaseous exchange via diffusion chambers - nutrients, wastes and hormones are also Septum is absent exchanged across here Deoxygenated blood - one cell thick flows from heart to Veins gills - blood returns from capillaries to heart Oxygenated blood through veins flows from gills to - blood flows in low pressure body cells - have large lumens and valves (prevent back flow) Difference between blood and lymph - lymph has a large numbers of lymphocyte compare to blood - lymphocyte is produced by lymph nodes in lymph system - lymph has lower content of oxygen compare to blood

Circulatory system in fish and human Similarities - both have closed circulation - both have a heart

Human Has double circulation Heart is divided into 4 chambers Septum is present Deoxygenated blood flows from heart to lungs Oxygenated blood flows from lungs to heart

Blood clotting clumped platelets, damaged cells, clotting factors form activators (thromboplastins) activators together with calcium ions and vitamin K, converts prothrombin to thrombin thrombin catalyses the conversion of soluble protein fibrinogen into insoluble fibrin. fibrin is a fibrous protein which combines to form a mesh of long threads over the wounds, trapping red blood cells and sealing the wound. blood clot hardens when exposed to air forming scab

Type of immunity active immunity, body produces its own antibodies in response to stimulation by an antigen passive immunity, body receive an antibodies from outside source

Phagocytosis the phagocyte is attracted by chemicals produced by bacterium Phagocytes extend its pseudopodium (legs) towards bacterium to engulf it. ingestion of bacterium forms phagosome phagosome combines with lysosome lysosome releases lysozyme into phagosome bacterium inside the phagosome will be destroyed by lysozyme phagocyte releases the digested products from cell


Lymph formed - brought back into the blood circulatory system. - when blood flows from arteries into capillaries, there is higher hydrostatic pressure at artial end of capillaries - high pressure causes some plasma to pass through capillary walls into intercellular spaces - interstitial fluid fills the spaces between cells and constantly bathes the cells - 90% of interstitial fluid diffuses back into blood capillary - 10% of interstitial fluid goes into the lymph capillaries and known as lymph - lymph capillaries unite forming larger lymphatic vessels - from lymphatic vessels, lymph eventually passes into thoracic duct - hence lymph drains back into blood

Respiratory gases Transportation in respiratory gas. - oxygen enters alveoli during inhalation - gaseous exchange occurred at alveoli (oxygen diffused into blood capillaries while carbon dioxide diffused out) - the diffusion of these gases caused by different of partial pressure of both gaseous - partial pressure of oxygen in alveoli is higher than partial pressure of oxygen in blood capillaries - oxygen diffused in cytoplasm of red blood cell - oxygen combines with haemoglobin forming oxyhaemoglobin - oxyhaemoglobin then sent to all parts of body - heart pumped the oxygenated blood to all body cells - oxygen diffused from blood capillaries to cell because partial pressure of oxygen in blood capillaries is higher than in cell - carbon dioxide diffuse from cell to blood capillaries because partial pressure of carbon dioxide in cell is higher than in blood capillaries - deoxygenated blood going back to heart by vena cava and to lungs by pulmonary artery

Active immunity Passive immunity Active immunity - obtained by vaccination (artificially acquired) - vaccine contains dead/weakened bacteria/pathogen/virus - white blood cells stimulated to produce antibodies against pathogen - also obtained when an individual has recovered from certain diseases(naturally acquired) - a ready made supply of antibody will give immunity towards the disease Passive immunity - obtained by injecting antibodies/antiserum (artificially acquired) - no antigen is put into body, so body does not produce its own antibodies - obtained by a baby when antibodies from mothers blood plasma diffuse into foetus through placenta (naturally acquired)


Movement of water froom root to leaves Movement of water from root to leaves aided by root pressure, capillary action and transpirational pull. Root pressure cell sap of root hair(usually) hypertonic to surrounding soil solution water diffuses into root by osmosis cell cap becomes more dilute compared to neighbouring cell water moves to these adjacent cells which become more diluted themselves, so osmosis continues across the cortex (at the same time) ions from soil are actively secreted into xylem vessels and causes osmotic pressure to increase Water flows continuously into xylem and create a pressure(root pressure) Root pressure gives an initial upward force to water and mineral ions in xylem

Movement of water from root to leaves Capillary action water moves up through xylem in stems by capillarity capillary action is due to combined force of cohesion(water molecules have attraction for each other) and adhesion(water molecules are attracted to the side of vessels) water molecule form a continuous water column in xylem vessel (due to cohesion and adhesion) the cohesion of water prevent the water column in xylem breaking apart the adhesion of water prevents gravity from pulling the water down the column Transpirational pull the lost of water from mesophyll cells during transpiration is replaces by water which flows in from xylem vessels in leaves this creates a tension/suction force in water column because water has cohesive properties called transpiration pull the transpiration pull draws water from xylem in the leaves/stem/roots the continuous flow of water through plant is known as transpiration stream

Effect of no lignin formation on the function of tissue xylem lignin is important to make tissue xylem strong without lignin, tissue xylem will collapse therefore, it cannot form a continuous hollow tube to allow water to flow upwards continuously lignin makes the tissue become impermeable

- materials cannot pass in xylem cells - causes the tissue to become hollow - allows continuous flow of water (choose one of the * and the explanations below)


light intensity and stomata and cells effect the rate of water loss F1- from 0500 to 0170(time/hours), rate of water loss increases E1- light intensity increases E2- stimulates photosynthesis in guard cells E3- this makes energy available for potassium to move into guard cells by active transport E4- guard cells become hypertonic(compared to cell sap) of epidermal cells E5- water molecules from epidermal cells diffuse into guard cells by osmosis E6- causing guard cells to bend outwards E7- stoma opens (allows water to escape) F2- from 0170 to 0300(time/hours) rate of water loss decreases E8- lisght intensity decreases/rate of photosynthesis decreases E9- guard cells become flaccid and bend inwards E10- stoma closes, prevents water from escaping Notes: (F1 + any 5Es) + (F2 + 3Es)

Adaptation of the muscle which enables it to contracts - the skeletal muscle consist of bundles of muscle fibres and a large supply of nerves and blood vessels - a muscle fibre is made up of bundles of smaller units called myofibrils - each myofibril is made up of 2 types of protein filaments: the actin and the myosin which interact and cause muscle contractions - the muscles nerve endings control its contractions

Movement takes place involves muscles, tendons, bones, ligaments and joints Muscle - quadriceps femoris contract while biceps femoris muscles relax (leg straightened) - biceps femoris contract while quadriceps femoris relax (leg bent) - calf muscles contract to lift up the heels - feet push downwards and backwards - repeated contraction and relaxation of muscle result in running movement Ligaments - it connects 2 bones together - give support and strength to joints for movement - strong and elastic Joints - a hinge joint allow the movement of leg to swing back and forth Tendon - connect muscles to bones - strong and non elastic - force is transferred to bones through tendons Bones - femur/ thigh bone is long, heavy and strong - provide support to body weight


Adaptation of plant which enable it to float have fine aerenchyma wall tissues (plants become more lighter) have air spaces/air sacs (becomes more easy to float) have big and swell stem/petiole (increase the air to help plant floating) have fine and many roots (trap gas bubbles)

Skeletal system of earthworm and fish adapted Adaptive features which helps in birds and fish for its movement locomotion Movements in earthworm Bird - earthworm has hydrostatic skeleton - aerofoil wing to generate the upward lift - moves by changing hydrostatic pressure - a pair of antagonistic muscle (pectorolis of fluid in its segment major and minor) pulled down and up the - each segment of the body has its own set wings of muscles - single organ (one testes/kidney)//small o an outer layer of circular muscles skull to reduce weight running around the body causes the - streamlined body shape reduce air worm to become long and thin when resistance they contract - waterproof feather avoid increase in o an inner layer of longitudinal muscles body weight during raining causes the worm to get short and Fish thick when they contract - streamed lined body reduce water - as the circular muscles contract, the resistance longitudinal muscles will relax - myotome muscle are W/V shaped which simultaneously in antagonistic action act antagonistically - causes the hydrostatic pressure to be - air sac maintain buoyancy in water transferred from anterior part to posterior - fins part causing the worm to move forward o dorsal and ventral fin prevent/helps in yawing and Movements in fish rolling - fish has an endoskeleton o tail fin provides thrust and - it provides place for attachment of controls direction muscles o pelvin and pectoral fin act as - when the left myotome contracts, right brakes/to slow down myotome will relax in antagonistic action - causes the vertebral column to curve toward the left - the fish also has fins with different functions for locomotion


Support is achieved in submerged and floating plants Submerged plants - posses air sacs within the leaves and the stem to help the plant to stay upright in water - water buoyancy provides support - have very few woody tissue/vascular tissue - thin/narrow/flexible leaves provide little resistance to water flow Floating plants - stem have plenty of air sacs - aerenchyma tissues helps to stay afloat in water - do not have woody tissues - natural water buoyancy to help them float - have broad leaves that are firm but flexible to resist being torned by wave action

Osteoporosis and osteoarthritis happen prevented Osteoporosis - a disease in which bone mass is reduced and the boned become porous and lighter - occurse most often in old people, partially women who have gone menopause - bodies of postmenopausal women do not produce sex hormone, oestrogen - causes more bone minerals to be lost than deposited - as a results, bones become soft and brittle - can be prevented by o doing weight-bearing exercise, strengthen the muscles and bones o taking diet rich in calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D o takin in vitamin C, increase bone mass o refraining from smoking Osteoarthritis - Osteoarthritis is part of ageing process due to wear and tear of cartilage between bones at certain joints - Patient has painful, swollen stiff knees which restrict daily activities (walking, climbing) - If treatment fails to relieve the pain, a surgeon can replace the damaged joints with artificial ones made of plastic or metal

Important to have healthy musculoskeletal system - ways maintaining a healthy musculoskeletal The musculoskeleton system where bones, muscles, ligaments and tendons work together like a machine to bring about movement musculoskeleton helps to support our body if any part of system injured, we will experience discomfort, pain and loss of mobility it also affect othe organs and physiological processes in body (respiration/digestion)


Important to have healthy musculoskeletal Osteoarthritis and arthritis gout occur - effect of system - ways maintaining a healthy the diseases musculoskeletal Ways to maintain Muscular dystrophy - having balanced diet. Take diet rich in - muscle destroying disorder proteins, vitamins A, C n D together with - weakness/weaking of muscles minerals (calcium,phosphate n iron) for - mostly in male building strong bones. Drinking - affect the heart muscle heart attack fluoridated water will also harden the - results in poor balance/wobbling/poor bones movement - adopt a good posture while standing, Osteoporosis - condition characterized by lost of normal sitting, walking and while performing density of bone certain tasks to ensure that our body is - resulting in fragile bone always supported. This is important - bone fracture because bad posture will put undue - no symptom before any bone fracture pressure on our muscles and spine and - consequences fracture of this will in turn affect the functions of our vertebrae//reduction of in height over internal organs (lungs, heart and stomach) time//stooped posture - wear proper attire for daily activities. Wear loose and comfortable clothes. Tight clothes restrict our movement. Woman wearing high heels tilt the body forwards. To counteract this, the woman bends her knees and throws her trunk forwards, causing the spine to curve even more - taking precautions during vigorous activities - practice correct and safe techniques when exercisingto prevent serious injuries to the musculosketonn system

Support system in woody plants differs from that of non-woody plants Non-woody plants (herbaceous plants) - (support in herbaceous plants is) provided by the turgidity of parenchyma/collenchyma cells - (when there is enough warm in the ground) the cells take in water by osmosis and become turgid - The turgor pressure of fluids in the vacuoles pushes the cell contents/plasma membrane against the cell wall - Creating support for its tem/roots/leaves - The thin thickening die cell walls with cellulose/collenchyma cells gives support to herbaceous plants


Support system in woody plants differs from that of non-woody plants Woody plants - woody plants have specialized tissues/sclerenchyma tissues/xylem vessels.tracheids to give them support - these tissues have cellulose walls which have deposits of lignin for added strength - sclerenchyma cells have very thick walls (do not allow water to pass through) - (these cells are dead cells) their function is to provide support - Xylem vessels have thick walls of lignin which are deposited during the plants secondary growth - The lignified xylem vessels form the woody tissues of the stem - This makes the plant stronger and also provides support for the plant - Tracheids are also dead cells with thick walls and very small diameters - They are found with xylem vessels and together they support the plants

Synapse The event as a nerve impulse is transmitted across a synapse Synapse is a narrow gap between an axon terminal and a dendrite of another adjacent neuron. A chemical is used by neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse. The chemical is called neurotransmitter The transmission of information across a synapse involves the conversion of electrical signal into chemical signal in the form of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter is produced in vesicles in a swollen part of the axon terminal called synaptic knob Synaptic knob contains abundant mitochondrion to generate energy for the transmission When an impulse arrived at the synaptic knob, the vesicles release the neurotransmitters into the synapse The neurotransmitters molecules diffuse across the synapse to the dendrite of another neurons The dendrite of another neurons is stimulated to trigger a new impulse which travel down a long neuron

Knee jerk the knee jerk action involves two types of neurons named afferent and efferent neurons when a hammer hits a tendon that connect to quadriceps muscle in the thigh to a bone in the lower leg as the hammer strike, the force stretches the quadriceps muscle and stimulates the stretch receptors in the muscles, triggering nerve impulse afferent neurons transmit the information to the quadriceps muscle and the muscle contracts swing the leg forward if the patient is able to swing the leg forward, it indicates that the patients nerve system is still functioning if there is no response, it shows that the patients nervous system fails to function properly


When the hand touches a hot object the heat on the object stimulates the nerve endings (receptors) in skin impulses are triggered impulses travel along the sensory/afferent neuron to spinal cord in spinal cord, the impulses are transmitted first across a synapse to the interneurone and then across another synapse to the motor/efferent neurone

At synapse - when an impulse reach a presynaptic membrane, it triggers the synaptic vesicles to release neutrotransmitter into the synaptic cleft - the neurotransmitter diffuse across the synaptic cleft - and bind to receptors which are attached to the postsynaptic membrane - the binding of the neurotransmitter to the receptors leads to the generation of a new impulse - impulses leave the spinal cord along the motor/efferent neurone to the effector - the effector is the biceps muscle which then contracts. This brings about a sudden withdrawal of the hand

Roles of cerebellum and medulla oblongata reflex action when finger being stung by a bee Cerebellum - coordination of movement - controls of balance/posture Medulla oblongata - controls/increase breathing - controls/increase heart rate - controls blood pressure/sweating Reflex action - receptors in the skin of the finger detects pain - nerve impulse is generated in pain receptor - electrical impulses are sent via the afferent(sensory) neurone to spinal cord - impulses are transferred to the interneurone in the spinal cord - interneurone sents impulses to the efferent neurone - efferent neurone sents impulses to biceps/muscle - biceps/muscle contract (triceps relax) causing the arm to bend

Glomerular filtrate formed when blood enters the glomerulus, ultrafiltration takes place because blood from the aorta reaches the nephron/glomerulus at high pressure and due to the different artiole and efferent arteriole the high pressure forces fluid through the filtration membrane into capsular space forming glomerular filtrate


Structure and the role of nephron - formation of urine Structure and the role of nephron - nephron is the functional unit of a kidney - a nephron consist of 3 major parts (glomerulus, and its associated vessels) - the Bowmans capsule - a long narrow tube called the renal tubule, which made up of proximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle and distal convoluted tubule - the distal convoluted tubules of several nephrons join to a common collecting duct - the loop oh Henle is a long hairpin-shaped region of the nephron that descends into the medulla and then returns to the cortex

Formation of urine ultrafiltration, reabsoprtion and secretion blood is under relatively high pressure when it reaches the nephron high blood pressure in glomerulus, forces fluid to filter through the filtration membrane into the lumen of Bowmans capsule forming glomerular filtrate contains water, glucose, amino acids, mineral salts and other small molecules the glomerular filtrate will flow into proximal convoluted tubule selective reabsoption occurs by active and passive transport forming relatively high solute concentration in the peritubular capillaries thus large volume of water is reabsorbed into the blood by osmosis increase the concentration of urea in the convoluted tubule glomerular filtrate then flow into loop of henle and distal convoluted tubule more water and minerals being reabsorbed back into the blood take place in the distal convoluted tubule urea/toxins/ammonia/ect being secreted by passive diffusion and active transport from blood capillary into distal convoluted tubule filtrate reaches the collecting duct (now called urine). flows down the ureter, the bladder and urethra and is finally excreted -

Consequences of kidney failure if both kidneys stop functioning, the blood osmotic pressure and blood volume cannot be maintained the built up of toxic wastes in the body can result in life-threatening conditions they have to undergo haemodialysis another treatment for impaired kidney functions is the transplant of a healthy kidney from a donor to the patient


Avoid drug and alcohol why affects coordination systems Drugs - some drugs are stimulants/cocaine - increases the activities of the central nervous system - excessive use leads to temporary euphoria followed by depression - causes the user to see/hear/perceive things that do not exist - some drugs like narcotic/heroin/morphine - block pain signals - induce feelings of euphoria/slows down nerve impulses Alcohol - strong depressant - affects coordination and judgement - inhibits releases of ADH from posterior pituitary - less water will be absorbed into blood stream/ more urine produced alcohol/drugs are addictive develop dependence on alcohol/drugs/develop severe withdrawal effects long term usage can damage organs brain damage/stomach ulcers

Geotropism is brought about in a plant root and shoot - advantages Shoot - the auxin that is produced at the tip of shoot - auxin moves downwards/accumulate on the underside of the shoot tip due to the pull of gravity - the high concentration of auxin accelerates the growth - stimulating greater cell elongation on the underside relative to the cells on the upper side - this differential elongation causes the shoot to bend away from gravity/grow upwards Root - the auxin that is produced at the tip of root - auxin moves downwards/accumulates on the underside of the root tip due to the pull of gravity - the hight concentration of auxin inhibits the growth - slowing down cell elongation on the underside relative to the cells on the upper side - this differential elongation causes the shoot to bend towards gravity

Tips of shoot contribute to growth in oat seedlings - *without tip of a shoot, an oat seedling cannot grow - this proves elongation of plumule is dependent on the presence of the tip of the shoot - *if the tip of the coleoptile is first removed and placed on an agar block which is transferred onto the cut stump of another oat seedling the plumule still grows straight upwards - this means that the tip of the shoot carried chemical messengers which has diffused into the agar block - the chemical messenger then diffuses into the plumule and causes the plumule to elongate - *if the agar block is placed asymmetrically (a little to one scale of the center), the shoots bend away from the scale with the agar block as though it is growing towards the light - This is because a higher concentration of the growth promoting chemical messenger accumulates below the agar block - This means that the agar block contains a chemical messenger produced in the shoot. The chemical stimulates growth as it diffuses down into the shoot - The chemical messenger is auxin