: One part of my fish has turned black and there is swelling underneath the area.
A: Sounds like a Melanocarcinoma (tumor), that has pinched off the color controlling nerves of the fish Treatment: No suitable treatment known. Sacrifice this fish humanely.

Q: The fish has a hazy white covering over it. It looks like a fungus, but antifungal treatments do not work.
A: This is a called Columnaris Disease and is caused by gram-negative bacteria. Treatment: Use TMP-Sulfa -or- Sulfa 4 TMP -or- Triple Sulfa Powder.

Q: My fish's colors have become very light and they seem to be under stress.
A: Try checking your water parameters with a test kit. This condition could be from an improper pH, or poor water quality (Ammonia & Nitrites). Added any medications to the tank lately? Or water conditioners? Also check to see if something toxic is in the tank (rocks etc.) Treatment: Do some partial water changes and make sure you are using activated charcoal in your filtration. Adjust pH with Sodium Monophosphate if it is too high. If the Ammonia is high, do a partial water change, increase the aeration and use some Aqua Gold.

Q: I have Discus. They have all turned black and are sitting on the bottom.
A: This could be many different things. Discus commonly turn dark when they are sick, or if your water quality is poor. Discus are very susceptible to protozoan diseases such as Hexamita and Chilodonella. Treatment: If your water quality checks out ok, and your pH is 6.5, try treating the fish with some Metronidazole for 8-10 days.

Q: I have a Koi pond, and some of the bodies of my white Koi have turned bright red.
A: Your fish are affected by Bacterial Hemorrhagic Septicemia. Treatment: Use Oxytetracycline in the feed at 2 teaspoons per pound of food. Feed this to the fish once a day for 10-14 days.

Q: I have some african cichlids that used to be black with white dots on them. Their colors look strange now. I have used medications on them but nothing has worked, any suggestions?.
A: Sounds like you have the species "Tropheus Duboisi". The Tropheus species will change color as they grow from juvenile species to adults. This is completely normal and no medications are necessary.

: My fish are listless and just sit on the bottom of the tank or Koi pond.

or too much cleaning and disturbing the tank. A: Your fish are affected by Gill Flukes Treatment: Treat the fish with De-Los in freshwater tanks or Praziquantel. increase the aeration and use some Aqua-Gold. in marine tanks Q: My fish used to eat readily.. Treatment: Use Erythromycin powder for 10 days. Treatment: Treat the fish with TMP Sulfa -or. or there is an Ammonia or Nitrite problem. Whenever you suspect a swim bladder problem. If you have small children or adults tapping on the glass. do not pop your fish with a pin or needle! Q: My fish is stuck at the top of the water. Treatment: Do some partial water changes and make sure to use a dechlorinator. or underneath the waterfall in the pond. this could be the case. this sounds like a bacterial infection.Praziquantel. too much movement around the tank. or your heater is malfunctioning. Water quality could also be an issue. in marine tanks Q: My fish hang at the top of the tank. and gasp for air.. Treatment: Treat the fish with Paracide-D Mix the medication in the food and feed it to the fish for 3-5 days. If the weather has changed and it is cold outside. TMP Sulfa is also a good treatment for swim bladder disorders. but now he won't eat at all. His stomach is all bloated up. use some Sodium Monophosphate to lower it. Treatment: If none of the above. Q: My fish has turned dark and hides all the time. The fish seems "spooked". especially in large cichlids. treat the fish with Parinox.A: Try checking the water temperature first. and fights to swim down to the bottom. Treatment: Treat the fish with De-Los in freshwater tanks -or. Q: My fish cannot swim correctly and whirls-wobbles around the tank A: This sounds like a bacterial infection of the swim bladder. A: Your fish are affected by Parasites.Gentamycin Sulfate. Also. Q: My fish are breathing heavily. I used an anti-parasitic treatment but it didn't work A: This sounds like the pH could be too high (alkalosis). If the Ammonia is too high. that is picking on this particular fish. A: First check to see if there is another aggressive fish in the tank. this could cause this condition. If the pH is too high for the species of fish. Check all water parameters with a test kit. Q: The fish look fine. . but then suddenly jerk and dart around the tank or pond. A: This could be an internal parasitic problem. might be the problem. If the temperature is fine.

Q: One or both of my fish's eyes have fallen out. A: Your fish are affected with Tuberculosis. Use 1/4 teaspoon per 100 grams of food. but his belly is all swollen up. Treatment: Treat the fish with Praziquantel -or. Treatment: Treat the fish with Erythromycin Powder for a ten day treatment. Q: My fish have something small and white lodged inside the eye. worms probably.Gentamycin Sulfate Powder. Be careful because this disease is transferable to humans! It is suggested to humanely sacrifice this fish. Treat the fish with 1 dose of Gentamycin Sulfate Powder and leave the medication in the water for 7 days. It is suggested that you call: 520-298-7814 for a consultation before attempting to treat this fish. Treatment: Move the affected fish to an isolation tank and raise the temperature to 84-86 degrees fahrenheit. All equipment should be sterilized also. For freshwater fish: TMP Sulfa Powder -or. Treatment: This fish may be treated with a combination of Kanamycin. Very few fish survive this condition.A: Sounds like the fish has internal Hexamita (Malawi Bloat). Q: One of my fish's eyes is popped out to the side. Q: My fish has redness and swelling around the eye. Treatment: Treat the fish with Metronidazole powder. Use 1/2 teaspoon per 1/2 pound of food. . When treatment is finished. Q: My fish eats like a pig.De-Los. This fish will have to be treated for 30 days minimum time.Gentamycin Sulfate Powder. A: These are the starting symptoms of Abdominal Dropsy. A: This is a gram-negative bacterial infection and can be treated with a few different antibiotics. Feed the medicated food to the fish once a day for 3-5 days. A: Your fish are affected with an Eye Fluke. Q: My fish have a whitish film covering both eyes. A: This is called "Pop-Eye". with no water changes during treatment time. A: This sounds like internal parasites. Treatment: For saltwater fish: Kanamycin Sulfate Powder -or. and is caused by a gram-positive bacteria that affects the kidney. The aquarium should be drained and sterilized. Q: Both of my fish's eyes are popped out to the side. Feed it to the fish once a day for 5-7 days. and slowly lower the temperature back to normal over several days time. Treatment: Use Paracide-D in the feed. and Vitamin B-6. add the carbon back to the filtration. Try starving the fish for 1 week and feed him some Metronidazole in some frozen food.

treat the fish in an isolation tank with Nitrofuracin Green. Q: My fish have an off-white looking substance growing on the fins. A: This is an encapsulated worm larvae (Metacercariae). A: This sounds like a Saprolegnia Fungus. A: This is a case of Bacterial Hemorrhagic Septicemia. Check to make sure the diet requirements are met for the species of fish. The fish may have been involved in a territorial dispute (cichlids). do a partial water change immediately.Nitrofurazone.Neomycin Sulfate -or. A: This is a classic case of Fin and Tail Rot. Treatment: The fish may be treated with Oxytetracycline Powder -or. the fish will start to lose scales. or an object in the aquarium or pond.Oxolinic Acid Powder -or. TMP-Sulfa -orSulfa 4 TMP -or. Treatment: If the fish was involved in a fight. . the body will have red streaks and sores will develop if not treated. Q: The fins on my fish are frayed and ragged. Some fins are split.Sulfa 4 TMP -or Triple Sulfa Powder. Treatment: Use Aqua Gold to establish the proper level of nitrifying bacteria needed to cycle the water. As this disease progresses. Treatment: Treat the fish with Forma-Green for 5-7 days. Use an ammonia test kit and check for Nitrites also. Treatment: Treat the fish with Oxytetracycline Powder in the feed for ten days if possible. but they have splits in them A: The fish may have a nutritional deficiency. Q: The fish's fins look good and clear. TMP-Sulfa -or. Q: The fish's fins appear to be slowly eaten away and edged in white.Neomycin Sulfate Powder. Increase the oxygen level if possible. A: This is a gram-negative bacterial infection called Columnaris Disease. One or several of my fish have redness at the base of their fins. It is caused by a Pseudomonas Bacteria (A condition called: Pseudomoniasis). Treatment: There are quite a few things you can use to treat this condition. A: This sounds like an Ammonia problem in the water. Q: The fins on my fish are all fuzzy and cotton-like. This injury will become infected with a gram negative bacteria such as Aeromonas or Pseudomonas. Some people often mistake this disease as a fungus. Some fish breathe heavily and some die quickly.Tetracycline -or. Q: The fish have black spots in their fins and tails. The fins are eaten away.A: The fish may have had an injury to that eye from another aggressive species of fish. Treatment: Sulfa drugs work well for this. Are there aggressive species of fish in the tank. If you have any readings of Ammonia or Nitrites.

If you have tried one of these treatments and it did not work. Q: My fish has white thread-like or cottony puffs on the skin.Treatment: Although the fish can live to a ripe old age with this condition.Acriflavine Neutral. Treatment: Treat the fish with Malachite Green -or.1% OR LOWER. This is common in Discus and Angelfish. A: This is a called Columnaris Disease and is caused by gram-negative bacteria. A: In Freshwater Fish: This is a Protozoan infestation called Chilodonella. A: In Freshwater Fish: This is known as Ich (Ichthyophthirius) Treatment: Use Forma-Green -or. A: This is Lymphocystis Virus and cannot be cured. Q: The fish have small white spots all over their fins.Sulfa 4 TMP -or. USING TOO MUCH SALT WILL CAUSE THE FISH TO PRODUCE MORE SLIME! KEEP SALT LEVELS AT 0. Is this a new fish that was transferred to the tank in a plastic bag? Is your tank in a drafty hallway? Check to see if the heater is functioning properly.Acriflavine Neutral. Treatment: Use TMP-Sulfa -or. Forma-Green may also be used. It looks like a fungus.Forma-Green -or. A: Sounds like the fish has Ich. Treatment: Treat the fish with Quinine Sulfate or Forma-Green A: In Saltwater Fish: This is Brooklynella Hostilis Treatment: Treat the fish with Quinine Sulfate or Forma-Green in a hospital tank for 5-7 days. you have a resistant strain of Ich and need to treat with Quinine Sulfate for 5-7 days. For stubborn strains. . treat the fish with Methylene Blue -or. but anti-fungal treatments do not work. Q: My fish looks like it is covered with a fine white sandy coating.Triple Sulfa Powder. Q: One or several of my fish have a slimy covering on their skin in certain spots. try some Quinine Sulfate.Copper Sulfate. Q: The fish have a cauliflower-like growth on. Treatment: Treat the fish with Forma-Green for 5-7 days. Praziquantel -orDe-Los may be used to treat the fish. Treatment: Copper Sulfate is the old stand by treatment. A: In Saltwater Fish: This is known as Cryptocaryon Irritans (Saltwater Ich). IN FRESHWATER KOI PONDS. Ich is usually caused by a drop in temperature. A: This sounds like a Saprolegnia Fungus. Q: The fish's skin has a hazy white covering over it in patches. If the fish is a scaless fish. No suitable treatment known. or at the base of the fins.

Q: The fish has bloody patches on the skin as if it were sanded or scraped off. To clear a few things up. we suggest treating every 3 days with a 25% water change before each treatment. This disorder is common in Koi ponds.. If you have purchased our products here at National Fish Pharmaceuticals. If used in the feed. add Forma-Green to the water. for ten days. Then we instruct you to treat for 10 days.Forma-Green -or. Applications are confusing. Treatment: Treat the fish with Forma-Green -or. so treatments with antibiotics are less confusing. A: Sounds like the fish has Bacterial Hemorrhagic Septicemia. a 10 gallon tank. These medications can also be used in the feed (suggested). or you can use a combination of Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride + Oxolinic Acid Powder on the fish for a two week treatment. Treatment: Treat the fish with De-Los. Common in Goldfish. we have created this section.. A: Your fish are affected by a Costia infestation.Q: My fish has small off-white to yellowish dots on the skin and scale edges. (Ichthyobodo). Q: My fish has pimples on it's skin with something white sticking out. Q: The scales on my fish are falling off. someone is telling you something different. and now it is a large sore. Bumping up the temperature to 80 degrees fahrenheit has shown to speed up this treatment. Treatment: Use Koi Fix®. Fish Q&A Section: Using Antibiotics There is much controversy when it comes to using antibiotics on tropical fish and Koi. So instead of treating every 24 hours. This . and not dissipate out as quickly as say. you will notice on the label that we tell you to use the product every 24 hours with a 25% water change before each treatment. A: This sounds like a bacterial disorder. Q: My fish had a pimple on the skin. A: Your fish are affected by Oodinium. A: This is a parasitic worm (Lernea).Copper Sulfate. or Anchorworm. Other fish are covered with large sores and dying in droves. the antibiotics will stay effective much longer. if you have a body of water that is 100 gallons of water or larger.Acriflavine Neutral. Treatment: Treat the fish with Oxytetracycline Hydrochloride Powder. However. and everywhere you go for advice. Treatment: Use Acriflavine Neutral -or. either Aeromonas bacteria or Pseudomonas bacteria.

and besides. or as a "dip". Rules of thumb: 1). This may cause Ammonia levels to become toxic. and the results can be fatal to your fish. First we will tell you what Copper does: Copper Sulfate is pretty much an all-around treatment. Shake well. and kills certain parasites such as Cryptocaryon Irritans (Salt water Ich) and Crustacea (Argulus). do not feed your fish during the treatment time..15ppm to . How high can I run Copper? Safe levels are .20ppm.15ppm. dosing and usage of this product. 2).will not only save you some water changes. Some antibiotics are not compatible when mixed. How to mix up a Copper Solution properly: Stock solution= 21 grams of Copper Sulfate + 21 grams of Citric Acid Crystals to 1 pint of distilled water. but now. Use 1 drop per every gallon of aquarium water= . or are afraid to use Copper Sulfate on their fish because they have been improperly informed on the mixing. 3). The Citric Acid helps it to dissolve completely and prevent Copper levels from bouncing around. Anti-Fungal. It is an Algaecide. We used to use it on Gill Flukes years ago. Copper does not readily dissolve in water. If you are treating your water with antibiotics. meaning that it kills Algae. Any higher may burn the fish and leave them with red sores on their sides. it is Anti-Bacterial. and works on Oodinium. How do I remove Copper? . Copper Sulfate. Never mix any antibiotics together without proper consultation. Always use antibiotics for at least 10 days to prevent a resistant strain of bacteria from developing. 4).fish can go up to 30 days without eating anything and be perfectly fine. You can create problems doing this. It also works as a great preventative treatment for most all fish. Sliminess of the skin. the Gill Flukes have become resistant to this treatment. Is it safe? Many people have had a bad experience with. freshwater or saltwater. It is very important to use a Copper test kit when medicating with this product. works on external Protozoa such as Ich. Antibiotics may not be used as preventatives. Why use Citric Acid with Copper? Simple. but some money on medications also.. it sequesters the solution to make it stable.

One of the first things that anyone should do before purchasing fish. When you dose the tank. the Copper readings will disappear. This will ensure less stress on the fish. there are certain things that Copper cannot be use on: Saltwater Sharks..10. or heard from so and so that you should keep your water a certain way. Hawaii. Fiji and other tropical areas with much warmer water. Temperatures below this will cause disease. Many fish come from Africa. Invertebrates. and lower salinity levels. as "Chelated" means "Inactivated". Yeah. It can only be removed by either doing water changes. Remember folks. reef tanks. you read a book. there is no such thing as a "Chelated Copper Solution". Everyone tells a different story of what they do to their tank to keep it healthy. Care should be used when handling this product. that have had difficulties with diseases. Then the algae dies. If you keep getting Cryptocaryon (Ich). or by using E. Proper pH level: 8.A.27 This higher salinity is needed for live rock and coral in reef tanks.T. be careful if using Copper to kill algae. Also. Saltwater Aquariums We created this section mainly for you Saltwater Aquarists out there. therefore preventing a disease to manifest. and releases all of the Copper back into the water. this is the reason.2 . The proper terminology would be "Sequestered Copper Solution". Proper Salinity Levels: 10. Yeah. is to ask the dealer what their water parameters are. and for sure. Water Temperature: 78 . 10.17 . brought on by keeping fish in an environment that is not stable.A common misconception about Copper is that it can be removed from the water with activated charcoal.80 degrees fahrenheit. or the West Coast. you must understand that the water parameters in your oceans (Atlantic & Pacific) are much different than the water parameters will be in your aquarium.19 This is the salinity level that we use for our saltwater fish-only tanks. and some of our importers/exporters. to help you understand what the correct water parameters are for your tanks. because the algae will suck it all up. Copper is a heavy metal ion and is considered a "Poison".D. if you are living on the East Coast. Also.. (Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acidic Acid) to chelate it out of the water. Warnings before using Copper: Although Copper is safe at the correct parts per million.

they like a higher pH and harder water Temperature: 78-80 degrees fahrenheit. The time period suggestions are averages. When .Freshwater Aquariums Freshwater aquariums are pretty easy to take care of in general. 2.0-7.86 fahrenheit. water parameters are more difficult to follow. Ammonia 2. Temperature: 84 . If you are breeding fishes. rather than to add chemicals every time you do a water change. pH= Neutral to Alkaline 7.80 degrees fahrenheit. pH= Acid pH. I am no authority. 8.5 If you are keeping African Cichlids. south american cichlids. it is better to adapt your fish to the pH of your tap water. Temperature: 76 . Nitrite (NO2-N) 3. you must be careful to duplicate the water quality from where your fish came from. pH= Alkaline pH. follow these guidelines. Dissolved oxygen 2.0-6. 4. Water parameters for most of your common tropical fish such as livebearers. "what do I need to test for?" A good question. Specific metals 3. Chlorine The pH level Buffering Hardness Special Case Testing 1. Nitrate (NO3-N) Regular Testing (monthly to quarterly) 1. 6.4 In freshwater aquariums. depending on the fish you decide to keep.6. but in my experience here are some possibilities: Frequent Testing (daily to monthly) 1.2-8. 3. If you are not breeding fishes. such as Discus. If you decide to keep more difficult fishes. What to Test For So "I'm game" you say. guppies etc. can be kept at the same levels. Phosphate I keep all the frequent and regular testing category kits on hand all the time. goldfish. actual use depends on the conditions.

Wardley Professional Nitrite and Nitrate. 4. and Tetra products. since things outside my control can change and affect the water quality. In essence. But I still need to do tests occasionally. This should run about $25 (as of April 1997). and have been reasonably happy with all of them. so I mainly worry about cost and convenience. this should save you 20-30% on this high markup item. My minimum cost recommendation? Do some research on prices. Wardley. and accuracy. buffering. I found that after I had used the various kits regularly for 6 months (and kept complete. ease of use. This is particularly important with hospital and quarantine tanks. and hardness). careful notes!) I had a good sense of what to expect and didn't need the kits very often. 3. Wardley Junior Ammonia. you may use "frequent testing" kits several times a day. All the brands I have used have been sufficiently accurate for hobbyist purposes. I have used Mardel. save the vials. The vials in the Tetra kits are superior to the Wardley ones. 5. General observations: 1. I had become calibrated. but a bit expensive. I cut the strips in half lengthwise: this also cuts the cost per test in half. But easier (for me) to estimate more exact nitrate measurements. which have caps that always leak when you shake them. Eventually you will have vials you can dedicate to each tank. but something like this: Mardel Aqualab 1 (freshwater pH. which makes them competitive with other tests. As you use up the reagents. . The Tetra nitrate test is more complex to perform than the Wardley. Selecting Test Kits There are three criteria for selecting test kit products: cost per test. Mail order the test kits. The Mardel Aqualab test strips are very convenient. 2.cycling a tank.

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