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Choose as the dynamical variables: • V1 : the voltage across capacitor C1 (and the nonlinear resistance) • V2 : the voltage across capacitor C2 (and the voltage across the inductor) • I : the current through the inductor. Kirchoff’s laws then give dV1 = R −1 (V2 − V1 ) − g(V1 ) dt dV2 C2 = −R −1 (V2 − V1 ) + I dt dI L = −rI − V2 dt C1 where g (V ) is the nonlinear current-voltage characteristic for the effective nonlinear resistor (and is a negative quantity for the circuit). If we scale resistances by R1 , times by C1 R1 , measure voltages with respect to the switch point Vc in g (V ), and currents with respect to Vc /R1 , we get the equations dX = a (Y − X) − g(X) ¯ dt dY = σ [−a (Y − X) + Z] dt dZ = −c (Y + r Z) ¯ dt with X = V1 /Vc , Y = V2 /Vc , Z = R1 I /Vc , and then the parameters of the equations are: a b c σ r ¯ R1 /R 1 − R1 /R2 2 C1 R1 /L C1 /C2 r/R1 0.923 0.636 0.779 0.066 0.071

with the third column giving the values for the initial parameters of the applet. The nonlinear conductance is |X| < 1 −X 1 < |X| < 10 [−1 + b(|X| − 1)] sgn (X) g (X) = ¯ |X| > 10 [10 (|X| − 10) + (9b − 1)] sgn (X) where the expression for |X| > 10 is needed for stability, and corresponds to complicated saturation effects in the actual circuit. Note that the slope is −1 for |X| < 1, −b for 1 < |X| < 10, and 10 for |X| > 10. 1

636 c 0.779 0.636 0. Linearizing about the ﬁxed points gives solutions varying as eλt with λ given by the eigenvalues of the stability matrix −a + b a 0 σa −σ a σ 0 −c −¯ c r and positive λ means the stationary solutions are unstable. Some examples of the eigenvalues λ1 . 2 . 17715i 0. 40191 −6. and a real part that is either slightly negative (decaying oscillation) as for the paraemters of the applet (ﬁrst row) or slightly positive (growing oscillation) for the other rows. 1934i In each case there is one decaying (negative) eigenvalue. 9486 × 10−2 ± .636 0.779 0. 9125 × 10−2 ± .066 0. 48897 2.923 1 0.779 0.066 0. Z=− a X 1 + ra ¯ −aX . 40617 2. and λ3 : a 0. λ2 .The time independent solutions are at X=± 1−b a 1+¯ a − b r ± 1−b . 1836i 0.066 0 −.2.071 −. with an imaginary part around 0.779 σ r ¯ λ1 λ2.3 0.923 1 b 0. 5991 × 10−4 ± . and a pair of oscillating (complex) √ eigenvalues.066 0 −. 48631 5. a−b Y = ar ¯ X 1 + ra ¯ 0. corresponding roughly to the 1/ LC2 oscillation frequency. 18836i 0.071 −. 0174 × 10−4 ± .636 0.

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