ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

We would like to convey our heartfelt gratitude to Prof. T. Kumar (Director, ISM), Prof. B.C. Sarkar (HOD, Applied Geology), and Dr. A.K. Varma (Training InCharge) first of all, for the entire arrangement of the summer training program in CMPDIL HQ, Ranchi.

We would like to take this opportunity to thank all the people involved in making this summer training at CMPDI, Ranchi, a very fruitful assignment.

We would like to convey special thanks to Mr. S.K. Mitra [Director (T / ES)], Mr. B. Kumar [HOD (HRD)], Mr. N. Ahmad [GM (Expl)], Mr. S.Nath [GM (Geology)], Dr. H.K. Mishra [GM (Labs)], Mr. P. Prasad [Senior Manager (Hydrogeology)] and Dr. R.K.Jain [GM (Geology)] of CMPDIL Head Quaters, Ranchi, for their valuable guidance during the summer training program.

Date: 3rd June, 2011 Place: Ranchi

Poulomi Baksi Shreyasi Das Satavisha Ganguly Sulekha Bhaya Prasanta Ku. Mishra Nikhil Marda
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INTRODUCTION
We, students of Applied Geology (M.Sc. Tech) of ISM, Dhanbad have done our summer training job at CMPDI HQ (Central Mine Planning and Design Institute), Ranchi. The duration of this training was from

16th May to 4th June, 2011.We are very thankful to Prof. T. Kumar (Director ISM), Prof. B.C.
Sarkar (HOD, Dept. of Applied Geology), and Dr. A.K. Varma (Training in-charge). We would like to thank Mr. S. Nath, Mr.R.K.Jain , Mr. H.K. Mishra of CMPDIL for giving us such an opportunity and guidance.

COAL INDIA AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES:
The mission of Coal India is to produce the planned quantity of coal which is found in Jharkhand, Bihar, Orissa, M.P., A.P., Maharashtra, West Bengal, Assam, Sikkim states, efficiently and economically with due regard to safety, conservation and quality. Coal India Limited has eight subsidiaries while seven of them are engaged in coal mining operation and production of coal, CMPDI does all the prospecting, exploration, preparation of Geological Reports, Project Reports, Mine planning and design works for all the coal producing subsidiaries apart from many other activities.

Coal India Limited
Dankuni Coal Complex (DCC) North-Eastern Coalfields (NEC) 0.86 b.t. 5mines Margherita (Assam) Eastern Coalfields Ltd. (ECL)36.63 b.t. 129 mine Asansol (W.B.) Bharat Coking Coal Ltd.(BCCL) 19.42 b.t. 92 mines Dhanbad (Jharkhand) Central Ltd.(CCL) Coalfields

33.45 B.T. 54 mines Ranchi (Jharkhand)

Northern coalfields Ltd.(NCL) 10.34 b.t. 10 mine Singrauli (UP)

South-eastern Coalfields Ltd. (SECL) 27.36 b.t. 73 mines Bilaspur (Chhatishgarh )

CMPDI

Ranchi

Mahanadi Coalfields Ltd. (MCL) 46.22 b. t. 22 mines Sambalpur(Orissa)

Western Coalfields Ltd.(WCL) 8.65 B.T. 64 mines Nagpur(Maharashtra)

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392.45 100.62 13.313.00 6.44 482.0 Page | 2 .001.68 1. The type wise and category wise break up of Indian coal resources are given below: Type of coal Prime Coking Medium Coking Semi-Coking Non coking Tertiary coal Total of all type Proved(Mt) 4.99 9.614.INDIAN COAL: 1.37 4.880.5%) while the Tertiary coalfields of North-eastern region (Assam.614.85. A total of 2. Meghalaya) contribute 1493Mt (0.51 Total (Mt) 169.5%) of coal resources.710.707.448.71 12.724.21 %Share 59.05 285862. the Gondwana coalfields account for 2.60 1.312.41 1073.389.862 Millon Tonnes of geological resources of coal have so far been estimated in India up to maximum depth of 1200m (as per GSI).97 7.60 Indicated (Mt) 68238.21 %Share 1.10 Inferred(Mt) 11756.09 13534.678.29 109.23 221.02 34.10 0 1. The depth-wise and category-wise break-up of Indian coal resources is as follows: Depth Range Proved (Mt) (mt) 0-300 300-600 0-600 (jharia) 600-1200 Total 89.88 0.09 34389.53 0.063.076.33 1.85.93 1.60 Indicated(Mt) Inferred(Mt) 698.64 87.212.797.349.63 506.13 232.66 55195.862.57 9.06 26.35 12.003.263.69 477.68 35. Out of total resources.259.62 14.12 81101.14.68 1.21 28.16 87.08 114001.88 137471.38 2.37.47 502.84.51 Total(Mt) 5.369 Mt (99.89 16556.471.09 0.42 21289.40 100 2.09 89.

Coals lacking this property are called as Non-coking coal and used in power. This process of physical-chemical changes is also known as “Coalification” and indicative of the maturity of “Rank” of coal. is a readily combustible rock containing more than 50% by weight and more than 70% by volume of carbonaceous material. The moisture content however marginally decreases in anthracite. The mecerals can be divided into three groupsVitrinite (termed as Huminite for peat and Lignite essentially woody materials). Peat undergoes transformation through physical and chemical changes brought about by continued subsidence. increase in calorific value and increase in reflectance of vitrinite. Mecerals are normally intermixed and occur as groups termed as „Micro-litho type” which are mainly four types and they are Vitrain. lignite.Coal and its Characteristics:  Coalification Coal is formed from plants and is a complex substance consisting of different constituents representing several chemical compounds. Page | 3 . Inertinite (derived mainly from oxidized plant materials). Exinite (Liptinite derived mainly from spores. Durain. fertilizer and other industries.  Coking and Non-Coking Coal: Some coals on heating suitably swell and fuse to form a hard and porous mass called Coke which can provide concentrated heat and withstand a huge pressure. sub-bituminous. The coal series generally expressed as peat. bituminous and anthracite develops mainly due to enrichment of carbon and decrease of volatile matter. Clarain. resins and cuticles).  Coal Constituents: Just as a rock composed of several minerals so is the coal composed of several organic constituents termed as mecerals. decrease of moisture. Fusain. railway. Such coals are known as coking coal which is extensively used in metallurgical industries. increasing pressure and temperature leading generally to the formation of the coal series. the organic equivalent of minerals.

likely period of investigation. Town Engg. i. Coal Technology & Lab. Exploration. WCL. RI 5 Bilaspur (SECL). Our summer training program was held in CMPDI HQ.CMPDI (Central Mine Planning and Design Institute). Geomatics. CCL.e. Personnel & Administration. the help of satellite imagery and aerial photograph is needed. area of the block in sq. s). the relative position of the block in the coal field is earmarked. The investigations of GSI are a continuing process establishing the coal bearing Formations which is still going on. Head quarter of CMPDI is situated in Ranchi and it has seven Regional Institutes (R. Electrical & Mechanical Engineering. objective of exploration. RI 6 Singrauli (NCL) and RI 7 Bhubaneswar (MCL). & CM Division. Information &Communication Technology. Ranchi for 21 days. BCCL. At this Page | 4 . mine planning and design works are carried out mainly. SECL. In CMPDI. NCL & MCL) and one is Mine Planning and Design company .I. Finance. Coal Bed Methane. Its location and distance with respect to adjacent explored block and/or existing mines is determined. It includes the location of the block (latitude. longitude). RI 4 Nagpur (WCL). Accessibility. RI 2 Dhanbad (BCCL). RI 3 Ranchi (CCL). apart from many activities related to Civil Engineering. STAGES OF EXPLORATION Preliminary Investigation Regional Exploration Detailed Exploration Developmental Exploration PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION: First of all survey work is carried out. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF INDIA (GSI) has already done the geological mapping and has given us the Formational details of the coal bearing horizons in almost all the coalfields of India. The location of the Regional Institutes is RI 1 Asansol (ECL). has eight subsidiaries in which seven are production companies (ECL. In virgin areas.km are required to be determined.EXPLORATION Coal India Ltd.

Sometimes they use the BQ core size as and when required due to boreholes conditions. In TISCO. schedule. sampling. diameter. Here boreholes are drilled at 800m-1km apart. nature of the deposit. inputs like density of boreholes. there is no significant variation between the lithological and other characteristic features. 1-2 boreholes are drilled. the block is regionally explored. These factors include the geology of the area. target seam. fault types. At this stage an idea about the presence or absence of fault. REGIONAL EXPLORATION: In this case. seam correlation with the help of logs is carried out. quantum of drilling etc. During drilling operation CMPDI mainly uses NQ core size . lithology. Almost all the coalfields of India except the coalfield of Assam are suffered by normal faults. In coal industry mainly the use double tube core barrel is adopted. number and thickness of the seams etc are obtained. mainly diamond core drilling is used. DEVELOPMENTAL EXPLORATION: In India. etc. mainly diamond bits and TC bits are used. There are two types of drilling methods. construction of seam structure etc. It helps in day-to-day planning and quality control. 1 km interval is chosen. faults and the heat affected zones. this stage is followed wherever it is required. DRILLING: -. Based on the data generated after drilling. Here the reserves are accessed as Proved Reserve. For the drilling. In the case of drilling. Page | 5 . DETAILED EXPLORATION: Here boreholes are drilled at 400m interval which is suggested by “The Bureau of Indian Standard” by which the influence of coal is up to 200m from the known point. this practice is followed. One is by using single tube core barrel and another is by using double tube core barrel. throw. depth of drilling.. This is evidenced from the Gondwana coalfields where up to 200m from the known point. At this stage structural modeling is carried out. factors considered for the design of exploration programme are to be assessed. litholog plotting. Before proceeding for further investigation. accessibility.stage. The main objective of this stage is to Prove Incrop. degree of confidence required. These days. are to be determined.

e.50 Sand stone 0. RECORDING OF DRILLING DATA: .CORE RECOVERY: .10 124.70 125.25 Shaly coal 0. etc are indicated for coal and shaly coal and D1. seam structure is plotted on RF 1:50 considering the ash% + Moisture % i. On obtaining the band by band analysis of the seams of the respective boreholes.00 123.70 124.70 124.00 0.e. SAMPLING: The core logs obtained by drilling are sampled and sent for band by band analysis.70 125.. Here taking into account as per the visual logging C1. for coal (upto35%). shaly Page | 6 .CMBT-167/Box No-5 and dispatched to the respective laboratories for band by band analysis. Then the borehole no.45 Coal 0.For the area prescribed acceptable norm for core recovery percentage are 90% and 70% in non coal and coal horizons respectively in general and 70% and 50% in non coal and coal horizons of soft and friable nature especially in northeastern regions.70 123. shaly coal or carbshale. The coal cores are arranged in the boxes in book pattern. After litholog plotting seam structure is plotted in which RF of 1:50 is used in general as per detailed chemical analysis whether it is coal.40 123.60 0.40 0.40 126.40 Carbshale 0. Core recovery in both coal and non coal cores obtained by drilling in the block satisfy this norm with some exceptions. D2. This gives an idea about the lithotypes associated with the seam/s.40 123.(Figs in metres) From To Extrapolated Depth 123.70 0.40 0.After the drilling carried out the drilling data is recorded as follows- For example. C3. and box number are written on the box.60 0.35 Coal Recovery Lithology LOGGING: The data obtained by drilling is used in plotting the lithologs using the RF of 1:500 in general. D3 etc are indicated for carbshale.g.20 Coal 0.30 0. C2..10 124.

brecciated strata or the presence of slickensides etc. Fault are determined by evidence in the boreholes. SEAM CORRELATION: Correlation of seams is done with the help of lithologs.e. The rest 50% are calculated by using the software CEMGEODOC produced by CMPDI.. i.coal (35%-50%) and carbonaceous shale (>50% . at 40 degree centigrade and 60% relative humidity. Fault can also be determined by Inference. when some strata is missing. Significance of fault is of much importance.e. unusual difference in the level of roof and floor of the seam/s on either side of the fault. Page | 7 . The seams defined in this manner is subjected to overall analysis i. then it is evidenced that there may be a fault. Then making the roof-floor corrections to eliminate unviable carbshale. i. The useful heat values thus arrived from the overall analysis data are utilized for the estimation of the grade of the respective seams.. Overall Advice for seams defined: Floor contour plan is done using the FRL (Floor Reduced Level) value of the boreholes by means of 3-point method. The observations of some boreholes passing through the fault and some are adjacent to it helps in „Stitching‟ the fault alignment.e. the seam depths are defined. Approximately 50% of boreholes are determined by Overall analysis.75%) are marked.

This gives an indication of total coal available and total OB presents in terms of the thickness. Page | 8 . By using the isoparting line we draw isoparting map which is mainly used in opencast mine. ISOCHORE MAP: . ISOPARTING MAP: .Roof Contour Plan: The same procedure is followed for Roof Contour Plan as that of Floor Contour Plan using the RRL (Roof Reduced Level) value.Isochore map is drawn by using the vertical thickness of the coal seam as encountered in the borehole.Parting is the difference between the floor of one coal seam and the roof of another coal seam. ISOEXCAVATION MAP: .

Difference in the kind of plant material defines Coal type. CLASSIFICATION OF COAL:-Depending upon coking property coal has two classifications. It is extensively used in metallurgical industries. which requires a particular variety of coal.44 1.58 1.  CHARACTERIZATION OF COAL:- Coal has been readily combustible rock containing more than 50% by weight and more than 70% by volume of carbonaceous material including inherent moisture. It is expressed as Btu/lb (British Thermal Unit/Pound) or Kcal/Kg (Kilo Calorie/Kilogram).]. These are main characteristics of COAL. Such coals are called Coking coals.53 1. FOR COKING COAL:-Some coals on heating suitably swell and fuse to form a hard and porous mass called coke which can provide concentrated heat and withstand some pressure. formed from compaction and indurations of variously altered plant material. UHV-Useful Heat Value to grade coal.42 1.65 Page | 9 . Before going to further ahead in Quality it is needed to define the calorific value and UHV (Useful Heat Value). Range of impurities define Coal grade. can be determined by the following formula as follow:[8900-138(Ash + Moisture) kcal/kg. One is for coking coal and another is for non coking coal.50 1. GRADE Steel Grade I Steel Grade II Washery Grade I Washery Grade II Washery Grade III Washery Grade IV Inferior ASH% Up to 15 15-18 18-21 21-24 24-28 28-35 >35 SPECIFIC GRAVITY 1.QUALITYQuality evaluation of coal is most important for rational utilization of this valuable commodity. proper characterization of coal is important before being used.46 1. Calorific value-It is the heat liberated by its complete combustion with oxygen. To suit the requirement of various industries.

FOR NON-COKING COAL:-Coal lacking the properties of coking coal is non-coking coal.75 UHV Page | 10 .GRAVITY GRADE (K. Its classification is as follows.50 1.55 1.40 1.Cal/Kg) < 20 20-24 24-29 29-34 34-40 40-47 47-55 >=55 A B C D E F G UNGRADED >6200 >5600-6200 >4940-5600 >4200-4940 >3360-4200 >2400-3360 >1300-2400 <1300 1.68 1.58 1.45 1. ASH%+MOISTURE% SP.

(Low Temperature Grey King) retort and designated by alphabets A.G. It measures the volume increase of coal when unit mass of coal is heated under specific condition and numbered from 1 to 9 by reference to a series of standard profiles.K. ash (mineral content).B.G1 to G8 gives an indication of the coking potentiality of the coal. attain the maximum fluid state and resolidifies by rotating a small paddle inside a coal mass at a constant torque when coal is being heated and by measuring the rate of rotation of paddle as number of dial division per minute.) It gives an idea about the coking property of coal. Where coal softens. size of the cock pencil formed in the standard L.E. for use in metallurgical industries. shape. Hundred minus the sum total of these gives the fixed carbon. d) Plastometric Test= i.PROXIMATE ANALYSIS By proximate analysis the moisture (water content). c) LTGK Coke type: The nature. nitrogen.T.C.G. SPECIAL TESTs FOR COKING COAL=> a) Caking Index= Inert Material/ (Unit weight of coal in a mixture totaling 25 grams which on carbonization gives a coherent mass capable of supporting a load of 500 gms. b) Swelling Index=It gives the Swelling nature of coal during carbonization. volatile matter (Gaseous components) are determined in the laboratory as weight percentage. The maximum thickness of the layer of plastic mass formed after the temp raises above 3000c measures indirectly the maximum fluidity (ddpm) of Giesler‟s Plastometric test. Page | 11 . It reflects the utilization potential. FC = 100 – (Moisture + Ash + Volatile Matter) ULTIMATE ANALYSIS It consists of the determination of the percentage of elements (viz. sulphur and oxygen) present in coal by weight. Sapoznikov‟s Petrographic study The coal sample is heated from the bottom at the constant pressure of 1 kg/cm2 from top. carbon. ii.F. Giesler‟s Plastometric test It determines the temp.D.

It provides the corrosive nature of coal ash when used in power plants and allied industries. d) Hard grove Grind ability Index (HGI) =It indicates the relative grind ability of coal. because it measures X-ray diffracted from a unique phase crystal structure.Flow temperature(FT). It is expressed as Btu/lb (British Thermal Unit/Pound) or Kcal/Kg (Kilo Calorie/Kilogram). This study has gained importance now a day because the relevance of the determination of the parameter s has a great impact on the quality of coal. c) Ash Analysis=Here various acidic/basic constituents present in coal ash in the form of oxide. e) Trace element Study=Trace elements in coal is derived from the original plant material. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) is most direct technique for determination of mineral type. b) Ash fusion temperature=When heated the coal ash commens to soften at substantially lower temp. It helps to provide information on the choice of the type of pulverized required in the industries. f) Mineralogical Study=Coal is composed of organic and inorganic constituents have play a specific characterization of coal.e) Petrographic study= It is the visual examination of a polished section of coal under microscope under reflected light.Hemispherical temperature(HT). FOR NON-COKING COAL=> a) Gross calorific value=It is the heat liberated by its complete combustion with oxygen. Three points are determined the fusion range of coal ash which are initial deformation temp. from mineral matter washed to the coal swamp. before melting.(IDT). Page | 12 . from atmospheric deposition and from surface and underground water flowing into the swamps.

These total 8 units discovered the India‟s major coal fields. VIII. XV. XII. XI. IX. Coal India has 7 production unit and one R&D unit. all the coal is explored and produced by the Coal India Limited. XVII. IV. XVI. V. III. In India. XVIII. These are the followingI. XIX. XIV. VII. II.Namphuk Coalfield Page | 13 . XIII. XX. X. there are 20 major coal fields. VI. a Navaratna Company of Indian Government.MAJOR COALFIELDS IN INDIA In India. Raniganj Coalfield Jharia Coalfield East Bokaro Coalfield West Bokaro Coalfield Ramgarh Coalfield South Karanpura Coalfield North Karanpura Coalfield Daltonganj Coalfield Hutar Coalfield Singrauli Coalfield Sohagpur Coalfield Korba Coalfield IB river Coalfield Talcher Coalfield Pench-Kanha-Tawa Valley Coalfield Wardha Valley Coalfield Rajmahal Coalfield Godavari Valley Coalfield North Eastern Region Coalfield Namchik.

animals and plants.0001%. rivers or the oceans. from the atmosphere to the lithosphere and from lithosphere to the oceans.0. The circulation of water from the oceans to the atmosphere. The water evaporates from the oceans.Ice caps and Glaciers :-68.9%.Surface water. It may be evaporated. evaporation and transpiration is called as the hydrologic cycle. streams & rivers:-0.9%.005%. atmosphere and the upper part of lithosphere. agricultural and industrial growth of mankind.3%. The distribution of total fresh water is as follows:.e. Hydrologic Cycle The water of the earth circulates in the three media namely hydrosphere. snow or hail. This moisture when it moves to low temperature areas is condensed and precipitates as rain. transpired by plants. The hydrologic cycle is an important natural phenomenon on Earth. The water that reaches the ground is dissipated in several ways.Basics of Ground Water Hydrology 1. lakes and other water bodies and forms a part of the atmospheric moisture.001%. The water on the earth‟s surface is nearly 70% and the remaining is land surface. humans. rivers. infiltrated in the ground or flow as surface runoff into streams. runoff. ground water flow. swamp water etc:.5% is fresh water. Lakes & Rivers:-0. Fig 1: Hydrological Cycle Page | 14 . During the past few decades it is also being extensively used for industrial purposes. The Oceans contain 97. streams.9%. Soil moisture. occurring through complex and inter-dependent processes including precipitation. Since the olden times Ground water has been a major dependable source for domestic and irrigation use. soil moisture:0. 2). Introduction Water is the essence of life which is essential for the survival of all living beings i. Water is a principal element that influences the economic.25% of the total global water and remaining 2. 2. it is the driving force behind most other natural processes. Ground water:-29. The water resources can be distinctly classified into two categories -1). atmosphere:-0.Ground water.

Primary porosity is the inherent character of a rock which is developed during the formation of the rock itself. drainage and vegetation control the form and configuration of zone of aeration and also control the position of water table. Secondary porosity is the induced character and is developed subsequent to the formation of rocks. meteoric water if it was derived from atmospheric precipitation and as juvenile water if it is derived from the interior of the earth. Hydrogeology Hydrogeology is a branch of earth science that is concerned with the mode of occurrence. There may be two or more zones of saturation in some areas. movement and chemistry of water occurring in the subsurface in relation to the geological environment. In volcanic rocks. vadose water and internal water. the primary porosity is due to the presence of gas cavities (vesicles) and also lava tubes and lava tunnels. The subsurface water can be divided into ground water or phreatic water. Vesicular and scoriaceous lavas have high primary porosity. Page | 15 . pores/pore spaces. The geology.3. Porosity is usually of two types a) primary porosity and b) secondary porosity. interstices. porosity is of primary nature and is due to the inter-granular space. the downward movement of water may be hindered resulting in the saturation of interstices of the rocks above the impermeable barrier. 3. The porosity is the measure or property of the interstices present in the formation. Depending on the origin and source the subsurface water is classified as connate water if the water occurring in the rock formation was entrapped during the deposition of the rock. Water bearing and wateryielding properties of the zone of aeration mainly govern the percolation of water to the zone of saturation. Where there is an impermeable rock in the zone of aeration. The zone of aeration contains the vadose water which includes water held in the interstices of capillary dimensions. These spaces are known as voids. In semi-consolidated (sedimentary) rocks and unconsolidated (alluvial) formations.1 Porosity: The portion of the rock (or) soil not occupied by the solid rock material may be occupied by air (or) ground water.1 Hydraulic Properties of Rocks The important hydraulic properties of rocks are a) Porosity and b) Permeability. Ground water occurs in the zone of saturation in which all interconnected voids are filled with water that is under hydrostatic pressure. climate. 3. It is characteristic of consolidated and semiconsolidated formations and it is introduced by weathering. SUBSURFACE WATER: The water in the rocks existing in the liquid. The upper surface of this zone of saturation is termed as water table. Water in such zones of saturation is termed as perched ground water. Joints and fracture may induce secondary porosity in sandstone already possessing primary porosity. fracturing and jointing in hard rocks and dissolution of minerals in carbonate rocks (Limestone‟s and Dolomites). It is defined as the ratio of the volume of voids to the total volume and can be expressed as a percentage or as decimal fraction.1. The zone of aeration lies between the ground surface and the water table. distribution. topography. solid or gaseous state is called subsurface water.

In semi-consolidated (sedimentary) and unconsolidated (loose sediments) formations. Fig. Page | 16 . 2 b) On the other hand.2 Packing: Fig 3: Arrangement of Grains in Cubic and Rhombic packing The geometrical arrangement of grains or the types of packing also affects porosity. then the smaller grains will fill up spaces between the larger ones and hence poorly sorted and the porosity is less. 2 a) If the grains that make up a rock are mostly spherical in shape. 2 d) Well sorted sedimentary deposit. shape. the porosity is dependent on the size of the individual fractures. water can not readily move through the tiny pores and hence is not aquifer even though it may be saturated with water. In consolidated formations (hard rocks). packing of particles and degree of cementation. While clay formation has large water holding capacity. 2 e) Rock rendered porous by solution. then the rock is said to have well sorted arrangement and hence have greater porosity. distribution. the porosity of formation is controlled by the size. so that the deposit as a whole has a very high porosity. the porosity is as high as 48% while in rhombic packing it is as low as 26%. joints and other openings. spacing and the pattern of fracturing or on the nature of solution channels.Individual pores in a fine-grained material like clay are extremely small but the total pore space is usually large.2. Fig. 3. In cubic packing. Fig. Fig. Fig. sorting. 2 c) Well-sorted sedimentary deposit consists of pebbles that are themselves porous. if the grains of a rock are not uniform. whose porosity has been diminished by the deposition of mineral matter in the interstices. the extent.2 Relation Between Texture and Porosity: Fig. 3. 2 f) Rock rendered porous by fracturing.

3. Thus the degree of connectivity of the pores governs the permeability of the rock.2. The effective porosity is more closely related permeability than its total porosity.2. the rocks are classified into permeable. The permeability of porous medium is the ease with which a fluid can flow through the medium and is measured by the rate of flow in suitable units. Page | 17 . the porosity at deeper levels is less due to greater compaction. the porosity decreases with the deposition of secondary minerals in vesicles in the form of amygdule. On the basis of permeability.5 Permeability: The pores or openings in the rocks may be connected or disconnected normally or randomly distributed. The term effective porosity refers to the amount of interconnected pore spaces available for fluid flow and it is expressed as the ratio of volume of interconnected voids to total volume of rocks. In other words.4 Effective Porosity: The holes in the rocks may be connected or disconnected. it is seen that angularity tends to increase porosity. Cementation and compaction reduces porosity. It is not only the size of openings that determine the permeability. 3.3.3 Shape: Regarding the shape of grains. interstitial or planar rock like feature. semi-permeable and impermeable (impervious). The connection between the openings also plays an important role.2. It is a factor governing how a rock will act as a source of water for a well. In volcanic rocks. In unconsolidated alluvial formations. Larger openings are usually associated with larger permeability. permeability characterizes the ability of a porous medium to transmit a fluid or water.

Thus. Rises and falls in the unconfined aquifer correspond to changes in the volume of water in storage within aquifer. Movement of the ground water is in direct response to gravity (Fig.1 Unconfined Aquifers: An unconfined aquifer is not overlain by any confining layer but it has a confining layer at the bottom.An aquifer is defined as a saturated geological formation that is permeable enough to yield significant quantities of water to wells and springs.It is a saturated formation through which virtually no water is transmitted. The terms "water bearing formation/stratum" and "ground water reservoir" are synonyms for the aquifer. 4). In other words.4. AQUITARD:. The water table in unconfined aquifers is free to rise and fall.1.g. In other words.It is a formation which is neither porous nor permeable and hence neither stores nor transmits water (e.g. The best known classification is based on rock porosity and permeability is as follows: AQUIFER: .1 Types of Aquifers A further classification of aquifers in an area can be made on the basis of their location in the ground water basin. 4.) massive igneous and sedimentary rocks (compact limestone). clay and shale. The water table in unconfined aquifers is often termed as phreatic water level.g. Water Bearing Formations The water bearing properties of various geological formations can be classified on the basis of their hydraulic properties. Most aquitards do yield some water but usually not enough to meet even the modest demand. aquitards are rock layers that are partly impervious and transmit water at a lower rate than aquifer (e.) sandy clay. It is also referred to as water table or phreatic aquifer. The upper surface is defined by the water table and it is in direct contact with the atmosphere. AQUIFUGE :.Aquitard is a saturated formation that has low permeability and yields water slowly in comparison to the adjoining aquifers. a highly porous and an impervious (that does not transmit water at all) geological formation is called an aquiclude e. The granular unconsolidated sedimentary formations like gravel and sand form potential aquifers. AQUICLUDE: . Aquicludes may have high porosity but relatively have very low permeability and hence do not yield appreciable quantities of water to wells. a porous and permeable water bearing formation is called an aquifer. Aquifers are of three types: a) Unconfined b) Confined c) Leaky 4. Page | 18 . and the position of their associated water levels. Water in a well penetrating an unconfined aquifer is under atmospheric pressure and therefore does not rise above the water table.

e.4 Perched Aquifers: It is a type of an unconfined aquifer (Fig. the water will flow from the well and such wells are termed artesian or flowing wells. The imaginary surface. a water bearing formation may be overlain by an aquitard. For example. Sometimes. This zone is called the perched ground water zone and the aquifer is called a perched aquifer. an impermeable bed of clay or silt may be present in some areas above the regional water table within the vadose zone or zone of aeration. It will rise up to an elevation at which it is in balance with the atmospheric pressure. Where the aquitard is under the aquifer. Depending on the climatic conditions. Confined aquifers that loose or gain waters from the surrounding formations are called leaky confined aquifers. above the base of the overlying confining bed. the water level will rise above the top of the aquifer i.e. it may slowly transmit appreciable water to or from adjacent aquifers. a small water-bearing zone sometimes exists between the main water table and the ground surface. This impermeable barrier intercepts downward movement of water and causes some of it to accumulate in the interstices of the rocks present above the stratum. 4: Confined and Unconfined Aquifer 4.1. The perched aquifer has limited thickness and areal extent Page | 19 . water may be lost to or gained from the rocks below. 4. If this elevation is greater than that of the land surface at the well.2 Confined Aquifers A confined aquifer is bounded above and below by an aquiclude.1. As the aquitards are semipermeable. a perched water table may be permanent or seasonally intermittent. so that if a well taps the aquifer. which is impermeable to water flow. which permits water to move slowly upward out of the aquifer or vertically downward into the aquifer depending upon the hydrostatic head in the aquifer. a zone of saturation of limited areal extent is locally formed with in the zone of aeration i. It has an overlying confining layer. 4. conforming to the elevations to which water will rise in wells penetrating confined aquifers is known as the piezometric surface or potentiometric surface. which is usually more than the atmospheric pressure. It coincides with the hydrostatic pressure levels of the water in the aquifer (Fig.3 Leaky or Semi-confiend Aquifers: It is an aquifer whose upper and lower boundaries are bounded by aquitards. Thus.Fig.1. Water in the confined aquifer occurs under pressure. 4.). 5). The upper surface of the ground water in this case is called a perched water table. The confined aquifers have only an indirect or distant connection with the atmosphere.

5: Perched Aquifers 4.Fig. T Kb (T= transmissivity in m2/day. 4. through a vertical strip of the aquifer of one meter wide (unit width) and extending through the entire saturated thickness of the aquifer under a hydraulic gradient of (100% unit hydraulic gradient) at a temperature of 15. S = Volume of water / (Unit area) (Unit head change ) = m3 / (m2) (m) Page | 20 . The important parameters are transmissivity and storage coefficient which are known as „Formation Constants”.1 Transmissivity: The overall capacity of an aquifer to transmit water is dependent on the thickness and hydraulic conductivities of the components parts of the aquifer. a product of average hydraulic conductivity and saturated thickness of the aquifer. The head in the aquifer changes when the water is either stored or released indicating a change in the storage volume within the aquifer. b = thickness of the aquifer) Transmissivity is defined as the rate of flow of water in cubic meters per day. Storativity is defined as the volume of water that an aquifer releases or takes in to storage per unit surface area of the aquifer per unit change in component of the head normal to that surface.2 Co-Efficient of Storage/Storativity (S): The capacity of an aquifer to store water is expressed as a coefficient designated as S.2.2 Aquifer Properties Besides porosity and permeability there are several parameters that are related to the flow of water through the aquifers and confining layers.6C. 7). 4.2. Thus storativity is equal to the amount of water removed from each vertical column of aquifer of height m and unit basal area when the head declines by one unit (Fig. It is. therefore. K= hydraulic conductivity in m.

3 Well Hydraulics Water wells are used for the extraction of ground water for domestic. industrial and irrigation needs. 4. storatitivity is a result of compression of the aquifer and expansion of the contained water a result of reduced pressure due to pumping. Static Water Level (SWL):. The part of water that is not removed by gravity drainage is held against the force of gravity by molecular attraction and capillary. The quantity of water that a unit volume of material will give up when drained by gravity is the specific yield. For example.. Page | 21 .3.001 (10-3) for confined aquifers. it means that the water stands 15 meters below the ground surface or measuring point when there is no pumping.1 Definition of Terms: 1. when the SWL is 15m.2. only part of the total volume stored in its pores is released. Flow towards a well has been termed Radial Flow. 7: Diagram illustrating storage coefficient of confined aquifers Storatitivity is non-dimensional.The level at which the water level stands in a well before pumping is called static water level.Fig. It is generally expressed as the distance from the ground surface to the water level in a well.3 Specific Yield (Sy): The capacity of the rock to drain water under the force of gravity is termed specific yield. The value of S ranges from 0. The quantity of water that a unit volume of aquifer retains when subjected to gravity drainage is called its specific retention. 4.00001 (10-5) to 0. 4. When water is drained from a saturated material by gravity force. municipal. It is defined as the volume of water released or stored per unit surface area of the aquifer per unit change in the head normal to that surface. In confined aquifer.

and each particle of water moves in a regular path without crossing or intersecting those of others.3. 5. In each thread of laminar movement there is an endless procession of particles of water. Pumping Water Level (PWL):. it is the difference between the residual drawdowns after the given time and drawdowns when pumping stopped. 4. Pumping Rate (Discharge):.2. the distance between the recouping water level and the initial SWL is called residual drawdown.This is the level at which water stands in a well when pumping is in progress. Residual Drawdown (s'):. Recovery:. Drawdown (s):. When the water level returns to the SWL. The water in the interstices of the permeable rocks in the zone of saturation is. This slow and steady kind of movement is called the laminar flow. That means there is no intermixing individual threads /layers. as a rule.It is the difference between the static water level and the pumping water level. 9) Page | 22 . the water level rises and approaches the SWL observed before pumping began. It is also known as streamline (or) viscous flow. Other units employed are cubic meter per hour (m3/h) and cubic meter per day (m3/day). This level is variable and changes with the quantity of water being pumped. Thus. 4. 6. During water level recovery. The pumping water level is also called the dynamic water level. move very slowly and steadily. (Fig.This is the volume of water per unit time discharged from a well by pumping. recovery is said to be complete.After pumping is stopped.2 Ground Water Flow Turbulent flow Two basic types of flow occur in ground water with one more prevalent than the other. It can be measured in liters per minute (lpm). This is also called the well yield.This the amount by which the water level in a well has risen at a given time after pumping ceased. Drawdown affects the yield of the well. 3.

NON-STEADY STATE FLOW:. In a formation with high transmissivity. water is removed from the aquifer and the water table is lowered and hydraulic gradient is established resulting in convergent or Radial flow towards the well. the cone is deep with steep sides and has a small radius. Non-steady state flow is described with respect to boundary and initial conditions. the cone of depression is shallow with flat sides and has a large radius. STEADY-STATE FLOW:.Flow is said to be under steady or equilibrium state when the magnitude and direction specific discharge remain constant with time. Page | 23 . Changes in storage of the aquifer are involved in non-steady flow. A drawdown curve shows the variation of drawdown with distance from the well. The water surface assumes approximately the shape of an inverted cone with PWL as apex and the base conforming to the original SWL. Steady-state flow implies that the position of the piezometric surface and the hydraulic gradient remain unchanged. It is at this instant that the cone of depression is stabilized and the well is in equilibrium condition. the drawdown curve describes a conic shape known as cone of depression. the area of influence keeps expanding indefinitely till a position is reached when the rate of discharge from the well equals to the rate of recuperation from the storage of the well. As more and more water is pumped out of the well. also called unsteady or nonequilibrium or transient state when the magnitudes or direction of specific discharge changes with time.Flow is said to be under non-steady. In a formation with low transmissivity.3 Radial Flow to Wells CONE OF DEPRESSION:.4. In three dimensions.When a well is pumped.3. Radius of influence is the horizontal distance from the center of a well to the limit of the cone of depression. and equilibrium conditions have been reached between recharge and discharge. The perimeter of the cone of depression defines the area of influence and the radius of base of the cone is referred as the radius of influence (R). The distance between static water level and the pumping water level is called drawdown. There is no addition to or withdrawal from the storage of the aquifer.

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