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Ecological changes and threats posed to children in perspective of Ecological rights of children today and in future

Ecological Changes and Threats/Risks to Children

General, Specific-Vulnerable Children

Evolution of Environmental and Ecological Rights

Why Ecological Rights of Children

Ensuring Ecological Rights of Children

Changing climate/weather precipitation, temperature

Increasing pollution Air, Water, Land, Noise, Food Expedited Degradation of Land, Water, Ecosystems

Erosion of soil, biodiversity , traditional NRM assets

Drastic/Forced change in Ecosystems, Land uses and

habitats Urbanization, Industrialization, Mining, Displacement

major and undesirable disturbances in the earths climate and

protective layers; gross deficiencies, harmful to physical, mental and social health, in the living and working environments of humans, especially in cities and industrial complexes

Ecological foot print measures how much land and water area a human population requires to produce the resource it consumes and to absorb its wastes, using prevailing technology Mathis Wackernagel and William Rees, 1990 It now takes the Earth one year and five months to regenerate what we use in a year

MORE than 5 million children, aged 0-14 years old, die annually

from illnesses and other conditions caused by the environmentWHO 60% of acute respiratory infections worldwide are related to environmental conditions and cause the death of more than 1.6 million annually Malaria: - which already kills 800,000 children/year - is now in areas which were previously outside the range of malarial mosquitoes Climate change will increase the burden of diarrhoeal disease in low income countries by between 2-5% by 2020. Dengue: Estimates suggest the population at risk could double from 1.5 billion today to 3.5 billion by 2080 due to climate changes

Hunger due to Temp increase

Farm Children to Agrochemical Pollution

Street Children to Plastic, Carcinogens, Heavy Metals Mining area-Children to heavy metals, Dust

Coastal area to Salinity, Flood, Cyclones Urban Children to Traffic Noise and Air Pollution
Rural Poor & Tribal Children to Health &

Malnutrition Autisms to Food Pollution ..list goes on

Increasing alienation From Nature, Biodiversity, Culture,

Indigenous Knowledge/practices on NRM/Biodiv Increasing Exploitation & Consumption of Biological Resources , mostly in skewed manner Increasing Risks, Vulnerabilities and Hazards
Physical : Hostile Environment (Climate, Pollution Biological : Nutritional deficiency/overdose , New diseases Emotional : Stressed living conditions Economical : Survival, Growing Marginalization

Economic growth and Energy use Low level of environmental literacy Non- incorporation of environmental principles in policies

and programs of the State Pressure on resources from growing human and animal populations Indifference of the industrial sectors on environmental safety Tensions between Growth and Equity Uncontrolled consumerism of the upper classes Fundamental Causes Intra-generational, Inter-generational and Inter-species Inequity

Anthropo-centric to Eco-centric 1 st Generation (Social & Political) to 3 rd Generation (Ecology & Environment)

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948)

International Covenant on Civil and Political

Rights (ICCPR) (1976), and International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR)(1976) UN Comprehensive Human Rights Guidelines on Development-based displacement (1997) Draft UN Declaration on Indigenous Rights (1994)

Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species

(CITES) (1972) Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer (1985) and Montreal Protocol (1987) United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (1992) and Kyoto Protocol (1998) Convention on the Control of Trans-boundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal (Basel) (1989) Convention on Biological Diversity Rotterdam Convention on the Prior Informed Consent Procedure for Certain Hazardous Chemicals and Pesticides in International Trade (1998) Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001):

Environmental rights mean access to the unspoiled natural

resources that enable survival, including land, shelter, food, water and air. Also include more purely ecological rights, including the right of human and other creatures Include political rights like rights for indigenous peoples, the right to information and participation in decision-making, freedom of opinion and expression, and the right to resist unwanted developments. Right to claim reparations for violated rights, including rights for climate refugees and others displaced by environmental destruction, the right to claim ecological debt, and the right to environmental justice. Linked to human rights, as people's livelihoods, their health, and sometimes their very existence depend upon the quality of and their access to the surrounding environment as well as the recognition of their rights to information, participation, security and redress.

Human beings are ecologically interdependent with

the whole natural environment. Holistic, or systems approach

James Lovelocks Gaia hypothesis: The evolution of

the species of organisms is not independent of the evolution of their material environment. Indeed the species and their environment are tightly coupled and evolve as a single system

Children being a part of Ecosystem has the Need of

& Right to Interact with its Surroundings

(Principle of Ecology is Relationship & Interaction) To Know about other Ecological Elements To Survive and Grow with and from them
Growing concerns for Environmental Right esp in the

Present Context of Development

To save Children of all class and ecosystems from

growing Risk and Vulnerability To save poor and vulnerable children in marginal economies, ecosystems Poverty pollutes

Rights of Children to a clean, healthful, and

biologically diverse, resilient environment Rights of Exposure to elements and diversity of ecosystems Right to practice Culture elements related to Ecology Interaction and Reciprocation with elements of Ecosystems (Rights to and Responsibility of) Acting to rejuvenate, maintain and sustain life support ecosystems and ecoelements



Consumption Drive


ECO-REFUGEE In Slums Displaced habitat Polluted Zones Differently Abled Indigenous Communities

ECOSYSTEM CHILDREN Mountain Desert Arid Zone Indigenous Communities

Ecology Drive

Parceled Rights
Land, Water, Forest, Environment

No concept of Bundled Ecological Rights

Ecological Right is more about Rights-Responsibility


Situations & Threats

Vulnerability Contexts Marginalized Children in Marginal Ecosystems

Who owns Land in Orissa?

State owns two third land 1 in each 5 is a Landless, Another 63% HH own only 17% of its land

NF State land 29%

Pvt Land 33%

SF & MF 17%

Other 17%

State Forest Land 38%

State owns 66%

SC & ST constitute about two fifth of Population in Orissa & owns one third of land

In Tribal Areas?
State holds 3/4 th of land 20% HH are landless And another 65% HH own only 13% land
Others 13%

NF State land 28%

Pvt Land 26%

SF & MF 13%

State Forest Land 46%

SC & ST constitute 66% of Population in these districts!

State owns 74%

Kondhamal : Marginalized!
State holds more than 4/5 th land 26% HH are landless Another 41% HH own only 7 % land
SF & MF 7%
Pvt land 14% NF State land 11%

Other 7%

Forest land 75%

State land 86%

Across PTG Homelands Cultivable land is about a fifth !

Land Ownership in PTG Areas

Other lands


80% 60%

Forest land

40% 20% 0%
Lanjia Juang Didayi Kutia Kondh Pauri Bhuyan Saora Average

Cultivable land

To save their Ecosystem, their Livelihoods, their knowledge base, For production of services and products for Protection of Other Children

Growing Disconnections

Fish 8% Vegetable 34% Fruits 15%

Leaf 10% Root 16%

Insects 1%

Shoots 8% Seeds 5%

Meat 3%


Kahulong , Tamenglong KAIMAI KUKI, Tamenglong

Total no of Forest species recorded 89

Species being used as food 28

143 127

62 42

Kha-aimol Churachandpur Karpurshungba

301 94

21 44

Tipaimukh area of Churachandpur Kamjong Area, Ukhrul District,

17-32 varieties of paddy, , 12-15 varieties of beans 15 paddy varieties: 13 beans

Saikul area of Senapati District

18 varieties of paddy, beans (10 varieties), chilly (4-5 varieties), onion (3 local varieties), coriander (2 varieties).

Vulnerability Contexts Marginal Ecosystems : Remote, Rural Marginalized Children Street Children

Drinking water is bad. When we bathe the

skin itches. When we drink water we get sores in our mouth. It is difficult to breathe. Hair begins to fall. We get sores in our throat. The body itches at night.

- A tribal in Mukta Chhatrapur 50% of urban and 80% of rural people affected water pollution C Class water in Mahanadi, Brahmani and Baitarani ( OPCB, 2006) Very high conc of Cr (VI) in seepage water in Sukinda- 0.05 to 1.12 ppm (permissible 0.05ppm), also detected in river mouth, more than 100 Km away Huge metal pollution from mine waste Sukinda Valley is now among worlds 10 most polluted areas in the World-Blacksmith Institute (2007)

To Protect them for Diseases, Malnutrition, Mortality To augment Better Health & Mental Growth To Contribute to National Growth & Prosperity

To ensure their survival Food, Livelihood To protect their Culture To sustain biodiversity To maintain f low of products and services

Exploring Pathways

Rights has to be legally sanctioned

Through advocacy

Rights can be asserted in a variety of ways: for

by appealing directly to the violating government,

international financial institution or corporation; through international, regional and national courts; by applying public and media pressure; and by building coalitions with others seeking similar rights.

Parents? School?

Neighbors and Peers?


Civil Society?


Aware them
Through Media Print, Electronic, Publications

Enable them to understand Through

Indirect Involvements : Projects, Exhibitions, Course

Curricula, Simple Do-its Direct Exposures to Ecosystems, Ecological processes, Vulnerable Children Expeditions, Excursions, Treks, Camping etc.
Involving them
In Appraising & Analyzing the situation, trend and influences

on fellow children : Through participatory tools/research insitu In dialogue processes , in demanding rights

Protection from
Pollution Environmental Risks

Ecological degradation processes & impacts

Interaction with & Exposure to

Diverse Ecosystems and Elements Extending and Enhancing scope of engagements in Rural, Remote Ecosystems Continued for local Children & New scope of Other Children Concept of Forest Schools in Finland

A new approach and a new culture are needed, based on the centrality of the human person within creation and inspired by environmentally ethical behavior stemming from our triple relationship to God, to self and to creation. Such an ethic fosters interdependence and stresses the principles of universal solidarity, social justice and responsibility, in order to promote a true culture of life.

-- Pope John Paul II and Ecumenical Patriarch Bartholomew I (2002),

Common Declaration which set out Ethical Goals regarding care of environment and the use of common patrimony of all humanity