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FERMENTATION a metabolic process in which chemical changes are brought about in an organic substrate through the activities of enzymes secreted by microorganisms the process by which yeast converts the glucose in the wort to ethyl alcohol and carbon dioxide gas Latin word fervere meaning to be boiling C6H12O6 => 2(CH3CH2OH) + 2(CO2) + Energy (Glucose) (Ethyl alcohol) (which is stored in ATP) Sugar => Alcohol + Carbon dioxide gas + Energy GAY-LUSSACS STUDY OF ALCOHOL FERMENTATION the conversion of sugar into carbon dioxide and alcohol PASTEURS RESEARCHES define fermentation as life without air Two Types of Fermentation AEROBIC FERMENTATION (oxybionic processes; respiration) requires free oxygen to act as an hydrogen acceptor acetic acid and citric fermentation ANAEROBIC FERMENTATION atmospheric oxygen is not involved aldehydes or pyruvic acid hydrogen acceptors alcoholic, butyl alcohol-acetone and lactic acid fermentation


MALT/ STARCH SOURCE provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer most common starch source used in beer is malted grain Malted Barley BARLEY the seed of a grain that looks a lot like wheat Barley is malted to induce the enzymatic activity of the kernel and to obtain a first modification of the grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination. This is done by soaking the barley in water for several days, and then draining the barley and holding it at about 60 degrees Fahrenheit (15.5 C) for five days. HOPS (Humulus lupulus) They are used for their bittering and aromatic properties. They have also antiseptic properties. normally added during the kettle boil BREWING WATER Beer is composed mostly of water. REQUIREMENTS OF BREWING WATER: 1. It must meet local or international standards for portable water. 2. It must not be too alkaline. The maximum alkalinity is 50 ppm. 3. It must be hard and contains calcium. It constitutes more than 90% of the beer volume.

BREWING ADJUNCT A brewing material that supplements malt in terms of carbohydrate contribution, including cereals and cane sugar SUGAR usually sucrose (from cane) which is stored hot, or as an invert sugar (hydrolized sucrose syrup) *when used in copper copper sugar *when added to beer priming sugar SYRUP derived from maize, barley or wheat and are produced by acid /enzyme treatments and concentration YEAST the microorganism that is responsible for fermentation in beer metabolizes the sugars extracted from grains, produces alcohol and carbon dioxide


CLARIFYING AGENT Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents to beer, which typically precipitate (collect as a solid) out of the beer along with protein solids and are found only in trace amounts in the finished product. This process makes the beer appear bright and clean. isinglass, obtained from swimbladders of fish; Irish moss, a seaweed; kappacarrageenan, from the seaweed Kappaphycus cottonii; Polyclar (artificial); and gelatin. OTHER ADDITIONS CARAMELS to provide color and flavour HOP OIL distilled essential oil of hops to give hoppy aroma ANTI-MICROBIALS only sulfur dioxide at 20-50 ppm is permitted CARBON DIOXIDE a beer conditioner


SELECTION OF BARLEY AND OTHER GRAINS Barley the fourth most important crop in the world. Major use - beer making Two main types: Hordeum Distichon (two-row barley) and Hordeum Vulgare (sixrow barley) Using adjuncts like rice, corn or sugar results to a beer with less malt flavor and a very pale flavor. Selection of grain will define the style or type of beer produced. Grapes is to wine; Barley/Grain is to beer MALTING the process of converting barley into malt. Development of amylase enzymes required for conversion of starch to fermentable sugars. Develops the flavor Converting insoluble starch to soluble starch Reducing complex proteins

Steps: Steeping Germination Kilning Steeping The barley is soaked in water for four to six days at a cool temperature (12 15C) Water is replaced several times to aid in microbial control and to replace oxygen. Evenly hydrates the endosperm mass and to allow uniform growth during germination Raise moisture level Germination process in which a plant or fungus emerges from a seed or spore, respectively, and begins growth. to allow the starches in the barley grain to breakdown into shorter lengths. When this step is complete, the grain is referred to as green malt. Kilning final part of malting the green malt goes through a very high temperature drying in a kiln. the temperature change is gradual so as not to disturb or damage the enzymes in the grain. when kilning is complete, there is a finished malt as a product. Low temperature: higher enzymes, low coloring and flavor compound High Temperature: low enzymes, high coloring and flavor compound MILLING This is when the grains that are going to be used in a batch of beer are cracked. Milling the grains makes it easier for them to absorb the water that they are mixed with and which extracts sugars from the malt. It can also influence the general characteristics of a beer. Reduce the malt into particle sizes Extract = WORT MASHING the process of combining a mix of milled grain, known as the "grain bill", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture. This process converts the starches released during the malting stage, into sugars that can be fermented. The milled grain is dropped into hot water in a large vessel known as a mash tun. the grain and water are mixed together to create a cereal mash. the mash temperature may be raised to about 75 C (165-170 F) to deactivate enzymes. LAUTERING WORT SEPARATION a process in brewing beer in which the mash is separated into the clear liquid wort and the residual grain. or it is the process wherein the leftover sugar rich water is then strained through the bottom of the mash

this step is important because solids contain large amount of protein; poorly modified starch; fatty material; silicates, polyphenols objective: produce clear wort it usually consists 3 steps: MASH OUT stops the enzymatic conversion of starches to fermentable sugars, and makes the mash and wort more fluid. RECIRCULATION drawing off wort from the bottom of the mash, and adding it to the top. SPARGING trickling water through the grain to extract sugars. BREWING (BOILING) Within the copper brew kettle the wort is then boiled for a prescribed time interval to precipitate unwanted elements and to infuse the addition of flavorful hops. This stage is where many chemical and technical reactions take place, and where important decisions about the flavour, colour, and aroma of the beer are made. During the boil, hops are added. The vapors produced during the boil volatilize off flavors, including dimethyl sulfide precursors. This process lasts between 50 and 120 minutes, depending on its intensity, the hop addition schedule, and volume of water the brewer expects to evaporate. COOLING The wort must be brought down to fermentation temperatures (20-26Celsius) before yeast is added. this is achieved through a plate heat exchanger. water is the usual cooling medium after cooling, oxygen is often dissolved into the wort to revitalize the yeast and aid its reproduction. FERMENTATION the conversion of carbohydrates to alcohols and carbon dioxide or organic acids using yeasts, bacteria, or a combination thereof, under anaerobic conditions. the chemical conversion of sugars into ethanol. yeast is added to the wort inside conical bottom fermentation tanks. the yeast breaks down the malt sugars to produce alcohol and CO2, which then gives beer its familiar characteristics. significant flavor development and maturity takes place here.

CONDITIONING the beer is cooled to around freezing, which encourages settling of the yeast, and causes proteins to coagulate and settle out with the yeast. Unpleasant flavours such as phenolic compounds become insoluble in the cold beer, and the beer's flavour becomes smoother. pressure is maintained on the tanks to prevent the beer from going flat. This process takes from 2 to 4 weeks, sometimes longer, depending on the type of beer. FILTRATION

Remove residual yeast, other turbid-causing materials, and microorganisms in order to achieve colloidal and microbiological stability of the beer. CARBONATION Beers are made effervescent or bubbly Extends the shelf life of the product Two methods: The carbon dioxide collected from the fermentation tank or vats may be added back after the aging process. The beer may be carbonated naturally by adding small amounts of actively fermenting beer to the finished product that is aging in the tanks. PACKAGING putting the beer into the containers in which it will leave the brewery. putting the beer into bottles, aluminium cans and kegs, but it may include putting the beer into bulk tanks for high-volume customers.



Difference in beers lies in: - varying the composition of the liquid adjunct and malt - changing the nature of the hop varities used - varying the times of hop addition to the kettle - dry hopping 1. Lager - bottom fermented beer, originated in Bavaria in the 15th century - fermented at 10-16C by a yeast that settles to the bottom of the vat after fermentation - contains few hops, often stored in wood containers, has a long life - in US, lagers are amber or golden in color, with medium body and flavor -more carbonated and taste drier than ale, generally less alcoholic and complex 2. Ale - top fermented beer, produced throughout the world, but most commonly in UK - has the tendency to gather at the surface of the brew during the first few days before settling to the bottom - has a higher alcohol content (6%) - a fermented malt beverage made from mash of barley malt, hops, water and sometimes sugar, corn or rice - wort carefully clarified liquid prepared from the ingredients and fermented at 20-21C with ale yeast - lacks the dark color and caramel taste of porter and stout, have more hop aroma and bitter flavor than lagers, and are usually more complex and less carbonated 3. Porter - a British ale, sweeter than ordinary ale - brewed with less hops - has richer and heavier foam - have dark color and usually contain adjuncts 4. Stout - has strong malt flavor - sweeter, darker (due to heavily roasted malt) and heavier than porter 5. Bock Beer - heavy beer that is darker and sweeter than lager beer

- basically a German beer that is traditionally prepared in winter and enjoyed in the spring - it is well lagered- beer is matured for a long period of time during the second fermentation 6. Near Beer - cereal beverage, a bottom fermented beer from which most of the alcohol has been removed so that it contains less than 0.5% alcohol - the concept of near beer arose during the Prohibition in the United States, when alcohol was not permitted, but people still had a taste for it


Drinking one beer per day may be good for your health because it has been associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. The folate found in beer may help to reduce homocysteine in the blood and lower homocysteine levels mean a lower risk of cardiovascular disease. Lab studies have found constituents in beer that lower triglycerides and LDLcholesterol in mice. Drinking one beer per day reduces blood clotting so some studies found that cardiovascular patients who drank one beer per day also lived longer.

Other studies have found that women who consume one beer each day have improved mental health. Drinking beer and other alcoholic beverages in moderation may also improve bone density. Drinking more than one beer or any alcoholic beverage per day can put too much alcohol in your system and that isn't good for you. DRINK MODERATELY! J Beer, in general, contains the trace minerals such as zinc, copper, and manganese; and good source of folate, niacin, magnesium, potassium and niacin. According to USDA National Nutrient Database, one 12-ounce serving of regular beer has the following nutrients: Calories: 153 Protein 1.64 g Carbohydrates: 12.64 g Calcium: 14 mg Magnesium: 21 mg Phosphorus: 50 mg Potassium: 96 mg (high) Sodium: 14 mg (low) Zinc: 0.04 mg Thiamin: 0.018 mg Riboflavin: 0.089 mg Niacin: 1.826 mg Pantothenic Acid: 0.146 mg Vitamin B6: 0.164 mg

Plant operations Breweries operated on round-the-clock schedules which demands 24-hour manning in the cellars. Limiting factor in production is the capacity of the brew house. Maximum volume of beer produced from the largest particle kettle is about 3 to 4 million barrels. Cellars must be in cool temperature (mechanical refrigeration) to keep the fermenting beer cool. Speed of packaging equipment allows the so-called bottleshop section of a brewery to run on a less than round-the-clock operation. Brew master many choices involved in the brewing process Plant manager all other things in the brewery including the bottleshop Quality control Quality control begins with the raw materials used in brewing Barley malt variety of malt is always specified and in what region it was grown Analysis of finished malt indirect control of malting process Hops - variety of hops is always specified and in what region it was grown; depends on aroma and appearance Corn and rice judged by extract values and low oil content Fermentation process monitored for the rate of fermentation (decrease in density) and temperature; presence of good bacteria Monitoring of oxygen and carbon dioxide level after filtration

Beer is analyzed completely to maintain standards and uniformity Tasting integral part of quality control; before packing Selected taste panels trained to detect flavors in beer alongside with crackers and water

Wine has been made for several thousand years by fermentation of the grape juice. Continuous studies and improvements have been made to reduce cost and to make more homogenous / uniform products. Nowadays, other fruit juices were used to make wines, such as coconut, mango, and sugarcanes.

Properties like color and taste depends largely upon the nature of the fruits and manner of fermentation. Classification of wines according to alcohol content: Natural or Table wine (7 to 14%) Still or Sparkling wine (8 to 12%) Sweet or dry wine (16 to 18%) Fortified wine (14 to 30%) Reaction in Wines: Fruit to be considered: Grapes Equation of inversion: C12H22O11 + H2O C6H12O6 + C6H12O6 sucrose glucose fructose

Inversion - Breaking down of sucrose Invertase - an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis (breakdown) of sucrose (table sugar); (i.e. beta-fructofuranosidase)

Equation of fermentation: C6H12O6 2C2H5OH + 2CO2 alcohol

monosaccharide Through continuous fermentation:

2C6H12O6 + H2O C2H5OH + CH3COOH + 2CO2 + 2C3H8O3 monosaccharide alcohol acetic acid glycerin

A small amount of glycerin is always found in alcohol fermentation. Grapes contain high percentage of glucose (readily fermentable) Grapes also contain natural yeasts which give the flavor and taste in wine Methods of Fermentation: The Intermittent Fermentation a large amount of sugar is necessary in order to secure a high percentage of alcohol in the wine Continuous Fermentation used when the yeast is already trained for a heavy load of sugar

Conditions Favorable to Wine Yeast: Selective Action of Sulfur Dioxide on microorganisms prevents the growth of wild yeasts and bacteria present on the fruits (75ppm) The Control of Temperature must be in a room temperature or cooler (21C) to produce aromatic materials The Starter or Inoculum usage of good yeasts such as Saccaromyces ellipsoideus The following are some of the well-known native wines in the Philippines: Basi or Sugarcane Wine - Familiar drink among folks in the northern provinces of the Philippines, particularly in Ilocos Region; Considered as the King of Native Wines Lambanog or Coconut Wine - Famous Filipino alcoholic drink made from the sap of the unopened coconut flower; Considered as the Poor Mans drink because the processing is low-cost Tapuy of Philippine Rice Wine - A Filipino rice wine originated in Batad (a place in the Banaue Rice Terraces), Ifugao, Philippines Green and Yellow Mango Wine product of Don Robertos Winery Corporation Coffee Wine another product of Don Robertos Winery Corporation Mushroom Wine product of Jentrix Enterprise Requirements in Philippine Wine Fermentation: Add sugar to attain a high percentage of alcohol in the final product Use of good active yeast (Brewers Yeast, Torula Yeast, Bakers Yeast) Anaerobic conditions Vitamins and Minerals Correct temperature Low Ph

Brandy Gin a spirit whose predominant flavor is derived from juniper berries. a spirit produced by distilling wine. generally contains 35%60%alcohol by volume and is typically taken as an after-dinner drink. produced from fermented fruits other than grapes, but these products are typically called eaux-de-vie.


it is broadly differentiated into two basic legal categories: Distilled gin and Compound gin

a distilled alcoholic beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses, or, directly from sugarcane juice, by a process of fermentation and distillation. majority of the world's rum production occurs in Caribbean and Latin American

Tequila a spirit made from the blue agave plant. may be rested in oak barrels or casks, allowing for richer and more complex flavors.

Vodka composed primarily of water and ethanol with traces of impurities and flavorings. made by distillation of fermented substances such as grains, potatoes, or molasses.

Whisky type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash. different grains are used for different varieties, including barley, malted barley, rye, malted rye, wheat, and maize (corn). aged in wooden casks, made generally of white oak, except that in the United States corn whiskey need not be aged.

Three types of Alcoholic Beverages produced in the Philippines: 1) WINE - product made from natural fermentation of a wide variety of sugary materials including juices extracted from fruits, flowers herbs, etc. which contains less than 9% but not more than 16% of alcohol by volume 2) Distilled spirits - alcoholic beverages which are produced from distillates of wine, grains or starch solutions and aromatic substances such as brandy, whisky, gin, rhum, alcoholic cordials and vodka.

3) Malt Liquors are alcoholic beverages that are brewed from barley, malt or from a mixture of malt substitutes like rye and may contain other cereal and starchy saccharin matter. Malt liquor products include Ale, Beer, stout and Proter. Non-Alcoholic Beverages -a beverage that contains less than 0.5% alcohol by volume. Examples: 1) Soft Drinks-carbonated, sweetened and flavored drink 2) Bottled Water but excluding fruit juices Majority of Local Beverage Firms in the Philippines carbonated water and soft drink-41 firms hard liquor-34 firms wine manufacturing-4 firms beer brewing-7 firms Beverage Manufacturers in the Philippines Asia Brewery The Coca-Cola Company Pepsi Co San Miguel Corporation Universal Robina GQWEST Inc. RC Cola

BEER San Miguel beer leads w/ 90% share of the market and Asia Brewery accounts for the remaining 10%. San Miguel Beer (SMB) is the Filipinos favorite alcoholic drink. Being a locally produced beer, its name has been steadily and deeply embedded in the Filipino psyche and it has become almost a generic name for beer in the Philippines. Its target market covers not only those from C-D income bracket but also those in the corporate field. Wines and Liquors The liquor industry in the Philippines consists of the indigenous and commercially manufactured beverages. Alcoholic drinks are also widely sold at duty free shops. Beers are widely available in grocery and convenience stores but whisky, wine and alcoholic drinks are supposedly purchasable only at licensed liquor stores. But this is not always the case. Due to lax monitoring and

implementation, hard drinks can also be bought in many regular stores even by teenagers Philippine law sets the minimum legal drinking at 18 but underage drinking is widespread. Most young people get alcohol from home with or without their parents permission. Alcohol drinking is a big part of the Filipino merry-making activities. Beer is an essential part of fiestas, birthdays and parties. Even when there is no special occasion, many Filipinos hang out together in the streets, in front of their houses and convenience stores drinking gin and tonic, which is considerably cheaper alcoholic drink. This is particularly true in a low income community where, unlike those from the middle and high income bracket who have money to go to the bars to hang out and drink. The price of drinks in the bars is about 100 percent more expensive Common in the rural areas is Lambanog (or coconut wine) which is now being sold in different flavors such as cherry, jack fruit, apple, four seasons etc. Rice wine is also popular in the northern part of the Phil where it retails at approx. P150 for a 750mL bottle

Chem Bits Women tend to metabolize alcohol more slowly than men because they tend to have smaller livers and more bodily fat There are also racial differences in the rates at which people enzymes break down alcohol. For example, Oriental people are usually less tolerant of alcohol than Caucasians Advantages and Disadvantages of drinking alcohol: In small quantities, the following benefits can result from alcohol: - It decreases the risk of cardiovascular problems - Decreases the possibility of lethal heart attack - Sometimes, alcohol reduces the possibility of ischemic or other kind of strokes - Diminishes the possibility of gallstone - It may reduce the diabetes danger In large quantities, or in excess, the consequences may be terrible: - The pancreas, the mouth, pharynx, esophageal, breast and liver are more likely to be affected by cancer - Pancreatitis may appear, especially in youth - Stroke - Atrophy of the brain - Cirrhosis - Pregnancy problems, like spontaneous abortion - Possible malformations and other birth problems of the fetus

- Car accidents - Suicidal tendencies - Sudden death in case of cardiovascular problems - Cardiophaty generated by alcohol There are certain diseases that forbid the affected person to drink at all, such as: - Conditions of the liver - Affection of the pancreas - Precancerous stages affecting the digestive system - A record including a previous hemorrhagic stroke Pregnant women or people whose family has an alcohol related background must be extremely cautious and, if possible, not to drink at all. One drink each day is permitted to persons over 65 years, because in their case, a higher consume is more dangerous; the process of absorption needs more time, the effects are stronger, and the risk of intoxication is a real one. Alcohol must not be used during the following medications' administration: - Anticoagulants - Medication for diabetes - Beta blockers - Antihistamines - Antibiotics - Antidepressants - Pain relievers - Sleeping pills