DIGITAL MODULATION RECOGNITION

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO
THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF NATURAL AND APPLIED SCIENCES
OF
MIDDLE EAST TECHNICAL UNIVERSITY





BY




EREM ERDEM







IN PARTIAL FULLFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR
THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE
IN
ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING








DECEMBER 2009
Approval of the thesis:

DIGITAL MODULATION RECOGNITION


submitted by EREM ERDEM in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the
degree of Master of Science in Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Department, Middle East Technical University by,

Prof. Dr. Canan Özgen
Dean, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences

Prof. Dr. Đsmet Erkmen
Head of Department, Electrical and Electronics Engineering

Prof. Dr. Yalçın Tanık
Supervisor, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU

Examining Committee Members:

Prof. Dr. Mete Severcan
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU

Prof. Dr. Yalçın Tanık
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Melek Yücel
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU

Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Özgür Yılmaz
Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU

Y. Müh. Enis Doyuran
ASELSAN Inc.

Date: 04.12.2009

iii




















I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and
presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also
declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and
referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

Name, Last Name : Erem ERDEM
Signature :
iv

ABSTRACT
DIGITAL MODULATION RECOGNITION

Erdem, Erem

M. S., Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering
Supervisor : Prof. Dr. Yalçın Tanık

September 2009, 144 pages

In this thesis work, automatic recognition algorithms for digital modulated signals
are surveyed.
Feature extraction and classification algorithm stages are the main parts of a
modulation recognition system. Performance of the modulation recognition system
mainly depends on the prior knowledge of some of the signal parameters, selection
of the key features and classification algorithm selection.
Unfortunately, most of the features require some of the signal parameters such as
carrier frequency, pulse shape, time of arrival, initial phase, symbol rate, signal to
noise ratio, to be known or to be extracted. Thus, in this thesis, features which do
not require prior knowledge of the signal parameters, such as the number of the
peaks in the envelope histogram and the locations of these peaks, the number of
peaks in the frequency histogram, higher order moments of the signal are
considered. Particularly, symbol rate and signal to noise ratio estimation methods
v
are surveyed. A method based on the cyclostationarity analysis is used for symbol
rate estimation and a method based on the eigenvector decomposition is used for the
estimation of signal to noise ratio. Also, estimated signal to noise ratio is used to
improve the performance of the classification algorithm.
Two methods are proposed for modulation recognition:
1) Decision tree based method
2) Bayesian based classification method
A method to estimate the symbol rate and carrier frequency offset of minimum-shift
keying (MSK) signal is also investigated.
Keywords: digital modulation recognition, feature extraction, Bayesian blind
classification, MSK carrier frequency and symbol rate estimation.
vi

ÖZ
SAYISAL MODÜLASYON TANIMA

Erdem, Erem

Yüksek Lisans, Elektrik Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü
Tez Yöneticisi : Prof. Dr. Yalçın Tanık

Eylül 2009, 144 sayfa

Bu tez çalışmasında, sayısal modülasyona sahip sinyaller için otomatik modülasyon
tanıma algoritmaları araştırılmıştır.
Öznitelik çıkarımı ve sınıflandırma algoritması; modülasyon tanıma sistemlerinin
temel yapılarıdır. Modülasyon tanıma sistemlerinin başarım kriteri temel olarak
sinyale özgü bazı parametrelerin önceden bilinmesine, öznitelik seçimine ve
sınıflandırma algoritması seçimine dayanmaktadır.
Ne yazık ki, özniteliklerin çoğunluğu taşıyıcı frekans, darbe biçimi, sinyal geliş
zamanı, faz bilgisi, veri hızı, sinyal gücünün gürültü gücüne oranı gibi bazı sinyale
özgü parametrelerin bilinmesini veya bulunmasını gerektirir. Bu nedenle, bu tez
çalışması kapsamında genlik histogramında yer alan tepe sayısı ve bu tepelerin
konumları, frekans histogramında yer alan tepe sayısı, sinyalin yüksek dereceden
momenti gibi sinyale özgü parametre ihtiyacı gerektirmeyecek öznitelikler üzerinde
düşünülmüştür. Özellikle, veri hızı ve sinyal gücünün gürültü gücüne oranı kestirme
vii
metotları da araştırılmıştır. Dairesel-durağan analize dayalı bir metot sembol veri
hızı kestirmede ve öz-vektör dağılımına dayalı bir metot sinyal gücünün gürültü
gücüne oranını kestirmede kullanılmıştır. Bulunan sinyal gücünün gürültü gücüne
oranı, sınıflandırma algoritmasının performansının arttırılmasında da kullanılmıştır.
Modülasyon tanıma için 2 metot önerilmiştir:
1) Karar ağacı yöntemine dayalı bir metot
2) Bayes dayalı bir sınıflandırma metodu
MSK sinyalinin veri hızını ve taşıyıcı frekansını bulmaya yönelik bir metot da
incelenmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: sayısal modülasyon tanıma, öznitelik bulma, Bayes dayalı kör
sınıflandırma, MSK taşıyıcı frekans ve veri hızı bulma.
viii











To My Parents
ix

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. Yalçın Tanık for his guidance,
advice, criticism, patience and encouragement throughout the completion of the
thesis.
I would like to thank to all of my friends and colleagues for their support and
encouragements.
Finally, I would like to thank to my family for everything that I have. This thesis is
dedicated to them.
x

TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................................... IV
ÖZ ...................................................................................................................................................... VI
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ............................................................................................................... IX
TABLE OF CONTENTS.................................................................................................................... X
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS...........................................................................................................XII
LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................................... XIV
LIST OF FIGURES......................................................................................................................... XVI
CHAPTERS
1. INTRODUCTION............................................................................................................................ 1
1.1 BACKGROUND....................................................................................................................... 1
1.2 OUTLINE OF THESIS.............................................................................................................. 4
2. LITERATURE SURVEY................................................................................................................ 5
2.1 INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 RELEVANT PREVIOUS WORK............................................................................................. 6
3. BASIC FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS.............................................................................. 21
3.1 SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (SNR) ESTIMATION BLOCK................................................. 21
3.2 BANDWIDTH AND SPECTRAL SHAPE............................................................................. 26
3.2.1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS ......................................................................... 27
3.2.2 CPM SIGNALS............................................................................................................... 28
3.3 CYCLOSTATIONARY ANALYSIS...................................................................................... 31
3.3.1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS ......................................................................... 31
3.3.2 CPM SIGNALS............................................................................................................... 32
3.3.3 CYCLOSTATIONARITY IN MODULATION RECOGNITION................................. 34
3.4 ENVELOPE FEATURES........................................................................................................ 39
xi
3.5 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF MOMENTS .............................................................................. 42
3.6 INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY FEATURES .................................................................. 43
3.7 CARRIER FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATION............................................................... 46
3.7.1 INTRODUCTION........................................................................................................... 46
3.7.2 THE PROPOSED METHOD.......................................................................................... 48
3.7.3 SIMULATIONS.............................................................................................................. 55
3.7.4 SELECTION OF BLOCK PARAMETERS.................................................................... 55
3.7.5 SIMULATION RESULTS.............................................................................................. 59
3.7.6 CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................... 61
4. SPECIFIC MODULATION RECOGNITION TOOLS................................................................. 62
4.1 OUTPUTS OF THE FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS.................................................... 62
4.2 MASK RECOGNITION.......................................................................................................... 67
4.3 MPSK RECOGNITION.......................................................................................................... 74
4.4 MQAM RECOGNITION........................................................................................................ 82
4.5 CW RECOGNITION............................................................................................................... 91
4.6 CPFSK RECOGNITION......................................................................................................... 95
4.7 AWGN RECOGNITION....................................................................................................... 101
4.8 CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................... 103
5. THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM................................................................................................. 105
5.1 THE DECISION TREE METHOD........................................................................................ 105
5.2 THE BAYESIAN BASED RECOGNITION SYSTEM........................................................ 108
5.3 SIMULATION RESULTS .................................................................................................... 110
5.3.1 FEATURES OF SIMULATIONS................................................................................. 110
5.3.2 TUNING OF THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM............................................................ 112
5.3.3 CONDUCTION OF TESTS.......................................................................................... 130
5.3.4 RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS.................................................................................... 130
6. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK................................................................................... 136
REFERENCES................................................................................................................................. 139

xii
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS
AM Amplitude Modulation
ANN Artificial Neural Network
ASK Amplitude Shift Keying
COMINT Communication Intelligence
CPFSK Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying
CPM Continuous Phase Modulation
CW Continuous Wave
DFT Discrete Fourier Transform
DTC Decision Tree Classifier
ECM Electronic Counter Measure
ESM Electronic Support Measure
EW Electronic Warfare
FDD Frequency Difference Detector
FFT Fast Fourier Transform
FM Frequency Modulation
FSK Frequency Shift Keying
xiii
HOC High Order Cumulant
IF Intermediate Frequency
LPF Low Pass Filter
MASK M-ary Amplitude Shift Keying
MPSK M-ary Phase Shift Keying
MQAM M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
MSK Minimum Shift Keying
NNC Neural Network Classifier
QAM Quadrature Amplitude Modulation
QLLR Quasi-Log-Likelihood Ratio
PLL Phase-Locked Loop
RBF Radial Basis Function
SLC Square Law Classifier
SNR Signal to Noise Ratio
SVC Support Vector Machine
PSD Power Spectrum Density
PSK Phase Shift Keying
RF Radio Frequency

xiv
LIST OF TABLES
TABLES
Table 4-1: Peak Vectors for ASK2, ASK4 and ASK8 Signals................................ 68
Table 4-2: Peak Vectors for PSK2, PSK4 and PSK8 Signals.................................. 75
Table 4-3: Peak Vectors for QAM2, QAM4 and QAM8 Signals............................ 85
Table 4-4: The Outputs of Each Block .................................................................. 103
Table 4-5: Features and Modulation Type Relation .............................................. 104
Table 5-1: Probability of
4
1.5 n ≤ .......................................................................... 114
Table 5-2: Probability of
4
1.5 3 n < ≤ .................................................................... 114
Table 5-3: Probability of
4
3 n < ............................................................................. 115
Table 5-4: Probability of
3
(1) 1
p
v = ........................................................................ 116
Table 5-5: Probability of
3
(1) 2
p
v = ....................................................................... 116
Table 5-6: Probability of
3
(1) 3
p
v = ....................................................................... 117
Table 5-7: Probability of
3
(1) 4
p
v = ....................................................................... 117
Table 5-8: Probability of
3
(1) 5
p
v = ....................................................................... 118
Table 5-9: Probability of
3
(1) 6
p
v = ....................................................................... 118
Table 5-10: Probability of
3
(2) 0
p
v = .................................................................... 119
Table 5-11: Probability of
3
(2) 3
p
v = .................................................................... 119
Table 5-12: Probability of
3
(2) 5
p
v = .................................................................... 120
Table 5-13: Probability of
3
(2) 6
p
v = .................................................................... 120
Table 5-14: Probability of
3
(2) 7
p
v = .................................................................... 121
Table 5-15: Probability of
3
(3) 0
p
v = .................................................................... 121
xv
Table 5-16: Probability of
3
(3) 5
p
v = ..................................................................... 122
Table 5-17: Probability of
3
(3) 7
p
v = .................................................................... 122
Table 5-18: Probability of
3
(4) 0
p
v = .................................................................... 123
Table 5-19: Probability of
3
(4) 7
p
v = .................................................................... 123
Table 5-20: Probability of
0
1 k = ........................................................................... 125
Table 5-21: Probability of
2
1 k = ........................................................................... 125
Table 5-22: Probability of
4
1 k = ........................................................................... 126
Table 5-23: Probability of
8
1 k = ........................................................................... 126
Table 5-24: Probability of
5
1.5 n ≤ ........................................................................ 127
Table 5-25: Probability of
5
1.5 2.5 n < ≤ ............................................................... 128
Table 5-26: Probability of
5
2.5 4.5 n < ≤ ............................................................... 128
Table 5-27: Probability of
5
4.5 8 n < ≤ .................................................................. 129
Table 5-28: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=6 dB......................................................................................................... 131
Table 5-29: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=6 dB......... 131
Table 5-30: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=9 dB......................................................................................................... 132
Table 5-31: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=9 dB......... 132
Table 5-32: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=12 dB....................................................................................................... 133
Table 5-33: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=12 dB....... 133
Table 5-34: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=15 dB....................................................................................................... 134
Table 5-35: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=15 dB....... 134

xvi
LIST OF FIGURES
FIGURES
Figure 3-1 Estimation Bias vs. SNR........................................................................ 25
Figure 3-2 Estimation STD vs. SNR........................................................................ 26
Figure 3-3 Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for
Linear Modulation Signals vs. SNR.................................................................... 38
Figure 3-4: Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for
CPFSK (h=0.5; Fb=2kHz) vs. SNR.................................................................... 38
Figure 3-5: Absolute Estimation Average Error for CW (f
s
=50kHz, SNR=20 dB) vs.
Carrier Frequency Offset..................................................................................... 45
Figure 3-6: Block Diagram of The Frequency and Symbol Rate Estimator............ 49
Figure 3-7: Basic PLL Block Diagram.................................................................... 50
Figure 3-8: The baseband equivalent PLL Block Diagram..................................... 52
Figure 3-9: PLL Block Diagram.............................................................................. 52
Figure 3-10: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=-5dB............................... 57
Figure 3-11: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=0dB ................................ 58
Figure 3-12: Absolute Carrier Frequency Estimation Error at / 15
b o
E N dB = ....... 59
Figure 3-13: Absolute Symbol Rate Estimation Error at / 15
b o
E N dB = ............... 60
Figure 3-14: Average Number of Bit Errors at / 15
b o
E N dB = .............................. 60
Figure 4-1: Envelope Histograms for ASK8............................................................ 64
Figure 4-2: Histogram Output for ASK2 ................................................................. 69
Figure 4-3: Histogram Output for ASK4 ................................................................. 70
Figure 4-4: Histogram Output for ASK8 ................................................................. 70
Figure 4-5: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for MASK vs. SNR....... 72
Figure 4-6: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for MASK vs. SNR.................. 73
xvii
Figure 4-7: Histogram Output For PSK4................................................................. 76
Figure 4-8: Histogram Output For PSK8................................................................. 77
Figure 4-9: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK2 vs. SNR......... 79
Figure 4-10: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK4 vs. SNR....... 80
Figure 4-11: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK8 vs. SNR....... 80
Figure 4-12: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for MPSK vs. SNR ................ 81
Figure 4-13: Constellation Diagram of QAM2........................................................ 83
Figure 4-14: Constellation Diagram of QAM4........................................................ 83
Figure 4-15: Constellation Diagram for QAM8 ...................................................... 84
Figure 4-16: Histogram Output for QAM4 vs. SNR ............................................... 86
Figure 4-17: Histogram Output for QAM8 vs. SNR ............................................... 86
Figure 4-18: k2 for QAM2, QAM4 and QAM8 vs. SNR........................................ 89
Figure 4-19: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for QAM8 vs. SNR................ 90
Figure 4-20: Histogram output for CW vs. SNR..................................................... 92
Figure 4-21:
0 2 4 8
, , , k k k k for CW vs. SNR .............................................................. 93
Figure 4-22: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for CW vs. SNR..................... 94
Figure 4-23: Frequency Histogram Output (
5 6
, η η ) for M-level CPFSK vs. SNR.. 97
Figure 4-24: Modulation Index (h) Estimation Performance for CPFSK Signals
(h=0.5) ................................................................................................................. 99
Figure 4-25: A Plot of the Estimated Modulation Index ( h ) vs. True Modulation
Index (h) at SNR=20dB..................................................................................... 100
Figure 5-1: The Proposed Decision Tree for Modulation Classification............... 107
Figure 5-2: The Functional Block Diagram of the Bayesian Based Recognition
System for Modulation Classification............................................................... 109
Figure 5-3: Block Diagram of the Transmitter ...................................................... 111
Figure 5-4: Block Diagram of the Receiver........................................................... 112
Figure 5-5: Block Diagram of the Fixed Tuned Receiver...................................... 112
1
CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
1.1 BACKGROUND
There are lots of communication signals with different modulation types and
different frequencies. It is required to identify and monitor these signals for some
applications. Some of these applications are for civilian purposes such as signal
confirmation, interference identification and spectrum management. The other
applications are for military purposes such as electronic warfare (EW), surveillance
and threat analysis. In electronic warfare applications, electronic support measures
(ESM) system plays an important role as a source of information required to
conduct electronic counter measures (ECM), electronic counter-counter measures
(ECCM), threat detection, warning, target acquisition and homing. [1]
In the past, COMINT systems have relied on the manual modulation recognition of
measured parameters to provide classification of different emitters. However,
recently automatic modulation recognition systems have been developed. One of
the oldest versions of modulation recognizers uses a bank of demodulators, each
designed for only one type of modulation. Modulation type of the received signal
can be decided by listening to the demodulator outputs. This type of a recognizer
requires long signal durations and highly skilled operators. The automation of such
a recognizer is achieved by introducing a set of intelligent decision algorithms at the
demodulator outputs. However, the implementation of such systems is complex and
2
requires excessive computer storage. Moreover, the number of modulation types
that can be recognized is limited by the number of demodulators used. [1]
Automatic modulation recognition is more powerful than manual modulation
recognition because by integrating the automatic modulation recognizer into an
electronic support measurement (ESM) receiver, including an energy detector and a
direction finder (DF), would allow an operator to improve his efficiency and his
ability to monitor the different activities in the frequency band of interest. Thus, in
advanced ESM systems, the operator is replaced by sophisticated electronic
machines. The main objective of any surveillance system is threat recognition by
comparing the characteristics of the intercepted emitters against a catalogue of
reference characteristics or signal sorting parameters. One of the important
parameters is the signal modulation type. [1]
Generally, any surveillance system in Communication Intelligence (COMINT)
applications consists of three main blocks: receiver-front-ends (activity detection
and frequency down conversion), modulation recognizer (key features extraction
and classification), and output stage (normal demodulation and information
extraction). There are several types of receiver-front-ends such as channelized,
acoustic-optical spectrum analyzer, instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM),
scanning superheterodyne, and microscan superheterodyne receivers. At the output
stage, there are several functions performed and they are mainly related to
information extraction, recording and exploitations. All these functions are
preceded by signal demodulation. Once the correct modulation type of the
intercepted signal is determined, some of the following functions performed at the
output stage are straightforward classical functions, but some may not be trivial
(e.g. deciphering). Thus, the key functional block is the modulation recognizer. The
prior information required for any modulation recognizer is the signal bandwidth,
which can be determined through the use of an energy detector in the receiver front-
end stage. The information obtained by the energy detector, modulation recognizer,
and parameters estimator such as the carrier frequency, the signal bandwidth, the bit
3
rate, the modulation type…etc. are gathered to perform the signal demodulation and
information extraction. [1]
Modulation recognition is extremely important in COMINT applications for several
reasons. Firstly, applying the signal to an improper demodulator may partially or
completely damage the signal information content. Secondly, knowing the correct
modulation type helps to recognize the threat and to determine the suitable jamming
waveform. [1]
Without any knowledge of the transmitted data and many unknown parameters at
the receiver, blind identification is a difficult task. Particularly, classification
process is even more challenging in real world scenarios with multipath fading,
frequency selective, and time varying channels. Therefore, a better recognition
system can be constructed by dividing the classification problem into subclasses
and dealing with each of these subclasses separately. In this thesis, a blind
recognition system is introduced to discriminate the digitally modulated signals in
an AWGN channel. Also, methods for the extraction of some of the signal
parameters such as the symbol rate, signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the carrier
frequency offset (CFO) are investigated.

4
1.2 OUTLINE OF THESIS
The thesis consists of six chapters. A brief summary of chapters 2 through 6 is
given in the following.
In Chapter 2, relevant previous works for digitally modulated signal classification
are reviewed.
In Chapter 3, the basic blocks that can be used in the classification of digitally
modulated signals are discussed.
In Chapter 4, performances of the selected key features for each modulation type
are investigated.
In Chapter 5, two classification methods are given. The first one is the decision tree
based method and the second one is the Bayesian based method. In addition,
computer simulations are carried out to compare the proposed methods.
In Chapter 6, some concluding remarks are given and future works are discussed.
5
CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY
2.1 INTRODUCTION
In modern communication systems, digital modulation techniques are more
frequently used. Hence, the digital modulation recognizers have critical importance.
In the literature, the recognizers can be divided into two subsets according to
methods used in approaching classification problems:
1) A decision-theoretic approach,
2) A pattern-recognition or feature-extraction approach.
In a decision-theoretic framework, probabilistic arguments are employed to derive a
proper classification rule. This necessitates a statistical description of the signals (or
hypotheses). This approach affords an optimal procedure in the sense that a
discriminating test can be found which is the best under a specific performance
measure. Typically, this optimal rule will be hard to implement exactly. A simpler
way to derive a classifier structure is to rely upon the classic pattern-recognition
concept of “feature,” which assigns signatures to specific signal formats. The key
advantage of a well-chosen feature set is, of course, simplicity. In a broad sense,
decision theory can be perceived as the rigorous framework which explains and
justifies the selection of the “correct” features, whereas the more practical pattern-
6
recognition approach chooses these features on an ad hoc (perhaps intuitive) basis,
and is more concerned with issues of implementability. [2]

2.2 RELEVANT PREVIOUS WORK
In [3], an adaptive technique for classifying ASK2, PSK2, PSK4 and FSK2 signals
was introduced. The envelope of the signal, the spectra of the signal, the signal
squared and the signal quadrupled are used to derive the following key features of
the intercepted signal:
• The mean of the envelope
• The variance of the envelope
• Magnitude and location of the two largest peaks in the signal spectrum
• The magnitude of the spectral component at twice the carrier frequency
of the signal squared
• The magnitude of the spectral component at four times the carrier
frequency of the signal quadrupled
In [3], feature vector extraction, weight vector generation, and the modulation
classification are the main steps of the classifier. There exists a training stage where
weight vectors are generated for each class of signal considered using an adaptive
technique based on LMS algorithm. In this training stage known signals with 20 dB
SNR are used. The features of the intercepted signals are multiplied with the weight
vectors, and then the selection of the modulation type is made according to the
weighting function which produces the largest output. The discrimination of PSK2
and PSK4 signal at 5 dB SNR is the only performance criteria of the proposed
recognizer.
7
In [2], quasi-log-likelihood ratio (qLLR) was used as a classification rule to
discriminate PSK2 and PSK4. Also, the performance of the proposed method was
compared with the square law classifier (SLC) and the Phase-Based Classifier. It is
proved analytically that qLLR is better than the other methods even at low SNR.
However, it is assumed that all the signal parameters such as carrier frequency,
initial phase, symbol rate, SNR, pulse shape at the receiver front end are known.
In [4], a classification method for the constant amplitude signals such as CW,
MPSK, and MFSK was proposed based on the zero-crossing characteristics of the
intercepted signal. By using a zero-crossing sampler, it is easy to obtain information
related to the phase transitions of the received signal in a wide frequency dynamic
range. The proposed method consists of four main stages:
1. Extraction of zero-crossing sequence x(i), zero-crossing interval
sequence y(i), zero-crossing interval difference sequence z(i)
2. Inter-symbol transition (ISI) sample detection
3. CNR, carrier frequency estimation, variance of zero-crossing interval
sequence, G
4. Modulation classification based on G; frequency and phase difference
histograms.
From the simulation results, it is claimed that successful modulation classification is
achievable for SNR>15 dB. The performance of the recognizer to discriminate CW
and MPSK signals is dominated by the estimation accuracy of the carrier frequency;
whereas CW and MFSK discrimination performance is dominated by the ratio of
symbol rate to carrier frequency. The proposed classifier does not need prior
knowledge of the basic signal parameters; it is able to estimate the carrier frequency
and the symbol rate. However, its performance degrades for SNR<12dB; and it
cannot discriminate varying amplitude signals such as MASK.
8
In [5], a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the
statistical moments of the intercepted signal phase. The Tikhonov function is used
to approximate the asymptotic distribution of the phase of the intercepted signal. It
is shown that nth moment (n even) of the phase of the signal is a monotonic
increasing function of M for MPSK signals. This property is used to find a proper
decision rule for classification. The proposed classifier consists of three main
stages:
1. Phase Extraction
2. Even order moment computation
3. Threshold comparison
4. Decision
It is claimed that the second order moment is sufficient for discrimination of CW
and MPSK; whereas for BPSK eighth order moment, and for QPSK-8PSK higher
order moments are required for proper operation of the classifier at low SNR. The
performance of the classifier with eighth moment is also compared with quasi log-
likelihood ratio (qLLRC), square-law (SLC) and the phase-based (PBC) classifiers.
From the simulation results, it is claimed that qLLR classifier is better at low SNR;
however, proposed classifier outperforms PRC and SRC for SNR>0. All the signal
parameters such as carrier frequency, initial phase, symbol rate and CNR are
assumed to be known exactly.
In [6], a classification method for the CW, BPSK, QPSK, BFSK, QFSK signals was
proposed based on the autoregressive modeling. Instantaneous carrier frequency and
BW of the intercepted signal is obtained from the poles of the autoregressive
polynomial for each analysis frame of the intercepted signal then the following
feature vectors are derived:
• Mean of the instantaneous frequency
• Standard deviation of the instantaneous frequency (IF)
9
• Standard deviation of the instantaneous bandwidth (IB)
• Mean of the IB peaks (normalized to the largest peak)
• The height of the peaks of the differentiated IF
It is claimed that success rate is greater than 99% at a SNR of 15 dB. Only constant
envelope signals are investigated and it is assumed that only one signal exists at the
receiver input.
In [7], a classification method was proposed for multichannel systems. The
proposed recognizer consists of two main parts. The first one is the outer loop that
detects the individual signal components; the second part is a single tone classifier
that identifies each of the signal components as ASK2, BPSK, QPSK and CW.
BFSK signals are considered as two correlated ASK2 signals. In a single tone
classifier an amplitude histogram is used to distinguish ASK from BPSK, QPSK,
CW and differential phase histogram is used for discrimination of CW, PSK2 and
PSK4 signals. It is claimed that success rate for discrimination of CW, PSK2 and
PSK4 signals is greater than 98% at 10dB SNR; whereas success rate of the
recognizer for ASK2 signals is 87% at 10dB SNR. The basic problem regarding
classification of ASK2 signals is that the phase modulation introduced by the noise.
Carrier frequency offset (CFO) is removed by using instantaneous frequency
histogram and by performing differential phase computation.
In [8], a classification method for the MFSK signals was proposed based on the
higher-order correlations (HOC). Average log-likelihood function of the intercepted
signal in terms of HOC domain is given for both of the channelized and
nonchannelized classifier structures. It is indicated that the optimal rule in the
MFSK classification is the usage of bank of matched filters, each of which is tuned
to one of a prescribed set of frequency locations. However, in the case of the
received signal arriving at a frequency that is not coincident with the center
frequency of any of these filters, mismatch at the outputs of the matched filters
occurs. Hence, in order to avoid mismatch; nonchannelized structures are proposed
10
as a MFSK classifier. In the proposed nonchannelized classifier; signal is divided
into three subbands and for each subband a processor is assigned. The first-order
correlation-based classifier, the second-order correlation-based classifier of the first
kind and the second-order correlation-based classifier of the second kind are
proposed as classifier algorithms. All of the proposed algorithms based on the
comparison of the average log-likelihood function with a threshold to classify
MFSK signals. The signal arrival time is assumed to be known perfectly; hence the
proposed classifiers are all synchronous.
In [9], a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the
likelihood function (LLF) of the instantaneous phase. Classification of the MPSK
signals is performed by comparing their LLF differences by a threshold.
Quasioptimal rules have been proposed for the following environments:
• Environment where the carrier phase and the symbol timing offset are
assumed to be known.
• Environment where the carrier phase and the symbol timing offset are
assumed to be unknown.
• Environment where the symbol timing offset is assumed to be known
but the carrier phase offset is assumed to be unknown.
In this work, performance comparison of the Statistical-Moment-Based Classifier
(SMBC) [5], Phase-Based Optimal Classifier (PBOC) [11], Phase-Histogram
Classifier (PHC), Square Law Classifier (SLC) and the proposed
quasioptimal/optimal classifiers are made. It is claimed that the proposed
quasioptimal rules and the optimal rules have similar performance curves.
Moreover, SLC requires 1.9 dB more SNR than the qLLR classifier to discriminate
PSK2 and PSK4 and Fourth Law Classifier needs 2.6 dB more SNR than qLLR to
discriminate PSK4 and PSK8. Numerical comparisons and simulations are
performed for rectangular pulse shape.
11
In [10], a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the
statistical moments of the intercepted signal phase. Exact phase distribution of the
received signal is used instead of Tikhonov function proposed in [5]. The proposed
method is 2 dB superior to the method used in [5] for 99% success rate.
In [11], a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the
hypothesis testing. Test statistics are derived from the probability density function
of MPSK signals and a classifier is proposed to classify CW, BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK.
Discrimination of CW, BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK is performed by calculation of test
statistics for each modulation type and the modulation type with the largest test
statistics is selected. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with
[2], and it is claimed that the proposed classifier has a higher probability of correct
classification. Carrier frequency, initial phase and symbol rate of the intercepted
signal are assumed to be known.
In [1], classification method for PSK2, PSK4, ASK2, ASK4, FSK2 and FSK4 was
proposed based on the feature-extraction approach. The intercepted signal is divided
into M segments then the key feature extraction and comparison with a threshold is
performed for each segment. Modulation decision is made by comparing the
decision of M segments. The key features used in [1] are as follows:
• The maximum value of the spectral power density of the normalized-
centered instantaneous amplitude of the intercepted signal
• The standard deviation of the absolute value of the centered non-linear
component of the instantaneous phase, evaluated over the non-weak
intervals of a signal segment
• The standard deviation of the centered non-linear component of the
direct (non absolute) instantaneous phase, evaluated over the non-weak
intervals of a signal segment
• The standard deviation of the absolute value of the normalized-centered
instantaneous amplitude of a signal segment
12
• The standard deviation of the absolute value of the normalized-centered
instantaneous frequency, evaluated over the non-weak intervals of a
signal segment
Five algorithms are proposed based on the above key features; two of them use
artificial neural network approach to decide modulation type. The carrier frequency
of the intercepted signal is assumed to be known.
In [26], a classification method for both analog and digital modulations was
proposed based on cyclic spectral feature extraction and neural network modulation
recognition approach. The cyclostationarity property of intercepted signal is used to
extract the key features. AM, USB, LSB, FM, ASK, FSK, CW, BPSK: QPSK and
SQPSK signals are used to analyze the performance of the proposed classifier. The
only result about the performance of the proposed classifier is given in Table-1 in
[26].
In [12], a classification method for MPSK signals was proposed based on the
decision theoretic approach. Tikhonov function is used to approximate the phase
probability density function (ppdf) of MPSK signals and classification is performed
by hypothesis-testing derived from the pddf’s of the intercepted signal. A
suboptimal classifier to discriminate CW, BPSK, QPSK and 8PSK is introduced
and the performance of the proposed classifier is tested for BPSK and QPSK
signals. It is claimed that the proposed classifier is 2.5 dB superior to the method
used in [5] for 90% success rate.
In [25] a classification method for both analog and digital modulations was
proposed based on the feature extraction approach. Following features are defined
which are not included in [1]:
• The standard deviation of the normalized-centered instantaneous
amplitude in the non weak segment of a signal
• The kurtosis of the normalized instantaneous amplitude
13
• The kurtosis of the normalized instantaneous frequency
A decision tree (DTC) and an artificial neural network (ANNC) architectures are
proposed as a modulation classifier and performance comparison of these classifiers
are given. It is claimed that the success rate of DTC is greater than 94%; while the
success rate of ANNC is greater than 96% at a SNR of 15 dB.
In [13], a classification method for QAM, PSK and FSK signals was proposed
based on the Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT). It is showed that different transients
in frequency, phase or amplitude are observable for different digital modulation
signals and wavelet transform can be used to extract transient information.
Regarding the classification method following observations are given:
• The HWT of QAM and FSK is a multi-step function
• The HWT of a PSK and amplitude normalized QAM is a constant
• The HWT of amplitude normalized PSK and FSK signals are the same
as the ones that are not normalized.
Success rate of the proposed classifier is about 97% at a SNR larger than 5 dB for
50 observation symbols. The assumptions about the intercepted signal are the prior
knowledge of CNR and noise power. No information is given to distinguish M-ary
signals.
In [14], a classification method for QAM and PSK signals was proposed based on
the maximum-likelihood approach for both the coherent and noncoherent cases. In
coherent case all the signal parameters and in noncoherent case, except for the
carrier phase, other parameters are assumed to be known a priori. The only thing
mentioned about the performance of the classifier is that coherent case is 3 dB
superior to the noncoherent case.
In [15] a classification method for digital modulated signals was proposed based on
the constellation shape of the intercepted signal. Firstly, a fuzzy c-means clustering
algorithm is used as the constellation recovery method then recovered constellations
14
are modeled by binomial nonhomogenous spatial random fields. Lastly, ML
approach is used as a constellation shape classification. The symbol timing offset is
assumed to be small and hence the effect of timing errors is neglected. It is claimed
that the success rate of the classifier to discriminate 8PSK and 8QAM is about 90%
at a SNR of 0dB when no carrier and phase offset exist. In the case of random
carrier phase lock error, which is assumed to be constant for the duration of a
symbol, the 45 degree phase offset performance of the classifier to discriminate
16PSK and 16QAM is about 90% at a SNR of 3dB. There is no information about
the performance degradation of the classifier when the carrier phase lock error is
high.
In [22], a classification method to discriminate PSK2, PSK4, PSK8, PSK16, FSK2,
FSK4, QAM8 and OOK signals was proposed based on the pattern recognition
approach. The Margenau-Hill (time-frequency) distribution (MHD) is used to
extract the phase information and higher order autoregressive model is used to
extract frequency and amplitude information of the intercepted signal. It is stated
that, no a priori knowledge about the signal parameters are needed. It is claimed that
the success rate is about 94% at a SNR of 10dB and the success rate of the proposed
classifier is about 97% for real world short-wave signals.
In [16], a classification method for digital quadrature modulations was proposed
based on the maximum-likelihood method. All the signal parameters and the noise
parameters are assumed to be known a priori. An error probability is obtained for
any type of quadrature modulations and it is claimed that as the number of available
data symbols goes to infinity, failure rate of the proposed classifier goes to zero.
In [17], a classification method for baseband digitally modulated signals was
proposed based on the feature extraction and fuzzy classification method. Carrier
frequency is the only parameter assumed to be known a priori. Basic features used
in the classification problem are as follows:
• Kurtosis of the envelope of the signal.
15
The envelope distribution of constant envelope signals is a Rician
distribution and for SNR>10dB it can be approximated as Gaussian
distribution; whereas varying amplitude signals envelope distribution is a
mixture of Rayleigh and Rician distribution. Therefore kurtosis ([17] eqn 6.)
of constant envelope and varying envelope signals will be different.
• Variance of the PSD derivative.
The probability density function is estimated by Tikhonov function and the
phase variance of the intercepted signal is used to discriminate ASK, FSK
from PSK, QAM.
• Mean of the absolute value signal frequency.
Burg method is used to estimate signal PSD. FSK, MSK like signals are
discriminated from ASK, QAM, PSK like signals by calculating this feature.
In this work, Mamdani fuzzy classifier is used as a classification method and ASK,
4DPSK, 16QAM, FSK are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed
classifier. It is claimed that the proposed classifier works properly for SNR>5dB.
In [18], a classification method for digital modulation signals was proposed based
on the feature extraction and artificial neural network approach. Both the statistical
features and the features proposed in [1] are used as a feature set and a multilayer
perception (MLP) is used as a classification method. ASK2, ASK4, BPSK, QPSK,
FSK2, FSK4, QAM16, V29 (16 point QAM signal constellation with 8 phases, 4
amplitudes, 9600bps), V32 (32 point signal constellation TCM with 9600bps) and
QAM64 are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed classifier and it is
claimed that the success rate is about 98% at a SNR of 0dB. The center frequency is
assumed to be known a priori.
In [20], a classification method based on elementary fourth-order cumulants (eqn 3)
was proposed. It is assumed that the carrier phase offset, symbol timing offset and
the pulse shape are known. The performance of the proposed classifier is analyzed
16
in the case of small phase offset, small frequency offset, residual channel effect,
small symbol timing offset, self-interference, cochannel interference and impulsive
nongaussian noise. It is claimed that there is a small decrease in the success rate of
the classifier at a SNR of 12 dB in the case of small frequency offset, phase offset,
and impulsive nongaussian noise when compared to ideal Gaussian environment.
In [19], a classification method, based on the relationships between the second and
higher moments of received signal and signal and noise power, was proposed. The
proposed classifier uses mixed moments of different orders of the intercepted signal
as a feature set. The classifier consists of two stages. In the first stage, the signal
power is estimated and most of the modulations (16QAM, 32QAM, 128QAM, V29,
7200bps, 9600bps) are classified. In the second stage, classification of 4ASK,
8QAM, BPSK, QPSK, 8PSK is performed. The performance of the proposed
classifier is compared with an ideal HOC classifier [19] and it is claimed that at
lower SNR ideal high order cumulant (HOC) is better; whereas at high SNR
performances of classifiers are similar. It is also shown that as the number of data
samples increase, probability of correct classification also increases. Carrier
frequency, time of arrival and pulse shape are assumed to be known, and there is
only one sample for each of the data symbol.
In [21], a classification method to discriminate MASK, MPSK, MQAM, MFSK
signals was proposed based on the signal envelope statistics which is a function of
the second order moment, the fourth order moment of the received signal and
average power of the modulated signal. The modulated signal power is estimated
from the singular value decomposition of the signal auto-correlation matrix and
there is no assumption about the signal parameters. 2ASK, 2PSK, 2FSK, 4QAM, 4-
AM signals are used to analyze the classifier performance and it is claimed that the
probability of correct classification is about 85% at a SNR of 2.5dB.
In [23], a classification method to discriminate ASK2, ASK4, PSK2, PSK4, FSK2,
FSK4 was proposed based on the feature extraction and support vector machine
(SVM) classification approach. The following features are used:
17
• Average value of the imaginary part of the multiplication of two
consecutive signal values.
• Kurtosis of the real part of the multiplication of two consecutive signal
values.
• Kurtosis of the imaginary part of the multiplication of two consecutive
signal values.
• Ratio of the second maximum to third maximum of the FFT of the
intercepted signal
It is claimed that the success rate of the proposed SVM classifier is 100% at a SNR
of 5dB when (the ratio of symbol rate to sampling rate) p=0.05. Moreover the
performance of the proposed SVM classifier is compared with maximum likelihood
(ML) classifier proposed in [16], the qLLR classifier proposed in [2], cumulant
based classifier proposed in [20], the proposed decision tree classifier with fixed
threshold and the proposed decision tree classifier with dynamic threshold. Monte-
Carlo simulations show that:
• The ML Classifier has the best performance among the compared
classifiers
• At low SNR qLLR is the second to the best classifier for small values of
p; but its performance degrades as p increases.
• Dynamic threshold classifier outperforms the fixed one.
• Performance of the cumulant based classifier is independent of p.
• The proposed SVM classifier outperforms fixed and dynamic threshold
classifiers for all modulation types at all SNR values.
• The proposed SVM classifier outperforms cumulant based classifier for
SNR>0dB.
18
In [24] a classification method to discriminate both the analog and digital
modulations types was proposed which is based on the feature extraction approach.
Seven key features are used; six of these features are from [25] and the other one is
the occupied bandwidth which is defined as the ratio of the number of FFT bins
with the 90% of total power spectrum density (PSD) for MC. The following
classifiers are proposed to classify CW, AM, LSB, USB, FM, 2PSK, 4PSK, 2FSK,
and 4FSK.
• Decision Tree Classifier-1 (DTC1) in which Mahalanobis distance is
used to settle the threshold levels.
• Decision Tree Classifier-2 (DTC2) in which the average probability of
correct decision is used to settle the threshold levels.
• The minimum distance classifier in which the minimum normalized
Euclidean distance between the unknown entry and the mean values of
each of the other classes is calculated.
• Neural Network Classifier (NNC) in which Feed Forward Network with
double hidden layers is used.
• The Support Vector Classifier (SVC), which employs SVM (support
vector machine) to find a hyperplane that separate samples from class 1
from those of class 2 in some higher dimension
It is claimed that all the classifiers has a success rate greater than 95% at a SNR of
10 dB. Moreover, the success rate of MDC is 96.2% and the success rate of SVC is
98.4% at a SNR of 5 dB. A hardware implementation of DTC2 is also given and it
is claimed that numerical simulation results and the performance of the prototype
are consistent.
In [27], a classification method to discriminate 2ASK, 4ASK, 2FSK, 4FSK, 2PSK,
4PSK, 16QAM, 64QAM, AWGN, OFDM (DVB-T, 802.11a) signals, under
19
multipath conditions, was proposed. The classification method is based on the
feature extraction and the bootstrap approach. The selected features are:
• The maximum frequency of the spectrum of the signal
• The variance of the filtered Haar wavelet transform [50] of the signal
(V
1
) and the variance of the filtered twice Haar wavelet transform of the
signal (V
2
).
• The standard deviation of the absolute value of the real part of the signal,
evaluated over the non-weak intervals of a signal segment.
• Variance of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the autocorrelation
function of the signal.

2
1 1 log ( ( ) / (2 )) DBF d d = + ∆ ∆ and
2
2 1 log ( ( ) / (2 )) DBF b d = + ∆ ∆
where
o
1
1
1
( ) ( ) ( )
N
i i
i
d f t f t

+
=
∆ = −

,
o
1
1
1
( ) ( ) ( )
N
i i
i
b a t a t

+
=
∆ = −

,
o
( 1)/ 2
2 1 2 2 1 2 1 2 2 1
1
(2 ) (max{ ( ), ( ), ( )} min{ ( ), ( ), ( )})
N
i i i i i i
i
d a t a t a t a t a t a t

− + − +
=
∆ = −

1
( ),..., ( )
N
f t f t are defined as the samples of the signal and
1
( ),..., ( )
N
a t a t are defined as the amplitude samples of the signal.
It is claimed that DBF2 can be used to discriminate 2FSK from 2PSK, 4PSK,
4FSK, and DVB-T from 802.11a.
Radial basis function (RBF) based artificial neural network is used to classify
signals. It is claimed that the success rate of the classifier is greater than 80% at a
SNR of 0 dB; and 76% at a SNR of 20dB.
20
In the literature, there are many techniques for digital modulation recognition.
Methods, using a decision-theoretic approach, have better performance than the
ones using feature-extraction approach. However, most of the signal parameters are
assumed to be known a priori in the case of a decision-theoretic approach. In a
feature-extraction approach, the performance of the recognizer mainly depends on
the selected features. In the literature, many features are proposed for the
classification of different types of modulations. Among these features, the ones
which are extracted from the envelope histogram, the frequency histogram, the
higher order statistics, the wavelet transform, the autocorrelation function, the
cyclic autocorrelation function, and the discrete Fourier transform do not require the
knowledge of the most of the signal parameters, such as symbol rate, carrier
frequency offset, pulse shape, time of arrival, initial phase. Moreover, the SNR
value is one of the most important parameters affecting the reliability of the selected
features.

21
CHAPTER 3

BASIC FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS
In this chapter, SNR estimation, bandwidth and spectral estimation, cyclostationary
analysis, envelope extraction, spectral analysis of moments, instantaneous
frequency extraction blocks, which are the selected blocks to be used to extract
features for classification of digital modulation signals, are introduced and
investigated. Moreover, performances of these selected blocks are investigated for
different modulation types.
3.1 SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (SNR) ESTIMATION BLOCK
SNR is one of the most critical parameters affecting the performance of a
communication system. In the literature, most of the proposed methods, which can
discriminate digital modulation signals, use a prior knowledge or estimation for
SNR to get better classification performance. In [28], a blind SNR estimation
method for digital modulation IF signals in AWGN channel was proposed based on
the eigenvector decomposition and subspace approach. We employ this method in
our work because it does not require any knowledge about the intercepted signal
and accurate SNR estimation of different digital modulation types can be performed
in a simple way.
Let the signal model be ( ) ( ) ( ) r k s k n k = + , where ( ) r k is a down-converted
baseband low-pass equivalent (complex) signal and ( ) n k is AWGN with zero-mean
and variance
2
n
σ .
22
Assuming that the information signal samples ) (k s and noise samples ) (k n are
uncorrelated then the autocorrelation matrix of the received signal vector
T
N r r r )] ( ),..., 1 ( [ = can be expressed as
{ } { } { }
H H H
r s n
R E rr E ss E nn R R = = + = + (3.1)
where {.} E denotes the expectation operator, H denotes Hermitian transposition
and and N is the number of samples. Since
r
R is conjugate and symmetric
| |
* *
{ ( ) ( )} ( ) ( )
r r r
ij
R E r i r j r i j r j i = = − = − (3.2)
where M k k r
r
,..., 2 , 1 ), ( = are the samples of the autocorrelation function of the
received signal.

1
* *
1
1
( ) { ( ) ( 1)} ( ) ( 1)
N k
r
n
r k E r n r n k r n r n k
N
− +
=
= + − = + −

(3.3)
and the autocorrelation matrix of noise

2
n n n
R I σ = (3.4)
where
n
I is an MxM identity matrix. By using the eigenvalue decomposition of
matrices, the autocorrelation matrices of the received signal and the information
signal are given by

H
s
R UQU =
,
(3.5)

H
r
R UPU = (3.6)
where U is an MxM orthogonal matrix containing eigenvectors and
) ,..., , (
2 1 M
b b b diag P = , ) 0 ,..., 0 , ,..., , (
2 1 p
diag Q λ λ λ = are MxM diagonal matrices
containing corresponding eigenvalues. Then

2 H H
r n n
R UPU UQU I σ = = + (3.7)
23
and eigenvalues

2
2
1,...,
1,...,
i n
i
n
i p
b
i p M
λ σ
σ
¦ = +
=
´
= +
¹
(3.8)
where ) ... (
2 1 p i
λ λ λ λ ≥ ≥ ≥ , (p<M) is the power of the signal along the
th
i
eigenvector.
From (3.7) and (3.8), it can be seen that p eigenvalues spans the signal subspace and
M-p eigenvalues spans the noise subspace. Hence, if the signal subspace dimension
is found then the total power of the received signal can be grouped into power of the
desired signal plus noise and power of the noise [28].
In [28], a minimum description length (MDL) criteria was proposed to determine
the signal subspace dimension. The proposed MDL function is

1/ ( )
1
1
1
( ) ln (2 ) ln( )
1 2
M
M k
i
i k
M
i
i k
b
MDL k k M k N
b
M k

= +
= +
| |
|
|
= − + −
|
|

\ ¹


(3.9)
Then, the signal subspace dimension is given by
argmin( ( ))
k
p MDL k = (3.10)
Since the signal subspace dimension was determined, then the noise power is

2
1
1
M
n i
i p
b
M p
σ
= +
=


(3.11)
and the estimated signal power is

' '
'
, if 0
0, if 0
s s
s
s
P P
P
P
¦

¦
=
´
< ¦
¹
(3.12)
24
where
( )
' 2
1
1
p
s i n
i
P b
M
σ
=
= −

.
Hence, the estimated SNR becomes

2
s
n
P
snr
σ
= (3.13)
The following bias and standard deviation terms were defined to analyze the
proposed method [28]:

10
10log ( / ) bias mean snr = (3.14)

1/ 2
2
10
1
1
(10log ( / ))
t
N
i
t
STD snr mean
N
=
| |
=
|
\ ¹

(3.15)
Where,
t
N is the number of trials, snr is the estimated SNR value and

=
=
t
N
i t
snr
N
mean
1
1
.
We tested the performance of the proposed method, which is given in [28], for
ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, PSK4, PSK8, QAM4, QAM8, CW, MSK, FSK2, FSK4 and
AWGN signals. In the case of AWGN, indicated SNR value is taken as the noise
power. For 2500 symbols with autocorrelation matrix dimension M=100, estimated
bias and STD is given in Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2.
From Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2, it can be seen that as the SNR increases, the
absolute value of the estimated bias and the STD also increase. This is due to the
fact that noise power gets smaller as SNR increases; hence, a small estimation error
of noise power, which may be neglected in the low SNR, causes a large SNR
estimation error for a high SNR [28]. The type of modulation has little influence on
the STD. However, the estimation error is quite large for the linear modulation
types (ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, PSK4, PSK8, QAM8) compared to the nonlinear
25
modulations, continuous wave and noise. Moreover, the bias quickly increases as
SNR increases.
In [28], the performance of the proposed method was investigated for different
number of received symbols and different dimensions of the autocorrelation matrix.
It is claimed that the estimated bias and the STD improve little as the dimension of
the autocorrelation matrix, M, increases. Since the performance of the proposed
method is quite good for M=100, we preferred to use M=100 in our analysis to
reduce the simulation time.
The proposed method is considerably accurate for SNR>-10dB and for SNR<20dB
which may provide a satisfactory feedback to a recognition system.



-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
SNR (dB)
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

B
i
a
s

(
d
B
)


ASK2
ASK4
ASK8
PSK4
PSK8
QAM4
QAM8
MSK
FSK4
FSK8
CW
NOISE

Figure 3-1 Estimation Bias vs. SNR

26
-25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
0
0.5
1
1.5
SNR (dB)
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

S
T
D

(
d
B
)


ASK2
ASK4
ASK8
PSK4
PSK8
QAM4
QAM8
MSK
FSK4
FSK8
CW
NOISE

Figure 3-2 Estimation STD vs. SNR.



3.2 BANDWIDTH AND SPECTRAL SHAPE
Bandwidth and spectral shape of an intercepted signal are one of the key features in
the classification of signals. Specifically, spectral symmetry is one of the features
proposed in [1] to discriminate analog modulated signals. In [24], the occupied
bandwidth, which is defined as the ratio of the number of FFT bins with the 90% of
total power spectrum density (PSD), is used as a feature to discriminate analog and
digital modulated signals. Bandwidth estimation is also important in the pre-
processing stage of a classification system. We investigate the bandwidth and
spectral shape characteristics of linearly modulated and CPM signals separately.

27

3.2.1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS
A linearly modulated signal can be expressed as

( )
{ }
2
( ) ( ) cos 2
Re ( )
c
k c
k
j f t
s t I g t kT f t
v t e
π
π
| |
= −
|
\ ¹
=

(3.16)
where T is the symbol rate, g is the pulse shape,
c
f is the carrier frequency, { }
k
I is
a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence and the low-pass equivalent of the signal
is
( ) ( )
k
k
v t I g t kT = −

(3.17)
Then, the autocorrelation function of ( ) s t is [29]

{ }
2
( , ) Re ( , )
c
j f
ss vv
R t t R t t e
π τ
τ τ + = + (3.18)
where ( , )
vv
R t t τ + is the autocorrelation function of the equivalent low-pass signal
( ) v t . Hence, the power spectral density is
{ }
1
( ) ( ) ( )
2
ss vv c vv c
S f S f f S f f = − + − − (3.19)
In [29], the power spectral density of ( ) v t is given as

2 1
( ) ( ) ( )
vv ii
S f G f S f
T
= (3.20)
where ( )
ii
S f is the power spectral density of the information sequence { }
k
I and it
is defined as
28

2
( ) ( )
j fmT
ii ii
m
S f R m e
π
=

(3.21)
where

*
( ) { }
ii n n m
R m E I I
+
= (3.22)
From (3.20), it can be seen that the spectral shape and the bandwidth of the linearly
modulated digital signal depend on the symbol rate, the pulse shape and the
information sequence; whereas they are independent of the type of the linear
modulation.
3.2.2 CPM SIGNALS
A simple representation of a constant envelope continuous-phase modulated (CPM)
signal can be expressed as
( ) cos(2 ( , ))
c
s t f t t I π φ = + (3.23)
where
c
f is the carrier frequency and ( , ) t I φ is
( , ) 2 ( )
k
k
t I h I g kT d
τ
φ π τ τ = −


(3.24)
where { }
k
I is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence, ( ) g t is the pulse shape
with
'
( ) ( ) q t g t = and ( ) 0; 0 q t t = < ;
1
( ) ;
2
q t t T = > .
And the low-pass equivalent of the signal is

( , )
( )
j t I
v t e
φ
= (3.25)
In [29], power density spectrum of the equivalent low-pass signal of full response
CPM with rectangular pulse shape is given as
29

2
2
1 1 1
1 2
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
M M M
ss n c nm n m
n n m
S f T A f f B f A f A f
M M
= = =
(
= − +
(
¸ ¸
∑ ∑∑
(3.26)
where

( )
( )
1
sin 2 1
2
( )
1
2 1
2
n
fT n M h
A f
fT n M h
π
π
¦ ¹ (
− − −
´ `
(
¸ ¸ ¹ )
=
¦ ¹ (
− − −
´ `
(
¸ ¸ ¹ )
(3.27)

( )
2
cos 2 cos( )
( )
1 2 cos(2 )
nm nm
nm
fT
B f
fT
π α ψ α
ψ ψ π
− −
=
+ −
(3.28)
( 1 )
nm
h m n M α π = + − − (3.29)

sin( )
( )
sin( )
M h
jh
M h
π
ψ ψ
π
= = (3.30)
For the minimum-shift keying signal, where
1
2
h = and { 1,1}
k
I ∈ − with a
rectangular pulse shape, the phase process of the carrier ( , ) t I φ in the symbol
interval is

1
( , ) , nT t (n+1)T
2 2
, nT t (n+1)T
2
n
k n
k
n n
t nT
t I I I
T
t nT
I
T
π π
φ
π
θ

=−∞
− | |
= + ≤ ≤
|
\ ¹
− | |
= + ≤ ≤
|
\ ¹

(3.31)
Then, the intercepted MSK signal is

1
( ) cos 2 , nT ( 1)
4 2
c n n n
s t f I t nI t n T
T
π
π θ
| | | |
= + − + ≤ ≤ +
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
(3.32)
In [29], the power spectral density of the equivalent low-pass signal of MSK is
given as
30

2
2
2 2 2
cos(2 ( ) ) 16
( )
1 16( )
c
ss
c
f f T A T
S f
f f T
π
π
| | −
=
|
− −
\ ¹
(3.33)
From (3.26) and (3.33) it can be seen that the bandwidth of the CPM signal depends
mainly on the symbol rate, information sequence alphabet size (M) and modulation
index ( ) h . For MSK, since the modulation index and alphabet size is fixed, the
bandwidth depends only on the symbol rate.
Bandwidth information can be used to discriminate analog and digital modulated
signals. However, bandwidth alone is not a feature to classify digital modulation
types.
31
3.3 CYCLOSTATIONARY ANALYSIS
The term “cyclostationary” is mainly used for a special class of non-stationary
random signals which exhibit periodicity in their statistics. Cyclostationary spectral
analysis gives more information about the signal, compared to the conventional
spectral analysis. Therefore, we investigate the cyclostationary characteristics of the
digitally modulated signals and use the cyclic autocorrelation function to estimate
the symbol rate of the intercepted signal. Also, we tested the performance of the
symbol rate estimator for different modulation types.
3.3.1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS
The autocorrelation function of a low pass equivalent of a linearly modulated signal
can be expressed as

{ }
{ }
*
* *
( , ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
vv
n m
n m
R t t E v t v t
E I I g t nT g t mT
τ τ
τ
∞ ∞
=−∞ =−∞
+ = +
= − + −
∑ ∑
(3.34)
where ( ) g t is the pulse shape and { }
k
I is a wide-sense stationary sequence with an
autocorrelation function ( )
ii
R m given in (3.22). Then, (3.34) can be expressed as

*
*
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
vv ii
n m
ii
m n
R t t R m n g t nT g t mT
R m g t nT g t mT
τ τ
τ
∞ ∞
=−∞ =−∞
∞ ∞
=−∞ =−∞
+ = − − + −
= − + −
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
(3.35)
and

32

*
*
( , ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ( 1) ) ( ( 1) )
vv ii
m n
ii
m n
R t T t T R m g t nT T g t mT T
R m g t n T g t m T
τ τ
τ
∞ ∞
=−∞ =−∞
∞ ∞
=−∞ =−∞
+ + + = − + + − +
= − − + − −
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
(3.36)
Since summation in (3.36) is from −∞ to ∞;

*
*
( , ) ( ) ( ( 1) ) ( ( 1) )
( ) ( ) ( )
( , )
vv ii
m n
ii
m n
vv
R t T t T R m g t n T g t m T
R m g t nT g t mT
R t t
τ τ
τ
τ
∞ ∞
=−∞ =−∞
∞ ∞
=−∞ =−∞
+ + + = − − + − −
= − + −
= +
∑ ∑
∑ ∑
(3.37)
Also, in a similar way { } ( ) E v t can be obtained as follows

{ } { }
{ }
{ }
( ) ( )
( ( 1) )
( )
k
k
k
k
E v t T E I g t kT T
E I g t k T
E v t

=−∞

=−∞
+ = − +
= − −
=


(3.38)
From (3.37) and (3.38), it is seen that both the autocorrelation function and the
mean of ( ) v t is periodic with a period T; that is low pass equivalent of a linearly
modulated signal ( ( ) v t ) is a cyclostationary process.
3.3.2 CPM SIGNALS
From (3.24) and (3.25), the autocorrelation function of a low pass equivalent of a
CPM signal can be expressed as [29]

| |
| |
2 ( ) ( )
2 ( ) ( )
( , )

k
k
k
j h I q t kT q t kT
vv
j hI q t kT q t kT
k
R t t E e
E e
π τ
π τ
τ

=−∞
| |
| + − − −
|
\ ¹

+ − − −
=−∞
¦ ¹

¦ ¦
+ =
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )

(3.39)
33
Since { }
k
I is a statistically independent sequence with equally likely symbols,

1
2 [ ( ) ( )]
( 1),
1
( ; )
M
j hn q t kT q t kT
vv
n M odd k
R t t e
M
π τ
τ
∞ −
+ − − −
=− − =−∞
| |
+ =
|
\ ¹
∑ ∏
(3.40)
and

| |
| |
1
2 ( ) ( )
( 1),
1
2 ( ( 1) ) ( ( 1) )
( 1),
1
( , )
1

M
j hn q t kT T q t kT T
vv
n M odd k
M
j hn q t k T q t k T
n M odd k
R t T t T e
M
e
M
π τ
π τ
τ
∞ −
+ − + − − +
=− − =−∞
∞ −
+ − − − − −
=− − =−∞
| |
+ + + =
|
\ ¹
| |
=
|
\ ¹
∑ ∏
∑ ∏
(3.41)
Since, the product in (3.41) is from −∞ to ∞

| |
1
2 ( ) ( )
( 1),
1
( , )
( , )
M
j hn q t kT q t kT
vv
n M odd k
vv
R t T t T e
M
R t t
π τ
τ
τ
∞ −
+ − − −
=− − =−∞
| |
+ + + =
|
\ ¹
= +
∑ ∏
(3.42)
In a similar way { } ( ) E v t can be obtained as follows

{ }
{ }
2 ( )
2 ( ( 1) )
1
2 ( ( 1) )
( 1),
( )


( )
k
k
k
k
j h I q t kT T
j hI q t k T
k
M
j hI q t k T
n M odd k
E v t T E e
E e
e
E v t
π
π
π

=−∞
− +

− −
=−∞
∞ −
− −
=− − =−∞
¦ ¹

¦ ¦
+ =
´ `
¦ ¦
¹ )
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
| |
=
|
\ ¹
=

∑ ∏
(3.43)
Therefore, similar to linearly modulated signals, we can conclude that low pass
equivalent of a CPM signal is a cyclostationary process.
34
3.3.3 CYCLOSTATIONARITY IN MODULATION
RECOGNITION
Since autocorrelation function of low pass equivalent of digital signal is generally a
periodic function of t then it will have a Fourier series representation

2
( / 2, / 2) ( )
j t
vv x
R t t R e
α πα
α
τ τ τ + − =

(3.44)
where ( )
vv
R
α
τ is the cyclic autocorrelation function and can be expressed as

/ 2
2
/ 2
1
( ) lim ( / 2, / 2)
z
j t
vv vv
z
z
R R t t e dt
z
α πα
τ τ τ

→∞

= + −

(3.45)
Where α is an integer multiple of fundamental frequencies such as carrier
frequency, symbol rate, hop rate and their sums and differences. If there is only one
period, say T, and then (3.45) can be written as [30]

/ 2
2
/ 2
1
( ) ( / 2, / 2)
T
j t
vv vv
T
R R t t e dt
T
α πα
τ τ τ


= + −

(3.46)
• If ( ) 0
vv
R
α
τ = for all 0 α ≠ and ( ) 0
vv
R τ ≠ then v(t) is said to be purely
stationary.
• If ( ) 0
vv
R
α
τ ≠ only for
0
integer/T α = for some period
0
T then v(t) is said to
be purely cyclostationary.
• If ( ) 0
vv
R
α
τ ≠ for values of α that are not all integer multiples of some
fundamental frequency
0
1/ T then v(t) is said to exhibit cyclostationarity.
Also, cyclic spectral density function is defined in [30] as

2
( ) ( )
j f
vv vv
S f R e d
α α π τ
τ τ


−∞
=

(3.47)
35
In the case of 0 α = (3.47) turns out to be conventional power spectral density
function; but for 0 α ≠ , ( )
vv
S f
α
can be considered as the density of correlation
between spectral components at the frequencies
2
f
α
+ and
2
f
α
− .
Cyclic spectral function for analog modulated signals is given in [31] and for digital
modulated signals is given in [32]. It is claimed that the signals with the same
power spectral density but with different modulations may have distinct cyclic
spectrum, stationary noise and interference have no cyclic correlation, phase and
frequency information in the intercepted signal can be extracted by the usage of
spectral correlation function. Hence spectral correlation function can be used for
classification of different modulation types and extraction of different signal
parameters.
Symbol rate is one of the important parameters in digital modulated signals.
Estimated symbol rate gives information about the presence of a digital modulation
and the bandwidth of the intercepted signal. Therefore, the estimated symbol rate
can be used as a key feature in a digital modulation recognition system. Moreover,
cyclostationarity property of the digital modulated signals can be used to estimate
the symbol rate.
In Section 3.4.1 it is shown that low pass equivalent of a linearly modulated signal
( ( ) v t ) is cyclostationary with cyclic frequencies , int
k
k eger
T
α
¦ ¹
=
´ `
¹ )
, then from
(3.46) the cyclic autocorrelation function corresponding to cyclic frequency α is

/ 2
2
/ 2
/ 2
* 2
/ 2
/ 2
* 2
/ 2
1
( ) ( / 2, / 2)
1
( ) ( / 2 ) ( / 2 )
1
( ) ( / 2 ) ( / 2 )
T
j t
vv vv
T
T
j t
ii
m n
T
T
j t
ii
m n
T
R R t t e dt
T
R m g t nT g t mT e dt
T
R m g t nT g t mT e dt
T
α πα
πα
πα
τ τ τ
τ τ
τ τ


∞ ∞

=−∞ =−∞

∞ ∞

=−∞ =−∞

= + −
= + − − −
= + − − −

∑ ∑

∑ ∑

(3.48)
36
Assuming { }
k
I is white with zero mean, that is ( ) 0; 0
ii
R m m = ≠ , then (3.48) turns
out to be

/ 2
* 2 ( )
/ 2
* 2
1
( ) (0) ( / 2) ( / 2)
1
(0) ( / 2) ( / 2)
T nT
j t nT
vv ii
n
T nT
j t
ii
R R g t g t e dt
T
R g t g t e dt
T
α πα
πα
τ τ τ
τ τ


− +
=−∞
− −


−∞
= + −
= + −



(3.49)
From (3.18), (3.48) and (3.49), the cyclic autocorrelation function of the intercepted
signal ( ) s t can be obtained as


( )
( )
( )
/ 2
2
/ 2
/ 2
2
/ 2
2 * 2
/ 2
2 2
/ 2
1
( ) ( / 2, / 2)
1
( ( / 2, / 2)
2
( / 2, / 2) )
1
( / 2, / 2)
2

c
c
vv
c
T
j t
ss ss
T
T
j f
vv
T
j f j t
T
j f j t
vv
T
R R t t e dt
T
R t t e
T
R t t e e dt
R t t e dt e
T
α πα
π τ
π τ πα
π τ πα
τ τ τ
τ τ
τ τ
τ τ



− −


= + −
= + −
+ + −
| |
= + −
|
\ ¹



( )
( )
{ }
/ 2
2 * 2
/ 2
*
2 2
2
1
( / 2, / 2)
2
1 1
( ) ( )
2 2
Re ( )
c
vv
c c
c
T
j f j t
T
j f j f
vv vv
j f
vv
R t t e dt e
T
R e R e
R e
π τ πα
π τ π τ α α
π τ α
τ τ
τ τ
τ
− −


| |
+ + −
|
\ ¹
= +
=

(3.50)
Hence, the intercepted signal and the low pass equivalent signal have the same
cyclic frequencies.
Cyclostationary analysis involves too much calculation; however, in [33] a fast and
simple algorithm was proposed to estimate the symbol rate of linear digital
modulated signals. In that work, both the rectangular pulse shape and pulse shape
which is obtained from the response of the linear time invariant (LTI) low pass filter
excited by the square wave are considered and it is found out that ( )
ss
R
α
τ is
37
maximum when
1
2 2
T
τ
α
= ± = ± . Therefore in [33], the following method was
proposed to estimate the symbol rate

| |
1 2
0
,
1 1
arg max
2
ss
R
T
α
α α α
α
α

| |
= =
|
\ ¹
(3.51)
We tested the performance of the proposed method, which is given in [33], for
ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, PSK4, PSK8, QAM8, CW, and AWGN signals. In the case
of AWGN, indicated SNR value is taken as the noise power. For 2500 symbols, the
estimated absolute average error normalized to symbol rate
b
b
mean F
e
F

= is given
in Figure 3-3 where

1
1
t
N
b
n
t
mean F
N
=
=

,
b
F is the symbol rate,

b
F is the estimated
symbol rate and
t
N is the number of trials.
During trials if

b
F is found to be less than 100 Hz, then

0
b
F = is taken.
From Figure 3-3, it can be seen that the proposed symbol rate estimation method
gives satisfactory results even at low SNR values. Moreover, the proposed method
can be used to discriminate linearly modulated signals from continuous wave
signals and noise.
The proposed method can also be used for CPFSK signals. Also, we tested the
performance of the proposed method applied to the instantaneous frequency of the
CPFSK signal and the results are given in Figure 3-4.
38
-15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
SNR (dB)
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

E
r
r
o
r

N
o
r
.

F
b
Absolute Estimation Average Error Nor. Fb vs. SNR


ASK2
ASK4
ASK8
QAM8
PSK4
PSK8
CW
NOISE

Figure 3-3 Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for
Linear Modulation Signals vs. SNR
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
Absolute Estimation Average Error Nor. Fb vs. SNR
SNR (dB)
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

E
r
r
o
r

N
o
r
.

F
b


FSK2
FSK4
FSK8

Figure 3-4: Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for
CPFSK (h=0.5; Fb=2kHz) vs. SNR
39
3.4 ENVELOPE FEATURES
The envelope of low pass equivalent of MASK, MQAM signals are time varying
and cyclostationary; noise envelope is also time varying but not periodic. If MPSK
signals are bandlimited, then amplitude variations at the transitions between
successive symbols can be observable. CW, CPM signals have constant envelope.
Therefore envelope information of the intercepted signal is one of the key features
that can be used to discriminate digitally modulated signals.
In the literature, there are different methods that use envelope information to extract
features for classification of digitally modulated signals. However, most of these
methods require some of the signal parameters such as carrier frequency, pulse
shape, time of arrival, initial phase, symbol rate, signal to noise ratio, to be known
or to be extracted.
In [14], an ML classification method was proposed and the matched filter output is
used in the analysis. In [1] instantaneous amplitude information is used to extract a
feature; but the carrier frequency offset is assumed to be known. In [21] a blind
classification method was proposed based on the envelope function ( ) J of the
signal

( )
2
4 2
2
4 2
2 2
[ ] 2 [ ]
2( )
4 4
s s
v n v n
m m
J
P P
< > − < >

= = (3.52)
where { }
1
[ ]
N
n
v n
=
is the sample sequence of the equivalent low-pass signal envelope.
Then
4
[ ] v n < > can be found by time averaging the samples of the equivalent low-
pass of the intercepted signal:
40

4
4
1
4
4
1
/ ( / ) /
4
4
1 1
/ ( / )
4
4
_
1
4 4
_
1
[ ] [ ]
1
( )
/
( )
/

[ ]
s s
s
N
n
N
k s
n k
N T T T T
s s
k s
k n
N T T
s
k g av
k
g av
v n v n
N
I g nT kT
N
T T T
I g nT kT
N T
T T
I P
N
I k P
=
=
= =
=
< >=
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
=
=< >

∑ ∑
∑ ∑

(3.53)
where g(t) is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t<0 and for t>T, T is the symbol period
and
s
T is the sampling period. Also,
2
[ ] v n < > can be found as

2
2
1
2
2
1
/ ( / ) /
2
2
1 1
/ ( / )
2
2
_
1
2 2
_
1
[ ] [ ]
1
( )
/
( )
/

[ ]
s s
s
N
n
N
k s
n k
N T T T T
s s
k s
k n
N T T
s
k g av
k
g av
v n v n
N
I g nT kT
N
T T T
I g nT kT
N T
T T
I P
N
I k P
=
=
= =
=
< >=
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
=
=< >

∑ ∑
∑ ∑

(3.54)
Then, the envelope function J is obtained as follows:

( )
( )
( )
2
4 2
2
2
4 4 2 4
_ _
2
2 2
_
4 4
_
2
2 2
_
2( )
4
[ ] 2 [ ]

4 [ ]
[ ]
1

2
4 [ ]
s
g av g av
g av
g av
g av
m m
J
P
I k P I k P
I k P
I k P
I k P

=
< > − < >
=
< >
< >
= −
< >
(3.55)
41
Since the ratio
( )
4
_
2
2
_
g av
g av
P
P
is not equal to 1 for every pulse shaping, the envelope
function J depends on the pulse shape of the intercepted signal. Hence by using J ,
a fixed threshold can not be defined to classify the signals.
Histogram based methods require no prior knowledge about the signal parameters
and are able to classify MASK signals at high SNR. However, at low SNR
histogram based methods fail to discriminate constant envelope and varying
envelope signals. Therefore, extra features are needed to classify ASK signals.

42
3.5 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF MOMENTS
Spectral analysis of moments of the intercepted signal gives important information
about the modulation type. In [5], [10], [19] and [20] higher order moments of the
signal are used to classify digitally modulated signals. In [3], the signal squared and
the signal quadrupled are used to classify BPSK and QPSK signals. By increasing
the order of the signal, modulation can be removed from the signal and this
information can be used to classify signals. However, as the order increases the
corrupted noise power increases also.
Let define the following Fourier Transforms;
[ ] { [ ]}
v
F k DFT v n = (3.56)

2
2
[ ] { [ ]}
v
F k DFT v n = (3.57)

4
4
[ ] { [ ]}
v
F k DFT v n = (3.58)

8
8
[ ] { [ ]}
v
F k DFT v n = (3.59)
where { }
1
[ ]
N
n
v n
=
is the sample sequence of the equivalent low-pass signal. Then the
following features, obtained from higher orders of the low-pass equivalent signal
v[n], can be defined to be used in the classification process;

0
k =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying
{ }
2
2
[ ]
max [ ]
v
v
k
F k
F k
ξ > is lower than a predefined value
'
d
F , otherwise
0
k =1.

2
k =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying
{ }
2
2
2
2
[ ]
max [ ]
v
v
k
F k
F k
ξ > is lower than a predefined value
'
d
F ; otherwise
2
k =1.
43

4
k =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying
{ }
4
4
2
2
[ ]
max [ ]
v
v
k
F k
F k
ξ > is lower than a predefined value
'
d
F ; otherwise
4
k =1.

8
k =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying
{ }
8
8
2
2
[ ]
max [ ]
v
v
k
F k
F k
ξ > is lower than a predefined value
'
d
F ; otherwise
8
k =1.
where ξ is a pre-defined threshold, which can be determined according to the
simulation results. Hence, 1
i
k = means modulation is removed from the carrier and
0
i
k = is the indication of an existing modulation on the carrier.

3.6 INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY FEATURES
The instantaneous frequency information of the intercepted signal is another key
feature in the classification of signals. Instantaneous frequency of CPM signals is
time varying and cyclostationary; for MPSK, frequency variations at the transitions
between successive symbols can be observable. CW and MASK signals have
constant instantaneous frequency. Moreover, the carrier frequency offset (CFO) can
be extracted from the instantaneous frequency information. Therefore, we proposed
a method to extract the instantaneous frequency information and use this method to
estimate the CFO. The performance of the proposed method in estimating the CFO
is also tested.
The instantaneous frequencies of a low pass equivalent of a signal can be found as:

44
( )
( )
( )
' '
2 2
' '
2 2
( ) ( )
Im( ( ))
arctan
Re( ( ))
( ) 1 1
( ) ( ) arctan
2 2 ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1 1

2 ( )
( )
1
( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 1

2 ( ) (
j t
v t
I
i
R
I R R I
R
I
R
I R R I
R I
v t A t e
v t
v t
v t d d
f t t
dt dt v t
v t v t v t v t
v t
v t
v t
v t v t v t v t
v t v t
φ
φ
φ
π π
π
π
=
| |
=
|
\ ¹
(
= =
(
¸ ¸

=
| |
+
|
\ ¹

=
+ )
(3.60)
where ( ) Im( ( ))
I
v t v t = , ( ) Re( ( ))
R
v t v t = . ( ) ( )
k
k
A t I g t kT = −

, ( ) 2 t ft φ π = ∆ for
linearly modulated signals, and ( ) A t is a random amplitude variation,
( ) 2 2 ( )
k
k
t ft h I g kT d
τ
φ π π τ τ = ∆ + −


for CPM signals. f ∆ is the CFO, g(t) is a
pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t<0 and for t>T and T is the symbol period.
For discrete time differentiation, the following formula is used [47]:

'
[ 3] 9 [ 2] 45 [ 1] 45 [ 1] 9 [ 2] [ 3]
[ ]
60
x i x i x i x i x i x i
x i
− − + − − − + + − − + −
= (3.61)
To estimate the CFO, firstly the received signal is down-converted to IF and filtered
such that the signal is in the passband of the filter and then moved to baseband. The
baseband signal has a CFO of f ∆ . The baseband signal is sampled at a rate equals
to the IF bandwidth to make noise samples independent. Then, the instantaneous
frequency of the low-pass equivalent signal is extracted by using (3.60) and (3.61).
A simple smoothing filter is used to remove abrupt changes in the obtained
instantaneous frequency waveform and the CFO is estimated by averaging the
filtered instantaneous frequency samples.
For CW signal, the performance of the proposed instantaneous carrier frequency
offset estimation method is given in Figure 3-5. Sampling frequency is f
s
=50kHz,
second order Chebychev type-II filter with a cut-off 20kHz is used as a smoothing
45
filter, SNR is 20dB and estimated absolute average error is defined as
c
e mean F = − . Where

1
1
t
N
c
n
t
mean F
N
=
=

and
t
N is the number of trials.




Figure 3-5: Absolute Estimation Average Error for CW (f
s
=50kHz, SNR=20 dB) vs.
Carrier Frequency Offset



From Figure 3-5, it is seen that the estimation error increases as the carrier
frequency offset increases due to the parabolic noise power spectral shape at the
output of limiter discriminator [48] and the filter effect of the differentiation given
in (3.61). It can be concluded that, the estimation error is increased dramatically for
10
s
c
f
F > .
46
3.7 CARRIER FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATION
3.7.1 INTRODUCTION
In digital modulation recognition, in general, we do not have a priori information on
the center frequencies of the signals. Even if the center frequency is known
nominally, by the published standards or by intelligence, carrier frequency offset
estimation should be performed to compensate the local oscillator drifts and
Doppler shifts induced by the relative motion of mobile systems and channel
effects. Channel estimation and synchronization can be made by the usage of set of
known data symbols. However, data-aided or timing-aided techniques reduce the
effective transmission rate and may not be feasible in many applications.
In the literature, there are many frequency offset estimation techniques for digitally
modulated signals; some of them are given in [34], [35],[36], [43], [44], [45], [46].
In this thesis work, since our scope is limited, only MSK frequency offset and
symbol rate estimation are investigated. However, the symbol rate and the coarse
carrier frequency offset of digitally modulated signals can be estimated as described
in section 3.3 and 3.6 respectively.
Minimum-shift keying (MSK) is very attractive for transmission in a mobile radio
environment, because of three major properties [40]:
• 99.5% of the signal energy is contained within a bandwidth of 1.5 times the
data rate.
• The envelope of the signal is constant, therefore power efficient nonlinear
amplifiers can be used.
• MSK may be interpreted as linear modulation. Hence, simple MLSE
receiver structures exist in this case
47
In electronic warfare (EW) applications, automatic modulation recognition systems
should be able to classify the modulation type of the intercepted signal and also be
able to extract some of the signal parameters for burst-type transmission. In the
literature, there are blind carrier frequency offset estimators for MSK signals based
on the frequency difference detector (FDD) technique [38], [39]. The acquisition
range of these types of estimators is limited to the symbol rate and they require
longer acquisition time. In [40], feedforward demodulator structure with decimation
for timing control was proposed. Although, the proposed method requires shorter
acquisition time compared to FDDs, its performance is also limited to the symbol
rate and the acquisition time.
48
3.7.2 THE PROPOSED METHOD
Sunde’s FSK is a special form of CPFSK with modulation index 1 h = . In this FSK,
two tones appear whose difference equals to the symbol rate and this information
helps in the demodulation of the signal without external timing information. In [37],
Sunde’s FSK was obtained from MSK signal and it is shown that the carrier
frequency offset and the symbol rate of a MSK signal can be extracted by using a
frequency doubler and two phase-locked loops (PLL) as follows:

( )
1 2
1 2
4
1
c
f f
f
f f
T
+
=
= −
(3.62)
where
1 2
, f f are the output frequencies of the PLLs.
The block diagram of the proposed MSK frequency offset and symbol rate
estimator is illustrated in Figure 3-6.
Firstly, the low-pass equivalent of the Sunde’s FSK, y[n], is obtained by squaring
the low-pass equivalent of MSK signal, v[n]. Then, Discrete Fourier Transform
(DFT) is carried out to find the tones in the Sunde’s FSK. From the squared signal,
another sequence x[n], whose length is an integer multiple of the length of the
sequence y[n], is constructed to improve the performance of the phase-lock loops.
The new sequence x[n] and the tones found by DFT are the inputs of the phase-lock
loops. Finally, outputs of these phase-lock loops are used to estimate the carrier
frequency offset, f ∆ , and the symbol rate,
b
f , of the MSK signal.



49







Figure 3-6: Block Diagram of The Frequency and Symbol Rate Estimator



3.7.2.1 DFT BLOCK
Let | | Y k be the DFT of the squared signal [ ] y n and it is given as


2 ( 1)( 1)
1
1
[ ] [ ]
n k
N
j
N
n
Y k y n e
π − − | |


|
\ ¹
=
=

(3.63)
Then, the two frequency components with largest energy are selected as the tones
(
1 2
,
o o
f f ) in Sunde’s FSK. By using DFT block false-locking of the PLL’s can be
prevented.

3.7.2.2 ACCUMULATOR BLOCK
In the case of burst-type transmission, the duration of the signal is so short that PLL
may not lock to the signal; hence, it is required to feed the squared signal to PLL
more than once. Thus, larger sequence [ ] [ (mod N)] x n y n = is constructed from the
sequence y[n].
fb
fc
x[n]
fo1, fo2 y[n]
v[n]

DFT

Accumulator

PLL-I

PLL-II
D
E
C
I
S
I
O
N
( )
2
50

3.7.2.3 PLL BLOCK
The phase-lock loop (PLL) is used to improve the performance of the estimator. A
basic PLL block diagram is shown in Figure 3-7 [48]. A phase detector is used to
generate a signal that is proportional to the phase difference between the reference
input and the feedback from the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). Hence, a
simple multiplier can be used as a phase detector. The output of the phase detector
is low pass filtered and used as a control signal to drive VCO.








Figure 3-7: Basic PLL Block Diagram



The bandpass input signal is

1
( ) sin(2 ( ))
s c
s t A f t t π φ = + (3.64)
and the VCO output signal is

2
( ) sin(2 ( ))
r c
r t A f t t π φ = + (3.65)


VCO
s(t)
Phase
Detector
Loop
Filter
r(t)
p(t)
51
where

2
( ) ( )
t
v
t K v d φ τ τ
−∞
=

(3.66)
and
v
K is the VCO gain constant. Then phase detector output is


'
1 2
1 2 1 2
( ) sin(2 ( )) cos(2 ( ))
sin( ( ) ( )) sin(4 ( ) ( ))
2 2
m s r c c
m s r m s r
c
e t K A A f t t f t t
K A A K A A
t t f t t t
π φ π φ
φ φ π φ φ
= + +
= − + + +
(3.67)
where
m
K is the gain of the multiplier circuit. Since the high frequency term will be
filtered by the loop filter, the loop filter output is
( ) sin( ( )) * ( )
d e
p t K t h t φ = (3.68)
where
1 2
( ) ( ) ( )
e
t t t φ φ φ = − is the phase error,
2
m s r
d
K A A
K = is the equivalent phase
detector constant, for the multiplier-type phase detector, and h(t) is the impulse
response of the loop filter. The describing equation for the baseband PLL model can
be derived by taking the derivative of the phase error:

1
0
( ) ( ) sin( ( )) ( )
t
e d v e
d d
t t K K h t d
dt dt
φ φ φ τ τ τ = − −

(3.69)
Then, the baseband PLL block diagram is given in Figure 3-8.




52





Figure 3-8: The baseband equivalent PLL Block Diagram



The discrete low-pass equivalent of the PLL can be obtained by sampling the
equivalent low-pass signal at a rate larger than the nyquist sampling rate and
replacing all the blocks in the PLL with their discrete equivalent models. The block
diagram of the discrete low-pass equivalent PLL including the decision block,
which is used to decide whether the PLL is in the lock stare or not, is given in
Figure 3-9. The equivalence of the system blocks are explained in each subsections
below.










Figure 3-9: PLL Block Diagram
p[n]
e[n]
KO
σd
d[n]
Q[n]
e1[n]
r[n]
x[n]
x
Im() LPF-L
VCO exp()
LPF
var{}
Decision
Conj()
LPF
f
0

Phase
Detector
1
( ) j t
e
φ


Im(.)
LPF
(h(t))
p(t)
sin(.)

(.)dt



exp(j.)
2
( ) j t
e
φ

( )
e
j t
e
φ

( )
e
t φ
2
( )
d
t
dt
φ

+
53
Loop Low Pass Filter (LPF-L)
The transfer function of the low-pass filter is [41]

2 2 2
1 1
1
1
( )
s
s
H s
s s
τ τ τ
τ τ
+
+
= = (3.70)
By using Bilinear Transformation [49]
1
1
1
2
1
s
z
s F
z


| | −
=
|
+
\ ¹
, z transform of the filter
can be obtained as follows

1
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
2 2 2
1
1
1
1
2
1
( )
1
2
1
1 1
2 2
( )
2 1
s
s
s s
s
z
F
z
H z
z
F
z
F F z
H z
F z
τ
τ
τ
τ τ τ
τ






| | −
+
|
+
\ ¹
=
| | −
|
+
\ ¹
| | | |
+ + −
| |
\ ¹ \ ¹
=

(3.71)

Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO)
VCO angular frequency, ω , can be expressed as

0
( ) ( )
v
t K p t ω ω = + (3.72)
Where
0
w is the free running (angular) frequency of the VCO and
v
K is the VCO
gain constant [41].
The phase of the VCO is

2
0
0
0 0
( ) ( )
( )
t
t t
v
t d
d K p d
φ ω τ τ
ω τ τ τ
=
= +

∫ ∫
(3.73)
54
By using the trapezoidal rule, the integral ( )
0
( )
t
v
K t K p d τ τ =

can be expressed as
( ) [ ] [ 1] [ ] [ 1]
2
v
s
K
K n K n p n p n
F
= − + + − (3.74)
Hence, the phase in (3.73) becomes

2 2 0
0
[ ] ( ) [ ]
2 [ ]
s s
s
n nT nT K n
f
n K n
F
φ φ ω
π
= = +
= +
(3.75)
In [41], the natural frequency (
n
ω ) and damping factor (ξ ) of the PLL, for
multiplier type phase detector and the selected loop filter, is given as

1
v m
n
K K
ω
τ
= (3.76)

2
2
n
ω τ
ξ = (3.77)
where
v
K is the VCO gain and
m
K is the multiplier type phase detector gain.
PLL Decision Block:
When the PLL is in locked state; then the bandwidth of the loop filter can be
reduced, by reducing
v
K , to improve the estimator performance. To decide whether
the PLL is in locked state or not following thresholds are defined:

'
1
2 '
1
[ ] [ 1]
1
[ ]
d d
N
n
T n n
T d n
N
σ σ
=
= − −
=

(3.78)
where d[n] is the filtered error signal, [ ]
d
n σ is the filtered variance of the sequence
{ }
1
1
[ ]
n
m
d m

=
and
'
N is the length of the sequence d[n]. If
1
Τ is larger than a
55
predefined value (
1
ν ) then the VCO gain will be reduced to
v
K
K
, and if
2
Τ is larger
than a predefined value (
2
ν ) it is decided that PLL is in lock state hence the
estimated frequency and symbol rate are reliable. The threshold values v
1
and v
2
can
be determined according to simulation results.
If the PLL is in the lock state; that is, if
2 2
ν Τ > , then the PLL output frequency
(

PLL
f ) is

| | | | | | ( )

| |
_
1
2
1
_
s
PLL
L
PLL PLL
n PLL Lock
F
f n Q n Q n
f f n
L PLL Lock
π
=
= + −
=


(3.79)
where L is the length of the accumulated sequence | | x n , and _ PLL Lock is the
index of the sequence when
1 1
ν Τ > is satisfied.
3.7.2.4 ESTIMATOR DECISION BLOCK
Output of each PLL Blocks
_1 PLL
f and
_ 2 PLL
f are used to estimate the carrier
frequency offset and symbol rate by using eqn (3.62).
3.7.3 SIMULATIONS
To determine the performance of the proposed estimator, computer simulations
were carried out by using the MATLAB package.
3.7.4 SELECTION OF BLOCK PARAMETERS
Selection of the block parameters in Figure 3-9 depends on the acquisition time of
symbols, maximum available symbol rate and the maximum available carrier
frequency offset. Therefore, it is assumed that
56
• Available maximum symbol rate is 10 kHz;
• Available maximum carrier frequency offset equals to the symbol rate, that
is 10 kHz;
• n=50 symbols are available.
Then, the selection of block parameters is given as follows:
• Squared MSK signal with symbol rate 10kHz and carrier frequency offset
10kHz can have tones at 2 / 2 25
c b
f f kHz + = and 2 / 2 25
c b
f f kHz − − = − .
Hence IF bandwidth of the filter is selected as 50kHz and baseband signal is
sampled with the IF bandwidth to make noise samples independent, that is,
50
s
F kHz = .
• Since 50
s
F kHz = and n=50 symbols are available then the length of the
analytical signal [ ] v n will be 250
s
b
F
xn
f
= samples. Therefore the length of
the DFT is taken as 512.
• Length of the accumulated sequence [ ] x n is taken as 40 times the
intercepted signal, that is, the length of [ ] x n is taken as 10000.
To determine the natural frequency
n
w of the PLL block, average absolute
frequency error

2 / 2
c b PLL
e f f f = + − for different
n
w values, in the case of
0
100
c
f f Hz − = are given in Figure 3-10, Figure 3-11. During simulations
0
1;
d s
K K F = = are assumed and when PLL is in the lock state, which is determined
by eqn. (3.78), VCO gain
v
K is reduced by a factor K .
o
f is the free running frequency of the PLL and

PLL
f is the PLL output frequency.
Since 50
s
F kHz = and the length of the DFT is 512, then the maximum frequency
57
error at the output of DFT block will be
50
98
512
kHz
Hz ≅ . Therefore
0
100
c
f f Hz − = is a reasonable assumption.
From these figures, it can be seen that for 900, 5
n
w K = = , logarithm of the average
absolute error (e) is low even at low SNR. Damping factor is taken as 0.7 ξ = . In
these figures, the plots “b)” are the focused versions of the plots “a)”.
When the natural frequency
n
w and the damping factor ξ are obtained, then the
filter coefficients can be determined by using eqns. (3.71), (3.76), and (3.77).



0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
-20
0
20
40
60
a) wn (Hz)
1
0
l
o
g
1
0
(
e
)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
-10
-5
0
5
10
b) wn (Hz
1
0
l
o
g
1
0
(
e
)


K=1
K=2
K=3
K=4
K=5
K=6
K=7
K=8
K=9
K=10

Figure 3-10: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=-5dB
58
0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000
-20
0
20
40
60
a) wn (Hz)
1
0
l
o
g
1
0
(
e
)
100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
b) wn (Hz))
1
0
l
o
g
1
0
(
e
)


K=1
K=2
K=3
K=4
K=5
K=6
K=7
K=8
K=9
K=10

Figure 3-11: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=0dB

59
3.7.5 SIMULATION RESULTS
Absolute carrier frequency estimation error

c c
e f f = − and absolute symbol rate
estimation error at

b b
e f f = − at / 15
b o
E N dB = is given in Figure 3-12 and Figure
3-13 respectively.
To determine the effect of the estimated frequency error on the demodulated
signals, MSK signals are coherently demodulated by the estimated carrier
frequency. For each carrier frequency estimation 100 independent MSK signals are
generated with n=50 symbols and demodulated by using the estimated carrier
frequency offset. The average number of bit errors are given in Figure 3-14. In these
figures, the plots “b)” are the focused versions of the plots “a)”.



-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
4
0
5
10
15
x 10
4
a) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz)
C
F
O

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

E
r
r
o
r
CFO Estimation Error vs CFO
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
4
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
b) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz)
C
F
O

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

E
r
r
o
r
CFO Estimation Error vs CFO

Figure 3-12: Absolute Carrier Frequency Estimation Error at / 15
b o
E N dB =
60
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
4
0
5
10
15
x 10
4
Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz)
S
y
m
b
o
l

R
a
t
e

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

E
r
r
o
r
Symbol Rate Estimation Error vs CFO
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
4
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
0.1
Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz)
S
y
m
b
o
l

R
a
t
e

E
s
t
i
m
a
t
i
o
n

E
r
r
o
r
Symbol Rate Estimation Error vs CFO

Figure 3-13: Absolute Symbol Rate Estimation Error at / 15
b o
E N dB =

-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
4
0
10
20
30
a) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

B
i
t

E
r
r
o
r
s
Average Number of Bit Errors vs CFO
-1 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
x 10
4
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
b) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz)
A
v
e
r
a
g
e

N
u
m
b
e
r

o
f

B
i
t

E
r
r
o
r
s
Average Number of Bit Errors vs CFO

Figure 3-14: Average Number of Bit Errors at / 15
b o
E N dB =
61
3.7.6 CONCLUSION
A blind method is investigated to estimate the carrier frequency offset and symbol
rate of a short duration MSK signal. The design procedure of the proposed method
has also been given.
The estimator is able to estimate the carrier frequency offset and the symbol rate of
the short duration MSK signals. As can be seen from Figure 3-14, probability of bit
error is about 0.002 when 50 bits are transmitted. Carrier frequency estimation limit
of the proposed estimator depends on the IF bandwidth and the sampling frequency
of the receiver, whereas it does not directly related to symbol rate of the signal.
The large error in Figure 3-12 and Figure 3-13 at 5 kHz is caused by the incorrect
output of the DFT block. Performance of the proposed estimator can be improved
by using a block which has a better frequency estimation performance than a DFT
block and by increasing the length of the accumulated sequence.



62
CHAPTER 4

SPECIFIC MODULATION RECOGNITION TOOLS
In Chapter 3, basic feature extraction blocks were introduced and in this chapter
selection of these blocks according to the modulation type is discussed. Also, we
tested the performances of the features, which are extracted from these blocks, for
ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, PSK2, PSK4, PSK8, QAM2, QAM4, QAM8, Noise, FSK2,
FSK4, FSK8 and CW signals.
4.1 OUTPUTS OF THE FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS
SNR Estimation Block
SNR ( snr ) and the average signal power ( )
s
P

estimation are carried out using the
method reviewed in section 3.1.
Symbol Rate Estimation Block
By using cyclostationarity detection block, described in section 3.3, the symbol rate
( )
0
α of the signal is estimated.
Envelope Feature Extraction Block
The average signal power of the received signal is

2 2
_ s g av
P A P = for ASK2, MPSK, MFSK, CW, QAM2, QAM4
63

2 2
_
5
s g av
P A P = for ASK4

2 2
_
5.5
s g av
P A P = for QAM8

2 2
_
21
s g av
P A P = for ASK8
where A is the amplitude of the received signal, ( ) g t is the pulse shape and
2
_ g av
P is
the average power of the pulse. Therefore, following four envelope histograms are
constructed:
• In the 1
st
histogram, the width of each bin is
s
P and the centers of the bins
are located at integer multiples of
s
P
• In the 2
nd
histogram, the width of each bin is / 5
s
P and the centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of / 5
s
P
• In the 3
rd
histogram, the width of each bin is / 21
s
P and the centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of / 21
s
P
• In the 4
th
histogram, the width of each bin is / 50
s
P and the centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of / 50
s
P
where
s
P is the estimated average signal power.
Then, the number of peaks
1 2 3 4
( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) η η η η in each histogram is obtained
according to the following rule:

max
i
env
F
F
ς > (4.1)
64
Where
i
F is the frequency count of the i
th
peak,
max
F is the maximum frequency
count of the histogram and env
ς
is a predefined threshold, which can be determined
according to simulation results.
The location of each peak in the 1
st
, 2
nd
, 3
rd
histogram is normalized to
s
P ,
/ 5
s
P , / 21
s
P respectively and then these normalized peak locations are stored
as a vector for the decision process.
In Figure 4-1, four histograms for ASK8 with SNR=20dB, A=1 and g(t) is a square
pulse shape is shown.


0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
5000
10000
15000
sqrt(Ps)
a)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
2000
4000
6000
8000
sqrt(Ps/5)
b)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
1000
2000
3000
4000
5000
sqrt(Ps/21)
c)
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
1000
2000
3000
sqrt(Ps/50)
d)

Figure 4-1: Envelope Histograms for ASK8

65
In Figure 4-1, red line in each histogram shows the threshold value.
• Plot a) shows the 1
st
envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the
bins are located at 0, 21 4.6 ≈ , 2 21 9.2 ≈ and the width of each bin is
21 4.6 ≈ . In the 1
st
histogram, only one peak at the bin location 21 4.6 ≈
is found. Hence, the 1
st
peak vector is v
p1
=[1 0 0 0] and
1
1 η = .
• Plot b) shows the 2
nd
envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of 21/ 5 2 ≈ and the width of each bin
is 21/ 5 2 ≈ . In the 2
nd
histogram, only one peak at the bin location
21/ 5 2 ≈ is found. Hence, the 2
nd
peak vector is v
p2
=[1 0 0 0] and
2
1 η = .
• Plot c) shows the 3
rd
envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of 21/ 21 1 ≈ and the width of each
bin is 21/ 21 1 ≈ . In the 3
rd
histogram, four peaks are found; hence, the 3
rd

peak vector is v
p3
= [1 3 5 7] and
3
4 η = .
• Plot d) shows the 4
th
envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of 21/ 50 0.65 ≈ and the width of each
bin is 21/ 50 0.65 ≈ . In the 4
th
histogram, four peaks are found; hence, the
4
th
peak vector is v
p4
= [2 5 8 11] and
4
4 η = .
Since the intercepted signal is 8 level ASK, the peak locations in the 3
rd
histogram
coincides with the envelope information of the ASK signal as expected.
Spectral Analysis of Moments Block
By using spectral analysis of moments block
0 2 4 8
, , , k k k k are calculated as
described in section 3.5.

66
Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block
The instantaneous frequency of the intercepted signal is obtained as described in
section 3.6. Then, the following three frequency histograms are constructed:
• In the 1
st
histogram the width of each bin is / 4 δ and the centers of the bins
are located at integer multiples of / 4 δ .
• In the 2
nd
histogram the width of each bin is / 8 δ and the centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of / 8 δ .
• In the 3
rd
histogram the width of each bin is / 100 δ and the centers of the
bins are located at integer multiples of / 100 δ .
δ is the standard deviation of the filtered instantaneous frequency and δ is defined
as

( )
1
2
2
1
1
( )
N
i i
n
f n f
N
δ
=
| |
= −
|
|
\ ¹

(4.2)
where

1
1
( )
N
i i
n
f f n
N
=
=

is the mean value of the instantaneous frequency.
Number of peaks
5 6 7
, , n n n in each histogram is determined according to following
rule:

max
i
freq
F
F
ς > (4.3)
where
i
F is the frequency count of the i
th
peak,
max
F is the maximum frequency
count of the histogram and freq
ς
is a predefined threshold, which can be determined
according to simulation results.

67
4.2 MASK RECOGNITION
MASK signal can be expressed as [29]
( ) ( ) cos(2 )
k c i
k
s t A I g t kT f t π φ

=−∞
¦ ¹
= − +
´ `
¹ )

(4.4)
where ( ) { }
1, 3,..., 1
k
I M ∈ − ∓ ∓ ∓ is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence, ( ) g t
is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0, T is the symbol rate,
c
f is the carrier
frequency,
i
φ is the initial phase and A is the amplitude of the received signal.
Then, the sampled equivalent low-pass signal | | ( )
s
v n v nT = with a CFO, f ∆ , is

2
[ ] ( )
i
s
f
j n
F
k
k
v n A I g t kT e
π φ


+
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.5)

SNR Estimation Block:
The average power of the low pass equivalent signal is
| | { }
{ }
2
2 2 2
_ s k g av
P E v n A E I P = = (4.6)
For ASK2;
2 2
_ s g av
P A P = , for { } 1,1
k
I ∈ −
For ASK4;
2 2
_
5
s g av
P A P = , for { } 3, 1,1, 3
k
I ∈ − −
For ASK8;
2 2
_
21
s g av
P A P = , for { } 7, 5, 3, 1,1, 3, 5, 7
k
I ∈ − − − −
Then, the average signal power (
s
P ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1.



68
Symbol Rate Estimation Block:
By using cyclostationarity detection block, described in section 3.3, the symbol rate
( )
0
α of a MASK signal can be estimated even for SNR>-9dB as seen from Figure
3-3.
Envelope Feature Extraction Block:
The envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is

,
{ [ ]} [ ]
( )

k s
k
k n k
env v n v n
A I g nT kT
A I g

=−∞
=
= −
=

(4.7)
where
,
( )
n k s
g g nT kT = −
Then, at high SNR, the peak vectors for ASK2, ASK4 and ASK8 are given in Table
4-1. As seen in Table 4-1, the peak vector v
p3
, obtained from the 3
rd
histogram, can
be used to classify ASK2, ASK4 and ASK8 signals.



Table 4-1: Peak Vectors for ASK2, ASK4 and ASK8 Signals
Peak Vector
\Modulation
ASK2 ASK4 ASK8
v
p1
[1 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0]
v
p2
[2 0 0 0] [1 3 0 0] [1 3 0 0]
v
p3
[5 0 0 0] [2 6 0 0] [1 3 5 7]

69
Number of peaks
1 2 3 4
, , , n n n n , defined in section 4.1, for ASK2, ASK4 and ASK8
as a function of a SNR are given in Figure 4-2, Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4
respectively. The
1 2 3 4
, , , n n n n values in the figures are the average values obtained
from simulations.




Figure 4-2: Histogram Output for ASK2
70

Figure 4-3: Histogram Output for ASK4

Figure 4-4: Histogram Output for ASK8
71
As seen from Figure 4-2, Figure 4-3, Figure 4-4;
4
η , which is defined as the
number of peaks obtained from the 4
th
histogram, can be selected to be used in the
classification of ASK2, ASK4 and ASK8 signals.
Therefore, the values
4
η and
3 p
v are one of the key features that can be used in the
classification process.
Spectral Analysis of Moments Block:
The square of the low-pass equivalent signal is

4 2
2
4 2
2 2
[ ] ( ) ( )
( )
i
s
i
s
f
j n
F
k s l s
k l
f
j n
F
k s
k
v n I g nT kT I g nT lT e
I g nT kT e
π φ
π φ

∞ ∞
+
=−∞ =−∞


+
=−∞
¦ ¹¦ ¹
= − −
´ `´ `
¹ )¹ )
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
∑ ∑

(4.8)
and the expected value is

{ }
4 2
2 2 2
4 2
[ ] ( )

i
s
i
s
f
j n
F
k s
k
f
j n
F
s
E v n E I g nT kT e
Pe
π φ
π φ


+
=−∞

+
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
=

(4.9)
Hence from eqn. (4.8) and (4.9), it can be seen that there is a power at the twice of
the carrier frequency offset 2 f ∆ [29]. Therefore, the value
2
k for ASK signals,
defined in Section 3.5, is expected to be equal to 1 for a suitable threshold ξ
selection.
Spectral analysis of moments block output (
0
k ,
2
k ) for ASK2, ASK4, and ASK8 as
a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-5. Values of
0
k and
2
k in the figures are
the average values obtained from the simulations and threshold values 0.5 ξ = and
'
d b
F F = are taken during simulations.
72
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
SNR (dB)
k
0

&

k
2
k0 & k2 for MASK vs. SNR


k0, ASK2
k2, ASK2
k0, ASK4
k2, ASK4
k0, ASK8
k2, ASK8

Figure 4-5: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for MASK vs. SNR



From Figure 4-5, it can be seen that
2
1 k = for all SNR values, whereas
0
0 k = for
SNR larger than -3dB. Therefore, information obtained from
0
k and
2
k can be used
as a key feature to classify MASK signals even at low SNR.
Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block
The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the
carrier frequency offset of MASK signals and to discriminate frequency modulated
signals from MASK. For ASK8, ASK4 and ASK2, instantaneous frequency
extraction block outputs ( )
5 6
, n n , defined in section 4.2, are given in Figure 4-6.
Since there is no frequency modulation in a MASK signal, ( )
5 6
1, 1 n n = = is
obtained as expected.
73
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
Frequency Histogram Output for MASK vs. SNR
SNR (dB)
n
5
,
n
6


ASK2,n5
ASK4,n5
ASK8,n5
ASK2,n6
ASK4,n6
ASK8,n6

Figure 4-6: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for MASK vs. SNR
74
4.3 MPSK RECOGNITION
MPSK signal can be expressed as [29]
( ) ( ) cos(2 )
c k i
k
s t A g t kT f t π φ φ

=−∞
¦ ¹
= − + +
´ `
¹ )

(4.10)
where
1
0
2
M
k
m
m
M
π
φ

=
¦ ¹

´ `
¹ )
are the M possible equally likely phases of the carrier, ( ) g t
is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0, T is the symbol rate,
c
f is the carrier
frequency;
i
φ is the initial phase and A is the amplitude of the received signal.
Then, the sampled equivalent low-pass signal | | ( )
s
v n v nT = with a CFO, f ∆ , is
given as

2
2
[ ] ( )
( )
i
k s
i
s
f
j n
j F
k
f
j n
F
k
k
v n A g t kT e e
A g t kT I e
π φ
φ
π φ


+
=−∞


+
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )


(4.11)
where
k
j
k
I e
φ
= is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence.
SNR Estimation Block:
The average power of the low-pass equivalent signal is

2
2 2 2 2 2
_ _
{ [ ]} { }
s k g av g av
P E v n A E I P A P = = = (4.12)
Then, the average signal power (
s
P ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1.
Symbol Rate Estimation Block:
By using cyclostationarity detection block, described in section 3.3, the symbol rate
( )
0
α of a MPSK signal can be estimated even for SNR>-9dB as seen from Figure
3-3.
75

Envelope Feature Extraction Block:
The envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is

,
{ [ ]} [ ]
( )

k s
k
n k
env v n v n
A I g nT kT
A g

=−∞
=
= −
=

(4.13)
where
,
( )
n k s
g g nT kT = − .
Then, at high SNR, the peak vectors for PSK2, PSK4 and PSK8 are given in Table
4-2.



Table 4-2: Peak Vectors for PSK2, PSK4 and PSK8 Signals
Peak Vector
\Modulation
PSK2 PSK4 PSK8
v
p1
[1 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0]
v
p2
[2 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0]
v
p3
[5 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0]

Number of peaks
1 2 3 4
, , , n n n n , defined in section 4.1, for PSK4 and PSK8 as a
function of a SNR are given in Figure 4-7 and Figure 4-8 respectively. Since PSK2
and ASK2 have the same constellation diagram and the simulation results for ASK2
76
are given in Section 4.2, PSK2 is not mentioned here.
1 2 3 4
( ), ( ), ( ), ( ) n n n n values in
the figures are the average values obtained from the simulations.
From these figures, it can be seen that for SNR<0
4
η value becomes irrelevant due
to high noise power.
Since every communication system has a definite bandwidth, there will be a minor
amplitude variations at the transitions between successive symbols [1]; however,
these variations can be eliminated by adjusting the threshold value
env
ς given in
eqn. (4.1). During simulations 0.5
env
ς = is taken.




Figure 4-7: Histogram Output For PSK4
77

Figure 4-8: Histogram Output For PSK8



Spectral Analysis of Moments Block:
For MPSK signal, Mth power of the low-pass equivalent signal is

2
[ ] ( )
i
s
f
M n
F M M j M
k
v n A g t kT e e
π φ
φ
| | ∆
∞ + |
\ ¹
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.14)
Since { }
1
1
0
0
2
2
M
M
k
m
m
M mM m
M
π
φ π


=
=
¦ ¹
= =
´ `
¹ )
then,

2
[ ] ( )
i
s
f
M n
F M M
k
v n A g t kT e
π φ
| | ∆
∞ + |
\ ¹
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.15)
From (4.15), it can be seen that the information is removed from the signal and a
carrier at M f ∆ is obtained.
78
For MPSK signal;
'
M th power, where
'
, int
M
M k even eger
k
¦ ¹

´ `
¹ )
and
'
M M ≠
, of the low-pass equivalent signal is

'
' ' '
2
[ ] ( )
i
s
f
M n
F M M j M
k
v n A g t kT e e
π φ
φ
| | ∆
∞ + |
\ ¹
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.16)
Since
1
1 1
' ' '
' 0 0
0
2 2 2
M
M k
k k
m m
m
M mM m m
M
M k
M
π π π
φ φ

− −
= =
=
¦ ¹
¦ ¦ ¦ ¹ ¦ ¹
= = = =
´ ` ´ ` ´ `
¹ ) ¹ )
¦ ¦
¹ )
then

'
' ' '
2
[ ] ( )
i
s
f
M n
F M M j
k
v n A g t kT e e
π φ
φ
| | ∆
∞ + |
\ ¹
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.17)
From (4.17), it can be seen that
'
M th power of the low-pass equivalent signal is
another PSK signal with level
'
M
k
M
= .
From (4.15) and (4.17); it can be concluded that higher orders of the intercepted
signal can be used to discriminate MPSK signals. Therefore,
• For PSK2 signal, it is expected to get
0 2 4 8
1; k k k k ≠ = = =1 at high SNR
• For PSK4 signal, it is expected to get
0 2 4 8
1; 1; 1 k k k k ≠ ≠ = = at high SNR
• For PSK8 signal, it is expected to get
0 2 4 8
1; 1; 1; 1 k k k k ≠ ≠ ≠ = at high SNR
Output of the spectral analysis of moments block
0 2 4 8
( ; ; ; ) k k k k

for PSK2, PSK4,
and PSK8 as a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-9, Figure 4-10 Figure 4-11.
Values of
0 2 4 8
( ; ; ; ) k k k k in the figures are the average values obtained from the
simulations and threshold values 0.5 ξ = and
'
d b
F F = are taken during simulations.
79
From the figures it can be concluded that output of the spectral analysis of moments
block is a feature that does not require any prior knowledge about the signal
parameters and gives satisfactory result for SNR>9 dB.



-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
SNR (dB)
k
0
,

k
2
,

k
4
,

k
8


k0
k2
k4
k8

Figure 4-9: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK2 vs. SNR

80
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
SNR (dB)
k
0
,

k
2
,

k
4
,

k
8


k0
k2
k4
k8

Figure 4-10: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK4 vs. SNR

-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
SNR (dB)
k
0
,

k
2
,

k
4
,

k
8


k0
k2
k4
k8

Figure 4-11: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK8 vs. SNR


81
Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block:
The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the
carrier frequency offset of MPSK signals and to discriminate frequency modulated
signals from MPSK. For PSK4 and PSK8 instantaneous frequency extraction block
output ( )
5 6
, n n , defined in section 4.2, are given in Figure 4-12. There are
frequency variations at the transitions between successive symbols [1]; however
these frequency variations are eliminated by the usage of a low pass filter and by
selecting 0.5
freq
ς = . Therefore ( )
5 6
1, 1 n n = = is obtained and from Figure 4-12 it
can be seen that
5
n is sufficient for a classification process.



0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
Frequency Histogram Output for MPSK vs. SNR
SNR (dB)
n
5
,
n
6


PSK4, n5
PSK8, n5
PSK4, n6
PSK8, n6

Figure 4-12: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for MPSK vs. SNR

82
4.4 MQAM RECOGNITION
MQAM signal can be expressed as [29]
( ) ( ) cos(2 )
k c k i
k
s t A A g t kT f t π φ φ

=−∞
¦ ¹
= − + +
´ `
¹ )

(4.18)
And the equivalent low-pass signal ( ) v t with a CFO, f ∆ , is

2
( ) ( )
i
j ft
k
k
v t A I g t kT e
π φ

∆ +
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.19)
where { } { }
k
j
k k
I A e
φ
= is a wide-sense stationary information sequence,
k k
A I = ,
1
Im( )
tan
Re( )
k
k
k
I
I
φ

| |
=
|
\ ¹
, ( ) g t is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0, T is the
symbol rate,
c
f is the carrier frequency,
i
φ is the initial phase and A is the
amplitude of the received signal. Then, the sampled equivalent low-pass signal
| | ( )
s
v n v nT = is given by

2
[ ] ( )
i
s
f
j n
F
k
k
v n A I g t kT e
π φ


+
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.20)
SNR Estimation Block:
The average power of the low-pass equivalent signal is
| | { }
{ }
2
2 2 2
_ s k g av
P E v n A E I P = = (4.21)
For QAM2;
2 2
_ s g av
P A P = , for { } 1,1
k
I ∈ −
For QAM4;
2 2
_ s g av
P A P = , for
3 3
4 4 4 4
, , ,
j j j j
k
I e e e e
π π π π
− − ¦ ¹

´ `
¹ )

83
For QAM8;
2 2
_
5, 5
s g av
P A P = , for
3 3
4 4 4 4
, , , ,3 ,3 , 3 , 3
j j j j
k
I e e e e j j j j
π π π π
− − ¦ ¹
∈ + − − + − −
´ `
¹ )

Constellation diagrams for QAM2, QAM4 and QAM8 are given in Figure 4-13,
Figure 4-14 and Figure 4-15 respectively.




Figure 4-13: Constellation Diagram of QAM2

Figure 4-14: Constellation Diagram of QAM4
84

Figure 4-15: Constellation Diagram for QAM8



Then, the average signal power (
s
P ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1.

Symbol Rate Estimation Block:
By using cyclostationarity detection block, described in section 3.3, the symbol rate
( )
0
α of a MASK signal can be estimated even for SNR>-9dB as seen from Figure
3-3.
Envelope Feature Extraction Block:
For MQAM, the envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is

,
{ [ ]} [ ]
( )

k s
k
k n k
env v n v n
A I g nT kT
A I g

=−∞
=
= −
=

(4.22)
where
,
( )
n k s
g g nT kT = −
85
Then, at high SNR, the peak vectors for QAM2, QAM4 and QAM8 are given in
Table 4-3. As seen in Table 4-3, the peak vector v
p3
, obtained from the 3
th

histogram, can be used to discriminate QAM8 from QAM2 and QAM4.



Table 4-3: Peak Vectors for QAM2, QAM4 and QAM8 Signals
Peak Vector
\Modulation
QAM2 QAM4 QAM8
v
p1
[1 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0]
v
p2
[2 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [1 3 0 0]
v
p3
[5 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] [3 6 0 0]



Number of peaks
1 2 3 4
, , , n n n n , defined in section 4.1, for QAM4 and QAM8 as a
function of a SNR are given in Figure 4-16 and Figure 4-17 respectively. Since
QAM2 and ASK2 have the same constellation diagram and the simulation results
for ASK2 are given in Section 4.1, QAM2 is not mentioned in here.
1 2 3 4
, , , η η η η
values in the figures are the average values obtained from simulations.
From these figures, it can be seen that for SNR<0 dB
4
η value becomes irrelevant
due to high noise power. However, for QAM8
4
η =2 for SNR > 9dB and
4
η =1 for
QAM2 and QAM4 for SNR > 0dB. Hence
4
η is another key feature to be used to
discriminate QAM8 signals from QAM4 and QAM2.
86

Figure 4-16: Histogram Output for QAM4 vs. SNR

Figure 4-17: Histogram Output for QAM8 vs. SNR

87
Spectral Analysis of Moments Block:
For MQAM signal, the square of the low-pass equivalent signal is

4 2
2
4 2
2 2
[ ] ( ) ( )
( )
i
s
i
s
f
j n
F
k s l s
k l
f
j n
F
k s
k
v n I g nT kT I g nT lT e
I g nT kT e
π φ
π φ

∞ ∞
+
=−∞ =−∞


+
=−∞
¦ ¹¦ ¹
= − −
´ `´ `
¹ )¹ )
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )
∑ ∑

(4.23)
and the expected value is

{ }
4 2
2 2 2
[ ] ( )
i
s
f
j n
F
k s
k
E v n E I g nT kT e
π φ


+
=−∞
¦ ¹
= −
´ `
¹ )

(4.24)
For QAM2;

{ }
2
1
k
E I = , since { }
2
1
k
I ∈

{ }
4
1
k
E I = , since { }
4
1
k
I ∈

{ }
8
1
k
E I = , since { }
8
1
k
I ∈
For QAM4;

{ }
2
0
k
E I = , since
2
2 2
2 , 2
j j
k
I e e
π π
− ¦ ¹

´ `
¹ )


{ }
4
4
k
E I = − , since
{ }
4
4 , 4
j j
k
I e e
π π −


{ }
8
16
k
E I = , since { }
8
16
k
I ∈
For QAM8

{ }
2
4
k
E I = , since
2
2 2
2 , 2 , 8 6,8 6
j j
k
I e e j j
π π
− ¦ ¹
∈ + −
´ `
¹ )

88

{ }
4
12
k
E I = , since
{ }
4
4 , 4 , 28 96, 28 96
j j
k
I e e j j
π π −
∈ + −

{ }
8
4208
k
E I = − , since { }
8
16, 8432 5376, 8432 5376
k
I j j ∈ − + − −

Hence, for QAM2 and QAM8, there is a power at 2 f ∆ , 4 f ∆ , 8 f ∆ ; whereas for
QAM4 at 4 f ∆ , 8 f ∆ . Therefore, the value
2
k for QAM2 and QAM8 is expected to
be equal to 1 and for QAM4
2
1 k ≠ at high SNR for a suitable threshold, ξ ,
selection.
Output of the spectral analysis of moments block (
2
k ) for QAM2, QAM4, and
QAM8 as a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-18.
2
k in the figure is the
average value obtained from simulations and threshold values 0.5 ξ = and
'
d b
F F =
are taken during simulations.
From Figure 4-18, it can be seen that
2
k can be used as a feature to discriminate
4QAM signals from 8QAM and 2QAM.



89
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
SNR (dB)
k
2


QAM2
QAM4
QAM8

Figure 4-18: k2 for QAM2, QAM4 and QAM8 vs. SNR



Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block:
The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the
carrier frequency offset of MQAM signals and to discriminate frequency modulated
signals from MQAM. For QAM8 instantaneous frequency extraction block output
( )
5 6
, n n , defined in section 4.2, are given in Figure 4-19. Threshold value
0.5
freq
ς = is taken during simulations. From Figure 4-19, it can be seen that
5
n is
sufficient for a classification process.

90
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
Frequency Histogram Output for QAM8 vs. SNR
SNR (dB)
n
5
,
n
6


n5
n6

Figure 4-19: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for QAM8 vs. SNR

91
4.5 CW RECOGNITION
CW signal can be expressed as [29]
( ) cos(2 )
c i
s t A f t π φ = + (4.25)
Where
c
f is the carrier frequency;
i
φ is the initial phase and A is the amplitude of
the received signal. Then, the equivalent low-pass signal | | ( )
s
v n v nT = with a CFO,
f ∆ , is given as

2
[ ]
i
s
f
j n
F
v n Ae
π φ

+
= (4.26)
SNR Estimation Block:
The average power of the low pass equivalent signal is

| | { }
2 2
s
P E v n A = = (4.27)
Then, the average signal power (
s
P ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1.
Symbol Rate Estimation Block:
Except the carrier frequency there is no cyclostationary component in CW signal.
Hence the symbol rate ( )
0
α
;
estimated by (3.51)), is expected to be 0 as given in
Figure 3-3.
Envelope Feature Extraction Block:
For CW; the envelope of the analytical signal is;

| | { } | | { }
env v n abs v n A = = (4.28)
Hence for CW it is expected to get
1 2 3 4
1 η η η η = = = = and the peak vectors at high
SNR:
92
o v
p1
= [1 0 0 0]
o v
p2
= [2 0 0 0]
o v
p3
= [5 0 0 0]
Spectral Analysis of Moments Block:
Since there is no modulation induced on continuous wave signal, it is expected to
get
0 2 4 8
1 k k k k = = = = at high SNR.
The envelope feature extraction block output and output of spectral analysis of
moments block for CW as a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-20 and Figure
4-21 respectively.




Figure 4-20: Histogram output for CW vs. SNR
93
-10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
SNR (dB)
k
0
,

k
2
,

k
4
,

k
8


k0
k2
k4
k8

Figure 4-21:
0 2 4 8
, , , k k k k for CW vs. SNR



Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block:
The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the
carrier frequency offset of CW signals and to discriminate frequency modulated
signals from CW signals. For CW signal, the instantaneous frequency extraction
block outputs ( )
5 6
, n n are given in Figure 4-22. Since there is no frequency
modulation on a CW signal, ( )
5 6
1, 1 n n = = is obtained. Moreover, from Figure 4-22
it can be seen that
5
n is sufficient for classification process.

94
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
2
2.2
2.4
2.6
2.8
Frequency Histogram Output for CW vs. SNR
SNR (dB)
n
5
,
n
6


n5
n6

Figure 4-22: Frequency Histogram Output ( )
5 6
, n n for CW vs. SNR




95
4.6 CPFSK RECOGNITION
CPFSK signal can be expressed as [29]
( ) cos 2 4 ( )
c d k i
k
t
s t A f t Tf I g t T d π π τ τ φ


=−∞
=−∞
| |
= + − +
|
\ ¹


(4.29)
Then the sampled equivalent low-pass signal | | ( )
s
v n v nT = with a CFO, f ∆ , is

2 2 ( )
[ ] ( )
k i
s
k
t
f
j n h I g t T d
F
s
v n v nT Ae
π π τ τ φ


=−∞
=−∞
| |

|
+ − +
|
\ ¹
∑ ∫
= = (4.30)
where ( ) { }
1, 3,..., 1
k
I M ∈ − ∓ ∓ ∓ is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence,
2
d
h f T = is the modulation index,
c
f is the carrier frequency,
i
φ is the initial
phase, ( ) g t is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0 and a peak value
2
b
F
and
A is the amplitude of the received signal.
SNR Estimation Block:
The average power of the low pass equivalent signal is

| | { }
2 2
s
P E v n A = = (4.31)
Then, the average signal power (
s
P ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1.
Symbol Rate Estimation Block:
By using the cyclostationarity detection block, described in section 3.3, the symbol
rate ( )
0
α of a CPFSK signal can be estimated for SNR>-8dB as given in Figure
3-4.
Envelope Feature Extraction Block:
For CPFSK; the envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is
96

| | { } | | { }
env v n abs v n A = = (4.32)
Hence for the CPFSK signal, it is expected to get
1 2 3 4
1 η η η η = = = = and the peak
vectors at high SNR:
o v
p1
= [1 0 0 0]
o v
p2
= [2 0 0 0]
o v
p3
= [5 0 0 0]
Spectral Analysis of Moments Block:
N
th
power of the CPFSK signal is another CPFSK signal with a different
modulation index (h); hence the output of the spectral analysis of moments block
can give misleading information for CPFSK signals.
Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block:
The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the
carrier frequency offset, the level of the modulation and the modulation index of the
CPFSK signal.
Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation
Carrier frequency offset of the CPFSK signal can be estimated from the mean value
of the instantaneous frequency

1
1
( )
N
i i
n
f f n
N
=
=

as described in section 3.6.
Level of the Modulation
By using the histogram output,; obtained from the instantaneous frequency of the
intercepted signal, the level of the CPFSK signal can be determined at high SNR. It
is expected to get
5 6
2 η η = = for 2FSK;
5 6
4 η η = = for 4FSK and
5 6
6; 8 n n = = for
8FSK at high SNR.
97
The instantaneous frequency extraction block outputs,
5 6
, η η , for 2CPFSK, 4CPFSK
and 8CPFSK are given in Figure 4-23. CPFSK signals are generated by frequency
modulating the MASK signals. During simulations, the carrier frequency offset is
assumed to be 10kHz for a sampling frequency of f
s
=50kHz, symbol rate is 2kHz,
modulation index is 0.5 and 2
nd
order Chebychev-II filter with a cut-off frequency
20kHz is used as a smoothing LPF.
5 6
, η η in the figure are the average values
obtained from multiple simulations. From Figure 4-23; it can be seen that both
5
n
and
6
η can be used for a classification process. Therefore, it is sufficient to use only
one of
5
n and
6
η .



0 5 10 15 20 25
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
SNR (dB)
F
r
e
q
u
e
n
c
y

H
i
s
t
o
g
r
a
m

O
u
t
p
u
t

n
5
,
n
6
Frequency Histogram Output for CPFSK vs. SNR


FSK2,n5
FSK2,n6
FSK4,n5
FSK4,n6
FSK8,n5
FSK8,n6

Figure 4-23: Frequency Histogram Output (
5 6
, η η ) for M-level CPFSK vs. SNR

98
Modulation Index (h):
The modulation index of a CPFSK signal can be estimated by using the symbol rate
and the cluster centers in the frequency histogram. Then, the estimated modulation
index ( h ) is
( )
1
1
1 1
N
i i
i
b p
h L L
F N
+
=
| |
= −
|
|
\ ¹

(4.33)
where
i
L is the i
th
cluster center,
p
N is the level of the modulation,
b
F is the
symbol rate and h is the estimated modulation index.
To find the cluster centers; firstly an instantaneous frequency histogram, with bin
centers / 100 δ , is constructed and then the bins, whose frequency count is larger
than a predefined threshold, are used in a k-means clustering method.
In Figure 4-24, estimated absolute average error normalized to modulation index (h)
and in Figure 4-25, a plot of the estimated modulation index ( h ) and the true
modulation index (h) is given for 2, 4 and 8 level CPFSK signals.
99
0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1
SNR (dB)
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
d

A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

A
v
e
r
a
g
e

E
r
r
o
r

N
o
r
m
a
l
i
z
e
d

t
o

h
Modulation Index Estimation Performance


FSK2
FSK4
FSK8

Figure 4-24: Modulation Index (h) Estimation Performance for CPFSK Signals
(h=0.5)
100

Figure 4-25: A Plot of the Estimated Modulation Index ( h ) vs. True Modulation
Index (h) at SNR=20dB.

0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
Estimated Modulation Index vs. True Modulation Index at SNR=20dB
True Modulation Index
E
s
t
i
m
a
t
e
d

M
o
d
u
l
a
t
i
o
n

I
n
d
e
x


FSK2
FSK4
FSK8
101
4.7 AWGN RECOGNITION
In this work, the channel is assumed be simply an AWGN channel. Therefore, all
we need to do is to estimate the noise variance which is
2
σ and it is defined as

{ }
{ }
{ } { } { }
{ } { } { }
{ } { } { }
* 2
,
2
,
2
,
( ) ( )
( ) ( ) 0;
Re ( ) Re ( )
2
Im ( ) Im ( )
2
Re ( ) Im ( ) 0
t s
t s
t s
E n t n s
E n t n s
E n t n s
E n t n s
E n t n s
σ δ
σ
δ
σ
δ
=
=
=
=
=
(4.34)
SNR Estimation Block:
Since there is no signal then, the average power of the low-pass equivalent signal is
0
s
P ≈ (4.35)
Then, the average signal power (
s
P ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1.

Symbol Rate Estimation Block:
There is no cyclostationary component in AWGN signal. Hence the symbol rate
( )
0
α
;
estimated by (3.51)), is expected to be 0 as given in Figure 3-3.

Envelope Feature Extraction Block:
From (4.35) histogram output is expected to be
1 2 3 4
0 η η η η = = = = .


102
Spectral Analysis of Moments Block:
Since the Nth power of white Gaussian noise is still another noise signal, the
outputs of the spectral analysis of moments block are expected to be
0 2 4 8
0 k k k k = = = = .
Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block
Since there is no deterministic frequency component on noise signal, the output of
the instantaneous frequency extraction block will be noisy.

103
4.8 CONCLUSION
The outputs of the SNR estimation block, the symbol rate estimation block, the
envelope feature extraction block, the spectral analysis of moments block, the
instantaneous frequency extraction block were introduced and investigated for
different types of digitally modulated signals. Some of the outputs of these blocks
were selected as features. Also, the performances of the features extracted from
these blocks were tested for ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, PSK2, PSK4, PSK8, QAM2,
QAM4, QAM8, Noise, FSK2, FSK4, FSK8 and CW signals. In Table 4-4, the
outputs of each block and in Table 4-5, the expected values of the selected features
for each modulation type is given.
As it can be seen in Table 4-5, each of the ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, PSK4, PSK8,
QAM8, FSK2, FSK4, FSK8 and CW signals has different combinations and thus, it
is possible to distinguish them from each other. Moreover, noise and information
carrying signals can be discriminated by using the estimated average signal power,
s
P . In Table 4-5, the term “X” is used for a feature, which may be misleading for
the specified modulation type.



Table 4-4: The Outputs of Each Block
Blocks The Outputs of The Blocks
SNR Estimation Block SNR ,
s
P
Symbol Rate Estimation Block
0
α
Envelope Feature Extraction Block
v
p3,
4
η
Spectral Analysis of Moments Block k
0
, k
2
, k
4
, k
8

Instantaneous Frequency Extraction
Block
f ∆ , h ,
5
η
104
Table 4-5: Features and Modulation Type Relation
Blocks
Mod.
Types
Features
ASK2
PSK2
QAM2
ASK4 ASK8
PSK4
QAM4
PSK8 QAM8 FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 CW NOISE
v
p3

[5 0
0 0]
[2 6
0 0]
[1 3
5 7]
[5 0
0 0]
[5 0
0 0]
[3 6
0 0]
[5 0
0 0]
[5 0
0 0]
[5 0
0 0]
[5 0
0 0]
X
Envelope
Feature
Extraction Block
4
η
1 2 4 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 X
k
0
0 0 0 0 0 0 X X X 1 X
k
2
1 1 1 0 0 1 X X X 1 X
k
4
1 1 1 1 0 1 X X X 1 X
Spectral
Analysis of
Moments Block
k
8
1 1 1 1 1 1 X X X 1 X
Instantaneous
Frequency
Extraction Block
5
η
1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 1 X
105
CHAPTER 5

THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM
In this chapter, a modulation recognition system based on the selected features,
described in Chapter-3 and 4, is introduced. Firstly, a basic decision tree based
method, then a classification method based on a Bayesian probability model is
described. Finally, the two methods are compared.
5.1 THE DECISION TREE METHOD
Decision tree methods are one of the basic classification procedures in which
decision at each stage is made according to predefined threshold values. In these
methods, time-order of the features and predefined threshold values are the main
parameters affecting the performance of the classifier. Therefore, threshold values
and time ordering of the selected features must be chosen carefully in order to
reduce the probability of wrong decision. Moreover, sequence order of the features
and the threshold values should be updated to recognize a modulation type, which is
not included in the classification list of that recognizer.
The proposed decision tree is given in Figure 5-1. In this classification method,
firstly, the estimated average signal power,
s
P , is compared with a threshold,
1
δ ,
and the decision will be “Noise” if the condition
1 s
P δ < is satisfied. Otherwise, the
decision will be made by using the remaining features.
106
If the intercepted signal is not a noise, then k
0
value is used to decide whether there
is a modulation on the signal or not. Then, the number of peaks in the envelope
histogram is used to discriminate ASK4, ASK8 and QAM8, whose classification is
made by using the peak vector obtained from the 3
rd
envelope histogram, from other
modulation types. The classification of CPFSK signals is made by using the number
of peaks in the frequency histogram and the determination of the level of the
modulation on the MPSK signal is made by using the k
2
, k
4
, k
8
values. At the last
stage of the tree, if the intercepted signal does not match any of the modulation type
in the classification list, the output of the recognizer will be “Unknown (UN)”.

107



















Figure 5-1: The Proposed Decision Tree for Modulation Classification
ASK2,
MPSK
MFSK
NOISE
PSK4
no yes
yes
no
yes
no
no yes
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
no
yes
no
yes
yes
no
yes
v[n]
1 s
P δ <
0
1 k =
4 2
n δ <
3
3
5
or
7
p
p
v
v


n δ <
5 4
n δ <
5 5
n δ <
5 6
n δ <
2
1 k =
8
1 k =
no
noise
CW QAM8
ASK8
FSK8
FSK4
FSK2
ASK2
UN
PSK8
3
3
3
6
p
p
v
v
and


ASK4
4
1 k =
CW
ASK4, ASK8, QAM8
MFSK
MPSK, ASK2
108
5.2 THE BAYESIAN BASED RECOGNITION SYSTEM
We used the following features in the proposed recognition system:
1. Estimated SNR, snr
2. Estimated signal power,
s
P
3. Number of peaks in the envelope histogram,
4
n and the peak vector v
p3

4. Spectral analysis of moments output for the signal,
0
k
5. Spectral analysis of moments output for the second power of the signal,
2
k
6. Spectral analysis of moments output for the fourth power of the signal,
4
k
7. Spectral analysis of moments output for the eight power of the signal,
8
k
8. Number of peaks in the instantaneous frequency histogram,
5
n
Bayesian based classifier is used in the decision block. The block diagram of the
proposed recognition system is given in Figure 5-2.
The following formula is used for classification process [42]

1 1 2 1 1 1
( , ,..., ) ( ) ( ) ( , ) ( ,..., , )
j n j j j n n j
P c x x P c P x c P x x c P x x x c

= (6.1)
For our recognition procedure, assuming features
i
x , conditioned on a given
modulation
j
c , are independent of each other,
( , ) ( )
i j k i j
P x c x P x c = (6.2)
Hence eqn. (6.1) becomes

1
1
( , ,..., ) ( ) ( )
n
j n j i j
i
P c x x P c P x c
=
=

(6.3)
and
109

1 1 1
( , ,..., ) ( ,..., ) ( ,..., )
j n n j n
P c x x P x x P c x x = (6.4)
From eqns. (6.3) and (6.4):

1
1 1
( )
( ,..., ) ( )
( ,..., )
n
j
j n i j
i n
P c
P c x x P x c
P x x
=
=

(6.5)
Specifically, we use
{ } ASK2,ASK4,ASK8,QAM8,PSK4,PSK8,CW,FSK2,FSK4,FSK8,NOISE
j
c ∈
and
{ }
4 3 0 2 4 8 5
, , , , , , ,
i p s
x n v P k k k k n ∈ .











Figure 5-2: The Functional Block Diagram of the Bayesian Based Recognition
System for Modulation Classification
,
s
snr P
v[n]
SNR Estimation
Block
Envelope Feature
Extraction Block
Spectral Analysis of
Moments Block
Instantaneous
Frequency
Extraction Block
D
E
C
I
S
I
O
N

B
L
O
C
K
4 3
,
p
n v
0 2 4 8
, , , k k k k
5
n
110
In the decision block, the following steps are executed to decide the modulation
type
1. If the estimated average signal power
s
P is lower than a threshold
1
δ , then
the decision will be “noise”.
2. If the estimated average signal power
s
P is higher than the threshold, then
the decision is made according to eqn. (6.5) by selecting the modulation type
with maximum probability, for the estimated SNR value.
3. If the result of eqn. (6.5) equals to 0, then the decision will be “Unknown
(UN)”.

5.3 SIMULATION RESULTS
To determine the performance of the proposed recognition system, computer
simulations were carried out by using the MATLAB package.
5.3.1 FEATURES OF SIMULATIONS
Test Data Signals
Linearly modulated signals were generated at baseband and then shifted to give
them a carrier frequency and phase offset. CPFSK signals are generated by
frequency modulating the MASK signals. In Figure 5-3, the block diagram of the
transmitter is given, where { }
k
a is the data sequence, { }
k
I is the sequence of
symbols that results from mapping the data sequence into corresponding signal
points selected from the appropriate signal space diagram.
111
Signals with raised cosine pulse shape are obtained by filtering the generated
baseband signals. A 4
th
order lowpass linear-phase filter with a cut-off frequency,
equals to four times of the symbol rate of the signal, is used for filtering.





Figure 5-3: Block Diagram of the Transmitter

SNR
The channel SNR value, which is defined as the ratio of the average power of the
modulated signal to the average power of noise at the output of the IF bandwidth of
the receiver, is used for performance evaluation.

The Receiver Model
It is assumed that the receiver consists of a set of fixed frequency receivers with
their passbands set contiguously. In these fixed tuned receivers, the received signal
is down-converted to IF and filtered such that the signal is in the passband of the
filter and then moved to baseband with a possible offset. The baseband signal is
sampled at a rate equals to the IF bandwidth to make noise samples independent;
hence, the in-phase and quadrature components of the down-converted signal are
obtained. Then, the signal from each of the fixed tuned receivers is analyzed by the
Data Converter Pulse Shaping
LO (
c
f f + ∆ )
IQ Modulator
{ }
k
a { }
k
I
( ) v t
( ) s t
112
recognition system. In Figure 5-4, basic block diagram of the receiver and in Figure
5-5, a block diagram of the fixed tuned receiver is given.






Figure 5-4: Block Diagram of the Receiver




Figure 5-5: Block Diagram of the Fixed Tuned Receiver

5.3.2 TUNING OF THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM
The probability of each feature for the given modulation type (
( )
i j
P x c ) at
different SNR levels should be determined prior to tests. For this reason, following
test signals were generated for training at SNR of 0dB, 3dB, 6dB, 9dB, 12dB, 15dB,
18dB, 21dB.

M
u
l
t
i
p
l
e
x
e
r

Fixed Tuned Receiver, f
c1

Fixed Tuned Receiver, f
cN

s(t)
v
1
[n]
v
N
[n]

The
Recognition
System
v[n]
Fs=BW
IF

RF Stage Mixer
LO
1

IF Stage, BW
IF
IQ Detector
s(t)
113
Linearly Modulated Signal Parameters
• Square pulse with symbol rate F
b
=5kHz, carrier frequency offset CFO=0.
• Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with a roll of r=0.25, F
b
=2kHz, CFO=0.1 kHz.
• Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with r=0.75, F
b
=5kHz, CFO=0.5kHz.
CW Signal Parameters
• No carrier frequency offset.
• CFO=0.1 kHz.
• CFO=0.5 kHz.
CPFSK Signal Parameters
• Square pulse with F
b
=5kHz, CFO=0Hz and modulation index h=0.5
• Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with r=0.25, F
b
=2kHz, CFO=0.1kHz and
h=0.75
• Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with r=0.75, F
b
=5kHz, CFO= 0.5kHz and
h=0.4

In Tables 5.1 – 5.27, the computed probabilities of each feature parameter for each
modulation type at different SNR levels are given.




114
Table 5-1: Probability of
4
1.5 n ≤
( )
4
1.5
j
P n c ≤
SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,95 0,73 0,70 0,95 0,95 0,73 0,95 0,98 0,95 0,95
3
0,98 0,81 0,87 0,98 0,98 0,81 0,98 0,99 0,98 0,98
6
0,99 0,25 0,81 1,00 1,00 0,25 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
9
1,00 0,05 0,55 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
12
1,00 0,01 0,10 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
15
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
18
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
21
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00


Table 5-2: Probability of
4
1.5 3 n < ≤

( )
4
1.5 3
j
P n c < ≤
SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,05 0,27 0,28 0,05 0,05 0,27 0,05 0,05 0,05 0,05
3
0,02 0,19 0,10 0,02 0,02 0,19 0,02 0,02 0,02 0,02
6
0,01 0,75 0,15 0,01 0,01 0,25 0,01 0,01 0,01 0,01
9
0,00 0,95 0,40 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,99 0,72 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 1,00 0,16 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



115
Table 5-3: Probability of
4
3 n <

( ) 4
3
j
P n c <

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,02 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,03 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,04 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,18 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,84 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



In Table 5-1, Table 5-2 and Table 5-3, probabilities of the feature
4
n , which is
defined as the number of the peaks in the 4
th
envelope histogram, are given. From
these tables, we can conclude that
• Probabilities of the feature
4
n are similar for MPSK, MFSK, CW and
ASK2.
• The probability
( )
4
1.5
j
P n c ≤ for ASK8 is higher than the ASK4 at low
SNR, hence this information can be used to discriminate ASK4 from ASK8
at low SNR values.
• The probability
4
(3 )
j
P n c < equals to 1 for ASK8 at high SNR, whereas
this quantity is zero for other modulation types, as expected.
• The probability
4
(1.5 3 )
j
P n c < ≤ equals to 1 for ASK4 at high SNR,
whereas this quantity is zero for other modulation types, as expected.
116
Table 5-4: Probability of
3
(1) 1
p
v =
3
( (1) 1 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,02 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,01 0,35 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,94 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00


Table 5-5: Probability of
3
(1) 2
p
v =

3
( (1) 2 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,93 0,86 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,96 0,48 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 1,00 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



117
Table 5-6: Probability of
3
(1) 3
p
v =
3
( (1) 3 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,07 0,10 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,99 0,93 0,00 0,00 0,31 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,02 0,14 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,01 0,17 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,01 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00


Table 5-7: Probability of
3
(1) 4
p
v =

3
( (1) 4 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,21 0,35 0,00 0,00 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,89 0,90 0,00 0,00 0,66 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,07 0,00 0,00 0,65 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



118
Table 5-8: Probability of
3
(1) 5
p
v =
3
( (1) 5 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,60 0,80 0,65 0,43 0,57 0,90 0,70 0,69 0,59 0,70
3
1,00 0,02 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,34 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
6
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,04 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
9
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
12
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
15
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
18
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
21
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00


Table 5-9: Probability of
3
(1) 6
p
v =

3
( (1) 6 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,40 0,01 0,00 0,53 0,43 0,05 0,25 0,31 0,41 0,30
3
0,00 0,01 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,01 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,03 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,02 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



119
Table 5-10: Probability of
3
(2) 0
p
v =

3
( (2) 0 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
3
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
6
1,00 0,51 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
9
1,00 0,00 0,93 1,00 1,00 0,15 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
12
1,00 0,00 0,42 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
15
1,00 0,00 0,01 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
18
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
21
1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00


Table 5-11: Probability of
3
(2) 3
p
v =
3
( (2) 3 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,90 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,17 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



120
Table 5-12: Probability of
3
(2) 5
p
v =

3
( (2) 5 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,55 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,02 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00


Table 5-13: Probability of
3
(2) 6
p
v =

3
( (2) 6 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,49 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,98 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,84 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,91 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,98 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,99 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,81 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



121
Table 5-14: Probability of
3
(2) 7
p
v =

3
( (2) 7 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,02 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,01 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,03 0,00 0,00 0,09 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,07 0,00 0,00 0,02 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,01 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00


Table 5-15: Probability of
3
(3) 0
p
v =

3
( (3) 0 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
3
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
6
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
9
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
12
1,00 1,00 0,93 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
15
1,00 1,00 0,05 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
18
1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
21
1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00



122
Table 5-16: Probability of
3
(3) 5
p
v =

3
( (3) 5 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,01 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,90 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00


Table 5-17: Probability of
3
(3) 7
p
v =

3
( (3) 7 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,06 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00



123
Table 5-18: Probability of
3
(4) 0
p
v =

3
( (4) 0 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
3
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
6
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
9
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
12
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
15
1,00 1,00 0,21 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
18
1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00
21
1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00


Table 5-19: Probability of
3
(4) 7
p
v =

3
( (4) 7 )
p j
P v c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
12
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,79 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00


124
In Tables 5-4 – 5-19, probabilities of the feature
3 p
v , which is defined as the peak
vector obtained from the 3
rd
envelope histogram, are given. The following
probabilities are equal to zero for all modulation types:
3
( (1) 0 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (1) 7 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (1) 8 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (2) 1 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (2) 2 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (2) 4 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (2) 8 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (3) 1 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (3) 2 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (3) 3 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (3) 4 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (3) 6 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (3) 8 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (4) 1 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (4) 2 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (4) 3 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (4) 4 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (4) 5 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (4) 6 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (4) 8 )
p j
P v c = .
From these tables, we can conclude that:
• Probabilities of the feature
3 p
v are consistent with the values given in Table
4-5 at high SNR.
• The probabilities
3
( (1) 2 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (1) 3 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (3) 7 )
p j
P v c = and
3
( (2) 5 )
p j
P v c = for ASK8 do not always equal to zero; hence, this
information can be used to classify ASK8 at low SNR.
• The probability
3
( (2) 7 )
p j
P v c = for ASK8 and QAM8 does not always
equal to zero; hence, this information can be used to classify ASK8 and
QAM8 at low SNR.
• The probability
3
( (1) 1 )
p j
P v c = ,
3
( (1) 6 )
p j
P v c = for ASK4 does not always
equal to zero; hence, this information can be used to classify ASK4 at low
SNR.


125
Table 5-20: Probability of
0
1 k =

( ) 0
1
j
P k c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,01 0,00 0,02
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,02
12
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,02
15
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,02
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,03
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,01


Table 5-21: Probability of
2
1 k =

( ) 2
1
j
P k c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,53 0,50 0,51
3
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,53
6
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,51 0,68
9
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,66
12
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,51 0,70
15
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,51 0,51 0,62
18
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,51 0,50 0,60
21
1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,51 0,55 0,65



126
Table 5-22: Probability of
4
1 k =

( ) 4
1
j
P k c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,09 1,00 0,50 0,00 0,01
3
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,88 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,01
6
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,61 0,50 0,25
9
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,41
12
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,40
15
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,47
18
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,50 0,58
21
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 0,51 0,50 0,58


Table 5-23: Probability of
8
1 k =

( ) 8
1
j
P k c =

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,01
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,01 0,00
6
0,28 1,00 1,00 0,09 0,06 0,93 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,02
9
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,11 0,00
12
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,63 0,52 0,02
15
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,50 0,58 0,06
18
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,54 0,56 0,19
21
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,52 0,52 0,17


127
In Tables 5-20 – 5-23, probabilities of the features k
0
, k
2
, k
4
and k
8
, which are the
outputs of the spectral analysis of moments block, are given. From these tables, we
can conclude that:
• Probabilities of the features are consistent with the values given in Table 4-5
at high SNR.
• For CPFSK signal, the key features k
0
, k
2
, k
4
, k
8
depends on the modulation
index. Hence, these probabilities can be misleading for CPFSK.
• For CW, the key feature k
8
value can be misleading especially at low SNR.



Table 5-24: Probability of
5
1.5 n ≤

( ) 5
1.5
j
P n c ≤

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,90 0,80 0,70
3
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,80 0,70 0,60
6
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,70 0,60 0,50
9
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,20 0,05 0,05
12
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
15
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
18
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00
21
1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 0,00 0,00 0,00




128
Table 5-25: Probability of
5
1.5 2.5 n < ≤

( ) 5
1.5 2.5
j
P n c < ≤

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,10 0,05 0,02
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,20 0,10 0,05
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,30 0,15 0,10
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,80 0,25 0,20
12
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,01 0,00
15
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00 0,00


Table 5-26: Probability of
5
2.5 4.5 n < ≤
( ) 5
2.5 4.5
j
P n c < ≤

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,15 0,03
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,20 0,07
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,25 0,15
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,70 0,25
12
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,99 0,35
15
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,18
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,05
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00 0,00



129
Table 5-27: Probability of
5
4.5 8 n < ≤

( ) 5
4.5 8
j
P n c < ≤

SNR ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
0
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,25
3
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,28
6
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,25
9
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,50
12
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,65
15
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,82
18
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,95
21
0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 1,00



In Tables 5-24 – 5-27, probabilities of the feature
5
n , which is defined as the
number of peaks in the instantaneous frequency histogram, are given. From these
tables, we can conclude that probabilities of this feature are consistent with the
values given in Table 4-5.







130
5.3.3 CONDUCTION OF TESTS
For CPFSK signal, the key features k
0
, k
2
, k
4
, k
8
depends on the modulation index;
hence, probabilities of these features are not considered for CPFSK signals.
Moreover k
8
value for CW can be misleading especially at low SNR, therefore
probability of k
8
is also not considered for CW signal.
To compare the decision tree based classifier and the bayesian based recognition
system the threshold values, given in Figure 5-1, are selected to be equal to the ones
used in the Bayesian based recognition system.
2500 symbols were used for each modulation type, and for each SNR value 100
independent signals were generated and tested. ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, QAM8,
PSK4, PSK8, FSK2, FSK4, FSK8 were generated by using both the square pulse
shaping and the raised cosine pulse shaping.

5.3.4 RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS
In Tables 5-28 – 5-35, performances of the decision tree method and the Bayesian
based recognition system at SNR of 0dB, 6dB, 9dB, 12dB and 15dB are given by a
confusion matrix, which is a matrix providing information about the output of the
recognition system for the given modulation type. Rows of the matrix are the
expected classification, while the columns are the resulting classification and the
values indicate the success rate of the resulting classification for the given
modulation type. The term “Unknown (UN)” is used for a modulation type that is
not included in the classification list of the recognizer.
131
Table 5-28: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=6 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
0 0 97 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0
ASK4
10 0 0 52 18 0 0 20 0 0 0 0
ASK8
0 0 0 12 66 0 0 22 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 90 0 0 0 10 0 0
PSK8
0 0 0 0 0 11 88 0 0 1 0 0
QAM8
0 0 0 2 20 0 0 78 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
FSK2
0 0 64 0 0 0 0 0 0 36 0 0
FSK4
0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 1 66 18 0
FSK8
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 26 73 0


Table 5-29: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=6 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK4
0 0 26 44 0 0 0 30 0 0 0 0
ASK8
0 0 80 20 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK8
88 0 0 0 0 12 0 0 0 0 0 0
QAM8
0 0 89 10 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
FSK2
0 0 66 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 0 0
FSK4
0 0 15 0 0 0 0 0 1 66 18 0
FSK8
0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 24 73 0

132
Table 5-30: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=9 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
1 0 98 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0
ASK4
2 0 0 97 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
ASK8
3 0 0 0 94 0 0 3 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK8
0 0 0 0 0 29 69 0 0 2 0 0
QAM8
0 0 0 1 2 0 0 97 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
FSK2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
FSK4
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99 0
FSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 85


Table 5-31: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=9 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK4
0 0 0 99 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0
ASK8
0 0 63 33 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK8
0 0 1 0 0 30 69 0 0 0 0 0
QAM8
0 0 1 2 0 0 0 97 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
FSK2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
FSK4
0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 98 0
FSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 15 85

133
Table 5-32: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=12 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
1 0 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK4
1 0 0 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK8
7 0 1 0 92 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK8
0 0 0 0 0 5 95 0 0 0 0 0
QAM8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
FSK2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
FSK4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0
FSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 99


Table 5-33: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=12 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK4
0 0 1 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK8
0 0 5 39 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK8
0 0 0 0 0 5 95 0 0 0 0 0
QAM8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
FSK2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
FSK4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0
FSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 98

134
Table 5-34: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at
SNR=15 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK4
0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK8
0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0
QAM8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
FSK2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
FSK4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0
FSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100


Table 5-35: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=15 dB
MOD.
Type
UN noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM8 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8
noise
0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK2
0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK4
0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
ASK8
0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK4
0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0
PSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0
QAM8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0
CW
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0
FSK2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0
FSK4
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0
FSK8
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100


135
From Tables 5-28 – 5-35, we can conclude that:
• At SNR<6 dB, success rate of the proposed Bayesian based recognition
system is superior to the decision tree method in classifying ASK8, PSK8
and QAM8 signals. The decision tree method fails completely for ASK8,
PSK8 and QAM8; whereas the success rate in the Bayesian method is 66%
for ASK8; 88% for PSK8 and 78% for QAM8. However, at SNR>9dB the
performances of both methods are similar in classifying QAM8 and PSK8
signals.
• At SNR<13 dB, success rate of the Bayesian method is superior to the
decision tree method in classifying ASK8 signals.
• Both of the proposed recognition systems are able to discriminate noise
signals from information carrying signals at SNR>-21dB.
• The Bayesian based recognition system fails completely for CW at SNR<-
3dB; whereas the success rate of the decision tree method is %100 at SNR>-
9dB. CW is the only modulation type that the performance of the decision
tree method is superior to the Bayesian based method because the value of
the feature k
0
is consistent even at low SNR as shown in Figure 4-21 and
this feature is used at the second stage of the tree. For CW, the performance
of the Bayesian based method can be improved by calculating the feature
probabilities at SNR<0dB.
• The success rate of both methods are similar in classifying CPFSK signals.
• At SNR>15 dB, success rate of the Bayesian method and the decision tree
method are similar.
• Both of the proposed recognition systems are able to discriminate ASK2,
ASK4, ASK8, PSK4, PSK8, QAM8, FSK2, FSK4, FSK8, CW and NOISE
at SNR>15 dB with a success rate 100%.

136
CHAPTER 6

CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK
In this thesis, a recognition system, which does not require prior knowledge of the
signal parameters, has been developed. Moreover, the recognition system is able to
extract some of the signal parameters, such as the modulation index of CPFSK
signals the symbol rate, the carrier frequency offset and SNR value.
First of all, most of the feature extraction techniques found in the literature have
been surveyed, then the selected feature extraction techniques are tested for digitally
modulated signals. Estimated signal power is used to decide whether the intercepted
signal is noise or an information carrying signal, this feature gives satisfactory
results even at very low SNR values (SNR>-21 dB). Higher order moments of the
intercepted signal are used to remove the modulation on the signal, this feature is
used to discriminate MASK signals from MPSK signals and to determine the level
of modulation on MPSK signals. Other key features are extracted from the envelope
and frequency histograms of the intercepted signal. Cyclostationarity is one of the
important properties of the digitally modulated signals that can be used to classify
signals and to extract some of the signal parameters. However, cyclostationary
analysis require excessive calculations; hence, cyclostationarity based feature
extraction has not been used in our classification process; but it is used to estimate
the symbol rate of the intercepted signal and this estimated symbol rate is used in
the spectral analysis of moments block.
137
Classification algorithm is another important part of a modulation recognition
system. Two methods are developed for classification: first one is based on a
proposed decision tree and the second is based on the Bayesian a posteriori
probability computation. In the Bayesian based method, the probability of the each
key feature for each modulation type at different SNR values is obtained. The two
methods were compared and the results show that the performace of the Bayesian
based recognition system is superior to the decision tree based method at low SNR
values. Moreover, both of the proposed recognition systems are able to discriminate
ASK2, ASK4, ASK8, PSK4, PSK8, QAM8, FSK2, FSK4, FSK8, CW and NOISE
at SNR>15 dB with a success rate 100%.
The success of the Bayesian method relies mainly on the feature independence. In
the Bayesian based method, each selected key feature depends on a different
parameter of the signal and all the features are used at the same time.
The recognition system has been designed for the classification of the ASK2,
ASK4, ASK8, PSK4, PSK8, QAM8, FSK2, FSK4, FSK8, CW and NOISE.
However, the system can easily be modified to classify digital signals of other types
or with larger parameter ranges.
In addition to recognizing the modulation type, the system also yields:
• Level of the modulation.
• Signal to noise ratio at the output of the IF filter.
• Coarse estimation of the carrier frequency offset.
• Symbol rate of the signal.
• Modulation index of the CPFSK signal.
In addition to recognition works, we have also investigated a method to estimate the
symbol rate and the carrier frequency offset of MSK signals. The limit of the
estimated carrier frequency offset does not depend on the symbol rate and the
138
estimator can also be used even for very short duration of pulses. In addition, design
procedure of the proposed estimator is given and the performance of the estimator is
tested for short duration MSK signals.
Some of the topics that remain as future work are noted below:
• The effect of the symbol duration on the performance of the recognition.
• The effect of ISI.
• Pulse shapes with partial response.
• Nongaussian noise interference
139
REFERENCES
[1] E.E Azzouz and A.K. Nandi, “Automatic Modulation Recognition Of
Communications Signals”, Kluwar Academic Publishers, 1996
[2] Andreas Polydoros, Kıseon Kim“On the Detection and Classification of
Quadrature Digital Modulations in Broad-Band Noise”, IEEE Transactıons on
Communıcatıons, Vol. 38, No. 8, August 1990, pp 1199-1211.
[3] Martin P. DeSimio, Glenn E. Prescott “Adaptıve Generatıon Of Decısıon
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Approval of the thesis:

DIGITAL MODULATION RECOGNITION

submitted by EREM ERDEM in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University by,

Prof. Dr. Canan Özgen Dean, Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences Prof. Dr. Đsmet Erkmen Head of Department, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Prof. Dr. Yalçın Tanık Supervisor, Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU Examining Committee Members:

Prof. Dr. Mete Severcan Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU Prof. Dr. Yalçın Tanık Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU Assoc. Prof. Dr. Melek Yücel Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU Assoc. Prof. Dr. A. Özgür Yılmaz Electrical and Electronics Engineering Dept., METU Y. Müh. Enis Doyuran ASELSAN Inc. Date: 04.12.2009

I hereby declare that all information in this document has been obtained and presented in accordance with academic rules and ethical conduct. I also declare that, as required by these rules and conduct, I have fully cited and referenced all material and results that are not original to this work.

Name, Last Name Signature

: Erem ERDEM :

iii

to be known or to be extracted. Erem M. most of the features require some of the signal parameters such as carrier frequency. time of arrival. Feature extraction and classification algorithm stages are the main parts of a modulation recognition system. automatic recognition algorithms for digital modulated signals are surveyed. symbol rate and signal to noise ratio estimation methods iv . Unfortunately.. initial phase. the number of peaks in the frequency histogram. in this thesis. signal to noise ratio. Yalçın Tanık September 2009. such as the number of the peaks in the envelope histogram and the locations of these peaks. features which do not require prior knowledge of the signal parameters. higher order moments of the signal are considered. 144 pages In this thesis work. Particularly. Dr. selection of the key features and classification algorithm selection. S. Thus.ABSTRACT DIGITAL MODULATION RECOGNITION Erdem. pulse shape. Performance of the modulation recognition system mainly depends on the prior knowledge of some of the signal parameters. symbol rate. Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Supervisor : Prof.

MSK carrier frequency and symbol rate estimation. Also. A method based on the cyclostationarity analysis is used for symbol rate estimation and a method based on the eigenvector decomposition is used for the estimation of signal to noise ratio. feature extraction. estimated signal to noise ratio is used to improve the performance of the classification algorithm. Keywords: digital modulation recognition. v . Two methods are proposed for modulation recognition: 1) Decision tree based method 2) Bayesian based classification method A method to estimate the symbol rate and carrier frequency offset of minimum-shift keying (MSK) signal is also investigated. Bayesian blind classification.are surveyed.

Erem Yüksek Lisans. faz bilgisi. sinyal gücünün gürültü gücüne oranı gibi bazı sinyale özgü parametrelerin bilinmesini veya bulunmasını gerektirir. 144 sayfa Bu tez çalışmasında. Elektrik Elektronik Mühendisliği Bölümü Tez Yöneticisi : Prof. sinyalin yüksek dereceden momenti gibi sinyale özgü parametre ihtiyacı gerektirmeyecek öznitelikler üzerinde düşünülmüştür. darbe biçimi. Yalçın Tanık Eylül 2009. veri hızı. öznitelik seçimine ve sınıflandırma algoritması seçimine dayanmaktadır. özniteliklerin çoğunluğu taşıyıcı frekans. Ne yazık ki. modülasyon tanıma sistemlerinin temel yapılarıdır. Özellikle.ÖZ SAYISAL MODÜLASYON TANIMA Erdem. Dr. frekans histogramında yer alan tepe sayısı. Bu nedenle. Öznitelik çıkarımı ve sınıflandırma algoritması. veri hızı ve sinyal gücünün gürültü gücüne oranı kestirme vi . Modülasyon tanıma sistemlerinin başarım kriteri temel olarak sinyale özgü bazı parametrelerin önceden bilinmesine. sinyal geliş zamanı. sayısal modülasyona sahip sinyaller için otomatik modülasyon tanıma algoritmaları araştırılmıştır. bu tez çalışması kapsamında genlik histogramında yer alan tepe sayısı ve bu tepelerin konumları.

Anahtar Kelimeler: sayısal modülasyon tanıma.metotları da araştırılmıştır. öznitelik bulma. Dairesel-durağan analize dayalı bir metot sembol veri hızı kestirmede ve öz-vektör dağılımına dayalı bir metot sinyal gücünün gürültü gücüne oranını kestirmede kullanılmıştır. Modülasyon tanıma için 2 metot önerilmiştir: 1) Karar ağacı yöntemine dayalı bir metot 2) Bayes dayalı bir sınıflandırma metodu MSK sinyalinin veri hızını ve taşıyıcı frekansını bulmaya yönelik bir metot da incelenmiştir. Bulunan sinyal gücünün gürültü gücüne oranı. vii . MSK taşıyıcı frekans ve veri hızı bulma. Bayes dayalı kör sınıflandırma. sınıflandırma algoritmasının performansının arttırılmasında da kullanılmıştır.

To My Parents viii .

criticism.ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere gratitude to Prof. patience and encouragement throughout the completion of the thesis. Finally. advice. I would like to thank to all of my friends and colleagues for their support and encouragements. This thesis is dedicated to them. Yalçın Tanık for his guidance. ix . I would like to thank to my family for everything that I have.

.............................. 21 3..... INTRODUCTION. VI ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 3...........................................................................TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT...................................................................................... 39 x .........................................3................................ 31 3............................................... LITERATURE SURVEY ...... 21 3.....................2 CPM SIGNALS .......................................................... IV ÖZ ...........................................3........3.............2........................................................................................ 1 1... 28 3....................................XII LIST OF TABLES .........3 CYCLOSTATIONARITY IN MODULATION RECOGNITION .......................................................2 BANDWIDTH AND SPECTRAL SHAPE ............................. BASIC FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS ....................... 5 2......... 31 3........................................1 INTRODUCTION .....................................................................3 CYCLOSTATIONARY ANALYSIS.1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS ........................................................................ 32 3...................................................2............................................................................ 4 2................................................. XVI CHAPTERS 1........................................................................................................................................................................ X LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ....................................... 1 1................................................................ XIV LIST OF FIGURES........................................................................................................................... 34 3.................. IX TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................................................................................2 CPM SIGNALS ........1 SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (SNR) ESTIMATION BLOCK...........................................................................................................................................................................1 BACKGROUND .............................................1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS ...4 ENVELOPE FEATURES................................................................................................................2 RELEVANT PREVIOUS WORK .................................................................................... 5 2....................2 OUTLINE OF THESIS................................................................................................. 26 3...... 27 3......

............................. 46 3........ 55 3........................................... 42 3......... 62 4................................................................................4 SELECTION OF BLOCK PARAMETERS...2 THE PROPOSED METHOD ................................................. 110 5...1 FEATURES OF SIMULATIONS ......................7........................ 43 3...............................................................5 SIMULATION RESULTS ............................................. 59 3..................1 INTRODUCTION ..........................7 CARRIER FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATION .......3.................................................. 46 3...................3................. THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM ............................ 95 4......................................................................................................6 CONCLUSION ....5 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF MOMENTS ...........................................2 MASK RECOGNITION....3.... 130 5.......................................................................................................................................................... 139 xi .........3.........................4 RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS.............................................................6 INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY FEATURES .6 CPFSK RECOGNITION ....... 108 5...........................7 AWGN RECOGNITION.........8 CONCLUSION ................................ 110 5................4 MQAM RECOGNITION .............7.......7.........................................................................................................3 SIMULATION RESULTS ............................................................................. 112 5........................................................................................................................................................ 101 4............................. 55 3....................................................7.....................................5 CW RECOGNITION.....................................3 SIMULATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 136 REFERENCES............................................................................ CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK.........................7......3..................................................... 105 5............................................. 82 4............................. 91 4....3 CONDUCTION OF TESTS ........................................................................................................................................... 67 4............................. 62 4............ 105 5..............7..............................................................3 MPSK RECOGNITION .......................................................1 OUTPUTS OF THE FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS......................................................................... SPECIFIC MODULATION RECOGNITION TOOLS....................... 61 4... 74 4...............................................1 THE DECISION TREE METHOD..................... 48 3..................................... 130 6............................................. 103 5.........................................................................2 TUNING OF THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM .........2 THE BAYESIAN BASED RECOGNITION SYSTEM ..............

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS AM ANN ASK COMINT CPFSK CPM CW DFT DTC ECM ESM EW FDD FFT FM FSK Amplitude Modulation Artificial Neural Network Amplitude Shift Keying Communication Intelligence Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying Continuous Phase Modulation Continuous Wave Discrete Fourier Transform Decision Tree Classifier Electronic Counter Measure Electronic Support Measure Electronic Warfare Frequency Difference Detector Fast Fourier Transform Frequency Modulation Frequency Shift Keying xii .

HOC IF LPF MASK MPSK MQAM MSK NNC QAM QLLR PLL RBF SLC SNR SVC PSD PSK RF High Order Cumulant Intermediate Frequency Low Pass Filter M-ary Amplitude Shift Keying M-ary Phase Shift Keying M-ary Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Minimum Shift Keying Neural Network Classifier Quadrature Amplitude Modulation Quasi-Log-Likelihood Ratio Phase-Locked Loop Radial Basis Function Square Law Classifier Signal to Noise Ratio Support Vector Machine Power Spectrum Density Phase Shift Keying Radio Frequency xiii .

5 < n4 ≤ 3 ......... 116 Table 5-5: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 2 . 117 Table 5-8: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 5 ............................................. 103 Table 4-5: Features and Modulation Type Relation ........................................ PSK4 and PSK8 Signals.... 116 Table 5-6: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 3 ....................................................................................................................................................................... 119 Table 5-11: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 3 ...................... 68 Table 4-2: Peak Vectors for PSK2.......................................................................................................... 120 Table 5-14: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 7 ................................................... 114 Table 5-2: Probability of 1...............................................................LIST OF TABLES TABLES Table 4-1: Peak Vectors for ASK2................................. 120 Table 5-13: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 6 .................................................................................................................................... 85 Table 4-4: The Outputs of Each Block ...................................................................................................................................... 121 Table 5-15: Probability of v p 3 (3) = 0 ........................................... 114 Table 5-3: Probability of 3 < n4 ........................................................................................... 121 xiv ......... 104 Table 5-1: Probability of n4 ≤ 1........................ 75 Table 4-3: Peak Vectors for QAM2.................................................................. 118 Table 5-9: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 6 ........................................... 115 Table 5-4: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 1 ............................................... 118 Table 5-10: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 0 ................................... 119 Table 5-12: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 5 ...... QAM4 and QAM8 Signals........... 117 Table 5-7: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 4 ................. ASK4 and ASK8 Signals..5 .................................................................

...5 ...............................................................................................5 ................5 < n5 ≤ 4... 133 Table 5-34: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=15 dB ..................................................................................................................................................5 ............................................................... 125 Table 5-21: Probability of k2 = 1 ........5 < n5 ≤ 2.................................................................................................................................................................. 125 Table 5-22: Probability of k4 = 1 .......................................................................... 123 Table 5-20: Probability of k0 = 1 ......................... 132 Table 5-31: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=9 dB..................................... 134 xv ........... 126 Table 5-24: Probability of n5 ≤ 1............ 122 Table 5-18: Probability of v p 3 (4) = 0 ...... 134 Table 5-35: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=15 dB......... 133 Table 5-33: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=12 dB...........................5 < n5 ≤ 8 ..... 126 Table 5-23: Probability of k8 = 1 .................................................................... 128 Table 5-26: Probability of 2.................................Table 5-16: Probability of v p 3 (3) = 5 ................. 122 Table 5-17: Probability of v p 3 (3) = 7 ....................................... 131 Table 5-30: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=9 dB ............ 131 Table 5-29: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=6 dB............................................................................................................ 127 Table 5-25: Probability of 1.................... 129 Table 5-28: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=6 dB ...................................... 132 Table 5-32: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=12 dB ........................................................................................................ 123 Table 5-19: Probability of v p 3 (4) = 7 ....................... 128 Table 5-27: Probability of 4................................................................................................................................

....................................................... 72 Figure 4-6: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 ..................................................................................... 52 Figure 3-9: PLL Block Diagram ..... SNR .. SNR..................... 50 Figure 3-8: The baseband equivalent PLL Block Diagram ......................... SNR ..... 45 Figure 3-6: Block Diagram of The Frequency and Symbol Rate Estimator........... 52 Figure 3-10: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=-5dB .............................. SNR...................... 70 Figure 4-5: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for MASK vs................. 64 Figure 4-2: Histogram Output for ASK2 ... 38 Figure 3-5: Absolute Estimation Average Error for CW (fs=50kHz............................................................................... SNR............................... 60 Figure 4-1: Envelope Histograms for ASK8................................................... 70 Figure 4-4: Histogram Output for ASK8 ................. 60 Figure 3-14: Average Number of Bit Errors at Eb / N o = 15dB ..................... 69 Figure 4-3: Histogram Output for ASK4 .........5............................................................. 26 Figure 3-3 Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for Linear Modulation Signals vs.......................................................................................................................... Fb=2kHz) vs........................................ 25 Figure 3-2 Estimation STD vs... 49 Figure 3-7: Basic PLL Block Diagram ........................... Carrier Frequency Offset.... 58 Figure 3-12: Absolute Carrier Frequency Estimation Error at Eb / N o = 15dB ................ 38 Figure 3-4: Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for CPFSK (h=0........ 57 Figure 3-11: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=0dB ...................................................... n6 ) for MASK vs................................................................ SNR=20 dB) vs...........................................................LIST OF FIGURES FIGURES Figure 3-1 Estimation Bias vs........ SNR . 59 Figure 3-13: Absolute Symbol Rate Estimation Error at Eb / N o = 15dB .... 73 xvi .......

............ 84 Figure 4-16: Histogram Output for QAM4 vs. 92 Figure 4-21: k0 ....... k8 for CW vs....... QAM4 and QAM8 vs........................ n6 ) for QAM8 vs....... 83 Figure 4-15: Constellation Diagram for QAM8 ............ SNR ................................ 94 Figure 4-23: Frequency Histogram Output ( η5 ................... k4 .................. n6 ) for CW vs....................................................................................................... 97 Figure 4-24: Modulation Index (h) Estimation Performance for CPFSK Signals (h=0.................................................. 89 Figure 4-19: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 ........ SNR ........ SNR ....... SNR ..... SNR ....... 81 Figure 4-13: Constellation Diagram of QAM2.............................................Figure 4-7: Histogram Output For PSK4..................................... 111 Figure 5-4: Block Diagram of the Receiver.................................................... SNR ........................................................ 100 Figure 5-1: The Proposed Decision Tree for Modulation Classification.. 80 Figure 4-12: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 .......................................................................................... 83 Figure 4-14: Constellation Diagram of QAM4............ 79 Figure 4-10: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK4 vs......... SNR ................. n6 ) for MPSK vs.............. SNR................ 112 Figure 5-5: Block Diagram of the Fixed Tuned Receiver................................................................................................... SNR ........ 76 Figure 4-8: Histogram Output For PSK8.............. SNR ...... 99 Figure 4-25: A Plot of the Estimated Modulation Index ( h ) vs................................ 93 Figure 4-22: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 . k2 ............ 77 Figure 4-9: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK2 vs....................................... 90 Figure 4-20: Histogram output for CW vs..... 80 Figure 4-11: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK8 vs... True Modulation Index (h) at SNR=20dB........5) ........................................ SNR ..........................η6 ) for M-level CPFSK vs. 86 Figure 4-18: k2 for QAM2............... 86 Figure 4-17: Histogram Output for QAM8 vs........ 109 Figure 5-3: Block Diagram of the Transmitter .... SNR .................................................... 107 Figure 5-2: The Functional Block Diagram of the Bayesian Based Recognition System for Modulation Classification........... 112 xvii ............

target acquisition and homing. This type of a recognizer requires long signal durations and highly skilled operators. One of the oldest versions of modulation recognizers uses a bank of demodulators. electronic counter-counter measures (ECCM).CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1. surveillance and threat analysis. It is required to identify and monitor these signals for some applications. warning. The other applications are for military purposes such as electronic warfare (EW). COMINT systems have relied on the manual modulation recognition of measured parameters to provide classification of different emitters. The automation of such a recognizer is achieved by introducing a set of intelligent decision algorithms at the demodulator outputs. interference identification and spectrum management. However. However. Some of these applications are for civilian purposes such as signal confirmation. [1] In the past. recently automatic modulation recognition systems have been developed. threat detection. each designed for only one type of modulation.1 BACKGROUND There are lots of communication signals with different modulation types and different frequencies. In electronic warfare applications. Modulation type of the received signal can be decided by listening to the demodulator outputs. electronic support measures (ESM) system plays an important role as a source of information required to conduct electronic counter measures (ECM). the implementation of such systems is complex and 1 .

there are several functions performed and they are mainly related to information extraction. any surveillance system in Communication Intelligence (COMINT) applications consists of three main blocks: receiver-front-ends (activity detection and frequency down conversion). in advanced ESM systems. but some may not be trivial (e. Thus. and output stage (normal demodulation and information extraction). modulation recognizer. some of the following functions performed at the output stage are straightforward classical functions. [1] Generally. the bit 2 . recording and exploitations. One of the important parameters is the signal modulation type. deciphering). the signal bandwidth. [1] Automatic modulation recognition is more powerful than manual modulation recognition because by integrating the automatic modulation recognizer into an electronic support measurement (ESM) receiver. instantaneous frequency measurement (IFM). scanning superheterodyne. and microscan superheterodyne receivers. Moreover. the number of modulation types that can be recognized is limited by the number of demodulators used. At the output stage. Once the correct modulation type of the intercepted signal is determined. the key functional block is the modulation recognizer. would allow an operator to improve his efficiency and his ability to monitor the different activities in the frequency band of interest. the operator is replaced by sophisticated electronic machines. including an energy detector and a direction finder (DF).requires excessive computer storage. All these functions are preceded by signal demodulation. The information obtained by the energy detector. modulation recognizer (key features extraction and classification). The main objective of any surveillance system is threat recognition by comparing the characteristics of the intercepted emitters against a catalogue of reference characteristics or signal sorting parameters. There are several types of receiver-front-ends such as channelized. which can be determined through the use of an energy detector in the receiver frontend stage.g. The prior information required for any modulation recognizer is the signal bandwidth. acoustic-optical spectrum analyzer. Thus. and parameters estimator such as the carrier frequency.

Particularly. knowing the correct modulation type helps to recognize the threat and to determine the suitable jamming waveform. Secondly. and time varying channels. Firstly. 3 . a better recognition system can be constructed by dividing the classification problem into subclasses and dealing with each of these subclasses separately. signal to noise ratio (SNR) and the carrier frequency offset (CFO) are investigated. a blind recognition system is introduced to discriminate the digitally modulated signals in an AWGN channel. methods for the extraction of some of the signal parameters such as the symbol rate. [1] Without any knowledge of the transmitted data and many unknown parameters at the receiver. In this thesis. frequency selective. applying the signal to an improper demodulator may partially or completely damage the signal information content. [1] Modulation recognition is extremely important in COMINT applications for several reasons. blind identification is a difficult task. the modulation type…etc. are gathered to perform the signal demodulation and information extraction. Therefore. classification process is even more challenging in real world scenarios with multipath fading. Also.rate.

some concluding remarks are given and future works are discussed. 4 . The first one is the decision tree based method and the second one is the Bayesian based method. two classification methods are given. In Chapter 2. In Chapter 6. the basic blocks that can be used in the classification of digitally modulated signals are discussed. In Chapter 3. relevant previous works for digitally modulated signal classification are reviewed.2 OUTLINE OF THESIS The thesis consists of six chapters. In Chapter 4. computer simulations are carried out to compare the proposed methods. In Chapter 5. In addition. A brief summary of chapters 2 through 6 is given in the following. performances of the selected key features for each modulation type are investigated.1.

In a decision-theoretic framework. the recognizers can be divided into two subsets according to methods used in approaching classification problems: 1) A decision-theoretic approach. probabilistic arguments are employed to derive a proper classification rule. whereas the more practical pattern- 5 .1 INTRODUCTION In modern communication systems. of course. Typically. Hence. In a broad sense.” which assigns signatures to specific signal formats. this optimal rule will be hard to implement exactly. This approach affords an optimal procedure in the sense that a discriminating test can be found which is the best under a specific performance measure. the digital modulation recognizers have critical importance. decision theory can be perceived as the rigorous framework which explains and justifies the selection of the “correct” features. This necessitates a statistical description of the signals (or hypotheses). digital modulation techniques are more frequently used. A simpler way to derive a classifier structure is to rely upon the classic pattern-recognition concept of “feature. simplicity. 2) A pattern-recognition or feature-extraction approach. In the literature.CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE SURVEY 2. The key advantage of a well-chosen feature set is.

and is more concerned with issues of implementability. and then the selection of the modulation type is made according to the weighting function which produces the largest output. 6 . PSK2. The features of the intercepted signals are multiplied with the weight vectors. [2] 2. the spectra of the signal. and the modulation classification are the main steps of the classifier.recognition approach chooses these features on an ad hoc (perhaps intuitive) basis. weight vector generation. The envelope of the signal. The discrimination of PSK2 and PSK4 signal at 5 dB SNR is the only performance criteria of the proposed recognizer. feature vector extraction. There exists a training stage where weight vectors are generated for each class of signal considered using an adaptive technique based on LMS algorithm. the signal squared and the signal quadrupled are used to derive the following key features of the intercepted signal: • • • • The mean of the envelope The variance of the envelope Magnitude and location of the two largest peaks in the signal spectrum The magnitude of the spectral component at twice the carrier frequency of the signal squared • The magnitude of the spectral component at four times the carrier frequency of the signal quadrupled In [3].2 RELEVANT PREVIOUS WORK In [3]. PSK4 and FSK2 signals was introduced. an adaptive technique for classifying ASK2. In this training stage known signals with 20 dB SNR are used.

quasi-log-likelihood ratio (qLLR) was used as a classification rule to discriminate PSK2 and PSK4. variance of zero-crossing interval sequence. frequency and phase difference histograms. Extraction of zero-crossing sequence x(i). and MFSK was proposed based on the zero-crossing characteristics of the intercepted signal. a classification method for the constant amplitude signals such as CW. it is able to estimate the carrier frequency and the symbol rate. Inter-symbol transition (ISI) sample detection 3. it is claimed that successful modulation classification is achievable for SNR>15 dB. zero-crossing interval difference sequence z(i) 2. CNR. The performance of the recognizer to discriminate CW and MPSK signals is dominated by the estimation accuracy of the carrier frequency. initial phase. From the simulation results. However. The proposed classifier does not need prior knowledge of the basic signal parameters. SNR. it is easy to obtain information related to the phase transitions of the received signal in a wide frequency dynamic range. Also. It is proved analytically that qLLR is better than the other methods even at low SNR. 7 . By using a zero-crossing sampler. In [4]. symbol rate.In [2]. The proposed method consists of four main stages: 1. pulse shape at the receiver front end are known. the performance of the proposed method was compared with the square law classifier (SLC) and the Phase-Based Classifier. carrier frequency estimation. it is assumed that all the signal parameters such as carrier frequency. G 4. zero-crossing interval sequence y(i). However. whereas CW and MFSK discrimination performance is dominated by the ratio of symbol rate to carrier frequency. Modulation classification based on G. and it cannot discriminate varying amplitude signals such as MASK. MPSK. its performance degrades for SNR<12dB.

From the simulation results. symbol rate and CNR are assumed to be known exactly. BFSK. Decision It is claimed that the second order moment is sufficient for discrimination of CW and MPSK. however. square-law (SLC) and the phase-based (PBC) classifiers. QPSK. This property is used to find a proper decision rule for classification. and for QPSK-8PSK higher order moments are required for proper operation of the classifier at low SNR. whereas for BPSK eighth order moment. initial phase. Even order moment computation 3. QFSK signals was proposed based on the autoregressive modeling. It is shown that nth moment (n even) of the phase of the signal is a monotonic increasing function of M for MPSK signals. The proposed classifier consists of three main stages: 1. Instantaneous carrier frequency and BW of the intercepted signal is obtained from the poles of the autoregressive polynomial for each analysis frame of the intercepted signal then the following feature vectors are derived: • • Mean of the instantaneous frequency Standard deviation of the instantaneous frequency (IF) 8 . a classification method for the CW. proposed classifier outperforms PRC and SRC for SNR>0. In [6]. Phase Extraction 2. All the signal parameters such as carrier frequency. a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the statistical moments of the intercepted signal phase.In [5]. Threshold comparison 4. The Tikhonov function is used to approximate the asymptotic distribution of the phase of the intercepted signal. BPSK. The performance of the classifier with eighth moment is also compared with quasi loglikelihood ratio (qLLRC). it is claimed that qLLR classifier is better at low SNR.

Hence. In [7]. in the case of the received signal arriving at a frequency that is not coincident with the center frequency of any of these filters. a classification method for the MFSK signals was proposed based on the higher-order correlations (HOC). whereas success rate of the recognizer for ASK2 signals is 87% at 10dB SNR. each of which is tuned to one of a prescribed set of frequency locations. In [8]. It is indicated that the optimal rule in the MFSK classification is the usage of bank of matched filters. In a single tone classifier an amplitude histogram is used to distinguish ASK from BPSK. nonchannelized structures are proposed 9 . QPSK. The proposed recognizer consists of two main parts. PSK2 and PSK4 signals is greater than 98% at 10dB SNR. in order to avoid mismatch. QPSK and CW. a classification method was proposed for multichannel systems. mismatch at the outputs of the matched filters occurs. PSK2 and PSK4 signals. The basic problem regarding classification of ASK2 signals is that the phase modulation introduced by the noise. Only constant envelope signals are investigated and it is assumed that only one signal exists at the receiver input. The first one is the outer loop that detects the individual signal components. However. It is claimed that success rate for discrimination of CW. BFSK signals are considered as two correlated ASK2 signals. the second part is a single tone classifier that identifies each of the signal components as ASK2. BPSK. CW and differential phase histogram is used for discrimination of CW. Average log-likelihood function of the intercepted signal in terms of HOC domain is given for both of the channelized and nonchannelized classifier structures.• • • Standard deviation of the instantaneous bandwidth (IB) Mean of the IB peaks (normalized to the largest peak) The height of the peaks of the differentiated IF It is claimed that success rate is greater than 99% at a SNR of 15 dB. Carrier frequency offset (CFO) is removed by using instantaneous frequency histogram and by performing differential phase computation.

Moreover. the second-order correlation-based classifier of the first kind and the second-order correlation-based classifier of the second kind are proposed as classifier algorithms. The signal arrival time is assumed to be known perfectly. Numerical comparisons and simulations are performed for rectangular pulse shape. Square Law Classifier (SLC) and the proposed quasioptimal/optimal classifiers are made. Classification of the MPSK signals is performed by comparing their LLF differences by a threshold.as a MFSK classifier. 10 . SLC requires 1. All of the proposed algorithms based on the comparison of the average log-likelihood function with a threshold to classify MFSK signals. performance comparison of the Statistical-Moment-Based Classifier (SMBC) [5]. The first-order correlation-based classifier. a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the likelihood function (LLF) of the instantaneous phase.6 dB more SNR than qLLR to discriminate PSK4 and PSK8. • Environment where the symbol timing offset is assumed to be known but the carrier phase offset is assumed to be unknown. In the proposed nonchannelized classifier. In this work. It is claimed that the proposed quasioptimal rules and the optimal rules have similar performance curves. In [9]. • Environment where the carrier phase and the symbol timing offset are assumed to be unknown. signal is divided into three subbands and for each subband a processor is assigned.9 dB more SNR than the qLLR classifier to discriminate PSK2 and PSK4 and Fourth Law Classifier needs 2. hence the proposed classifiers are all synchronous. Quasioptimal rules have been proposed for the following environments: • Environment where the carrier phase and the symbol timing offset are assumed to be known. Phase-Histogram Classifier (PHC). Phase-Based Optimal Classifier (PBOC) [11].

In [1]. FSK2 and FSK4 was proposed based on the feature-extraction approach. Exact phase distribution of the received signal is used instead of Tikhonov function proposed in [5]. 8PSK is performed by calculation of test statistics for each modulation type and the modulation type with the largest test statistics is selected. a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the hypothesis testing. evaluated over the non-weak intervals of a signal segment • The standard deviation of the absolute value of the normalized-centered instantaneous amplitude of a signal segment 11 . ASK2. Carrier frequency. BPSK. initial phase and symbol rate of the intercepted signal are assumed to be known. BPSK. evaluated over the non-weak intervals of a signal segment • The standard deviation of the centered non-linear component of the direct (non absolute) instantaneous phase. classification method for PSK2. The intercepted signal is divided into M segments then the key feature extraction and comparison with a threshold is performed for each segment. a classification method for the MPSK signals was proposed based on the statistical moments of the intercepted signal phase. ASK4. PSK4. Discrimination of CW. Modulation decision is made by comparing the decision of M segments. 8PSK. The key features used in [1] are as follows: • The maximum value of the spectral power density of the normalizedcentered instantaneous amplitude of the intercepted signal • The standard deviation of the absolute value of the centered non-linear component of the instantaneous phase.In [10]. Test statistics are derived from the probability density function of MPSK signals and a classifier is proposed to classify CW. In [11]. QPSK. The proposed method is 2 dB superior to the method used in [5] for 99% success rate. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with [2]. QPSK. and it is claimed that the proposed classifier has a higher probability of correct classification.

USB. In [25] a classification method for both analog and digital modulations was proposed based on the feature extraction approach. a classification method for both analog and digital modulations was proposed based on cyclic spectral feature extraction and neural network modulation recognition approach. FSK. ASK.• The standard deviation of the absolute value of the normalized-centered instantaneous frequency. a classification method for MPSK signals was proposed based on the decision theoretic approach. QPSK and 8PSK is introduced and the performance of the proposed classifier is tested for BPSK and QPSK signals. BPSK: QPSK and SQPSK signals are used to analyze the performance of the proposed classifier. The carrier frequency of the intercepted signal is assumed to be known. In [12]. FM. The only result about the performance of the proposed classifier is given in Table-1 in [26]. evaluated over the non-weak intervals of a signal segment Five algorithms are proposed based on the above key features. CW.5 dB superior to the method used in [5] for 90% success rate. It is claimed that the proposed classifier is 2. AM. Following features are defined which are not included in [1]: • The standard deviation of the normalized-centered instantaneous amplitude in the non weak segment of a signal • The kurtosis of the normalized instantaneous amplitude 12 . LSB. A suboptimal classifier to discriminate CW. BPSK. Tikhonov function is used to approximate the phase probability density function (ppdf) of MPSK signals and classification is performed by hypothesis-testing derived from the pddf’s of the intercepted signal. In [26]. The cyclostationarity property of intercepted signal is used to extract the key features. two of them use artificial neural network approach to decide modulation type.

In [13]. It is showed that different transients in frequency. The only thing mentioned about the performance of the classifier is that coherent case is 3 dB superior to the noncoherent case. The assumptions about the intercepted signal are the prior knowledge of CNR and noise power.• The kurtosis of the normalized instantaneous frequency A decision tree (DTC) and an artificial neural network (ANNC) architectures are proposed as a modulation classifier and performance comparison of these classifiers are given. Success rate of the proposed classifier is about 97% at a SNR larger than 5 dB for 50 observation symbols. PSK and FSK signals was proposed based on the Haar Wavelet Transform (HWT). It is claimed that the success rate of DTC is greater than 94%. a classification method for QAM. Regarding the classification method following observations are given: • • • The HWT of QAM and FSK is a multi-step function The HWT of a PSK and amplitude normalized QAM is a constant The HWT of amplitude normalized PSK and FSK signals are the same as the ones that are not normalized. other parameters are assumed to be known a priori. Firstly. a classification method for QAM and PSK signals was proposed based on the maximum-likelihood approach for both the coherent and noncoherent cases. while the success rate of ANNC is greater than 96% at a SNR of 15 dB. except for the carrier phase. In [14]. a fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm is used as the constellation recovery method then recovered constellations 13 . In coherent case all the signal parameters and in noncoherent case. No information is given to distinguish M-ary signals. In [15] a classification method for digital modulated signals was proposed based on the constellation shape of the intercepted signal. phase or amplitude are observable for different digital modulation signals and wavelet transform can be used to extract transient information.

There is no information about the performance degradation of the classifier when the carrier phase lock error is high. the 45 degree phase offset performance of the classifier to discriminate 16PSK and 16QAM is about 90% at a SNR of 3dB. It is stated that. a classification method for baseband digitally modulated signals was proposed based on the feature extraction and fuzzy classification method. failure rate of the proposed classifier goes to zero. PSK4. which is assumed to be constant for the duration of a symbol. 14 . All the signal parameters and the noise parameters are assumed to be known a priori. Carrier frequency is the only parameter assumed to be known a priori. a classification method for digital quadrature modulations was proposed based on the maximum-likelihood method. a classification method to discriminate PSK2. It is claimed that the success rate is about 94% at a SNR of 10dB and the success rate of the proposed classifier is about 97% for real world short-wave signals. FSK2. The Margenau-Hill (time-frequency) distribution (MHD) is used to extract the phase information and higher order autoregressive model is used to extract frequency and amplitude information of the intercepted signal.are modeled by binomial nonhomogenous spatial random fields. no a priori knowledge about the signal parameters are needed. The symbol timing offset is assumed to be small and hence the effect of timing errors is neglected. PSK8. In [22]. In [16]. Basic features used in the classification problem are as follows: • Kurtosis of the envelope of the signal. PSK16. An error probability is obtained for any type of quadrature modulations and it is claimed that as the number of available data symbols goes to infinity. FSK4. In [17]. QAM8 and OOK signals was proposed based on the pattern recognition approach. It is claimed that the success rate of the classifier to discriminate 8PSK and 8QAM is about 90% at a SNR of 0dB when no carrier and phase offset exist. In the case of random carrier phase lock error. ML approach is used as a constellation shape classification. Lastly.

QPSK. V29 (16 point QAM signal constellation with 8 phases. It is assumed that the carrier phase offset. • Mean of the absolute value signal frequency. The center frequency is assumed to be known a priori. ASK2. 4 amplitudes.) of constant envelope and varying envelope signals will be different. Both the statistical features and the features proposed in [1] are used as a feature set and a multilayer perception (MLP) is used as a classification method. V32 (32 point signal constellation TCM with 9600bps) and QAM64 are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed classifier and it is claimed that the success rate is about 98% at a SNR of 0dB.The envelope distribution of constant envelope signals is a Rician distribution and for SNR>10dB it can be approximated as Gaussian distribution. PSK like signals by calculating this feature. MSK like signals are discriminated from ASK. ASK4. symbol timing offset and the pulse shape are known. Burg method is used to estimate signal PSD. 16QAM. QAM16. QAM. 4DPSK. FSK are used to evaluate the performance of the proposed classifier. Mamdani fuzzy classifier is used as a classification method and ASK. The performance of the proposed classifier is analyzed 15 . BPSK. The probability density function is estimated by Tikhonov function and the phase variance of the intercepted signal is used to discriminate ASK. 9600bps). • Variance of the PSD derivative. It is claimed that the proposed classifier works properly for SNR>5dB. a classification method based on elementary fourth-order cumulants (eqn 3) was proposed. Therefore kurtosis ([17] eqn 6. QAM. FSK4. In [20]. In [18]. FSK. a classification method for digital modulation signals was proposed based on the feature extraction and artificial neural network approach. FSK2. whereas varying amplitude signals envelope distribution is a mixture of Rayleigh and Rician distribution. In this work. FSK from PSK.

a classification method. The following features are used: 16 . The proposed classifier uses mixed moments of different orders of the intercepted signal as a feature set. The performance of the proposed classifier is compared with an ideal HOC classifier [19] and it is claimed that at lower SNR ideal high order cumulant (HOC) is better. It is claimed that there is a small decrease in the success rate of the classifier at a SNR of 12 dB in the case of small frequency offset. Carrier frequency. In the first stage. a classification method to discriminate ASK2. classification of 4ASK. 2PSK. a classification method to discriminate MASK. In [23].5dB. V29. cochannel interference and impulsive nongaussian noise. phase offset. FSK4 was proposed based on the feature extraction and support vector machine (SVM) classification approach. 2FSK.in the case of small phase offset. 8PSK is performed. probability of correct classification also increases. 8QAM. the fourth order moment of the received signal and average power of the modulated signal. small frequency offset. whereas at high SNR performances of classifiers are similar. the signal power is estimated and most of the modulations (16QAM. and there is only one sample for each of the data symbol. QPSK. In the second stage. 7200bps. 4AM signals are used to analyze the classifier performance and it is claimed that the probability of correct classification is about 85% at a SNR of 2. 32QAM. The modulated signal power is estimated from the singular value decomposition of the signal auto-correlation matrix and there is no assumption about the signal parameters. MQAM. MFSK signals was proposed based on the signal envelope statistics which is a function of the second order moment. BPSK. 128QAM. It is also shown that as the number of data samples increase. self-interference. based on the relationships between the second and higher moments of received signal and signal and noise power. 9600bps) are classified. The classifier consists of two stages. PSK2. residual channel effect. small symbol timing offset. PSK4. 2ASK. and impulsive nongaussian noise when compared to ideal Gaussian environment. MPSK. ASK4. FSK2. In [19]. was proposed. time of arrival and pulse shape are assumed to be known. In [21]. 4QAM.

cumulant based classifier proposed in [20]. Moreover the performance of the proposed SVM classifier is compared with maximum likelihood (ML) classifier proposed in [16]. • • • Dynamic threshold classifier outperforms the fixed one. the proposed decision tree classifier with fixed threshold and the proposed decision tree classifier with dynamic threshold. MonteCarlo simulations show that: • The ML Classifier has the best performance among the compared classifiers • At low SNR qLLR is the second to the best classifier for small values of p.• Average value of the imaginary part of the multiplication of two consecutive signal values. Performance of the cumulant based classifier is independent of p. • Kurtosis of the imaginary part of the multiplication of two consecutive signal values. • Ratio of the second maximum to third maximum of the FFT of the intercepted signal It is claimed that the success rate of the proposed SVM classifier is 100% at a SNR of 5dB when (the ratio of symbol rate to sampling rate) p=0. • Kurtosis of the real part of the multiplication of two consecutive signal values. The proposed SVM classifier outperforms fixed and dynamic threshold classifiers for all modulation types at all SNR values. • The proposed SVM classifier outperforms cumulant based classifier for SNR>0dB.05. 17 . the qLLR classifier proposed in [2]. but its performance degrades as p increases.

LSB.In [24] a classification method to discriminate both the analog and digital modulations types was proposed which is based on the feature extraction approach. USB. FM. under 18 . AWGN. • The Support Vector Classifier (SVC). OFDM (DVB-T. • Decision Tree Classifier-1 (DTC1) in which Mahalanobis distance is used to settle the threshold levels. 2FSK. the success rate of MDC is 96.4% at a SNR of 5 dB. 4PSK. six of these features are from [25] and the other one is the occupied bandwidth which is defined as the ratio of the number of FFT bins with the 90% of total power spectrum density (PSD) for MC. 16QAM.2% and the success rate of SVC is 98. Seven key features are used. 2PSK. 2PSK. 2FSK. 4ASK. A hardware implementation of DTC2 is also given and it is claimed that numerical simulation results and the performance of the prototype are consistent. AM. a classification method to discriminate 2ASK. 64QAM. • Neural Network Classifier (NNC) in which Feed Forward Network with double hidden layers is used. • The minimum distance classifier in which the minimum normalized Euclidean distance between the unknown entry and the mean values of each of the other classes is calculated. • Decision Tree Classifier-2 (DTC2) in which the average probability of correct decision is used to settle the threshold levels. Moreover. which employs SVM (support vector machine) to find a hyperplane that separate samples from class 1 from those of class 2 in some higher dimension It is claimed that all the classifiers has a success rate greater than 95% at a SNR of 10 dB. The following classifiers are proposed to classify CW.11a) signals. In [27]. 4FSK. 4PSK. and 4FSK. 802.

4PSK.11a.. a (t2i +1 )} − min{a (t2 i −1 ). and 76% at a SNR of 20dB. 4FSK. It is claimed that DBF2 can be used to discriminate 2FSK from 2PSK.. i =1 N −1 i =1 N −1 and DBF 2 = 1 + log 2 (b(∆) / d (2∆)) o o b(∆) = ∑ a(ti ) − a(ti +1 ) .multipath conditions. • The standard deviation of the absolute value of the real part of the signal. a(t N ) are defined as the amplitude samples of the signal. The classification method is based on the feature extraction and the bootstrap approach. • DBF1 = 1 + log 2 (d (∆) / d (2∆)) where d (∆) = ∑ f (ti ) − f (ti +1 ) . It is claimed that the success rate of the classifier is greater than 80% at a SNR of 0 dB.. ( N −1)/ 2 o d (2∆) = ∑ i =1 (max{a (t2 i −1 ). • Variance of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the autocorrelation function of the signal.. f (t N ) are defined as the samples of the signal and a(t1 ).. was proposed. evaluated over the non-weak intervals of a signal segment. a (t2i +1 )}) f (t1 ). Radial basis function (RBF) based artificial neural network is used to classify signals.. 19 .. and DVB-T from 802. a (t2i ).. The selected features are: • • The maximum frequency of the spectrum of the signal The variance of the filtered Haar wavelet transform [50] of the signal (V1) and the variance of the filtered twice Haar wavelet transform of the signal (V2). a (t2i ).

using a decision-theoretic approach. carrier frequency offset. the performance of the recognizer mainly depends on the selected features. the ones which are extracted from the envelope histogram. the SNR value is one of the most important parameters affecting the reliability of the selected features. the autocorrelation function. the cyclic autocorrelation function. pulse shape. However. have better performance than the ones using feature-extraction approach. and the discrete Fourier transform do not require the knowledge of the most of the signal parameters. many features are proposed for the classification of different types of modulations. the frequency histogram. there are many techniques for digital modulation recognition.In the literature. time of arrival. Moreover. the higher order statistics. Methods. such as symbol rate. the wavelet transform. In the literature. most of the signal parameters are assumed to be known a priori in the case of a decision-theoretic approach. 20 . Among these features. initial phase. In a feature-extraction approach.

instantaneous frequency extraction blocks. cyclostationary analysis. which can discriminate digital modulation signals. bandwidth and spectral estimation. Moreover. In the literature.1 SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO (SNR) ESTIMATION BLOCK SNR is one of the most critical parameters affecting the performance of a communication system. Let the signal model be r (k ) = s (k ) + n(k ) . a blind SNR estimation method for digital modulation IF signals in AWGN channel was proposed based on the eigenvector decomposition and subspace approach. In [28]. use a prior knowledge or estimation for SNR to get better classification performance. 3. envelope extraction. 21 .CHAPTER 3 BASIC FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS In this chapter. where r (k ) is a down-converted baseband low-pass equivalent (complex) signal and n(k ) is AWGN with zero-mean 2 and variance σ n . most of the proposed methods. SNR estimation. performances of these selected blocks are investigated for different modulation types. spectral analysis of moments. are introduced and investigated. which are the selected blocks to be used to extract features for classification of digital modulation signals. We employ this method in our work because it does not require any knowledge about the intercepted signal and accurate SNR estimation of different digital modulation types can be performed in a simple way.

k = 1.. H denotes Hermitian transposition and and N is the number of samples.. M are the samples of the autocorrelation function of the received signal. Since Rr is conjugate and symmetric [ Rr ]ij = E{r (i)r * ( j )} = rr (i − j ) = rr * ( j − i ) (3. λ p . λ 2 ....5) (3.. Q = diag (λ1 .. (3..Assuming that the information signal samples s (k ) and noise samples n(k ) are uncorrelated then the autocorrelation matrix of the received signal vector r = [r (1)......2. b2 .0) are MxM diagonal matrices containing corresponding eigenvalues..1) where E{.3) and the autocorrelation matrix of noise 2 Rn = I nσ n (3.4) where I n is an MxM identity matrix.} denotes the expectation operator..7) 22 . bM ) ... By using the eigenvalue decomposition of matrices.6) where U is an MxM orthogonal matrix containing eigenvectors and P = diag (b1 . Then 2 Rr = UPU H = UQU H + σ n I n (3... r ( N )]T can be expressed as Rr = E{rr H } = E{ss H } + E{nn H } = Rs + Rn (3.. rr (k ) = E{r (n)r * (n + k − 1)} = 1 N N − k +1 ∑ n =1 r (n)r * (n + k − 1) (3.0. the autocorrelation matrices of the received signal and the information signal are given by Rs = UQU H Rr = UPU H .2) where rr (k ).

In [28].and eigenvalues λ + σ 2 i = 1.7) and (3.. Hence.. then the noise power is 2 σn = M 1 ∑1 bi M − p i= p+ (3..8) where λi (λ1 ≥ λ 2 ≥ .. it can be seen that p eigenvalues spans the signal subspace and M-p eigenvalues spans the noise subspace.11) and the estimated signal power is  Ps' .9) Then. ≥ λ p ) .. (p<M) is the power of the signal along the i th eigenvector. The proposed MDL function is  M 1/( M − k )  ∏ bi MDL(k ) = − ln  i = k +1 M  1  M − k ∑ bi i = k +1    1  + k (2 M − k ) ln( N )  2   (3. p bi =  i 2 n i = p + 1. if Ps' ≥ 0  Ps =  ' 0. the signal subspace dimension is given by p = arg min( MDL(k )) k (3.8). if Ps < 0  (3..10) Since the signal subspace dimension was determined... M  σn (3... From (3.12) 23 . if the signal subspace dimension is found then the total power of the received signal can be grouped into power of the desired signal plus noise and power of the noise [28]. a minimum description length (MDL) criteria was proposed to determine the signal subspace dimension.

ASK4. However. estimated bias and STD is given in Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2. QAM4. which is given in [28]. it can be seen that as the SNR increases. indicated SNR value is taken as the noise power. snr is the estimated SNR value and 1 mean = Nt ∑ snr . the estimation error is quite large for the linear modulation types (ASK2. ASK4. FSK4 and AWGN signals. ASK8. MSK. From Figure 3-1 and Figure 3-2. PSK4. i =1 Nt We tested the performance of the proposed method. FSK2.1 where P = M ' s ∑ (b − σ ) . PSK8. hence. the estimated SNR becomes snr = Ps 2 σn (3. a small estimation error of noise power.14) (3. The type of modulation has little influence on the STD. i 2 n i =1 p Hence. QAM8) compared to the nonlinear 24 .13) The following bias and standard deviation terms were defined to analyze the proposed method [28]: bias = 10 log10 (mean / snr )  1 STD =   Nt  ∑ (10 log10 ( snr / mean))  i =1  Nt 2 1/ 2 (3. For 2500 symbols with autocorrelation matrix dimension M=100. which may be neglected in the low SNR. the absolute value of the estimated bias and the STD also increase. PSK8. CW. In the case of AWGN. This is due to the fact that noise power gets smaller as SNR increases. N t is the number of trials. PSK4. QAM8. ASK8. for ASK2.15) Where. causes a large SNR estimation error for a high SNR [28].

0. the performance of the proposed method was investigated for different number of received symbols and different dimensions of the autocorrelation matrix. The proposed method is considerably accurate for SNR>-10dB and for SNR<20dB which may provide a satisfactory feedback to a recognition system.5 ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM4 QAM8 MSK FSK4 FSK8 CW NOISE 0 Estimation Bias (dB) -0. It is claimed that the estimated bias and the STD improve little as the dimension of the autocorrelation matrix. M. continuous wave and noise. increases.5 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 SNR (dB) 5 10 15 20 25 Figure 3-1 Estimation Bias vs. SNR 25 . In [28].5 -1 -1.5 -2 -2.modulations. we preferred to use M=100 in our analysis to reduce the simulation time. Since the performance of the proposed method is quite good for M=100. Moreover. the bias quickly increases as SNR increases.

In [24].5 ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 QAM4 QAM8 MSK FSK4 FSK8 CW NOISE Estimation STD (dB) 1 0. which is defined as the ratio of the number of FFT bins with the 90% of total power spectrum density (PSD). We investigate the bandwidth and spectral shape characteristics of linearly modulated and CPM signals separately. Specifically. Bandwidth estimation is also important in the preprocessing stage of a classification system. SNR.1.5 0 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 SNR (dB) 5 10 15 20 25 Figure 3-2 Estimation STD vs. the occupied bandwidth. 3.2 BANDWIDTH AND SPECTRAL SHAPE Bandwidth and spectral shape of an intercepted signal are one of the key features in the classification of signals. 26 . spectral symmetry is one of the features proposed in [1] to discriminate analog modulated signals. is used as a feature to discriminate analog and digital modulated signals.

3. the power spectral density of v(t ) is given as Svv ( f ) = 1 2 G ( f ) Sii ( f ) T (3.1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS A linearly modulated signal can be expressed as   s (t ) =  ∑ I k g (t − kT )  cos ( 2π f c t )  k  = Re v(t )e { j 2π f c t } (3. g is the pulse shape. t )e j 2π fcτ { } (3. the autocorrelation function of s (t ) is [29] Rss (t + τ . f c is the carrier frequency. the power spectral density is S ss ( f ) = 1 {Svv ( f − f c ) + Svv (− f − f c )} 2 (3.18) where Rvv (t + τ .19) In [29]. t ) = Re Rvv (t + τ . t ) is the autocorrelation function of the equivalent low-pass signal v(t ) . { I k } is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence and the low-pass equivalent of the signal is v(t ) = ∑ I k g (t − kT ) k (3.20) where Sii ( f ) is the power spectral density of the information sequence {I k } and it is defined as 27 .2.16) where T is the symbol rate.17) Then. Hence.

2. t < 0 . it can be seen that the spectral shape and the bandwidth of the linearly modulated digital signal depend on the symbol rate. I ) is (3. power density spectrum of the equivalent low-pass signal of full response CPM with rectangular pulse shape is given as 28 .24) τ where { I k } is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence. 3.21) where * Rii (m) = E{I n I n + m } (3. the pulse shape and the information sequence. t > T .22) From (3. I ) (3.20). I ) = 2π h∑ I k ∫ g (τ − kT )dτ k (3.Sii ( f ) = ∑ Rii (m)e j 2π fmT m (3.25) In [29]. q (t ) = . whereas they are independent of the type of the linear modulation. g (t ) is the pulse shape 1 with q ' (t ) = g (t ) and q (t ) = 0. I )) where f c is the carrier frequency and φ (t .2 CPM SIGNALS A simple representation of a constant envelope continuous-phase modulated (CPM) signal can be expressed as s (t ) = cos(2π f c t + φ (t .23) φ (t . 2 And the low-pass equivalent of the signal is v(t ) = e jφ ( t .

2  T  π ∑I n −1 k + π  .30) For the minimum-shift keying signal.28) α nm = π h(m + n − 1 − M ) ψ = ψ ( jh) = sin( M π h) M sin(π h) (3.32) In [29]. the phase process of the carrier φ (t .29) (3.  nT ≤ t ≤ (n+1)T (3.26)   1  sin π  fT − ( 2n − 1 − M ) h   2    An ( f ) = 1    π  fT − ( 2n − 1 − M ) h   2    (3.1} with a 2 rectangular pulse shape. the power spectral density of the equivalent low-pass signal of MSK is given as 29 . I ) =  t − nT In  2 k =−∞ 2  T π  t − nT  = θn + I n  . I ) in the symbol interval is φ (t . the intercepted MSK signal is   1  π  s (t ) = cos  2π  f c + I n  t − nI n + θ n  . where h = 1 and I k ∈ {−1. 4T  2    nT ≤ t ≤ (n + 1)T (3.27) Bnm ( f ) = cos ( 2π fT − α nm ) −ψ cos(α nm ) 1 + ψ 2 − 2ψ cos(2π fT ) (3.1 S ss ( f ) = T  M where ∑ An2 ( f − fc ) + n =1 M 2 M2 ∑∑ B n =1 m =1 M M nm  ( f ) An ( f ) Am ( f )   (3.31) nT ≤ t ≤ (n+1)T Then.

Bandwidth information can be used to discriminate analog and digital modulated signals. However. bandwidth alone is not a feature to classify digital modulation types.16 A2T  cos(2π ( f − f c )T )  S ss ( f ) =   π 2  1 − 16( f − f c )2 T 2  2 (3.33) it can be seen that the bandwidth of the CPM signal depends mainly on the symbol rate. the bandwidth depends only on the symbol rate. since the modulation index and alphabet size is fixed.26) and (3. For MSK.33) From (3. 30 . information sequence alphabet size (M) and modulation index (h) .

22). compared to the conventional spectral analysis.3. (3.35) * m =−∞ ∑ R (m) ∑ g (t − nT ) g (t + τ − mT ) ii n =−∞ and 31 . t ) = = n =−∞ m =−∞ ∞ ∑ ∑ R (m − n) g (t − nT ) g (t + τ − mT ) * ii ∞ ∞ ∞ (3. Therefore.3 CYCLOSTATIONARY ANALYSIS The term “cyclostationary” is mainly used for a special class of non-stationary random signals which exhibit periodicity in their statistics. Then. Also.34) can be expressed as Rvv (t + τ .1 LINEARLY MODULATED SIGNALS The autocorrelation function of a low pass equivalent of a linearly modulated signal can be expressed as Rvv (t + τ .34) where g (t ) is the pulse shape and {I k } is a wide-sense stationary sequence with an autocorrelation function R ii (m) given in (3.3. t ) = E {v(t + τ )v* (t )} = n =−∞ m =−∞ ∑ ∑ E {I I } g (t − nT ) g (t + τ − mT ) * n m * ∞ ∞ (3. 3. we tested the performance of the symbol rate estimator for different modulation types. we investigate the cyclostationary characteristics of the digitally modulated signals and use the cyclic autocorrelation function to estimate the symbol rate of the intercepted signal. Cyclostationary spectral analysis gives more information about the signal.

that is low pass equivalent of a linearly modulated signal ( v(t ) ) is a cyclostationary process. t + T ) = = m =−∞ ∞ ∑ R (m) ∑ g (t − nT + T ) g (t + τ − mT + T ) * ii n =−∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ (3. the autocorrelation function of a low pass equivalent of a CPM signal can be expressed as [29] ∞  j 2π h ∑ Ik [ q (t +τ − kT )− q ( t − kT )]         Rvv (t + τ .37) and (3. Rvv (t + τ + T .39)  j 2π hI k [ q ( t +τ − kT ) − q ( t − kT ) ]  = E ∏ e   k =−∞  ∞ 32 . 3.24) and (3.25).3. t ) = E e  k =−∞      (3.38) = E {v(t )} From (3. t + T ) = = m =−∞ ∑ R (m) ∑ g (t − (n − 1)T ) g (t + τ − (m − 1)T ) * ii n =−∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ ∞ m =−∞ ∑ Rii (m) ∑ g * (t − nT ) g (t + τ − mT ) n =−∞ (3.36) * m =−∞ ∑ R (m) ∑ g (t − (n − 1)T ) g (t + τ − (m − 1)T ) ii n =−∞ Since summation in (3.36) is from −∞ to ∞ .38).Rvv (t + τ + T . t ) Also.37) = Rvv (t + τ .2 CPM SIGNALS From (3. it is seen that both the autocorrelation function and the mean of v(t ) is periodic with a period T. in a similar way E {v(t )} can be obtained as follows E {v(t + T )} = = k =−∞ ∞ ∑ E {I } g (t − kT + T ) k k ∞ k =−∞ ∑ E {I } g (t − (k − 1)T ) (3.

41) is from −∞ to ∞ (3.41) Rvv (t + τ + T . t + T ) =  M −1  1 ∑ ∏  n=−( M −1).odd M e j 2π hn[ q (t +τ − kT ) − q ( t − kT )]  k = −∞   ∞ Rvv (t + τ . 33 . M −1   1 ∑ ∏  n = − ( M −1).odd  = E {v(t )} ∞ (3.Since {I k } is a statistically independent sequence with equally likely symbols. t ) = (3.odd M e j 2π hn[q (t +τ −kT +T )−q (t −kT +T )]  k =−∞   ∞ ∞  M −1 1 j 2π hn[ q (t +τ −( k −1)T )− q (t −( k −1)T )]  = ∏ ∑ e  k =−∞  n =− ( M −1).42) In a similar way E {v(t )} can be obtained as follows  j 2π h ∑ I k q (t − kT +T )    E {v(t + T )} = E e k =−∞      ∞   = E  ∏ e j 2π hIk q (t −( k −1)T )   k =−∞  ∞ M −1   = ∏  ∑ e j 2π hIk q (t − ( k −1)T )  k =−∞  n =− ( M −1). odd M  Since. t ) ∞ (3. the product in (3.43) Therefore. similar to linearly modulated signals.40) and Rvv (t + τ + T . we can conclude that low pass equivalent of a CPM signal is a cyclostationary process. t + T ) =  M −1  1 ∑ ∏  n=−( M −1).odd M e j 2π hn[q (t +τ −kT )−q (t −kT )]  k =−∞   = Rvv (t + τ .

If there is only one period. • α If Rvv (τ ) ≠ 0 only for α = integer/T0 for some period T0 then v(t) is said to be purely cyclostationary.47) 34 . t − τ / 2) = ∑ Rx (τ )e j 2πα t α (3.46) • α If Rvv (τ ) = 0 for all α ≠ 0 and Rvv (τ ) ≠ 0 then v(t) is said to be purely stationary.3 CYCLOSTATIONARITY IN MODULATION RECOGNITION Since autocorrelation function of low pass equivalent of digital signal is generally a periodic function of t then it will have a Fourier series representation α Rvv (t + τ / 2. t − τ / 2)e dt T −T T /2 (3. t − τ / 2)e − j 2πα t dt z →∞ z − z/2 α (3.3. Also.3.45) can be written as [30] α Rvv (τ ) = 1 − j 2πα t ∫/ 2 Rvv (t + τ / 2. symbol rate.45) Where α is an integer multiple of fundamental frequencies such as carrier frequency. cyclic spectral density function is defined in [30] as ∞ Svv ( f ) = α −∞ ∫R α vv (τ )e − j 2π f τ dτ (3.44) α where Rvv (τ ) is the cyclic autocorrelation function and can be expressed as z/2 1 Rvv (τ ) = lim ∫ Rvv (t + τ / 2. hop rate and their sums and differences. and then (3. • α If Rvv (τ ) ≠ 0 for values of α that are not all integer multiples of some fundamental frequency 1/ T0 then v(t) is said to exhibit cyclostationarity. say T.

47) turns out to be conventional power spectral density α function. In Section 3. Svv ( f ) can be considered as the density of correlation between spectral components at the frequencies f + α 2 and f − α 2 . cyclostationarity property of the digital modulated signals can be used to estimate the symbol rate. It is claimed that the signals with the same power spectral density but with different modulations may have distinct cyclic spectrum.1 it is shown that low pass equivalent of a linearly modulated signal k   ( v(t ) ) is cyclostationary with cyclic frequencies α = . Moreover.48) ∫ ∑ T −T / 2 m =−∞ n =−∞ T /2 ∞ 1 ∞ Rii (m) ∫ ∑ g * (t + τ / 2 − nT )g (t − τ / 2 − mT )e − j 2πα t dt ∑ T m =−∞ −T / 2 n =−∞ T /2 T /2 = = 35 . k int eger  .46) the cyclic autocorrelation function corresponding to cyclic frequency α is α Rvv (τ ) = 1 − j 2πα t ∫/ 2 Rvv (t + τ / 2. Therefore. the estimated symbol rate can be used as a key feature in a digital modulation recognition system. Cyclic spectral function for analog modulated signals is given in [31] and for digital modulated signals is given in [32]. then from T   (3.In the case of α = 0 (3. phase and frequency information in the intercepted signal can be extracted by the usage of spectral correlation function.4. but for α ≠ 0 . stationary noise and interference have no cyclic correlation. Estimated symbol rate gives information about the presence of a digital modulation and the bandwidth of the intercepted signal. t − τ / 2)e dt T −T ∞ ∞ 1 Rii (m) ∑ g * (t + τ / 2 − nT )g (t − τ / 2 − mT )e − j 2πα t dt (3. Symbol rate is one of the important parameters in digital modulated signals. Hence spectral correlation function can be used for classification of different modulation types and extraction of different signal parameters.

t − τ / 2)e− j 2π fcτ e− j 2πα t )dt T /2  1  − j 2πα t = dt )  e j 2π fcτ  ∫ ( Rvv (t + τ / 2. m ≠ 0 .Assuming {I k } is white with zero mean.49) α Rss (τ ) = 1 − j 2πα t ∫/ 2 Rss (t + τ / 2. t − τ / 2)e 2T  −T /2  T /2  1  − j 2πα t * + dt  e − j 2π fcτ  ∫ Rvv (t + τ / 2. t − τ / 2)e dt T −T T /2 T /2 1 = 2T −T /2 ∫ ((R vv (t + τ / 2. however. that is Rii (m) = 0.18). then (3. (3. In that work. the intercepted signal and the low pass equivalent signal have the same cyclic frequencies.48) turns out to be 1 − j 2πα ( t + nT ) * Rvv (τ ) = Rii (0) ∑ dt ∫−nT g (t + τ / 2) g (t − τ / 2)e n =−∞ T − T /2 α ∞ T /2 − nT 1 = Rii (0) ∫ g * (t + τ / 2) g (t − τ / 2)e − j 2πα t dt T −∞ From (3. in [33] a fast and simple algorithm was proposed to estimate the symbol rate of linear digital modulated signals. the cyclic autocorrelation function of the intercepted signal s (t ) can be obtained as ∞ (3.50) ( ) { } Hence. Cyclostationary analysis involves too much calculation. t − τ / 2)e 2T  −T /2  * 1 α 1 α = Rvv (τ )e j 2π fcτ + ( Rvv (τ ) ) e − j 2π fcτ 2 2 j 2π f cτ α = Re Rvv (τ )e ( ) (3. t − τ / 2)e j 2π fcτ ) * + Rvv (t + τ / 2. both the rectangular pulse shape and pulse shape which is obtained from the response of the linear time invariant (LTI) low pass filter α excited by the square wave are considered and it is found out that Rss (τ ) is 36 .48) and (3.49).

During trials if Fb is found to be less than 100 Hz. CW. Therefore in [33]. From Figure 3-3. In the case of AWGN. Also. For 2500 symbols. Fb is the symbol rate. Moreover. which is given in [33].51) We tested the performance of the proposed method. indicated SNR value is taken as the noise power.maximum when τ = ± T 1 =± . ASK4.α 2 ] T  2α  (3. it can be seen that the proposed symbol rate estimation method gives satisfactory results even at low SNR values. for ASK2. the proposed method can be used to discriminate linearly modulated signals from continuous wave signals and noise. we tested the performance of the proposed method applied to the instantaneous frequency of the CPFSK signal and the results are given in Figure 3-4. ASK8. the estimated absolute average error normalized to symbol rate e = 1 in Figure 3-3 where mean = Nt mean − Fb Fb is given ∑F n =1 Nt b . then Fb = 0 is taken. Fb is the estimated symbol rate and N t is the number of trials. 37 . and AWGN signals. PSK4. the following method was 2 2α proposed to estimate the symbol rate α0 = 1 α  1  = arg max Rss   α ∈[α1 . PSK8. QAM8. The proposed method can also be used for CPFSK signals.

Absolute Estimation Average Error Nor. Fb vs. SNR 1 0.9 Absolute Estimation Average Error Nor. Fb 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 -15 ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 QAM8 PSK4 PSK8 CW NOISE

-10

-5

0

5 SNR (dB)

10

15

20

25

Figure 3-3 Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for Linear Modulation Signals vs. SNR

Absolute Estimation Average Error Nor. Fb vs. SNR 1 0.9 Absolute Estimation Average Error Nor. Fb 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 FSK2 FSK4 FSK8

0

2

4

6

8

10 12 SNR (dB)

14

16

18

20

Figure 3-4: Absolute Estimation Average Error Normalized to Symbol Rate (Fb) for CPFSK (h=0.5; Fb=2kHz) vs. SNR

38

3.4 ENVELOPE FEATURES
The envelope of low pass equivalent of MASK, MQAM signals are time varying and cyclostationary; noise envelope is also time varying but not periodic. If MPSK signals are bandlimited, then amplitude variations at the transitions between successive symbols can be observable. CW, CPM signals have constant envelope. Therefore envelope information of the intercepted signal is one of the key features that can be used to discriminate digitally modulated signals. In the literature, there are different methods that use envelope information to extract features for classification of digitally modulated signals. However, most of these methods require some of the signal parameters such as carrier frequency, pulse shape, time of arrival, initial phase, symbol rate, signal to noise ratio, to be known or to be extracted. In [14], an ML classification method was proposed and the matched filter output is used in the analysis. In [1] instantaneous amplitude information is used to extract a feature; but the carrier frequency offset is assumed to be known. In [21] a blind classification method was proposed based on the envelope function ( J ) of the signal
4 2 m4 − 2(m2 ) 2 < v [n] > −2 ( < v [n] > ) J= = 4 Ps2 4 Ps2 2

(3.52)

where {v[n]}n =1 is the sample sequence of the equivalent low-pass signal envelope.
N

Then < v 4 [n] > can be found by time averaging the samples of the equivalent lowpass of the intercepted signal:

39

< v 4 [n] >= = =

1 N 1 N

∑ v[n]
n =1 N

N

4

∑ ∑ I 
n =1 k

k

T / Ts N

N /(T / Ts )


k =1

 g 4 (nTs − kT )   T / Ts  4 T  I k s  ∑ g 4 (nTs − kT )  T  n =1 
4

(3.53)

T / Ts = N
4

N /(T / Ts )


k =1

I k Pg4_ av

4

=< I [k ] > Pg4_ av
where g(t) is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t<0 and for t>T, T is the symbol period and Ts is the sampling period. Also, < v 2 [n] > can be found as

< v 2 [n] >= = =

1 N 1 N

∑ v[n]
n =1 N

N

2

∑ ∑ I 
n =1 k

k

T / Ts N

N /(T / Ts )


k =1

 g 2 (nTs − kT )   T / Ts  2 T  I k s  ∑ g 2 (nTs − kT )  T  n =1 
2

(3.54)

T / Ts = N
2

N /(T / Ts )


k =1

I k Pg2_ av

2

=< I [k ] > Pg2_ av
Then, the envelope function J is obtained as follows:
m4 − 2(m2 ) 2 J= 4 Ps2 = < I 4 [k ] > Pg4_ av − 2 ( < I 2 [k ] > Pg4_ av ) 4 ( < I 2 [k ] > Pg2_ av ) < I 4 [k ] > Pg4_ av 4 ( < I 2 [k ] > Pg2_ av )
2 2 2

(3.55)

=

1 2

40

However. Histogram based methods require no prior knowledge about the signal parameters and are able to classify MASK signals at high SNR. at low SNR histogram based methods fail to discriminate constant envelope and varying envelope signals. the envelope function J depends on the pulse shape of the intercepted signal.Since the ratio Pg4_ av ( Pg2_ av ) 2 is not equal to 1 for every pulse shaping. 41 . a fixed threshold can not be defined to classify the signals. Hence by using J . extra features are needed to classify ASK signals. Therefore.

[19] and [20] higher order moments of the signal are used to classify digitally modulated signals. Then the following features. • k0 =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying Fv [k ] k 2 2 max Fv [k ] { } > ξ is lower than a predefined value Fd ' . otherwise k2 =1. [10]. Let define the following Fourier Transforms. 42 .5 SPECTRAL ANALYSIS OF MOMENTS Spectral analysis of moments of the intercepted signal gives important information about the modulation type.3. By increasing the order of the signal. as the order increases the corrupted noise power increases also. In [3].59) Fv2 [k ] = DFT {v 2 [n]} Fv4 [k ] = DFT {v 4 [n]} Fv8 [k ] = DFT {v8 [n]} N where {v[n]}n =1 is the sample sequence of the equivalent low-pass signal.56) (3. However.57) (3. otherwise k0 =1. obtained from higher orders of the low-pass equivalent signal v[n]. In [5]. Fv [k ] = DFT {v[n]} (3. can be defined to be used in the classification process. modulation can be removed from the signal and this information can be used to classify signals. • k2 =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying Fv2 [k ] k 2 max Fv2 [k ] { 2 } > ξ is lower than a predefined value Fd ' .58) (3. the signal squared and the signal quadrupled are used to classify BPSK and QPSK signals.

• k4 =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying Fv4 [k ] k 2 max Fv4 [k ] { 2 } } > ξ is lower than a predefined value Fd ' . The performance of the proposed method in estimating the CFO is also tested. the carrier frequency offset (CFO) can be extracted from the instantaneous frequency information. where ξ is a pre-defined threshold. otherwise k4 =1. CW and MASK signals have constant instantaneous frequency. Instantaneous frequency of CPM signals is time varying and cyclostationary.6 INSTANTANEOUS FREQUENCY FEATURES The instantaneous frequency information of the intercepted signal is another key feature in the classification of signals. Hence. ki = 1 means modulation is removed from the carrier and ki = 0 is the indication of an existing modulation on the carrier. we proposed a method to extract the instantaneous frequency information and use this method to estimate the CFO. 3. • k8 =0 if the difference between the successive DFT bins satisfying Fv8 [k ] k 2 max Fv8 [k ] { 2 > ξ is lower than a predefined value Fd ' . otherwise k8 =1. which can be determined according to the simulation results. for MPSK. The instantaneous frequencies of a low pass equivalent of a signal can be found as: 43 . Therefore. Moreover. frequency variations at the transitions between successive symbols can be observable.

the instantaneous frequency of the low-pass equivalent signal is extracted by using (3. A simple smoothing filter is used to remove abrupt changes in the obtained instantaneous frequency waveform and the CFO is estimated by averaging the filtered instantaneous frequency samples. ∆f is the CFO. the performance of the proposed instantaneous carrier frequency offset estimation method is given in Figure 3-5. g(t) is a τ pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t<0 and for t>T and T is the symbol period. A(t ) = ∑ I k g (t − kT ) . φ (t ) = 2π∆ft for k linearly modulated signals.61). vR (t ) = Re(v(t )) . and k A(t ) is a random amplitude variation.61) To estimate the CFO. For discrete time differentiation. the following formula is used [47]: x ' [i ] = − x[i − 3] + 9 x[i − 2] − 45 x[i − 1] + 45 x[i + 1] − 9 x[i − 2] + x[i − 3] 60 (3. The baseband signal is sampled at a rate equals to the IF bandwidth to make noise samples independent. second order Chebychev type-II filter with a cut-off 20kHz is used as a smoothing 44 .60) and (3. The baseband signal has a CFO of ∆f .v(t ) = A(t )e jφ (t ) φv (t ) = arctan  f i (t ) =  Im(v(t ))    Re(v(t ))  (3. Sampling frequency is fs=50kHz.60) 1 d 1 d  vI (t )  (φ (t ) ) = arctan  2π dt 2π dt  vR (t )  ' 1 1 vI' (t )vR (t ) − vR (t )vI (t ) = 2 2 2π vR (t )  vI (t )  1+    vR (t )  ' 1 vI' (t )vR (t ) − vR (t )vI (t ) = 2 2π vR (t ) + vI2 (t ) where vI (t ) = Im(v(t )) . φ (t ) = 2π∆ft + 2π h∑ I k ∫ g (τ − kT )dτ for CPM signals. firstly the received signal is down-converted to IF and filtered such that the signal is in the passband of the filter and then moved to baseband. Then. For CW signal.

61).filter. Carrier Frequency Offset From Figure 3-5. it is seen that the estimation error increases as the carrier frequency offset increases due to the parabolic noise power spectral shape at the output of limiter discriminator [48] and the filter effect of the differentiation given in (3. the estimation error is increased dramatically for Fc > fs . SNR is 20dB and estimated absolute average error is defined as e = mean − Fc . Figure 3-5: Absolute Estimation Average Error for CW (fs=50kHz. Where mean = 1 Nt ∑F n =1 Nt c and N t is the number of trials. SNR=20 dB) vs. It can be concluded that. 10 45 .

3 and 3. Minimum-shift keying (MSK) is very attractive for transmission in a mobile radio environment.3. we do not have a priori information on the center frequencies of the signals.[36]. • The envelope of the signal is constant. However. some of them are given in [34]. In this thesis work. [35]. • MSK may be interpreted as linear modulation. Channel estimation and synchronization can be made by the usage of set of known data symbols. carrier frequency offset estimation should be performed to compensate the local oscillator drifts and Doppler shifts induced by the relative motion of mobile systems and channel effects.1 INTRODUCTION In digital modulation recognition. only MSK frequency offset and symbol rate estimation are investigated. [45]. the symbol rate and the coarse carrier frequency offset of digitally modulated signals can be estimated as described in section 3. Even if the center frequency is known nominally. simple MLSE receiver structures exist in this case 46 . data-aided or timing-aided techniques reduce the effective transmission rate and may not be feasible in many applications. However. in general. [43].5 times the data rate. there are many frequency offset estimation techniques for digitally modulated signals.7 CARRIER FREQUENCY OFFSET ESTIMATION 3.7. since our scope is limited. [44]. [46]. by the published standards or by intelligence. therefore power efficient nonlinear amplifiers can be used.6 respectively. Hence. In the literature.5% of the signal energy is contained within a bandwidth of 1. because of three major properties [40]: • 99.

there are blind carrier frequency offset estimators for MSK signals based on the frequency difference detector (FDD) technique [38]. In the literature. the proposed method requires shorter acquisition time compared to FDDs. automatic modulation recognition systems should be able to classify the modulation type of the intercepted signal and also be able to extract some of the signal parameters for burst-type transmission. 47 . feedforward demodulator structure with decimation for timing control was proposed. The acquisition range of these types of estimators is limited to the symbol rate and they require longer acquisition time. [39]. its performance is also limited to the symbol rate and the acquisition time. In [40]. Although.In electronic warfare (EW) applications.

Firstly.2 THE PROPOSED METHOD Sunde’s FSK is a special form of CPFSK with modulation index h = 1 . The new sequence x[n] and the tones found by DFT are the inputs of the phase-lock loops. of the MSK signal. In [37]. outputs of these phase-lock loops are used to estimate the carrier frequency offset. fb . In this FSK. and the symbol rate.3. Finally. v[n]. Sunde’s FSK was obtained from MSK signal and it is shown that the carrier frequency offset and the symbol rate of a MSK signal can be extracted by using a frequency doubler and two phase-locked loops (PLL) as follows: fc = ( f1 + f 2 ) 4 (3.62) 1 = f1 − f 2 T where f1 . The block diagram of the proposed MSK frequency offset and symbol rate estimator is illustrated in Figure 3-6. two tones appear whose difference equals to the symbol rate and this information helps in the demodulation of the signal without external timing information. another sequence x[n]. 48 . the low-pass equivalent of the Sunde’s FSK. is constructed to improve the performance of the phase-lock loops. ∆f . whose length is an integer multiple of the length of the sequence y[n]. Then.7. y[n]. Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) is carried out to find the tones in the Sunde’s FSK. is obtained by squaring the low-pass equivalent of MSK signal. From the squared signal. f 2 are the output frequencies of the PLLs.

PLL-I v[n] ( )2 y[n] DFT fo1. Thus. the duration of the signal is so short that PLL may not lock to the signal.7. larger sequence x[n] = y[n (mod N)] is constructed from the sequence y[n]. it is required to feed the squared signal to PLL more than once. 49 . 3. By using DFT block false-locking of the PLL’s can be prevented. f o 2 ) in Sunde’s FSK.63) Then.1 DFT BLOCK Let Y [ k ] be the DFT of the squared signal y[n] and it is given as N −1 n =1 Y [k ] = ∑ y[n]e  2π ( n −1)( k −1)  − j  N   (3. the two frequency components with largest energy are selected as the tones ( f o1 .2.2. fo2 Accumulator x[n] PLL-II D E C I S I O N fc fb Figure 3-6: Block Diagram of The Frequency and Symbol Rate Estimator 3. hence.7.2 ACCUMULATOR BLOCK In the case of burst-type transmission.

A basic PLL block diagram is shown in Figure 3-7 [48].64) 50 .65) (3.3.3 PLL BLOCK The phase-lock loop (PLL) is used to improve the performance of the estimator. s(t) Phase Detector r(t) VCO Loop Filter p(t) Figure 3-7: Basic PLL Block Diagram The bandpass input signal is s (t ) = As sin(2π f c t + φ1 (t )) and the VCO output signal is r (t ) = Ar sin(2π f ct + φ2 (t )) (3. a simple multiplier can be used as a phase detector. The output of the phase detector is low pass filtered and used as a control signal to drive VCO.2. A phase detector is used to generate a signal that is proportional to the phase difference between the reference input and the feedback from the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO). Hence.7.

68) K m As Ar is the equivalent phase 2 detector constant. the loop filter output is p (t ) = K d sin(φe (t )) * h(t ) where φe (t ) = φ1 (t ) − φ2 (t ) is the phase error. K d = (3. and h(t) is the impulse response of the loop filter.where φ2 (t ) = K v ∫ v(τ )dτ −∞ t (3. The describing equation for the baseband PLL model can be derived by taking the derivative of the phase error: d d φe (t ) = φ1 (t ) − K d K v ∫ sin(φe (τ ))h(t − τ )dτ dt dt 0 t (3.66) and K v is the VCO gain constant. the baseband PLL block diagram is given in Figure 3-8. for the multiplier-type phase detector. Then phase detector output is e' (t ) = K m As Ar sin(2π f c t + φ1 (t )) cos(2π f c t + φ2 (t )) = K m As Ar K AA sin(φ1 (t ) − φ2 (t )) + m s r sin(4π f c t + φ1 (t ) + φ2 (t )) 2 2 (3. Since the high frequency term will be filtered by the loop filter.69) Then.67) where K m is the gain of the multiplier circuit. 51 .

)dt + f0 Figure 3-8: The baseband equivalent PLL Block Diagram The discrete low-pass equivalent of the PLL can be obtained by sampling the equivalent low-pass signal at a rate larger than the nyquist sampling rate and replacing all the blocks in the PLL with their discrete equivalent models. is given in Figure 3-9. x[n] x r[n] Conj() e1[n] Im() e[n] LPF-L LPF d[n] p[n] exp() Q[n] VCO var{} LPF KO Decision σd Figure 3-9: PLL Block Diagram 52 . The block diagram of the discrete low-pass equivalent PLL including the decision block.) (h(t)) p(t) d φ2 (t ) dt exp(j.) φe (t ) LPF sin(. which is used to decide whether the PLL is in the lock stare or not. The equivalence of the system blocks are explained in each subsections below.e jφ1 (t ) Phase Detector e jφ2 (t ) e jφe (t ) Im(.) ∫ (.

can be expressed as ω (t ) = ω0 + K v p(t ) (3.Loop Low Pass Filter (LPF-L) The transfer function of the low-pass filter is [41] 1 + sτ 2 τ 2 H ( s) = = sτ 1 τ1 1 τ2 + s s (3.73) 53 .72) Where w0 is the free running (angular) frequency of the VCO and K v is the VCO gain constant [41]. The phase of the VCO is φ2 (t ) = ∫ ω (τ )dτ 0 t = ∫ ω0 dτ + K v ∫ p (τ )dτ 0 0 t t (3. z transform of the filter −1   1+ z  can be obtained as follows 1  1 − z −1  + 2 Fs  −1  τ2  1+ z   1 − z −1  2 Fs  −1   1+ z  H ( z) = τ2 τ1 (3.70)  1 − z −1  By using Bilinear Transformation [49] s = 2 Fs  .71)  1 + 2 F  +  1 − 2 F  z −1 s   τ s  τ2  τ2    2  H ( z) = −1 2 Fsτ 1 1− z Voltage Controlled Oscillator (VCO) VCO angular frequency. ω .

By using the trapezoidal rule.75) In [41].73) becomes φ2 [n] = φ2 (nTs ) = ω0 nTs + K [n] = 2π f0 n + K [ n] Fs (3. is given as ωn = Kv Km τ1 ωnτ 2 2 (3. PLL Decision Block: When the PLL is in locked state. to improve the estimator performance. To decide whether the PLL is in locked state or not following thresholds are defined: T1 = σ d [n] − σ d [n − 1] 1 N T2 = ' ∑ d [n] N n =1 ' (3. the integral K ( t ) = K v ∫ p (τ )dτ can be expressed as 0 t K [n] = K [n − 1] + Kv ( p[n] + p[n − 1]) 2 Fs (3. the phase in (3.76) ξ= (3.74) Hence. σ d [n] is the filtered variance of the sequence {d [m]}m=1 n −1 and N ' is the length of the sequence d[n].77) where K v is the VCO gain and K m is the multiplier type phase detector gain.78) where d[n] is the filtered error signal. by reducing K v . then the bandwidth of the loop filter can be reduced. If Τ1 is larger than a 54 . for multiplier type phase detector and the selected loop filter. the natural frequency ( ωn ) and damping factor ( ξ ) of the PLL.

62).7. it is assumed that 55 .2. The threshold values v1 and v2 can be determined according to simulation results.7. computer simulations were carried out by using the MATLAB package. 3. then the PLL output frequency ( f PLL ) is f PLL [ n ] = ( Q [ n + 1] − Q [ n ]) f PLL Fs 2π L 1 = ∑ f PLL [ n] L − PLL _ Lock n = PLL _ Lock (3. If the PLL is in the lock state. 3.4 SELECTION OF BLOCK PARAMETERS Selection of the block parameters in Figure 3-9 depends on the acquisition time of symbols.4 ESTIMATOR DECISION BLOCK Output of each PLL Blocks f PLL _1 and f PLL _ 2 are used to estimate the carrier frequency offset and symbol rate by using eqn (3. maximum available symbol rate and the maximum available carrier frequency offset. 3. and PLL _ Lock is the index of the sequence when Τ1 > ν 1 is satisfied. and if Τ2 is larger K than a predefined value (ν 2 ) it is decided that PLL is in lock state hence the estimated frequency and symbol rate are reliable.predefined value (ν 1 ) then the VCO gain will be reduced to Kv . that is.7. if Τ2 > ν 2 .3 SIMULATIONS To determine the performance of the proposed estimator. Therefore.79) where L is the length of the accumulated sequence x [ n ] .

Then. • n=50 symbols are available. VCO gain K v is reduced by a factor K . • Length of the accumulated sequence x[n] is taken as 40 times the intercepted signal. the length of x[n] is taken as 10000. Figure 3-11. Hence IF bandwidth of the filter is selected as 50kHz and baseband signal is sampled with the IF bandwidth to make noise samples independent. K 0 = Fs are assumed and when PLL is in the lock state. that is. that is 10 kHz. Fs = 50kHz . the selection of block parameters is given as follows: • Squared MSK signal with symbol rate 10kHz and carrier frequency offset 10kHz can have tones at 2 f c + f b / 2 = 25kHz and −2 f c − f b / 2 = −25kHz . Therefore the length of fb f 0 − f c = 100 Hz are given in Figure 3-10.• • Available maximum symbol rate is 10 kHz.78). in the case of Fs xn = 250 samples. that is. f o is the free running frequency of the PLL and f PLL is the PLL output frequency. Available maximum carrier frequency offset equals to the symbol rate. To determine the natural frequency wn of the PLL block. (3. which is determined by eqn. average absolute frequency error e = 2 f c + f b / 2 − f PLL for different wn values. • Since Fs = 50kHz and n=50 symbols are available then the length of the analytical signal v[n] will be the DFT is taken as 512. Since Fs = 50kHz and the length of the DFT is 512. During simulations K d = 1. then the maximum frequency 56 .

and (3.71). it can be seen that for wn = 900. (3. logarithm of the average absolute error (e) is low even at low SNR.error at the output of DFT block will be 50kHz ≅ 98Hz .77). From these figures. When the natural frequency wn and the damping factor ξ are obtained. (3. 60 40 1 0 lo g 1 0 (e ) 20 K=1 K=2 K=3 K=4 K=5 K=6 K=7 K=8 K=9 K=10 0 -20 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 a) wn (Hz) 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 10 5 1 0 lo g 1 0 (e ) 0 -5 -10 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 b) wn (Hz 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Figure 3-10: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=-5dB 57 . then the filter coefficients can be determined by using eqns. Damping factor is taken as ξ = 0. the plots “b)” are the focused versions of the plots “a)”. In these figures.76).7 . K = 5 . Therefore 512 f 0 − f c = 100 Hz is a reasonable assumption.

60 40 1 0 lo g 1 0 (e ) 20 0 -20 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 a) 5000 wn (Hz) 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 10 5 1 0 lo g 1 0 (e ) 0 -5 -10 -15 100 K=1 K=2 K=3 K=4 K=5 K=6 K=7 K=8 K=9 K=10 200 300 400 500 600 b) 700 wn (Hz)) 800 900 1000 1100 1200 Figure 3-11: Logarithm of the Estimation Error at SNR=0dB 58 .

8 x 10 1 4 Figure 3-12: Absolute Carrier Frequency Estimation Error at Eb / N o = 15dB 59 .6 0.8 x 10 1 4 0.08 0.1 C F O E s t im a tio n E rro r 0. the plots “b)” are the focused versions of the plots “a)”.04 0.8 -0. The average number of bit errors are given in Figure 3-14.6 -0.4 0. In these figures.4 0.2 0 0.4 -0.8 -0.2 a) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz) CFO Estimation Error vs CFO 0.5 SIMULATION RESULTS Absolute carrier frequency estimation error e = f c − f c and absolute symbol rate estimation error at e = f b − f b at Eb / N o = 15dB is given in Figure 3-12 and Figure 3-13 respectively.4 -0.2 0 0.3.7.06 0.02 0 -1 -0.6 -0. For each carrier frequency estimation 100 independent MSK signals are generated with n=50 symbols and demodulated by using the estimated carrier frequency offset.2 b) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz) 0. To determine the effect of the estimated frequency error on the demodulated signals. 15 C F O E s tim a t io n E rro r x 10 4 CFO Estimation Error vs CFO 10 5 0 -1 -0.6 0. MSK signals are coherently demodulated by the estimated carrier frequency.

4 -0.6 0.2 0 0.4 0.06 0.2 0.8 -0.4 -0.S y m b o l R a t e E s t im a t io n E rro r 15 x 10 4 Symbol Rate Estimation Error vs CFO 10 5 0 -1 -0.8 x 10 1 4 A v era g e N u m b er o f B it E rro rs 0.8 x 10 1 4 Figure 3-13: Absolute Symbol Rate Estimation Error at Eb / N o = 15dB Average Number of Bit Errors vs CFO A v e ra g e N u m b e r o f B it E rrors 30 20 10 0 -1 -0.8 -0.4 0.8 x 10 1 4 S y m b o l R a t e E s t im a t io n E rro r 0.8 -0.6 -0.2 Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz) Symbol Rate Estimation Error vs CFO 0.6 -0.6 0.6 -0.4 -0.3 0.2 0 0.4 0.4 0.2 0 0.2 a) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz) Average Number of Bit Errors vs CFO 0.1 0.6 0.6 0.2 0 0.8 x 10 1 4 Figure 3-14: Average Number of Bit Errors at Eb / N o = 15dB 60 .4 -0.8 -0.04 0.02 0 -1 -0.2 b) Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz) 0.2 Carrier Frequency Offset (Hz) 0.08 0.6 -0.5 0.4 0.1 0 -1 -0.

002 when 50 bits are transmitted. The design procedure of the proposed method has also been given. The large error in Figure 3-12 and Figure 3-13 at 5 kHz is caused by the incorrect output of the DFT block. probability of bit error is about 0.7. The estimator is able to estimate the carrier frequency offset and the symbol rate of the short duration MSK signals. whereas it does not directly related to symbol rate of the signal. As can be seen from Figure 3-14. Carrier frequency estimation limit of the proposed estimator depends on the IF bandwidth and the sampling frequency of the receiver. 61 .3. Performance of the proposed estimator can be improved by using a block which has a better frequency estimation performance than a DFT block and by increasing the length of the accumulated sequence.6 CONCLUSION A blind method is investigated to estimate the carrier frequency offset and symbol rate of a short duration MSK signal.

1. PSK4.3. described in section 3. we tested the performances of the features. for ASK2. which are extracted from these blocks. 4. MFSK. the symbol rate (α 0 ) of the signal is estimated. ASK8. MPSK. QAM8. PSK8. FSK2. CW. Symbol Rate Estimation Block By using cyclostationarity detection block. QAM4 62 . Noise. PSK2.CHAPTER 4 SPECIFIC MODULATION RECOGNITION TOOLS In Chapter 3. ASK4. Also. FSK8 and CW signals. basic feature extraction blocks were introduced and in this chapter selection of these blocks according to the modulation type is discussed. QAM2. QAM2.1 OUTPUTS OF THE FEATURE EXTRACTION BLOCKS SNR Estimation Block SNR ( snr ) and the average signal power ( Ps ) estimation are carried out using the method reviewed in section 3. Envelope Feature Extraction Block The average signal power of the received signal is • Ps = A2 Pg2_ av for ASK2. QAM4. FSK4.

Therefore. (η4 ) in each histogram is obtained according to the following rule: Fi > ς env Fmax (4. (η2 ). g (t ) is the pulse shape and Pg2_ av is the average power of the pulse.1) 63 .5 A2 Pg2_ av for QAM8 Ps = 21A2 Pg2_ av for ASK8 where A is the amplitude of the received signal.• • • Ps = 5 A2 Pg2_ av for ASK4 Ps = 5. Then. the width of each bin is bins are located at integer multiples of Ps / 5 Ps / 5 and the centers of the • In the 3rd histogram. following four envelope histograms are constructed: • In the 1st histogram. (η3 ). the width of each bin is bins are located at integer multiples of Ps / 50 Ps / 50 and the centers of the where Ps is the estimated average signal power. the number of peaks (η1 ). the width of each bin is are located at integer multiples of • Ps Ps and the centers of the bins In the 2nd histogram. the width of each bin is bins are located at integer multiples of Ps / 21 Ps / 21 and the centers of the • In the 4th histogram.

2nd. which can be determined according to simulation results.Where Fi is the frequency count of the ith peak. four histograms for ASK8 with SNR=20dB. Ps / 21 respectively and then these normalized peak locations are stored as a vector for the decision process. 3rd histogram is normalized to Ps / 5 . A=1 and g(t) is a square pulse shape is shown. The location of each peak in the 1st. In Figure 4-1. sqrt(Ps) 15000 8000 6000 10000 4000 5000 2000 0 0 sqrt(Ps/5) 0 2 4 6 a) sqrt(Ps/21) 8 10 12 0 2 4 6 b) sqrt(Ps/50) 8 10 12 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 c) 8 10 12 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 d) 8 10 12 Figure 4-1: Envelope Histograms for ASK8 64 . Fmax is the maximum frequency count of the histogram and ς env is a predefined threshold. Ps .

In Figure 4-1, red line in each histogram shows the threshold value. • Plot a) shows the 1st envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the bins are located at 0,

21 ≈ 4.6 , 2 21 ≈ 9.2 and the width of each bin is 21 ≈ 4.6

21 ≈ 4.6 . In the 1st histogram, only one peak at the bin location
is found. Hence, the 1st peak vector is vp1=[1 0 0 0] and η1 = 1 . •

Plot b) shows the 2nd envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the bins are located at integer multiples of is 21/ 5 ≈ 2 and the width of each bin

21/ 5 ≈ 2 . In the 2nd histogram, only one peak at the bin location 21/ 5 ≈ 2 is found. Hence, the 2nd peak vector is vp2=[1 0 0 0] and η2 = 1 .

Plot c) shows the 3rd envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the bins are located at integer multiples of bin is 21/ 21 ≈ 1 and the width of each

21/ 21 ≈ 1 . In the 3rd histogram, four peaks are found; hence, the 3rd

peak vector is vp3= [1 3 5 7] and η3 = 4 . • Plot d) shows the 4th envelope histogram of ASK8 signal. The centers of the bins are located at integer multiples of bin is 21/ 50 ≈ 0.65 and the width of each

21/ 50 ≈ 0.65 . In the 4th histogram, four peaks are found; hence, the

4th peak vector is vp4= [2 5 8 11] and η4 = 4 . Since the intercepted signal is 8 level ASK, the peak locations in the 3rd histogram coincides with the envelope information of the ASK signal as expected.

Spectral Analysis of Moments Block
By using spectral analysis of moments block k0 , k2 , k4 , k8 are calculated as described in section 3.5.

65

Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block
The instantaneous frequency of the intercepted signal is obtained as described in section 3.6. Then, the following three frequency histograms are constructed: • In the 1st histogram the width of each bin is δ / 4 and the centers of the bins are located at integer multiples of δ / 4 . • In the 2nd histogram the width of each bin is δ / 8 and the centers of the bins are located at integer multiples of δ / 8 . • In the 3rd histogram the width of each bin is δ /100 and the centers of the bins are located at integer multiples of δ /100 .

δ is the standard deviation of the filtered instantaneous frequency and δ is defined
as

1 δ = N 
where f i =
1 N
N

∑ ( f ( n) − f )
N i i n =1

2

2   

1

(4.2)

∑ f (n) is the mean value of the instantaneous frequency.
i n =1

Number of peaks n5 , n6 , n7 in each histogram is determined according to following rule:
Fi > ς freq Fmax

(4.3)

where Fi is the frequency count of the ith peak, Fmax is the maximum frequency count of the histogram and ς freq is a predefined threshold, which can be determined according to simulation results.

66

4.2 MASK RECOGNITION
MASK signal can be expressed as [29]  ∞  s (t ) = A  ∑ I k g (t − kT )  cos(2π f c t + φi )  k =−∞ 

(4.4)

where I k ∈ {∓1, ∓3,..., ∓ ( M − 1)} is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence, g (t ) is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0, T is the symbol rate, f c is the carrier frequency, φi is the initial phase and A is the amplitude of the received signal. Then, the sampled equivalent low-pass signal v [ n ] = v(nTs ) with a CFO, ∆f , is

 ∞  j 2π n +φi v[n] = A  ∑ I k g (t − kT )  e Fs  k =−∞ 

∆f

(4.5)

SNR Estimation Block:
The average power of the low pass equivalent signal is

Ps = E {v 2 [ n]} = A2 E I k
For ASK2; Ps = A2 Pg2_ av , for I k ∈ {−1,1} For ASK4; Ps = 5 A2 Pg2_ av , for I k ∈ {−3, −1,1,3}

{ }P
2

2 g _ av

(4.6)

For ASK8; Ps = 21A2 Pg2_ av , for I k ∈ {−7, −5, −3, −1,1,3,5, 7} Then, the average signal power ( Ps ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1.

67

at high SNR. the peak vector vp3. ASK4 and ASK8 signals. the peak vectors for ASK2. As seen in Table 4-1. can be used to classify ASK2.k where g n . described in section 3. ASK4 and ASK8 Signals Peak Vector \Modulation vp1 vp2 vp3 ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 [1 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [1 3 0 0] [2 6 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [1 3 0 0] [1 3 5 7] 68 .Symbol Rate Estimation Block: By using cyclostationarity detection block. obtained from the 3rd histogram. Table 4-1: Peak Vectors for ASK2. the symbol rate (α 0 ) 3-3. ASK4 and ASK8 are given in Table 4-1.3.k = g (nTs − kT ) Then.7) = A I k g n. of a MASK signal can be estimated even for SNR>-9dB as seen from Figure Envelope Feature Extraction Block: The envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is env{v[n]} = v[n] =A k =−∞ ∑I ∞ k g (nTs − kT ) (4.

Figure 4-2: Histogram Output for ASK2 69 . n2 . n4 values in the figures are the average values obtained from simulations. n3 .1.Number of peaks n1 . The n1 . n4 . Figure 4-3 and Figure 4-4 respectively. defined in section 4. for ASK2. ASK4 and ASK8 as a function of a SNR are given in Figure 4-2. n2 . n3 .

Figure 4-3: Histogram Output for ASK4 Figure 4-4: Histogram Output for ASK8 70 .

k2 ) for ASK2. Therefore. and ASK8 as a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-5.5 and Fd ' = Fb are taken during simulations.9). can be selected to be used in the classification of ASK2. defined in Section 3. the values η4 and v p 3 are one of the key features that can be used in the classification process. which is defined as the number of peaks obtained from the 4th histogram. ASK4.8)  ∞  j 4π n + 2φi E {v [n]} = E  ∑ I k2 g 2 (nTs − kT )  e Fs k =−∞  2 ∆f (4.9) = Ps e ∆f j 4π n + 2φi Fs Hence from eqn.5. ASK4 and ASK8 signals. it can be seen that there is a power at the twice of the carrier frequency offset 2∆f [29]. Values of k0 and k2 in the figures are the average values obtained from the simulations and threshold values ξ = 0. Spectral Analysis of Moments Block: The square of the low-pass equivalent signal is  ∞  ∞  j 4π n + 2φi v [n] =  ∑ I k g (nTs − kT )   ∑ I l g (nTs − lT )  e Fs  k =−∞  l =−∞  2 ∆f   =  ∑ I k2 g 2 (nTs − kT )  e  k =−∞  and the expected value is ∞ j 4π ∆f n + 2φi Fs (4. 71 . Therefore. η4 . Figure 4-4.8) and (4. (4. is expected to be equal to 1 for a suitable threshold ξ selection.As seen from Figure 4-2. Figure 4-3. the value k2 for ASK signals. Spectral analysis of moments block output ( k0 .

obtained as expected. instantaneous frequency extraction block outputs ( n5 . Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the carrier frequency offset of MASK signals and to discriminate frequency modulated signals from MASK. k2. k2. ASK4 and ASK2. whereas k0 = 0 for SNR larger than -3dB. Therefore. defined in section 4. SNR 1. For ASK8. k0. SNR From Figure 4-5. are given in Figure 4-6. k2. Since there is no frequency modulation in a MASK signal. information obtained from k0 and k2 can be used as a key feature to classify MASK signals even at low SNR. it can be seen that k2 = 1 for all SNR values.5 0 -0. n6 = 1) is 72 . k0. n6 ) .5 k0.5 -10 -5 0 5 SNR (dB) 10 15 20 25 Figure 4-5: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for MASK vs.2.k0 & k2 for MASK vs. ( n5 = 1. ASK2 ASK2 ASK4 ASK4 ASK8 ASK8 1 k0 & k2 0.

5 n5.Frequency Histogram Output for MASK vs.n6 3.n5 ASK2.n5 ASK8.5 3 2.n6 ASK4. SNR 4 ASK2.n5 ASK4.n6 ASK8.5 0 0 5 10 15 SNR (dB) 20 25 30 Figure 4-6: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 . SNR 73 .n6 2 1. n6 ) for MASK vs.5 1 0.

12) Then.3 MPSK RECOGNITION MPSK signal can be expressed as [29]  ∞  s (t ) = A  ∑ g (t − kT )  cos(2π f c t + φk + φi )  k =−∞  M −1 (4. g (t ) where φk ∈  m   M m = 0 is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0. the sampled equivalent low-pass signal v [ n ] = v(nTs ) with a CFO. φi is the initial phase and A is the amplitude of the received signal. T is the symbol rate. Symbol Rate Estimation Block: By using cyclostationarity detection block.11) SNR Estimation Block: The average power of the low-pass equivalent signal is Ps = E{v 2 [n]} = A2 E{ I k }Pg2_ av = A2 Pg2_ av 2 (4. the symbol rate (α 0 ) 3-3. the average signal power ( Ps ) can be estimated as described in section 3. ∆f . is given as  ∞  j 2π n +φi v[n] = A  ∑ g (t − kT )e jφk  e Fs  k =−∞   ∞  j 2π n +φi = A  ∑ g (t − kT ) I k  e Fs  k =−∞  where I k = e jφk is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence. ∆f ∆f (4.1.3. Then. described in section 3. f c is the carrier frequency.10)  2π  are the M possible equally likely phases of the carrier. of a MPSK signal can be estimated even for SNR>-9dB as seen from Figure 74 .4.

1.k where g n . n2 . n3 . PSK4 and PSK8 are given in Table 4-2. at high SNR.k = g (nTs − kT ) . Then. the peak vectors for PSK2. Table 4-2: Peak Vectors for PSK2. PSK4 and PSK8 Signals Peak Vector \Modulation vp1 vp2 vp3 PSK2 PSK4 PSK8 [1 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] Number of peaks n1 . n4 . for PSK4 and PSK8 as a function of a SNR are given in Figure 4-7 and Figure 4-8 respectively. defined in section 4. Since PSK2 and ASK2 have the same constellation diagram and the simulation results for ASK2 75 .13) = A g n .Envelope Feature Extraction Block: The envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is env{v[n]} = v[n] =A k =−∞ ∑I ∞ k g (nTs − kT ) (4.

these variations can be eliminated by adjusting the threshold value ς env given in eqn. Since every communication system has a definite bandwidth. During simulations ς env = 0.5 is taken. From these figures. (n4 ) values in the figures are the average values obtained from the simulations. Figure 4-7: Histogram Output For PSK4 76 . it can be seen that for SNR<0 η4 value becomes irrelevant due to high noise power. (n3 ). however. (n1 ). PSK2 is not mentioned here. (n2 ).2. there will be a minor amplitude variations at the transitions between successive symbols [1].are given in Section 4.1). (4.

it can be seen that the information is removed from the signal and a carrier at M ∆f is obtained.15).15) From (4.Figure 4-8: Histogram Output For PSK8 Spectral Analysis of Moments Block: For MPSK signal.14)  ∞  M  2π F n +φi  v[n] = A  ∑ g M (t − kT )  e  s   k =−∞  M  ∆f  (4. Since φk M =  mM  M  m =0 M −1  ∆f  (4. Mth power of the low-pass equivalent signal is  ∞  M  2π F n +φi  v[n] = A  ∑ g M (t − kT )e jφ M  e  s   k =−∞  M M −1  2π  = {2π m} m = 0 then. 77 .

Values of (k0 .15) and (4. it is expected to get k0 ≠ 1. k8 ) for PSK2. k2 . k8 = 1 at high SNR Output of the spectral analysis of moments block (k0 . k2 = k4 = k8 =1 at high SNR For PSK4 signal. k4 ≠ 1. k2 ≠ 1.M  For MPSK signal. it can be seen that M ' th power of the low-pass equivalent signal is another PSK signal with level k = M . Figure 4-10 Figure 4-11. and PSK8 as a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-9. k4 . k8 ) in the figures are the average values obtained from the simulations and threshold values ξ = 0. Therefore. where M ' ∈  . k2 ≠ 1. k2 .17). PSK4. M' From (4. M ' th power. k4 . it can be concluded that higher orders of the intercepted signal can be used to discriminate MPSK signals. of the low-pass equivalent signal is M  2π n +φi  ' '   ∞ F v[n] = A  ∑ g M (t − kT )e jφ M  e  s   k =−∞  M' ' ∆f  (4.16)  2π  Since φk' = φk M ' =  mM '  M  m =0 M −1 k −1    2π   2π  = m =  m then  k  m =0 M M '    m=0 M −1 M  2π n +φi  ' '   ∞ F v[n] = A  ∑ g M (t − kT )e jφ  e  s   k =−∞  M' ' ∆f  (4. 78 .17). it is expected to get k0 ≠ 1. • • • For PSK2 signal. k even int eger  and M ' ≠ M k  . k4 = k8 = 1 at high SNR For PSK8 signal.17) From (4. it is expected to get k0 ≠ 1.5 and Fd ' = Fb are taken during simulations.

k4.5 0 -0. k2. SNR 79 .5 -10 -5 0 5 SNR (dB) 10 15 20 25 Figure 4-9: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK2 vs. k8 0.From the figures it can be concluded that output of the spectral analysis of moments block is a feature that does not require any prior knowledge about the signal parameters and gives satisfactory result for SNR>9 dB. 1.5 k0 k2 k4 k8 1 k0.

5 1 k0 k2 k4 k8 k0.5 k0 k2 k4 k8 1 k0.5 -10 -5 0 5 SNR (dB) 10 15 20 25 Figure 4-11: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK8 vs. k2. SNR 1.1.5 -10 -5 0 5 SNR (dB) 10 15 20 25 Figure 4-10: Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Output for PSK4 vs.5 0 -0. k2. k8 0. k4.5 0 -0. SNR 80 . k8 0. k4.

2. n6 ) . Therefore ( n5 = 1. For PSK4 and PSK8 instantaneous frequency extraction block output ( n5 . n5 n5 n6 n6 2.6 PSK4.8 0 5 10 15 SNR (dB) 20 25 30 Figure 4-12: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 .2 2 1. SNR 81 .n6 1.2 1 0. PSK8.Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block: The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the carrier frequency offset of MPSK signals and to discriminate frequency modulated signals from MPSK. however these frequency variations are eliminated by the usage of a low pass filter and by selecting ς freq = 0. n6 = 1) is obtained and from Figure 4-12 it can be seen that n5 is sufficient for a classification process. defined in section 4. PSK4. n6 ) for MPSK vs.5 .4 2.8 n5. There are frequency variations at the transitions between successive symbols [1]. Frequency Histogram Output for MPSK vs.4 1. SNR 2. PSK8. are given in Figure 4-12.6 1.

Then.4 MQAM RECOGNITION MQAM signal can be expressed as [29]  ∞  s (t ) = A  ∑ Ak g (t − kT )  cos(2π f ct + φk + φi )  k =−∞  And the equivalent low-pass signal v(t ) with a CFO. e . T is the  Re( I k )  symbol rate. for I k ∈ e . φk = tan −1   Im( I k )   . Ak = I k .19) {I k } = { Ak e jφ } k is a wide-sense stationary information sequence. the sampled equivalent low-pass signal v [ n ] = v(nTs ) is given by  ∞  j 2π n +φi v[n] = A  ∑ I k g (t − kT )  e Fs  k =−∞  SNR Estimation Block: The average power of the low-pass equivalent signal is ∆f (4.20) Ps = E {v 2 [ n]} = A2 E I k For QAM2. e    82 . e . Ps = A P 2 2 g _ av { }P 2 2 g _ av (4. is  ∞  v(t ) = A  ∑ I k g (t − kT )  e j 2π∆ft +φi  k =−∞  where (4. Ps = A2 Pg2_ av . ∆f . g (t ) is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0.1} For QAM4. φi is the initial phase and A is the amplitude of the received signal. f c is the carrier frequency.4.21) π π  j π − j π j 34 − j 34  4 4 .18) (4. for I k ∈ {−1.

e 4 .5 A2 Pg2_ av . Figure 4-13: Constellation Diagram of QAM2 Figure 4-14: Constellation Diagram of QAM4 83 . Figure 4-14 and Figure 4-15 respectively. −3 + j.3 − j. for Ik ∈ e 4 . −3 − j    Constellation diagrams for QAM2. j π − j π j 3π − j 3π  For QAM8.3 + j. e 4 . Ps = 5. QAM4 and QAM8 are given in Figure 4-13. e 4 .

of a MASK signal can be estimated even for SNR>-9dB as seen from Figure Envelope Feature Extraction Block: For MQAM.k = g (nTs − kT ) 84 .3. described in section 3.Figure 4-15: Constellation Diagram for QAM8 Then. Symbol Rate Estimation Block: By using cyclostationarity detection block. the symbol rate (α 0 ) 3-3. the envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is env{v[n]} = v[n] =A k =−∞ ∑I ∞ k g (nTs − kT ) (4.1. the average signal power ( Ps ) can be estimated as described in section 3.k where g n .22) = A I k g n.

QAM4 and QAM8 are given in Table 4-3. Table 4-3: Peak Vectors for QAM2. at high SNR. QAM4 and QAM8 Signals Peak Vector \Modulation vp1 vp2 vp3 QAM2 QAM4 QAM8 [1 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [2 0 0 0] [5 0 0 0] [1 0 0 0] [1 3 0 0] [3 6 0 0] Number of peaks n1 . However.Then.1.η2 . Hence η4 is another key feature to be used to discriminate QAM8 signals from QAM4 and QAM2. QAM2 is not mentioned in here. obtained from the 3th histogram. defined in section 4. n2 .η4 values in the figures are the average values obtained from simulations. it can be seen that for SNR<0 dB η4 value becomes irrelevant due to high noise power. can be used to discriminate QAM8 from QAM2 and QAM4. η1 .1. for QAM4 and QAM8 as a function of a SNR are given in Figure 4-16 and Figure 4-17 respectively. the peak vector vp3.η3 . the peak vectors for QAM2. 85 . n3 . Since QAM2 and ASK2 have the same constellation diagram and the simulation results for ASK2 are given in Section 4. From these figures. n4 . As seen in Table 4-3. for QAM8 η4 =2 for SNR > 9dB and η4 =1 for QAM2 and QAM4 for SNR > 0dB.

SNR Figure 4-17: Histogram Output for QAM8 vs. SNR 86 .Figure 4-16: Histogram Output for QAM4 vs.

Spectral Analysis of Moments Block:
For MQAM signal, the square of the low-pass equivalent signal is  ∞  ∞  j 4π n + 2φi v [n] =  ∑ I k g (nTs − kT )   ∑ I l g (nTs − lT )  e Fs  k =−∞  l =−∞ 
2
∆f

  =  ∑ I k2 g 2 (nTs − kT )  e  k =−∞  and the expected value is

j 4π

∆f n + 2φi Fs

(4.23)

 ∞  j 4π n + 2φi E {v [n]} = E  ∑ I k2 g 2 (nTs − kT )  e Fs k =−∞ 
2

∆f

(4.24)

For QAM2; • • •
E {I k2 } = 1 , since I k2 ∈ {1} E {I k4 } = 1 , since I k4 ∈ {1} E { I k8 } = 1 , since I k8 ∈ {1}

For QAM4;
π −j   jπ 2 E { I } = 0 , since I ∈  2e , 2e 2   
2 k 2 k

• •

E { I k4 } = −4 , since I k4 ∈ {4e jπ , 4e − jπ } E { I k8 } = 16 , since I k8 ∈ {16}

For QAM8 •
π −j  jπ  2 E { I } = 4 , since I ∈ 2e , 2e 2 ,8 + j 6,8 − j 6  
2 k 2 k

87

• •

E { I k4 } = 12 , since I k4 ∈ {4e jπ , 4e− jπ , 28 + j 96, 28 − j 96} E { I k8 } = −4208 , since I k8 ∈ {16, −8432 + j 5376, −8432 − j5376}

Hence, for QAM2 and QAM8, there is a power at 2 ∆f , 4 ∆f , 8 ∆f ; whereas for QAM4 at 4 ∆f , 8 ∆f . Therefore, the value k2 for QAM2 and QAM8 is expected to be equal to 1 and for QAM4 k2 ≠ 1 at high SNR for a suitable threshold, ξ , selection. Output of the spectral analysis of moments block ( k2 ) for QAM2, QAM4, and QAM8 as a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-18. k2 in the figure is the average value obtained from simulations and threshold values ξ = 0.5 and Fd ' = Fb are taken during simulations. From Figure 4-18, it can be seen that k2 can be used as a feature to discriminate 4QAM signals from 8QAM and 2QAM.

88

1.5 QAM2 QAM4 QAM8 1

k2

0.5

0

-0.5 -10

-5

0

5 SNR (dB)

10

15

20

25

Figure 4-18: k2 for QAM2, QAM4 and QAM8 vs. SNR

Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block:
The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the carrier frequency offset of MQAM signals and to discriminate frequency modulated signals from MQAM. For QAM8 instantaneous frequency extraction block output

( n5 , n6 ) ,

defined in section 4.2, are given in Figure 4-19. Threshold value

ς freq = 0.5 is taken during simulations. From Figure 4-19, it can be seen that n5 is
sufficient for a classification process.

89

4 1.Frequency Histogram Output for QAM8 vs.6 1.n 6 1 0.2 0 n5 n6 0 5 10 15 SNR (dB) 20 25 30 Figure 4-19: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 . SNR 90 . n6 ) for QAM8 vs.4 0. SNR 1.8 0.6 0.2 n 5 .8 1.

1.4. Symbol Rate Estimation Block: Except the carrier frequency there is no cyclostationary component in CW signal.28) Hence for CW it is expected to get η1 = η2 = η3 = η4 = 1 and the peak vectors at high SNR: 91 .51)). the equivalent low-pass signal v [ n ] = v(nTs ) with a CFO. the average signal power ( Ps ) can be estimated as described in section 3. Then. ∆f . env {v [ n ]} = abs {v [ n ]} = A (4. is given as j 2π ∆f n +φi Fs v[n] = Ae (4. is expected to be 0 as given in .26) SNR Estimation Block: The average power of the low pass equivalent signal is Ps = E {v 2 [ n ]} = A2 (4. Envelope Feature Extraction Block: For CW. the envelope of the analytical signal is.5 CW RECOGNITION CW signal can be expressed as [29] s (t ) = A cos(2π f c t + φi ) (4. φi is the initial phase and A is the amplitude of the received signal. Figure 3-3.25) Where f c is the carrier frequency.27) Then. Hence the symbol rate (α 0 ) estimated by (3.

Figure 4-20: Histogram output for CW vs. The envelope feature extraction block output and output of spectral analysis of moments block for CW as a function of a SNR is given in Figure 4-20 and Figure 4-21 respectively.o vp1= [1 0 0 0] o vp2= [2 0 0 0] o vp3= [5 0 0 0] Spectral Analysis of Moments Block: Since there is no modulation induced on continuous wave signal. it is expected to get k0 = k2 = k4 = k8 = 1 at high SNR. SNR 92 .

k8 for CW vs. Moreover. k2.5 0 -0.1. from Figure 4-22 it can be seen that n5 is sufficient for classification process. n6 = 1) is obtained. For CW signal. 93 . Since there is no frequency modulation on a CW signal.5 -10 -5 0 5 SNR (dB) 10 15 20 25 Figure 4-21: k0 . k4 . n6 ) are given in Figure 4-22. k2 . SNR Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block: The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the carrier frequency offset of CW signals and to discriminate frequency modulated signals from CW signals. k4. k8 0. ( n5 = 1. the instantaneous frequency extraction block outputs ( n5 .5 k0 k2 k4 k8 1 k0.

Frequency Histogram Output for CW vs.8 n5 n6 0 5 10 15 SNR (dB) 20 25 30 Figure 4-22: Frequency Histogram Output ( n5 .2 1 0.2 2 n5. SNR 94 .8 1.n6 1. SNR 2.4 1.6 1. n6 ) for CW vs.4 2.6 2.8 2.

described in section 3. the average signal power ( Ps ) can be estimated as described in section 3.1. h = 2 f d T is the modulation index. f c is the carrier frequency.6 CPFSK RECOGNITION CPFSK signal can be expressed as [29] ∞ ∞   s(t ) = A cos  2π f c t + 4π Tf d ∫ ∑ I k g (t − τ T )dτ + φi  t =−∞ k =−∞   (4... the symbol rate (α 0 ) of a CPFSK signal can be estimated for SNR>-8dB as given in Figure 3-4. φi is the initial phase.31) Then.3. ∓ ( M − 1)} is a wide-sense stationary symbol sequence. Fb and 2 SNR Estimation Block: The average power of the low pass equivalent signal is Ps = E {v 2 [ n ]} = A2 (4. Symbol Rate Estimation Block: By using the cyclostationarity detection block. ∆f . g ( t ) is a pulse shape with g(t)=0 for t>T and t<0 and a peak value A is the amplitude of the received signal.29) Then the sampled equivalent low-pass signal v [ n ] = v(nTs ) with a CFO. Envelope Feature Extraction Block: For CPFSK. the envelope of the low-pass equivalent signal is 95 .4... ∓3.30) where I k ∈ {∓1. is ∞ ∞  ∆f  j  2π n + 2π h I k g ( t −τ T ) dτ +φi    Fs   t =−∞ k =−∞ v[n] = v(nTs ) = Ae ∫ ∑ (4.

Carrier Frequency Offset Estimation Carrier frequency offset of the CPFSK signal can be estimated from the mean value 1 of the instantaneous frequency f i = N ∑ f (n) as described in section 3. Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block: The instantaneous frequency extraction block output can be used to estimate the carrier frequency offset. i n =1 N Level of the Modulation By using the histogram output. the level of the modulation and the modulation index of the CPFSK signal.env {v [ n ]} = abs {v [ n ]} = A (4. it is expected to get η1 = η2 = η3 = η4 = 1 and the peak vectors at high SNR: o vp1= [1 0 0 0] o vp2= [2 0 0 0] o vp3= [5 0 0 0] Spectral Analysis of Moments Block: Nth power of the CPFSK signal is another CPFSK signal with a different modulation index (h). the level of the CPFSK signal can be determined at high SNR. η5 = η6 = 4 for 4FSK and n5 = 6. hence the output of the spectral analysis of moments block can give misleading information for CPFSK signals.. n6 = 8 for 8FSK at high SNR. It is expected to get η5 = η6 = 2 for 2FSK.32) Hence for the CPFSK signal. 96 . obtained from the instantaneous frequency of the intercepted signal.6.

5 and 2nd order Chebychev-II filter with a cut-off frequency 20kHz is used as a smoothing LPF. η5 .n6 7 Frequency Histogram Output n5.η6 in the figure are the average values obtained from multiple simulations.n6 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 5 10 SNR (dB) 15 20 25 Figure 4-23: Frequency Histogram Output ( η5 . SNR 97 . From Figure 4-23. for 2CPFSK.n5 FSK4.n5 FSK2. η5 . symbol rate is 2kHz.n5 FSK8. it can be seen that both n5 and η6 can be used for a classification process. Frequency Histogram Output for CPFSK vs. During simulations.n6 FSK8.n6 FSK4. CPFSK signals are generated by frequency modulating the MASK signals.The instantaneous frequency extraction block outputs.η6 . SNR 8 FSK2. the carrier frequency offset is assumed to be 10kHz for a sampling frequency of fs=50kHz. Therefore.η6 ) for M-level CPFSK vs. modulation index is 0. it is sufficient to use only one of n5 and η6 . 4CPFSK and 8CPFSK are given in Figure 4-23.

To find the cluster centers. the estimated modulation index ( h ) is 1  1  Fb  N p  h= ∑ ( Li +1 − Li )   i =1 N   (4. Fb is the symbol rate and h is the estimated modulation index. with bin centers δ /100 . Then. is constructed and then the bins. 4 and 8 level CPFSK signals. 98 .33) where Li is the ith cluster center. In Figure 4-24. whose frequency count is larger than a predefined threshold. are used in a k-means clustering method. a plot of the estimated modulation index ( h ) and the true modulation index (h) is given for 2.Modulation Index (h): The modulation index of a CPFSK signal can be estimated by using the symbol rate and the cluster centers in the frequency histogram. N p is the level of the modulation. estimated absolute average error normalized to modulation index (h) and in Figure 4-25. firstly an instantaneous frequency histogram.

8 0.7 0.5) 99 .Modulation Index Estimation Performance 1 Estimated Absolute Average Error Normalized to h 0.1 0 FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 SNR (dB) 14 16 18 20 Figure 4-24: Modulation Index (h) Estimation Performance for CPFSK Signals (h=0.4 0.9 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.

6 0.7 True Modulation Index 0.8 0.2 0 0. True Modulation Index at SNR=20dB 1.4 0.4 0. True Modulation Index (h) at SNR=20dB.6 0.2 Estimated Modulation Index 1 0.8 0.5 0.3 0.4 FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 1. 100 .9 1 Figure 4-25: A Plot of the Estimated Modulation Index ( h ) vs.Estimated Modulation Index vs.2 0.1 0.

s (4. Envelope Feature Extraction Block: From (4. 101 .7 AWGN RECOGNITION In this work.4.35) Then. the average signal power ( Ps ) can be estimated as described in section 3.35) histogram output is expected to be η1 = η2 = η3 = η4 = 0 . E {Re {n(t )} Re {n( s )}} = E {Im {n(t )} Im {n( s )}} = σ2 2 δt . the channel is assumed be simply an AWGN channel. all we need to do is to estimate the noise variance which is σ 2 and it is defined as E {n(t )n* ( s )} = σ 2δ t . s E {n(t )n( s )} = 0. estimated by (3.1. Therefore. Symbol Rate Estimation Block: There is no cyclostationary component in AWGN signal.51)). Hence the symbol rate (α 0 ) .s δ t . is expected to be 0 as given in Figure 3-3.34) σ2 2 E {Re {n(t )} Im {n( s )}} = 0 SNR Estimation Block: Since there is no signal then. the average power of the low-pass equivalent signal is Ps ≈ 0 (4.

Spectral Analysis of Moments Block: Since the Nth power of white Gaussian noise is still another noise signal. Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block Since there is no deterministic frequency component on noise signal. the output of the instantaneous frequency extraction block will be noisy. 102 . the outputs of the spectral analysis of moments block are expected to be k0 = k2 = k4 = k8 = 0 .

PSK4. Ps . each of the ASK2. the performances of the features extracted from these blocks were tested for ASK2. PSK8. PSK2. Table 4-4: The Outputs of Each Block Blocks SNR Estimation Block Symbol Rate Estimation Block Envelope Feature Extraction Block Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block The Outputs of The Blocks SNR . the envelope feature extraction block. QAM4. the expected values of the selected features for each modulation type is given. h . it is possible to distinguish them from each other. PSK8. QAM8. PSK4. Moreover. ASK4.8 CONCLUSION The outputs of the SNR estimation block. k8 ∆f . the instantaneous frequency extraction block were introduced and investigated for different types of digitally modulated signals. QAM8. In Table 4-4. Also. ASK4. ASK8. FSK4. FSK4. Ps α0 vp3.4. FSK8 and CW signals has different combinations and thus. Noise. η4 k0. the spectral analysis of moments block. k4. Some of the outputs of these blocks were selected as features. FSK2. the outputs of each block and in Table 4-5. η5 103 . In Table 4-5. As it can be seen in Table 4-5. the term “X” is used for a feature. QAM2. ASK8. k2. FSK8 and CW signals. the symbol rate estimation block. which may be misleading for the specified modulation type. FSK2. noise and information carrying signals can be discriminated by using the estimated average signal power.

Table 4-5: Features and Modulation Type Relation Mod. Blocks Types Features Envelope Feature Extraction Block Spectral Analysis of Moments Block Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block vp3 ASK2 PSK2 QAM2 [5 0 0 0] 1 0 1 1 1 [2 6 0 0] 2 0 1 1 1 [1 3 5 7] 4 0 1 1 1 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 QAM4 [5 0 0 0] 1 0 0 1 1 PSK8 QAM8 FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 CW NOISE [5 0 0 0] 1 0 0 0 1 [3 6 0 0] 2 0 1 1 1 [5 0 0 0] 1 X X X X [5 0 0 0] 1 X X X X [5 0 0 0] 1 X X X X [5 0 0 0] 1 1 1 1 1 X X X X X X η4 k0 k2 k4 k8 η5 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 4 6 1 X 104 .

is compared with a threshold. a basic decision tree based method. time-order of the features and predefined threshold values are the main parameters affecting the performance of the classifier. In this classification method. the decision will be made by using the remaining features.1 THE DECISION TREE METHOD Decision tree methods are one of the basic classification procedures in which decision at each stage is made according to predefined threshold values. 105 . described in Chapter-3 and 4. threshold values and time ordering of the selected features must be chosen carefully in order to reduce the probability of wrong decision. Moreover. a modulation recognition system based on the selected features. sequence order of the features and the threshold values should be updated to recognize a modulation type. is introduced. the estimated average signal power. then a classification method based on a Bayesian probability model is described. Therefore. which is not included in the classification list of that recognizer. and the decision will be “Noise” if the condition Ps < δ1 is satisfied.CHAPTER 5 THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM In this chapter. In these methods. firstly. Firstly. 5. Ps . the two methods are compared. δ1 . Finally. The proposed decision tree is given in Figure 5-1. Otherwise.

k8 values. 106 . from other modulation types. if the intercepted signal does not match any of the modulation type in the classification list.If the intercepted signal is not a noise. then k0 value is used to decide whether there is a modulation on the signal or not. k4. Then. whose classification is made by using the peak vector obtained from the 3rd envelope histogram. the output of the recognizer will be “Unknown (UN)”. the number of peaks in the envelope histogram is used to discriminate ASK4. The classification of CPFSK signals is made by using the number of peaks in the frequency histogram and the determination of the level of the modulation on the MPSK signal is made by using the k2. ASK8 and QAM8. At the last stage of the tree.

v[n] no Ps < δ1 yes NOISE k0 = 1 no n4 < δ 2 ASK2. QAM8 yes 5 ∈ vp3 or 7 ∈ vp3 n <δ n5 < δ 4 yes k2 = 1 n5 < δ 6 yes no k8 = 1 no yes PSK4 PSK8 UN ASK2 FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 ASK8 QAM8 ASK4 CW noise no MFSK yes no n5 < δ 5 no 3 ∈ vp3 6 ∈ vp3 MPSK. ASK8. ASK2 no and k4 = 1 yes yes yes no yes no Figure 5-1: The Proposed Decision Tree for Modulation Classification 107 . MPSK MFSK yes CW no ASK4.

2) (6. Estimated signal power. xn ) = P(c j )∏ P( xi c j ) i =1 n (6.. Spectral analysis of moments output for the signal. Estimated SNR. Number of peaks in the instantaneous frequency histogram. P( xi c j .. k2 6. Spectral analysis of moments output for the fourth power of the signal... n5 Bayesian based classifier is used in the decision block... x1 . k8 8...3) and 108 . xn ) = P(c j ) P( x1 c j ) P( x2 x1 . The following formula is used for classification process [42] P(c j . k0 5. c j ) (6. snr 2. k4 7.1) becomes P (c j .1) For our recognition procedure. Ps 3. conditioned on a given modulation c j . Spectral analysis of moments output for the second power of the signal. are independent of each other. Spectral analysis of moments output for the eight power of the signal. c j ) P( xn x1 . xn −1 . The block diagram of the proposed recognition system is given in Figure 5-2.. x1 . n4 and the peak vector vp3 4.. Number of peaks in the envelope histogram. assuming features xi .2 THE BAYESIAN BASED RECOGNITION SYSTEM We used the following features in the proposed recognition system: 1.. xk ) = P( xi c j ) Hence eqn..5. (6.

. k2 .3) and (6. xn ) = P( x1 . xn ) = P (c j ) P( x1 .CW.. k2 .... x1 . we use c j ∈ {ASK2.FSK4.5) Specifically.QAM8.PSK8.ASK4. k4 .. v p 3 S I O N k0 . xn ) P(c j x1 . { } SNR Estimation Block snr .. v p 3 ....4) From eqns..FSK8.ASK8..... xn ) ∏ P( x i =1 n i cj ) (6. xn ) (6.. k8 . k0 .. Ps .NOISE} and xi ∈ n4 . k4 .PSK4.P(c j . Ps D E C I Envelope Feature Extraction Block v[n] Spectral Analysis of Moments Block n4 .FSK2. (6. n5 ..4): P(c j x1 . k8 B L O Instantaneous Frequency Extraction Block n5 C K Figure 5-2: The Functional Block Diagram of the Bayesian Based Recognition System for Modulation Classification 109 ...

3. then the decision will be “noise”. If the estimated average signal power Ps is higher than the threshold. then the decision is made according to eqn. 2. where {ak } is the data sequence. If the estimated average signal power Ps is lower than a threshold δ1 . 110 . {I k } is the sequence of symbols that results from mapping the data sequence into corresponding signal points selected from the appropriate signal space diagram. 3. If the result of eqn. the block diagram of the transmitter is given.5) equals to 0.3 SIMULATION RESULTS To determine the performance of the proposed recognition system. (6.1 FEATURES OF SIMULATIONS Test Data Signals Linearly modulated signals were generated at baseband and then shifted to give them a carrier frequency and phase offset. then the decision will be “Unknown (UN)”.5) by selecting the modulation type with maximum probability. for the estimated SNR value. CPFSK signals are generated by frequency modulating the MASK signals. computer simulations were carried out by using the MATLAB package. 5. the following steps are executed to decide the modulation type 1. 5.In the decision block. In Figure 5-3. (6.

The baseband signal is sampled at a rate equals to the IF bandwidth to make noise samples independent. The Receiver Model It is assumed that the receiver consists of a set of fixed frequency receivers with their passbands set contiguously. which is defined as the ratio of the average power of the modulated signal to the average power of noise at the output of the IF bandwidth of the receiver. Then. the signal from each of the fixed tuned receivers is analyzed by the 111 . In these fixed tuned receivers. is used for performance evaluation.Signals with raised cosine pulse shape are obtained by filtering the generated baseband signals. equals to four times of the symbol rate of the signal. the in-phase and quadrature components of the down-converted signal are obtained. the received signal is down-converted to IF and filtered such that the signal is in the passband of the filter and then moved to baseband with a possible offset. {ak } Data Converter {I k } Pulse Shaping v(t ) s (t ) IQ Modulator LO ( f c + ∆f ) Figure 5-3: Block Diagram of the Transmitter SNR The channel SNR value. hence. A 4th order lowpass linear-phase filter with a cut-off frequency. is used for filtering.

3. BWIF IQ Detector v[n] Fs=BWIF LO1 Figure 5-5: Block Diagram of the Fixed Tuned Receiver 5. 18dB. M u l t i p l e x e r Fixed Tuned Receiver. following test signals were generated for training at SNR of 0dB. fc1 v1[n] The Recognition System s(t) Fixed Tuned Receiver. 6dB.recognition system. 3dB. For this reason. In Figure 5-4. 12dB.2 TUNING OF THE RECOGNITION SYSTEM The probability of each feature for the given modulation type ( P xi c j ) at different SNR levels should be determined prior to tests. ( ) 112 . 15dB. 21dB. 9dB. fcN vN[n] Figure 5-4: Block Diagram of the Receiver s(t) RF Stage Mixer IF Stage. basic block diagram of the receiver and in Figure 5-5. a block diagram of the fixed tuned receiver is given.

5 kHz. CFO=0.4 In Tables 5.1 kHz.1 kHz. CFO=0. carrier frequency offset CFO=0. CFO= 0. Fb=5kHz. Fb=2kHz.5kHz and h=0.75. Fb=5kHz.25.75 • Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with r=0. CFO=0.5kHz.1 – 5. CFO=0. CFO=0Hz and modulation index h=0. Fb=2kHz.75. CFO=0.25. Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with a roll of r=0. Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with r=0. the computed probabilities of each feature parameter for each modulation type at different SNR levels are given. CW Signal Parameters • • • No carrier frequency offset.27.5 Raised-cosine spectrum pulse with r=0.Linearly Modulated Signal Parameters • • • Square pulse with symbol rate Fb=5kHz.1kHz and h=0. 113 . CPFSK Signal Parameters • • Square pulse with Fb=5kHz.

99 1.00 1.Table 5-1: Probability of n4 ≤ 1.05 0.02 0.02 0.00 1.05 0.00 0.73 0.5 c j SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.25 1.00 0.00 0.15 0.00 FSK2 0.81 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.75 0.00 1.00 PSK8 0.00 0.95 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 ASK4 0.25 0.70 0.02 0.00 PSK8 0.00 1.27 0.00 1.01 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.99 1.5 < n4 ≤ 3 c j SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 1.00 PSK4 0.00 QAM8 0.00 FSK4 0.98 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 1.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.95 0.00 0.00 1.73 0.00 1.00 0.02 0.05 0.00 1.00 1.00 FSK8 0.28 0.00 1.10 0.05 0.87 0.00 1.81 0.10 0.01 0.00 0.98 1.00 1.98 1.00 1.00 ( ) CW 0.05 0.00 1.5 P n4 ≤ 1.00 0.00 ASK8 0.27 0.00 1.02 0.00 1.99 1.19 0.00 QAM8 114 .00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.95 0.00 1.98 0.01 0.00 0.98 1.00 0.98 1.00 FSK4 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 ( ) CW 0.95 0.00 0.01 0.01 0.95 0.00 FSK2 0.00 1.00 1.05 0.16 0.00 0.00 Table 5-2: Probability of 1.19 0.00 1.05 0.00 1.01 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.25 0.01 0.00 1.81 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.95 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.5 < n4 ≤ 3 P 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.55 0.72 0.00 0.05 0.00 ASK8 0.40 0.95 0.98 1.00 1.01 0.

CW and ASK2.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.5 c j ( ) for ASK8 is higher than the ASK4 at low SNR.84 1.00 SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. as expected.05 0. we can conclude that • Probabilities of the feature n4 are similar for MPSK. • The probability P (3 < n4 c j ) equals to 1 for ASK8 at high SNR.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.03 0.18 0. whereas this quantity is zero for other modulation types.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 < n4 ≤ 3 c j ) equals to 1 for ASK4 at high SNR.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. as expected.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0. hence this information can be used to discriminate ASK4 from ASK8 at low SNR values.00 0. probabilities of the feature n4 .00 0.00 FSK8 0. which is defined as the number of the peaks in the 4th envelope histogram.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.Table 5-3: Probability of 3 < n4 P 3 < n4 c j ( ) CW 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0. Table 5-2 and Table 5-3. 115 .00 0.00 0. From these tables.00 0. are given.00 0.00 0. whereas this quantity is zero for other modulation types.00 1.00 0.00 In Table 5-1. • The probability P n4 ≤ 1.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. • The probability P(1. MFSK.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.

00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.94 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.96 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.48 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Table 5-5: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 2 P (v p 3 (1) = 2 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 116 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.Table 5-4: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 1 P (v p 3 (1) = 1 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.86 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 QAM8 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.

00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.35 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 117 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.99 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.93 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.89 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.14 0.05 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.17 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 0.31 1.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.Table 5-6: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 3 P (v p 3 (1) = 3 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.10 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.07 0.00 0.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Table 5-7: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 4 P (v p 3 (1) = 4 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.07 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 0.

00 FSK4 0.00 1.60 1.00 PSK8 0.00 1.43 1.00 1.00 0.02 0.90 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.65 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.57 1.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.70 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.25 0.00 1.00 1.00 PSK4 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.59 1.00 0.00 118 .00 1.00 Table 5-9: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 6 P (v p 3 (1) = 6 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 1.34 0.00 0.Table 5-8: Probability of v p 3 (1) = 5 P (v p 3 (1) = 5 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 QAM8 0.00 1.40 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.04 0.70 1.43 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.00 1.01 0.00 0.00 1.30 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.03 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.01 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.41 0.69 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.80 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.31 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 0.53 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.

00 FSK4 1.00 ASK4 1.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.01 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 PSK4 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 ASK8 1.00 PSK8 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 FSK2 1.00 QAM8 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 119 .Table 5-10: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 0 P (v p 3 (2) = 0 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.42 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 FSK2 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.93 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 Table 5-11: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 3 P (v p 3 (2) = 3 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.51 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 CW 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 FSK8 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.15 0.00 1.90 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.17 CW 0.

00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.84 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.99 0.00 0.55 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Table 5-13: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 6 P (v p 3 (2) = 6 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.81 CW 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.49 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.91 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.98 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 1.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.98 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.05 0.00 120 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.Table 5-12: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 5 P (v p 3 (2) = 5 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 1.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 0.00 0.

00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.00 1.00 FSK8 1.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 1.00 0.93 0.00 1.00 FSK2 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 CW 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 121 .00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.07 0.00 1.00 1.05 0.00 1.00 1.00 PSK8 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 ASK4 1.00 PSK4 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.09 0.00 1.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 QAM8 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 Table 5-15: Probability of v p 3 (3) = 0 P (v p 3 (3) = 0 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.01 0.00 1.00 0.00 ASK8 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 FSK2 1.00 0.00 1.00 CW 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.Table 5-14: Probability of v p 3 (2) = 7 P (v p 3 (2) = 7 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 PSK8 0.00 1.00 1.03 0.00 FSK4 0.00 1.

00 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.05 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.06 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.Table 5-16: Probability of v p 3 (3) = 5 P (v p 3 (3) = 5 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.90 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 CW 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 FSK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 122 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Table 5-17: Probability of v p 3 (3) = 7 P (v p 3 (3) = 7 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.01 0.

00 0.00 0.00 1.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 1.00 FSK8 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.00 1.00 FSK8 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 Table 5-19: Probability of v p 3 (4) = 7 P (v p 3 (4) = 7 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 ASK8 1.21 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 QAM8 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.Table 5-18: Probability of v p 3 (4) = 0 P (v p 3 (4) = 0 c j ) SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 1.00 0.00 CW 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 ASK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 PSK8 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 FSK2 1.00 1.00 123 .00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 PSK4 1.00 0.00 FSK4 0.79 1.00 CW 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 ASK4 1.00 PSK4 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK4 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 1.

P(v p 3 (1) = 6 c j ) for ASK4 does not always equal to zero. P(v p 3 (1) = 7 c j ) . P (v p 3 (2) = 2 c j ) . • The probability P(v p 3 (2) = 7 c j ) for ASK8 and QAM8 does not always equal to zero. P (v p 3 (4) = 3 c j ) . From these tables. P (v p 3 (4) = 4 c j ) . this information can be used to classify ASK4 at low SNR. P(v p 3 (2) = 4 c j ) . probabilities of the feature v p 3 . P(v p 3 (3) = 4 c j ) . this information can be used to classify ASK8 at low SNR. The following probabilities are equal to zero for all modulation types: P (v p 3 (1) = 0 c j ) . P (v p 3 (1) = 8 c j ) . P (v p 3 (3) = 7 c j ) and P(v p 3 (2) = 5 c j ) for ASK8 do not always equal to zero. P (v p 3 (2) = 1 c j ) . we can conclude that: • Probabilities of the feature v p 3 are consistent with the values given in Table 4-5 at high SNR. P (v p 3 (3) = 6 c j ) .In Tables 5-4 – 5-19. P (v p 3 (2) = 8 c j ) . P(v p 3 (4) = 5 c j ) . P (v p 3 (3) = 8 c j ) . 124 . which is defined as the peak vector obtained from the 3rd envelope histogram. P(v p 3 (4) = 8 c j ) . P (v p 3 (3) = 2 c j ) . • The probability P(v p 3 (1) = 1 c j ) . P(v p 3 (3) = 3 c j ) . hence. • The probabilities P (v p 3 (1) = 2 c j ) . hence. are given. P(v p 3 (4) = 1 c j ) . P(v p 3 (4) = 2 c j ) . P(v p 3 (3) = 1 c j ) . hence. this information can be used to classify ASK8 and QAM8 at low SNR. P(v p 3 (1) = 3 c j ) . P(v p 3 (4) = 6 c j ) .

53 0.00 PSK4 0.55 FSK8 0.70 0.00 0.51 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.66 0.00 0.00 FSK4 0.00 0.03 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 1.51 FSK4 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.50 0.00 1.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 QAM8 1.62 0.00 0.00 0.51 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 1.51 0.68 0.00 1.51 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.53 0.50 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.65 SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 1.01 0.00 0.00 1.51 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 1.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 FSK2 0.00 1.00 FSK8 0.02 0.50 0.60 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.02 0.50 0.00 1.00 ASK8 1.00 1.00 0.00 ASK4 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 125 .00 0.00 1.00 0.00 0.00 Table 5-21: Probability of k2 = 1 P k2 = 1 c j ( ) CW 1.50 0.00 ASK8 0.00 1.Table 5-20: Probability of k0 = 1 P k0 = 1 c j ( ) CW 1.00 0.00 0.01 SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0.00 0.

Table 5-22: Probability of k4 = 1
P k4 = 1 c j

(

)
CW 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 FSK2 0,50 0,50 0,61 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,51 FSK4 0,00 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 0,50 FSK8 0,01 0,01 0,25 0,41 0,40 0,47 0,58 0,58

SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21

ASK2 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

ASK4 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

ASK8 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

PSK4 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

PSK8 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

QAM8 0,09 0,88 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

Table 5-23: Probability of k8 = 1
P k8 = 1 c j

(

)
CW 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 FSK2 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,50 0,63 0,50 0,54 0,52 FSK4 0,00 0,01 0,00 0,11 0,52 0,58 0,56 0,52 FSK8 0,01 0,00 0,02 0,00 0,02 0,06 0,19 0,17

SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21

ASK2 0,00 0,00 0,28 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

ASK4 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

ASK8 0,00 0,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

PSK4 0,00 0,00 0,09 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

PSK8 0,00 0,00 0,06 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

QAM8 0,00 0,00 0,93 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

126

In Tables 5-20 – 5-23, probabilities of the features k0, k2, k4 and k8, which are the outputs of the spectral analysis of moments block, are given. From these tables, we can conclude that: • Probabilities of the features are consistent with the values given in Table 4-5 at high SNR. • For CPFSK signal, the key features k0, k2, k4, k8 depends on the modulation index. Hence, these probabilities can be misleading for CPFSK. • For CW, the key feature k8 value can be misleading especially at low SNR.

Table 5-24: Probability of n5 ≤ 1.5
P n5 ≤ 1.5 c j

(

)
CW 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 FSK2 0,90 0,80 0,70 0,20 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 FSK4 0,80 0,70 0,60 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 FSK8 0,70 0,60 0,50 0,05 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21

ASK2 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

ASK4 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

ASK8 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

PSK4 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

PSK8 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

QAM8 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00

127

Table 5-25: Probability of 1.5 < n5 ≤ 2.5
P 1.5 < n5 ≤ 2.5 c j

(

)
CW 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 FSK2 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,80 1,00 1,00 1,00 1,00 FSK4 0,05 0,10 0,15 0,25 0,01 0,00 0,00 0,00 FSK8 0,02 0,05 0,10 0,20 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21

ASK2 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

ASK4 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

ASK8 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

PSK4 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

PSK8 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

QAM8 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

Table 5-26: Probability of 2.5 < n5 ≤ 4.5
P 2.5 < n5 ≤ 4.5 c j

(

)
CW 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 FSK2 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 FSK4 0,15 0,20 0,25 0,70 0,99 1,00 1,00 1,00 FSK8 0,03 0,07 0,15 0,25 0,35 0,18 0,05 0,00

SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21

ASK2 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

ASK4 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

ASK8 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

PSK4 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

PSK8 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

QAM8 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00 0,00

128

00 0. 129 .95 1.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.5 < n5 ≤ 8 P 4.00 0.00 0. From these tables.00 SNR 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 ASK2 0.00 0. which is defined as the number of peaks in the instantaneous frequency histogram.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.65 0.28 0.00 FSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 QAM8 0.82 0.00 0.00 ASK4 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK8 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.25 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. probabilities of the feature n5 .00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.50 0.00 0. we can conclude that probabilities of this feature are consistent with the values given in Table 4-5.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.Table 5-27: Probability of 4.00 0.00 0.5 < n5 ≤ 8 c j ( ) CW 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 PSK4 0.00 In Tables 5-24 – 5-27.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 ASK8 0.00 FSK2 0.00 FSK4 0. are given.00 0.00 0.

4 RESULTS OF SIMULATIONS In Tables 5-28 – 5-35. performances of the decision tree method and the Bayesian based recognition system at SNR of 0dB. k2. 2500 symbols were used for each modulation type. FSK2. the key features k0. 5. k8 depends on the modulation index. are selected to be equal to the ones used in the Bayesian based recognition system. 9dB. FSK8 were generated by using both the square pulse shaping and the raised cosine pulse shaping. which is a matrix providing information about the output of the recognition system for the given modulation type. ASK2.3 CONDUCTION OF TESTS For CPFSK signal. PSK4. k4.3. Rows of the matrix are the expected classification. therefore probability of k8 is also not considered for CW signal. 6dB. PSK8. 130 . Moreover k8 value for CW can be misleading especially at low SNR.3. given in Figure 5-1. and for each SNR value 100 independent signals were generated and tested. The term “Unknown (UN)” is used for a modulation type that is not included in the classification list of the recognizer. probabilities of these features are not considered for CPFSK signals. hence. 12dB and 15dB are given by a confusion matrix. ASK8. To compare the decision tree based classifier and the bayesian based recognition system the threshold values. QAM8. while the columns are the resulting classification and the values indicate the success rate of the resulting classification for the given modulation type. FSK4. ASK4.5.

Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 0 10 0 0 0 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 97 0 0 0 0 0 0 64 15 1 ASK4 0 0 52 12 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 18 66 0 0 20 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 90 11 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 88 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 20 22 0 0 78 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 1 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 3 0 0 10 1 0 0 36 66 26 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 Table 5-29: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=6 dB MOD. Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 0 0 0 0 88 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 100 26 80 0 0 89 0 66 15 3 ASK4 0 0 44 20 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 100 12 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 30 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 1 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 34 66 24 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 18 73 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 131 .Table 5-28: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=6 dB MOD.

Table 5-30: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=9 dB MOD. Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 0 0 0 0 0 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 100 0 63 0 1 1 0 0 1 0 ASK4 0 0 99 33 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 100 30 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 69 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 1 0 0 0 97 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 1 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 132 . Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 1 2 3 0 0 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 98 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 ASK4 0 0 97 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 0 94 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 100 29 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 69 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 1 3 0 0 97 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99 15 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 85 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 Table 5-31: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=9 dB MOD.

Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 1 1 7 0 0 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 99 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK4 0 0 99 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 0 92 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 100 5 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 95 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 99 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 Table 5-33: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=12 dB MOD.Table 5-32: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=12 dB MOD. Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 0 0 0 0 0 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 100 1 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK4 0 0 99 39 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 0 56 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 100 5 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 95 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 1 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 98 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 133 .

Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 0 0 0 0 0 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK4 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 134 .Table 5-34: Confusion Matrix of The Bayesian Based Recognition System at SNR=15 dB MOD. Type noise ASK2 ASK4 ASK8 PSK4 PSK8 UN 0 0 0 0 0 0 noise 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK2 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK4 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ASK8 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 PSK4 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 PSK8 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 QAM8 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 100 0 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 100 QAM8 0 CW FSK2 FSK4 FSK8 0 0 0 0 Table 5-35: Confusion Matrix of The Decision Tree Method at SNR=15 dB MOD.

QAM8. • Both of the proposed recognition systems are able to discriminate noise signals from information carrying signals at SNR>-21dB. ASK4. PSK8. ASK8. PSK8 and QAM8 signals. • The Bayesian based recognition system fails completely for CW at SNR<3dB.From Tables 5-28 – 5-35. success rate of the proposed Bayesian based recognition system is superior to the decision tree method in classifying ASK8. • • The success rate of both methods are similar in classifying CPFSK signals. The decision tree method fails completely for ASK8. whereas the success rate in the Bayesian method is 66% for ASK8. at SNR>9dB the performances of both methods are similar in classifying QAM8 and PSK8 signals. 135 . FSK4. FSK2. 88% for PSK8 and 78% for QAM8. we can conclude that: • At SNR<6 dB. At SNR>15 dB. PSK4. PSK8 and QAM8. the performance of the Bayesian based method can be improved by calculating the feature probabilities at SNR<0dB. • Both of the proposed recognition systems are able to discriminate ASK2. whereas the success rate of the decision tree method is %100 at SNR>9dB. success rate of the Bayesian method is superior to the decision tree method in classifying ASK8 signals. CW is the only modulation type that the performance of the decision tree method is superior to the Bayesian based method because the value of the feature k0 is consistent even at low SNR as shown in Figure 4-21 and this feature is used at the second stage of the tree. success rate of the Bayesian method and the decision tree method are similar. • At SNR<13 dB. FSK8. CW and NOISE at SNR>15 dB with a success rate 100%. However. For CW.

which does not require prior knowledge of the signal parameters. Estimated signal power is used to decide whether the intercepted signal is noise or an information carrying signal. this feature is used to discriminate MASK signals from MPSK signals and to determine the level of modulation on MPSK signals.CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK In this thesis. Moreover. then the selected feature extraction techniques are tested for digitally modulated signals. However. Cyclostationarity is one of the important properties of the digitally modulated signals that can be used to classify signals and to extract some of the signal parameters. but it is used to estimate the symbol rate of the intercepted signal and this estimated symbol rate is used in the spectral analysis of moments block. Higher order moments of the intercepted signal are used to remove the modulation on the signal. cyclostationary analysis require excessive calculations. the carrier frequency offset and SNR value. cyclostationarity based feature extraction has not been used in our classification process. this feature gives satisfactory results even at very low SNR values (SNR>-21 dB). Other key features are extracted from the envelope and frequency histograms of the intercepted signal. the recognition system is able to extract some of the signal parameters. has been developed. 136 . such as the modulation index of CPFSK signals the symbol rate. hence. First of all. a recognition system. most of the feature extraction techniques found in the literature have been surveyed.

ASK8.Classification algorithm is another important part of a modulation recognition system. each selected key feature depends on a different parameter of the signal and all the features are used at the same time. FSK2. ASK4. FSK8. PSK8. PSK8. FSK2. QAM8. the probability of the each key feature for each modulation type at different SNR values is obtained. In addition to recognition works. In addition to recognizing the modulation type. However. The success of the Bayesian method relies mainly on the feature independence. we have also investigated a method to estimate the symbol rate and the carrier frequency offset of MSK signals. In the Bayesian based method. ASK8. The limit of the estimated carrier frequency offset does not depend on the symbol rate and the 137 . the system can easily be modified to classify digital signals of other types or with larger parameter ranges. FSK8. Signal to noise ratio at the output of the IF filter. The two methods were compared and the results show that the performace of the Bayesian based recognition system is superior to the decision tree based method at low SNR values. PSK4. the system also yields: • • • • • Level of the modulation. Two methods are developed for classification: first one is based on a proposed decision tree and the second is based on the Bayesian a posteriori probability computation. Moreover. CW and NOISE at SNR>15 dB with a success rate 100%. CW and NOISE. PSK4. QAM8. ASK4. FSK4. Coarse estimation of the carrier frequency offset. FSK4. In the Bayesian based method. both of the proposed recognition systems are able to discriminate ASK2. Symbol rate of the signal. The recognition system has been designed for the classification of the ASK2. Modulation index of the CPFSK signal.

Pulse shapes with partial response.estimator can also be used even for very short duration of pulses. The effect of ISI. Nongaussian noise interference 138 . In addition. Some of the topics that remain as future work are noted below: • • • • The effect of the symbol duration on the performance of the recognition. design procedure of the proposed estimator is given and the performance of the estimator is tested for short duration MSK signals.

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