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D... C.-Pathan Kings. 13. CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER V1.-Mahornedan ~nvasiobs Conquests.-Rise of British Power..-Ascendency of British Power. B. 165 .. D. A. 320 to A. 1526 to 1605 1. 123 ..... . D. A. A. A..-Aryan Settlements in Northern India. 1805 to 1835 CHAPTER XIV. B. 141 ..-Decline of Mogul Power. CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER CHAPTER Settlements in the Punjab. . 1400 to B. A.. . . 1000 . 1835 to 1858 CHAPTER XV.. and A D.-Rise of Mogul Power.CONTENTS. 711 to 1206 VI1.. .. .... . 1000 to I1 B. PAGE. 18j8 .. 1707 to 1761 .. D.. . . 1772 to 1805 CHAPTER XII1.. 22 5ocJ V..-Ujjayini and Kanauj : Rise of Rajputs : The 31 Minor Kingdoms 1. .C. 111. C'.-India under the Crown. D.. D.from A. . .. 194 I& . D. ..-Mogul Ascendency. . .. ...-Consolidation of British Power.-India under one Power..-Aryan . . C. H I N D U PERIOD.....-Ascendencv of Mapadha. C.. 1744 to 1772 CHAPTER XI1. D...Y.. 1605 to 1707 X.-Hindu Expansion over India. A. ... . C.320 1V.. D... . .... MAHOMEDAN P E R I O D . B. 2000 i 1400 11.. A.. A. 1206 to 1526 VII1. 46 53 72 92 112 BRITISH PERIOD.. CHAPTER XI.. D.


..i--_ 85 lap Spemally Prepared fur R C D u t t ' s q r ~ e fH t ~ t r l r .---.ILP~~> "'.." 0 .c>@s~c .i 1 - - - - - 1 I 1 i I 1 1 I 1 1 ." ---e Deccan and Southern India.y o f A n c ~ ~ n n d Mndern Iidra at b . U . ... D .. It is an elevated three-sided tables.


C. these mountain regions present a scenery of lofty ridges rising behind each other. is of matchless fertility. therefore. watered by majestic rivers like the Indus. Bhutan and Kashmir. 1400. The whole of this region. 'This region.-India is walled off from the rest of Asia by the Himalayan ranges in the north. B. and rich plains fertilised by great rivers and yielding fruits and grains-of the temperate climates. and. Its greatest length from north to south and greatest breadth from east to west are both nearly zoo0 miles. which shut'her off from the rest of Asia. The second region stretches southwards from the foot of the Himalayas to the Vindhya ranges. the steep sides being sometimes covered with dense jungles. if we leave out the desert tracts of Rajputana. All varieties of products of nature from wild tropical forests to those of the polar regions are to be found here. The country naturally divides itself into three well-defined regions. presents a scene of one uniform richness. It presents all kinds of scenery-lofty mountains the pinnacles of which are buried beneath the perpetual snows of the arctic zones. and is called the Deccan and Southern India. the Ganges. and comprises the plains of Northern India or Hindustan. The Himalayan mountain regions. was the seat of great empires in the past. It is an elevated three-sided table- . The Country.CHAPTER I. and the Brabmaputra. comprise the territories of Nepal. as large as that of all Europe less Russia. as we shall see. and sometimes presenting only naked rocks with deep chasms and ravines at the bottom. and the chief parts of the Eastern and Western sides are washed by the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. ARYAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE PUNJAB. 'rhe third region stretches from the Vindhyas southwards. The area of the country is. Ascending from the plains. burning deserts of the torrid zones. 2000 to & C .

It would seem that the Dravidians came into c~jntact with the Kolarians in Central India. in the limes we are speaking of. . Bt~ils. oral traditions are meagre. Santhals. Agriculture and cattle-rearing were not unknawn to them. they fought with weapons of bronze and had fortified strong-holds. leaving Northern India to newer invaders-the civilized Aryans. These we call for want of a better name. Mundas. 'I'hey wore ornaments of gold . They. These aborigiial tribes are now represented by the lcukis. These peoples survive in the Dravidians. Nagas. 1 ! 1 1 ! . scattered over Northern India as well. and they had also some sort of government. 1 . and Immigrations from the Northother kindred races. The Aborigines of India-ln very remote times. though they now form the main population of Southern India.2 ARYAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE PUNJAB. Where was the original east and Northabode of these remnants of a pre-historic world ? west. 'I'hey have not left us any written records. the Aborigines. who. land bounded on the north by the Vindhya ranges. the Dravidians seem to have entered India from the north-west. Written history they have none . But there were other aboriginal tribes who could boast at least of the elements of civilization. Asia along with the ancestors of . are said to have entered India by the north-eastern passage of the Himalayas. l'hey were mostly uncivilised. and then rushed in a mighty stream to the tablelands of the Deccan and Southern India. In some very remote times the Tibeto-Uurmans lived in Central. of which we have hardly any record at all. and even the elements of agriculture were unknown to many of them. dispersed them eastwards and westwards. Their language tells us that they belonged to the Tibeto-Burman and Icolarian groups of mankind. and on the east and west hy the Eastern gnd western hats which meet at a point near Cape Comorin. Unlike the 'l'ibeto-Uurmans and Kolarians who had come before them.the Rlongolians and the Chinese of our day. were. India was peopled by certain tribes with dark skins and flat noses. as well as the Kolarians. clearing the jungles. ' h e y lived on the plains by the large rivers.

3 The Aryans -The Aryans are said t o have originally lived somewhere in Central Asia. several of which together formed a clan under a headman. such as Agni (fire). T h e sky. Our earliest information regarding the Indo-Aryans is obtained from the Vedas. the moon. Sabita (sun). and thunder. T h e hymns are over one thousand in number. France.-But there is n o work giving us a connected and systematic account of ancient India. where they lived for somegeneratiofis o r centuries. and addressed to nature-gods. Varuna (sky). Indra (rain god). A group of clans made u p a t r ~ b e . Greece. that the ancient Hindus offered worship to all that was good and glorious and beneficent in nature. the Punjab. and many of t h e h left their primitive home. O n e sect-ion called the Iranian settled in Persia and the adjoining tracts. It is a remarkable fact which European scholars have noted. from whom are descended the modern Hindus of Northern India. were revealed to the ancient Rishis. and became the ancestors of the modern Persians . and such bright and striking phenomena of nature as the dawn. T h e hymns of the Rig Veda preserve at this distant time a faithful picture of the civilization and manThe R i g Veda ners. Indian History may be said to b e g ~ n from the settlement o f the Indo-Aryans in the Punjab. Germany. Maruts (storms). and s o they separated once more. the sun. storms. T h e y lived in joint families. the arts and industries. Italy. and settled in E n g l a d . and other countries. and those living o n the south-eastern border settled probably in western Turkistan. and the wars and conquests of the ancient Hindus. The Vedas. and they acknowledged . I n course of time they grew too numerous to live together. another called the Indo Aryan settled in eastern Afghanistan and The lndo-Aryqn. the Hindus believe. Gradually they increased in numbers. collections of hymns which. were the objects of their worship. Those living bn the western border migrated south-west into Europe.ARYAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE PUNJAB.

the Punjab was. and to bestow on the worshippers health. stole their cattle or plundered their villages. many gods. But humbler householders were their own priests. " H E is ONR. waylaid and robbed them at every opportunity. and the gods were invoked to come and share the offerings as friends. wars with the Like other parts of India. those days. in fastnesses and forests. and to employ them in celebrating rites. poured out libations. in Aborigines. and in their own simple manner. no wicked divinities and no harmful practices. and kings and wealthy men delighted to honour and reward them. and offered their prayers to their gods in their own houses. In this way the hymns give evidence of a high moral character and a simple straightforwardnzss among the early Hindus of the Punjab. . While worship was thus paid to the Powers of Nature."* In the Rig Veda frequent mention is made of the Punjab rivers collectively called Sapta Sindhu. Each householder could be his own priest in those days. and offered sacrifices. and uttered prayers. inhabited by black aboriginal races. T h e prayers. cattle. early became celebrated for composing hymns and performing rites. It is therefore clear that the first settlement of the Indo-Aryans was the tract between these two rivers. like those of the Vasishthas and the Visvamitras. harassed them in their communications. the first being the Indus and the last Sarasvati. Some fami!ies. the ancient Hindus knew that 'those powers belonged on One although he dears the names o f Supreme God. and victory in wars. progeny. too. Retreating before the more civilized Hindus in the open field.3.4 ARYAN SLGTTLEMENTS I N T E E PUNJAB. and these races offered a sturdy resistance to the advancing and conquering Aryans. were simple and earnest as a rule. among the members of his own family. 83. the civilized Hindus regarded the black barbarians with a *Rig Veda X. The conquest OF the whole of the Punjab was no easy task. On the other hand. they still hung round Hindu settlements.

" Still more renowned as a conquerpr and a chieE was Sudas. The ancient Rishis committed the Rig Veda hymns to to generation. that he killed fifty thousand. 5 genuine hatred. of these hymns is called the Sama Veda. We are told. a renowned black warrior. memory and handed them down from In later times other Vedas were compiled largely from the Rig Veda. Some of the Rig Veda hymns were chanted instead of being recited at sacrifices. the black aborigines often took shelter in strong posts defended by streams and rivers." Unable to face the Hindus in the open field. "black enemies. concealed himself near the banks of the Ansumati river. Sudas fought with the surrounding Hindu tribes. and the whole of the Punjab came under the undisputed sway of the Hindus. thinned their ranks in battles with their cavalry which the barbarians regarded with a strange terror. defeated ten Hindu kings who had combined against him. and called them " godless enemies " or "men without a language. and a mighty destroyer of the black aborigines. Krishna. After centuri. we are told. Prose formulas specially required for sacrificial purposes wtre separately collected with some of the Rig Veda hymns under the name of Yajur Veda.ARYAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE PUNJAB. another aboriginal warrior. Visvamitra was the Rishi of the allied ten kings who were beaten. it is said. the aborigines were completely subjugated or expelled. had his settlement on the banks of four small streams. the celebrated patron of the Rishi Vasishtha. with ten thousand followers. apparently in the language of exaggeration. too. until the Hindus found him out and crushed him. Thus. too. and a collection The other Vedas. is written in prose and verse. Among the Hindus. and consists of many Rig Veda i .es of continuous hostilities. and he issued from these fastnesses to plunder Hindu villagers and steal their cattle. Kutsa was amost powerful and renowned warrior. and beat back his enemies who had vainly tried to divert the course of the river Adina in order to ddstroy his forces. The Atharva Veda. Kuyava by name.

are to be found i l l these ilranyakas. and of some peculiar hymns most of them being charms against evil influences. and dealing with Vedic rituals. explaining the Vedic hymns.RYAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE PUNJAB. Commentaries written in prose. are known as Brahmanas. Gradually a great mass of Vedic literature arose in India. Treatises compiled for the use of those who took to forest life are called Aranyakas. Universal Soul. . hymns. and containing sublime speculations on the . And the thoughtful'works known as the Upanishads.6 A.

near the site of the mo. forms its subject. The Aryans spread over t h e Gangetic Valley. a tholi-and !edrs before Ctlrist. l'lie Kurus established themselves on the upper cour5e of the Ganges and had their. and AyodhJa mas their capi~al. T o the south of the Ganges. the I<osalas. 1400 to B. the Videhas founded a ps.he Punjab The five great were the Icurus.--The nation wt~icll had colonised the whole of the Punjab was'not likely to remain inactive on the b a ~ l k s the Sarasvaii and the of Sutlvj.iern Kanarlj. T o the south of them lived the Pal~chalas who had their capilal at Kan~pilya. ARYAN SETI LEMENTS IN NORTHERN IKDIA. [he Kasis esta. the I'ancklalas. o. capital in Hastinapur. Besides these. and extended their conquests eastwards founding settlements as they went. such as h l d t s ~ a . the Videhas and [he Kasis.CHAPTER 11. I'he Iiosalas founded their kingdom in the wide t r x t of h e couniry to tlie east of the Ganges as far as [he Gandak.ller kingdoms were established. lihhed themselves with their capital at R ~ n a r e s which still continues to . C. brought under the sway of the Hindus. . 1000.werful kinadtun wilh RIitl~ila a s their capital. Surasena. We gather much ~ a l u a b l e information about Hindu society of this perioti from the two great national epics-the hlahabharata and the Ramayana. Magadha and Saurashtra.ond the Gandak River. T h e most famous of the Aryan colonists from . W e see in this venerable . be the most sacred city ot the flindus. Further east an11 be!. B . north-east of the modern Delhi. but as a picture of the manners and civilization of the period. Thus. and enterprising bands of colorlists soon crossed the Punjab rivers. celebrated as a great seat of learning for many centuries to come. not as a true account of t h e incidents o the war which f Mahabharata. kingdoms. the whole country north of the Vindhyas \. T h e blatlabtlarata has a great historical value.

Sometimes the mutual jealousies of rival queehs disturbed the even course of administration . In this inestimable ancient epic we find how the Kosalas and the Videhas lived side by side in the fertile valley of the Ganges. Young princes were trained in arms and also in all the learning of the age. We find that young princes were early trained to arms. and princesses. Of the manners and customs of this period. famed for their beauty. however. With the increase of civilization. Victors in such wars performed the dsvamedha or the Rajasuya sacrifice. We see how kings strove to secure the happiness and earn the good will of the people. and how the people were devotedly loyal to their kings. and inhabited by barbarian aborigines. and of the relations between the Kosalas and the Videhas. three thousand years ago. as compared with their sturdy forefalhers who lived in the Punjab. . and how the whole of Southern India was covered with forests. often selected their husbands from among the princes who came :o seek their hands. We find that girls were married after they had attained their womanhood. and that Kuru mothers and sisters and wives witnessed with pride the tournaments in which'their sons and brothers and husbands distinguished themselves. and a favourite and strong-minded queen often secured the succession of her issue to the throne.epic how Hindus lived and fought. and all the princes of the Hindu world were invited to these grand imperial festivities. society became more luxurious. A comparison of the Epics wit11 the Hymns of the Rig Veda shows at a glance how far the Gangetic Hindus Caste had progressed in civilization. and even the banishment of rival princes. acted and felt. and the distinctions between the different classes of the Aryan Hindu population became fixed and hereditary. We see how jealousies among neighbouring kings broke out into sa.iguinary wars. and beautiful princesses attracted numbers of suitors. we Ramayana. have a valuable picture in the Ramayana. and how the bitterness of such feuds was restrained by the laws of honour and of chivalry. from whom the bravest and the most skilful in arms were selected.

and did not separate themselves from the people. And the aborigines of India. and thus they acquired a sanctity in the eyes of the ordinary people. followed this profession from generation to generation. traders. once and for ever. formed the Vaisya caste. until they were regarded as distinct from the ordinary people. such families increased in number and in influence. It divlded the compact body of the Aryan Hindus into three hereditary bodies-the priests.ARYAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE NORTHERN INDIA. Similar causes led to the formation of the Kshatriya caste. who had submitted to the Hindu conquerors and adopted their language and religion. The body of the people-agriculturists. It was thus that the caste system was formed in India. and though the Brahmans continued to marry girls of other castes. and thus the royal and military classes formed the Kshatriya caste. in later times. and who. But later on. It was unknown to the Hindus when they first settled in the Punjab. religious rites became more elaborate. and as the people became more and more submissive and enervated. AS the royal and military classes became more and more powerful. The kings of the ancient Hindus in the Punjab were little more than leaders of warriors. and the people. Maidens from the warlike classes would not condescend to marry men from the ranks. were still held in contempt and were called Sudras. When. 9 Even among the ancient Hindus in the Punjab there were some families of priests who were known for their proficiency in composing hymns and performing sacrifices. as the people ~rogressedin civilization. their kings lived in august and pompous courts. and men belonging to different professions and industries. the two classes became distinct. but was developed in later times. they would not give their daughters in marriage to young men of lower castes. as a separate caste. It was thus that they formed the Brahman caste . the soldiers. They devoted their lifetime to the performance of religious rites. . and they alone could perform them in all their increasing details. and were completely separated from the common people. therefore.

viz . there grew up another institution. stages. and astronomical observatiolls were made anti recortled. The s last a a s tile life of a Yo/. C.10 ARYAN SETTLEMENTS IN THE NORTHERN INDIA. Icshatriyas and Vaisyas. or the life of a recluse in a forest. or the home-holtter's life. which had special reference to the life of the Brahmans. The itleal life Four stPges of the Aryan Hindu was divided into four Brahman's life. The second was garhasfb~a. which began with the investiture of the sacred thread when the student entered upon his studies with a preceptor to whom lle had to render menial service. Asrama. pious co~ltemplation. The first was brahnu~charyya. about I zoo B. and s u u ~ h t eternal salvation b. ! Schools of lenrnirig flourislled in every Hindu State i n the Epic Age. 1 .. I n this stage he strove to attain perfect purity. After llaving reared a family he began the third stage of his life. when he lived upon roots and f r u i ~ and spent his time ill religious penances. or religious mendicant who wandered from place to place living upon what was given him unasked. or the student life. viz. Side by side with the caste system.. when he married and followed a course of fdmtly duties. barraprosfha. and the Hindu months were named after these constellations. sublime speculati~~ns were made on the universal Soul . The constellations along the path of the moon were observed.

320. St111 further rolled the waves of I-Iindu colmization. o r South Behar. hIalwa. Alagadha. a n d the country beyond the Krishna WAS soon Hinduized. too.CHAPTER 111. 1000 to B. thi5 couiitry received Hindu civll~zation. A great and powerful kingdom. in course of some centuries. and the kings of Ujjdjini were reckoned among the civilized Hindu powers. And from Alagadha. and the Vindtiya mountains were soon crossed. But shortly afterwards. C. came further east. ant1 founded powerful kingdoms in the Gangetic valley as far down as modern I3enares and Tirhoot. And we shall now see how they spread themselves all over India from the Bay of Ikngal to the A r a b ~ a n Sea. and the legends of Krishna would seem to indicate that the colonists came from the banks of the Jumna. that of the Andhras.-and as far as Ceylon and Cape Comorin to the South.. the Sauralhtrns of Gujrat became a powerful Hindu n a ion.--We have seen how the Hindu A r \ a n s after occupying the whole of the Puiljal) as far a s the qutlrj and the Sarnsvati. and explored and colonized Bengal a n d Orisra. was h a r ~ l ywithin the pale of Hindu civilizaticn when the war of the Mahabharata was fought. Schools of law were founded in this young empire. At a later period. and became the most powerful kingdom In India. and the c a p i d of this southern empire was situated near the nlodern Amaiaoti. C. B. Hindu expansion. and. HINDU EXFANSION OVER INDIA. was founded in the country between the Narbada and the ICrishna rivers. the Andl~rasbecame the most powerful race in India. T h e waves of Hindu colonization rolled further. Hindu cclonists and conquerors nlarched further eastward. T h e . Gujrat mas early colonized hy the Flindus. was early Hinduized.

And.dynasty about 600 B.~ Persia. and 'exacted a large annual tribute from these tracts. was completely Hinduized. It has been supposed that descendants of these colonists came from Gujrat to the extreme soqth of India by sea. and contained many powerful Hindu kingdoms. C. conquered the island. and three Hindu kingdoms-vis. In the Mahabharata mention is made of a powerful chief. the son of Sindavahu. It was during tile reign of Bimbisara that D a r i u ~king of . conquered some tracts to the west of . the Island of Ceylon was visited by Hindu merchants for its products. but the authenticity of this list is doubtful. In the 5th century B. and its capital Mathura (Madura). the whole of India. ' ancient Dravidian people of this province received the Hindu religion and civilization.. C. who reigned about the close of the sixth century B. We thus see that by the fourth century B. . king of Magadha. Among these. and nothing is . lastly. and founded a dynasty of kings. Fifth in descent from Sisunaga was Bimbisara. is said to have been exiled by his father for many acts of violence. a ad h a named Jarasandha. There is also a list of twenty-eight kings. . those of the Cholas. Magadha was the foremost in power and fame.. '. who are said to have ruled in Magadtia after Jarasandha.C. and the Pandyas-were founded between the Krishna river and Cape Comorin.known of them except their names. Sisunaga founded a new and famous . and they naturally called their new kingdom Pandya. We have said that Hindu colonists came from the banks of the Jumna and colonized Gujrat at a very early period. and this prince came by sea to Ceylon. It was during his reign that Gautama Buddha preached the Buddhist religion. Pandavas. Vijaya.who was killed by the Empire. the Cheras. and gradually came to be known to the Hindus. Alter these twenty-eight kings. and we know some facts of the history of this kingdom. C. except desert and wild tracts.12 HINDU EXPANSION OVER INDIA.the Indus.

* or East Behar was already under the rule of Magadha . hlegasthenes. Chandragupta gathered round him the hardy warriors of the North-West. joined Alexander and lived for some time in his camp. It was in the reign of the last king of the Nanda dynasty that Alexander the Great invaded India. and marched eastwards as far as the Sutlej. who ascended the' throne early in the fifth century before Christ. Nanda and his eight SOIIS succeeded. for five years. 13 I . the capital of chandragupta. . had poured down through the Himalayas and settled in North Behar. ascended the throne of Magadha and founded the Maurya dynasty about 320 B. a great leader whom the last of the Nanda kings had exiled. The whole of Northern India. C. 3 1 7 to 3 I 2 B. the Panchalas.HINDU EXPANSION OVER I N D I A . and ruled from 360 t o 320 B.ended the S. called the Vajjis. After the departure of Alexander. and the ancient races of whom we have spoken in the last chapter. and the Kasis-all s u b m ~ ~ t e d the rule of this young to and vigorous Face. But Alexander was soon disgusted with the haughty exile. defeated Porus in a pitched battle. Four'princes ruled after Ajatasatru. the Videhas.-the Kurus. from East Behar to the Punjab. with the last of whom.sunaga dynasty. while his admiral Nearchus sailed from the mouths of the l i d u s to the Persian Gulf. lived at Pataliputra -or Patna. conquering many tribes and taking many forts . the ICosalas. h i c h was situated near the modern Bhagalpur. the ambassador of the Greek king Seleucus. and Ajatasatru largely added to the extent of the kingdom by conquering Kosala and other countries to the west. Chandragupta. Mahanandin. about 360 B. Bimbisaca was succeeded by his son. the powerful Ajatasatru. Anga. Chandragupta raised the Magadha Empire to the highest pitch of power and glory. C. A race of Turanians. now owned the supremacy of Magadha. T h e powerful Ajatasatru built Pataliputra or Patna to keep them in check. and he bears The Capital of Anga was Champa.C.C. H e then went southwards. and returned through Beluchistan to Babylon . and the latter had to fly.

and performed daily sacrifices. a s representatives of the foot soldiers. the Lakshmi Puja and the Pausha Parvan of modern times are survivals of the ancient harvest sacrifices. and performed those religious and domestic ceremonies which had been handed down from ancient times.000 horse and 9.14 HINDU EXPANSION OVER INDIA."* . Sacrifices were also performtd at the new and full moon. It consisted in periodically offering cakes and water to the departed fathers. e. to the fire. the entire Hindu population w ~ t hthe exception of the aborigines. which is as well knotvn to the modern Hindus as it was to their forefathers. and in the feeding of Brahmans. formed the Sudra caste. offeti~tg libations of milk. 30. and the remaining nineteen of are merely Domestic Ceremonies. and the ceremony which accompanied this rite was the first Sacrifice. while the aborigines. acquired religious knowledge. moral character and correct conduct. Young men after completing their educa~ion returned to their homes and lighted the sacrificial fire. Chandragupta had a standing army of 600. and atthe harvest time.-the Brahmans." Religions and Social Life-We have stated in the preceding chapter that the Aryan Hindus divided themselves into three casies. the Kshatriyas and the Vaisyas. From this period they kept up the sacrificial fire in their homes. The first three castes. A few of these forty saciaments of the Hindus deserve mention. But probably the most important Sacrifice was the Sraddha.. "endowed with learning. morning and evening. It marked their first entrance into the state of housel~olders. i.009 elephants. These numerous ceremonies have been classified by Gautama under forty heads. twen~y-one which are Sacrifices. witness to the vigorous and enlightened administration. "wlrence may be formed some conjecture as to the vaslness of his resources. learnt the Vedas. and the immense power of Chandragupta. who were subdued by the Aryans.

T h e hlanava Dharma Sastra. those of Domestic R ~ t e sand Festivals in the Grihyn Slrftas. Annaprasnna is universally practised when the ctrild first takes solid food . the student's austere life was abandoned. This s c i e n ~ e originated in India from the Sutra rules for the construction of altars. Thus "squares h a d ~ be found which would be equal to two or more given o . or that the size should be increased without altering the shape. The laws of property and ~nheritanceas laid down in the Dharma Sutras still form the basis of the Hindu Law as it is administered to-day. T h e lengthy works called the Btahma-nus began to be science and gradually replaced by concise and practical Learning. And these three classes of Sutras are collectively known as Kalpa Sufras. t\nd lastly Crrnlation of the dead was performed by the ancient Hindus. and the rules of sacrifices often requ~red that the shape of the altar should he changed without altering the size. T h e religious and social observances of which we have spoken above. These altars were of va~iousshapes and sizes. and Civil and Criminal Caws in the Dharnza Jrtftns. as it is practised to this day. and Upanavnna or initiation into the student's life. Thus the rules for the performance of Sacrifices were condensed in the Srarrfa Sulrar.HINDU EXPANSION OVER INDIA. or the Institutes of blanu is a compilation of the ancient laws and customs of the country. treatises in the form of Suft-as VT aphorisms. but the original work is lost. are all prescr~bedin Sutra works. and the newly married man entered on the duties of a householder. Like the other codes. Marriage followed the completion of studies in t h e olden days . A great advance was made in Geometry which is believed to have been borrowed by Greece from India. is observed by the Brahmans. some of which are still practised by the modern Hindus. it was at first written in prose. and the one that we have is in verse and is said to have been compiled about the commencement of the Christian era. 15 More interesting still are the Domestic Ceremonies.

Kapila considered God as beyond the range of human knowledge . This discover!. The great discovery has been made in Europe in the last century that the tens of thousands of words in the Aryan languapes can be resolved to a few hundreds of roots.was founded by Patanjali to remove this want. He mas followed by Kanada. 1876.16 HINDU EXPANSION OVER INDIA. are known as the s i x Vcdangas. and the great grammarian resolves the Sanskrit language of his time to its simple elements. who proclaimed the atomic tbeory in his system of philosophy known as the Vaisesika. but prescribed numerous rites for the attainment of supernatural powers which the Yogis of India still pretend to practise. so far as the Sanskrit is concerned. and not the least. Dr. was that of finding a circle. There are six Darsanas or schools of Hindu Philosophy. Gautama was the founder of the N y n y n . probably the first system of Logic in the world . the area of which might equal as closely as possible. Thibazit. Astronomy &c. Jozirnal. All these sciences. and Panini is perhaps the greatest Grammarian that the world has ever known. Bengal. The Sankhya philosophy of Icapila is considered to be the first system of mental philosophy in the world. but i t was in Philosophy that Hindu thinkers achieved the most distinguished 'results."* A similar advance was made in Astronomy. and so on. and the principles of all these schools are preserved to us in the Sutra form. the Yoga. i ~ 1 . and a new system of philosophy. The Yoga philosophy recognized the Deity . that of a given square. was made in India before the time of Panini . and Gautama's syllogism is not unlike the syllogism of Aristotle. the Kalpa Sutras. triangles had to be constructed equal to given squares or oblongs . oblongs had to be turned into squares and squares into oblongs.. and the position of the stars was carefully observed in order to fix the time for sacrifices. The last task. I n the science of Grammar a still greater success was achieved. Asiatic Society. Grammar. squares or equal to the difference of two given squares .

Gautama. and Badarayana Vyasa. Gantama Buddha. and. and his newborn babe. could not restrain him from pursuing the great mission of his liie . languages. of and civilization. and his son. his belovtd wife. however. Non-Aryans in Magadha and in the wl~ole India had now adopted Aryan customs.HINDU EXPANSION OVEK INDIA. which shook India and the whole continent of Asia. and demanded admission within the pale of Aryan religious learning and religious rites. 'I'he town of Kapilavastu resounded with notes of joy at theLbirttlof this future heir to the throne. was born in 557 B.1 the world a: large than the great religious and ethical revolution embodied in Buddhism. A great Leveller was required to break down that exclusiveness with which Aryan castes still guarded their religious docrine!: from others who were now politically and numerically more powerful than the Aryans. to 2 . the Sakya clan had a srnall semi-independent kingdom with their capital at Kapilavastu on the banks of the Rohini river. in his Vedanta philosophy. on the necessity of performing those sacrifices and Vedic rites which were prescribed of o l d . shortly after the birth of his child he left his home in secret. proclaimed once more his faith in the Supreme Being. and indeed demanded a Reformer. . in his Purua Mimansa. and ten years after this had a son. At the age of twentv he was married to Yasadhara. his royal position. The King Suddhodana was of the Gautama fdmily. his wealth. C. was of a contemplative turn of mind . Political and social causes had prepared India for such a revolution. and wished to discover a remedy for these evils. he constantly pondered on human sufferings and sins. are rnainly Hindu doctrines in another form. These thoughts filled his heart . and that Leveller arose in Gautama Buddha. known as Buddhism. 17 Two orthodox schools of philosophy were subsequently started. but preached and proclaimed to all without distinction of caste or colour. the future Buddha. the Universal Soul of the Upanishads. Jaimini insisted. Towards the east of the ancient Kosala kingdom.-Rut these six Vedangas and six Darsanas are less known t. His doctrines.

C. who became lay-disciples. but in vain.18 HINDU EXPANSION OVER INDIA. perfect and pure life of holiness. between these extremes. the capital of Magadha.continuous self-culture "a consummate. was the only remedy for the sins and woes to which humanity was subject. Gautama rejecled Vedic rites and ceremonials as fruitless. and set down under the famous Rodhi-tree of Gaya in long contemplation. and after 522 . that self culture. His brotherhood of Hhikshus or monks increased in number year by year . women joined the Order and formed a sisterhood of Bhikstlunis o r nuns . and the people admired h ~ mand heard him. Icosala and Kasi. H e then went to the vicinity of Gaya. and thence went to Rajagriha. and learnt all that Hindu philosophy could teach. whzt neither philosophy nor penances had taught. there were hundreds of families in Magadha and Vaisali.. who received the tenets of Gautama Buddha without leaving their homes or turning ascetics. the capital of Magadha. but such penances suggested to him n o remedy." he said. and for six years gave himself u p to the severest penances and mortification . and Gautama's step-mother and wife were among the first nuns. at the advanced age of eighty. 'turned an ascetic himself. and soon had a large number of followers. . Besides those who t h u s joined the Order. rejected penances as unworthy and unprofitable . the king of Magadha. and proclaimed the truth h e had discovered. Gautama repaired to Rajagriha."* Gautama went to Benares and this doctrine in B. as he with his followers begged his food from door to door. And when Gautama died in the year 477 B.. b e a student and a n earnest inquirer after the great truth he sought. C. That contemplation suggested to Gautama. honoured him. There was a "middle path. c. lived with a Brahman ascetic. and that was to seek and attain by .. i. leading to a holy and calm and peaceful life. BimbiSara. At last he left off his penances and wandered towards the Niranjana river. and condemned a life of pleasure and sensuality as hurtful.

T h e Vedic riles. It was laid down that life was suffering. that the thirst for life was the cause of suffering. that institution lost its force. leading to a holy Ilfe. who continued LO recognize caste. The Buddhist doctrine of Karma. answur to Buddhist Rt~ikshiis while Grihasta . Gautama Buddha. And the dis~inctions of caste were not recognized among men after they had entered the Holy Order.HINDU EXANSION OVER INDIA. T h e Buddhist Holy Order or Monastic System grew out of or the life of B h i k s h ~ ~ s ascetics. &c. But in other respects. We have already explained in a few words the idea which Buddhismand was ernbodled in the religion founded by Hinduism. + t Hit~dureaders will obtain some idea of Buddhist institution by comparing them with Vaishna\rism. Indra. were also declared to be useless and hurtful. recognizing caste. And even among the lay-disciples. It was in some respects a product of Hinduism. grew out of the Hindu idea of Mukti or Salvation attainable by knowiedge and culture.-found a place in the popular beliefs of the Buddhists. Vaishnavas. grew out of the Hindu belief in the transmigration of souls. The Buddhist doctrine of Nirvana. the humblest born were equal to the proudest Brahmans and princes after they had turned Bhikshus and Bhikstlunis. Penances and mortifications. were proclaimed to be unprofitable and hurtful. and in other respects a departure from that religion. who relinquish their homes and families. We have said before that Buddhism was essentially a system of self-culture. Buddhism differed from Hinduism. that religion had already taken a hold on the hearts and affections of the poor and the lowly. . which Hinduism recognized a n d respected. answer t o Buddhist lay-disciples. which were attended with the slaughter of animals. Voisnavae. 19 preactling his religion for no less than forty-five years. sanctioned and respected by HinduIsm. For Gautama's religion wns esentially a religion of equality and of love . caste distinctions were abolished within the Holy Order. And Hindu gods-Brahma.

without distinction. The first professes to ~." or the "eightfold path. who are like men subject to re-births according to their Karma. and between the fifth and the tenth centuries after Christ. speech and action. until they attain Nirvana. The excellence of Buddhism consists in its inestimable ethics. led to future births. and hold that their present state is determined by their Karma in a previous birth. whither Buddhism had spread. The scriptures are collectively called the Tri-pitaka or Three Baskets.~dhi~t record the sayings of Buddha himself. Nirvana or a Sinless Life. which is the Buddhist's salvation. The Northern .-a salvation which each man can work out for himself. in fact. Buddhists believe in of this I~fe. and by himself in this world and during this life.. aspiration. This is the property of the Southern Buddhists. and that repeated births will thus take place until Nirvana is attained. the second contains rules for the conduct-of monks and nuns. of charity and of love. transmigration.. mindfulness and meditation. in pure living and effort. recorded in Pali his teachings in their present form. is the Buddhist's heaven and salvation. Such sinless life is its own reward . the deeds Karma. and in its lofty purity. Mankind responded to the appeal .20 HINDU EXPANSION OVER INDIA. It breathes a spirit of benevolence and of forgiveness. that the cessation of this thirst was the cessation of suffering and this cessation could be obtained by following the "middle path. But if that salvation was not attained in this life. Not many ceituries after the death of Buddha. the people of Ceylon. probably one-half of the human race were Buddhists. calm and tranquil life. The eightfold path was. Buddhism recognizes the Hindu deities. or a holy. the Buddhist seeks for no higher heaven and no greater reward. It seeks to embrace the whole human kind with an equal love. and the third comprises Buddhist Philosophy. a strict system of self-culture leading to Nirvana." 'I'his eightfold path consisted in correct beliefs.

The Jainas agree with the Buddhists in refraining from the slaughter of animals. Nepal. vis. Mahavira died at Papa. e. Like the Buddhists they believe in K a r m a . truth.HINDU EXPANSION OVER INDIA. who were called Nirgranthas. and kindness. After Mahavira's death his sect came to be known as Jainas from their worship of Jinas. a saint. and his inother is said to have been the sister of the king of Vaisali. T h e Jinas. in Transmrgrafion and in N i r v a n a which can be attained by self-culture. like tile great Buddha. appear in this world. of whom Mahavira was one.. He belonged to the clan of the Jnatrika Kshatriyas. and in praising retirement from the world. . Very little is known of the personal liistory of Mahavira. was. Mahavira-About the same time with Buddhism there arose another non-Brahmanical religion. and after years of self-mortification he became a Jina or Tirthakara i. During the last 30 years of his life he organized his order of ascetics. uprightness. 21 Baddhists of Kashmir. Its founder. a scion of a princely house. to reclaim it from *n and save mankind. self-control. according to them. China and Japan have their sacred literature in a different form. T h e Jainas of India numtier about a quarter of a million at the present time. from age to age. Tibet. Jainism. and most of them belong to the Bombay Presidency. Mahavira. While still very young he retired from the world and became a monk.

6. the Andhras had already founded a powerful empire. The island was called Tamraparni. and be) ond them lived other powerful tribes. T o the south. and the king of Kallnda had his capital at Pathalis. 320 to A. A large island in the Ganges was inhabited hy. Wh have said that Magasthenes lived in India for five years. Chandragupta. and Greek Accounts of India. and he has left a very valuable a c c ~ u n of the country as he t saw it. Bengal and Orissa were parcelled out into d~fferent kingdoms. Further to the east. and had 6o. and Megasthenes says they had thirty walled towns and numerous villages. The Municipal Oflicers of the king were divided into six bodies 1 I . extending from the Narbada southwards. 5. or the ' copper-leaved.000 infantry.CHAPTER IV. whose reign therefore begins a new epoch in the history of lndia. ~ . 500. They had 150. D. The island of Ceylon was not unknown to Megasthenes.' Megasthenes also gives us much valuable information on the system of administration which prevailed in his time. Rajputana was still inhabited by wild tribes. ASCENDENCY OF foot suldiers. and their capital on the sea-coast was a great emporium of marilime trade. while in Gujrat the Saurashtras were a powerful race. o o o horse and 700 elephants. the bIatihya Kalingas. The hragadhas were the most powerful race in India. T h e whole of Northern lndia was fur the first time united under one rule by Cha~rdragupta.000 horse and 1600 elephants. and ruled from the Punjab to East Behar. C. T o the west. H e says. The sea-coast was called Kalinga. and was also known for its large breed of elephants. the island was famed for its gold and its pearl fisher~es.

nor do they require either seals or witnesses. of the excellence of their arts and workmanship in gold. He found the people divided into seven classes. shepherds and artisans were the Vaisyas and Sudras. being simple in their manners and frugal. Similarly the Military Officers of the king were divided into six bodies. the Cavalry. . irrigation. and co~lstructed roads. and his husbandmen. and the sixth levied taxes on sale transactions. encouraged and rewarded huntsmen. collected taxes. T h e first body supervised industries and arts . the Chariots and the elephants. Their beverage is a liquor prepared from rice instead of barley. which can be identified with the four Hindu castes. superintended village industries. their gorgeous relieious celebrations. the Infantry. And lastly.. They have no suits about pledges and deposits. arld their food is principally a rice pottage. of their simple habits. the fifth supervised manufactures and the their sale . the Provincial Officers of the king had their duties to perform : thry superintended agriculture. T h e simplicity of their laws and their contracts is proved by the fact that they seldom go to law. viz. And lastly. Megasthenes pays a well deserved compliment to the Hindus for their natural simplicity. His philosophers and councillors were the Brahmans and Kshntriyas. 23 . which had separate duties assigned to them. but mike their deposists and confide in each other. Megasthenes speaks of the prosperous condition of the agriculture of the Hindus and their two annual harvests. who looked after the six divisions of the army. Their houses and property they generally leave unguarded. surveyed lands and inspecte d the sluices of irrigation canals . the second looked after foreigners and travellers. the Fleet. and forests . the Bullocktrains used for carrying engines.ASCENDENCY OF YAGADHA. precious stones and jewels. rectitude and truthfulness : " They live happ~ly enough. They never drink wine. the fourth superintended trade and commerce . and their devotion to learning. . the third inquired into births and deaths and levied taxes. except at sacrifices.

in Orissa and in the Napal Tarai. Chandragupta's grandso. pillars and caves throughout his vast emp-ire. Asoka has left a record of his acts engraved on rocks. he was ambitious of making further conquests. which led him to adopt Buddhism as the state religion of India. In the .-Chandragupta ruled for about twentyfive year. and the sanguinary acts which accompanied it. Asoka is more famous than Charlemagne or Czsar. It was the spectacle of this war of annexation. Asoka the Great. T l ~ e y can be found on the Indus and the Jumna. 24 ASCENDENOY OF YAQADHA. and to proclaim that religion in and even beyond the limits of India. Truth ant1 virtue they hold alike in esteem. and thus brought Bengal and Orissa into closer connextion with Magadha and Northern India." *** Asoka the Great.. His administration was wise and far-reaching. and led him to embrace the Buddhist religion. " If a man's fame can be measured by the number of hearts who revere his memory. in Madras.. but his fame rests more on his religious fervour and earnestness. that left a lasting impression on the mind of the benevolent emperor. in Gujrat and in Mysore.ninth year of his reign Asoka invaded and conquered Kalinga. They not only testify to the wide extent of his 'empire but give us some valuable account of his administration. Although at the time of Asoka's accession his empire was vast. by the numher of lips who have mentioned and still mention him with honour. These things indicate that they possess sober sense. .. These are distributed in different parts of the country."* For the name of Asoka is honoured from the Volga to Japan and from Siberia to Ceylon. I Fortunately for us. His great empire extended from the Bay of Hrngal to the Punjab. then ascended the throne about 270 B. C. and his son who succeeded him ruled for another twenty-five years. and from the Himalayas to the Vindhya Mountains.

the ninth insisted on the merit of imparting religious instruction . the fifth prohibited the slaughter of various animals .ASCENDENCY OF MAQADHA. the fourth made an announcement' of religious grace. the seventh proclaimed universal religious toleration. the thirteenth mentioned the conquest of Kal~nga and the names of five Greek K ~ n g s to whose kingdoms Buddhist missionaries were sent. truth and purity . Their substance is given below : T h e first directed the ministers of religion to work with zeal. the third enjoined a quinquennial religious celebration . charity. the fourth entrusted the religious instruction of the people to a class of officerscalled Rajukas. the seventh declared that the edicts would lead men to the right path . the third inculcated self-questioning and the avoidance of sins . the eleventh declared the imparting of religious instruction as the best of all kinds of charity. the sixth appointed moral instructors for the people . 25 Five rocks have been discovered in five different parts of India with the same series of fourteen edicts inscribed on them. and the fourteenth summed up the foregoing with some remarks on the engraving of the edicts. and enjoined their conversion by moral persuasion. and the eighth recounted his works of public utility and his measures for the religiohs advancement of the people. the second explained religion to be mercy. the tenth extolled true heroism and glory founded on spreading religion . Their substance is given below :T h e first prohibited the slaugtiter of animals. Pillars also have been found with edicts inscribed on them. but . the twelfth proclaimed the principle of universal toleration] and moral persuation as the best means of converting unbelievers. the fifth appointed ministers of religion and missionaries . the eighth recommended pious enjoyments . the sixth proclaimed his good will to the people and hoped for the conversion of all sects. the second provided medical aid for men and animals . It will thus appear that the edicts were published mainly for' the moral and religious advancement of the people .

after which Mag. became supreme in India from the fourth century after Christ. Samudragupta's son Chandragupta II.nasties followed. Six princes reigned after him within a perod of about 4 0 years. C. nevertheless. Asoka had no worthy successors. and then Asoka's success0r5~ the Maur)a Dynasty. D. Maharaja Gupta and Ghatotkacha. and their dominions extended to the west as far as the Arabian sea. and now became masters of India. and came to an end In 433 A . C. The origin of the Guptas is lost i n obsculity. The d!nasty declined. and Ceylon obeyed his orders or sent him tribute. Persia.-A great dynasty of kings. but it appears that as the power of the Andhras of Magadha declined. the Guptas of Kanouj rose. who had founded a g ~ e ak~ngdom the Deccan. His son and successor was Kumaragupta. that he exterminated the kings of Northern India. Of the first two kings. assumed the title of Vikramaditya. who . we can glean from them some facts relating to Asoka's political acts and administration which show what a good and great king he was. who ruled in the first century after Christ.. assumed the title of Vikramaditya. and that the kings of Bengal and Assam. C. the Sunga and the ICanva. Rut the d~stantprov~nce of Sauraslltra was lost iu the same century. we lrnow very little. I'wo d!.26 ASCENDENCY OF MAGADHA. and has left an inscription wh~ch informs us that he conquered the kings of Kanchi (Conjeveram) and Kerala (Travancore) in Southern India. which had been founded by Asoka's grandfather Chandragupta in 3 2 0 0.. His son and successor Samudragupta ruled towards the close of the fourth century.-The powerful Andhras ruled for four centuries and a half.ldha was conquered by the powerful Andhras. The power of the house reached its zenith under: Satakarni I and his successors. t in A n d h r a s of Magadha. ended in 183 B. Nepal. from the fourth century. occupying the throne from 183 to 26 B... however. until it was reconquered by Gautamiputra I1 in the third century. The third king Cllandragupta I. G u p t a s of Kanouj. the Guptas of ICanouj.

wrested Eastern Malwa from the Gtiptas in 466 A D. When the pc~wer of the successors of Alexander declined. Pushyamitra..ASCENDENCY OF MAGADEA. and he boasts in xn inscription. and ( j ) the Huns.C. that his fame was acknowledged even by h ~ enemies "in the countries of the s Mleclichas. T h e invaders were ( I ) the Indo-Greek. It is necessary to give a brief account now of these foreign invaders. a H u n .D. another powerful king. Indo-Greeks. ( 2 ) the Indo-Parthians. from the time of the successors of Asoka the Great to the rise of Vikramaditya the Great. shortly after Skandagupta's death. e. (3) the Kushans. T h e most famous among them was Minander who issued from Icabul in 1 5 5 B C. Thomas.. Toramana's son the redoubtable M ~ l ~ i r a k u l began his caleer of conquest in j I 5 a. the founder of the Sunga Dynasty in Magadha. and then went to . From the second century before Christ to the sixth century after Christ. to conquer Western India. the Bactrians or Indo-Greeks established an independent kingdom on the frontiers of India They frequently invaded the Punjab and Sindh.-i. It is said that the Christian saint came to the court of Gondophares. One of h i s successors was Gondophares.C. He conquered Sindh and ttie Katiawar Peninsula." T h e Mlechcl~as.. tiowever. by between 1 4 0 and r3o B. 27 was i n turn succeeded by his son Skandagupta. and penetrated a s far as Patna.. and Minander's conquests in India disappeared in a few years. and their first king ruled in Kabul and the Punjab about 120 B. Indo-Parthians. compelled the Greek king to retlre. had their revenge . And the Bactrian kingdom itself was extinguished shortly after.Western India was the source of continuous foreign inva-ions. A. H e beat back the Huns who were then pouring into I n d ~ a . fresh invaders. (4) the Shah kings. who revived the memories of his great-grandfather by his conquests. T h e Indo-Parthians then became powerful in ttie Western frontier of India. and the destruction of the Guptas was complete. and Torarnana. and the whole of the Indian borderland was ruled by a large number of Greek Princes. and his name is connected by Christian tradition with St.

In the first century after Christ the IndoParthians were driven from the Punjab by new invaders.D. Rudra Daman was a powerful king of this dynasty. a n d the Guptas. Yarkand. which was a part of Kanishka's empire. Last came the White Huns who belonged to the same race that convulsed Asia and Europe under the famous king Attila. He conquered Kashgar. and he conquered Kabul and Kashmir. He was a zealous Buddhist. we must remember . In India. And his son. a n d the Huns. the Kushans. Gujrat. and made peace with the Andt~ras Magadha.. and his I n d ~ a n empire extended to the Vindhya mountains in the south. Shah Kings. The tide of foreign invasions was at list chzc ked by Vikramaditya the Great. as we have said before. the Maury IS.D. and his great empire was broken into fragments. of Huns. T o know the history of India.D.. Buddhism was supplanted by Hinduism in Kashmir. ruled from J about I ~ to 388 A.. His successor Kadphises I1 extended his conquests. the Sungas.D. After the death of Kanishka.28 ASCENDENCY OF MAGADHA. from the time of Asoka the Great to the time of Vikramaditya the Great. the Shah Kings. and the shrine of San Thome near Madras was named after him. as we shall see in the next chapter. Kushans.the names of the five dynasties who ruled in the continent of India. and held a council to settle the scriptures of the Nothern Buddhists. Mihirakula. the White Huns under Toramana conquered Malwa from the Gupta king in 466 A. and was succeedetl by the celebrated king Kanishka. anci a race of king known as Kshdtrapas. It is believed that he founded the Saka Era which runs frorn 78 A. or the Shah kings. .-vis the Indo-Greeks the Indo-Parthians. the Kanvas. as the Coullcil of 4soka the Great had settled the scriptures of the southern Buddhists. became independent after his death. and Khotan in the north. Satraps. And we must also remember the five principal races which invaded and ruled in Western India. the Andhras. Southern India .-via. completed the destruction of the Gupta empire in the pixth century. 'I'he Kushan tribe of the Yu-chi race became powerful under Kadpt~isesI about 4 j A.

We have alluded to the stone pillars. and the Stupa of Svarnath. sculpture and painting. on which Asoka inscribed his edicts in several parts of India. and the first specimens of these arts. Ruddhist Stupav or topes were also construc'ted in holy spots.ASCENDENCY OF MAGADHA. 29 Architecture. I L P J t> L T ~ '>c . belong to the Buddhist Age. Nagnajit composed a work on architecture. which are now to be found in India.-The Arts received a great development in the Buddhist Age. has been seen by many H i n d ~ s ~ w hhave o D . the Stupas of Sanchi in Bhopal are the most famous. near Benares. and later kings continued to erect such pillars. Sculpture and Painting.

so too are some trees. and the ornamented pillars inside are arranged very much as in Christian churches. too. on the way from Bombay to Puna. though very different from our standard of beauty and grace. but were excavated in mountains and rocks. and the Ajanta Viharas. and the female figures have a softness and a mild grace which mark them as peculiarly Indian. They have. therefore. still exist. which were seen by Houen Tsang. where grouped together. purpose-like pre-Raphzlite kind of art. with pillars and aisles all round. T h e human figures. Buddhism declined after the fifth century A. are truthful to nature. and behind these are solitary cells for monks. the human faces are mild and pleasant. and Charaka and Susruta are the brighest names in Hindu medicine. T h e most remarkable Chaitya in India is at Karli. It measures I 26 feet by 46 feet. "such as elephants. combine to express the action intended with singular felicity. and." says Dr.. has few notable specimens after this date. F o r an honest. are better represented there than in any sculptures known in any part of the world . as they were not built and constructed with pieces of stone. n o exterior . and were most elaborately and beautifully carved . visited that lioly city. Fergusson. T h e science of Medicine made much progress in the Buddhist Age. and the skill of the a'ichitect was displayed in the beauty and the arrangement of the interior. too." o T h e Chaityas. There is generally a hall in the centre. and the best specimens of IIindu sculpture are to b e found o n these rails.30 ASCENDENCY OF MAGADHA. T h e rails round these Stupas were also of stone. "Some animals. T h e figures in the painting are natural and elegant. and Buddhist art. and the architectural details are cut with a n elrgance and precision which are very admirable. D. were remarkable edifices. deer and monkeys. orjcl~urches of the Buddhists. there is probably nothing much betLer L be found anjwhere.except the frontage. . Some of the Ajanta V ~ h a r a s have their walls covered with fresco painting representing scenes from the life of Buddha or from the legends of saints. Viharas or monasteries were also excavated in rocks.



Fa Hian's account of India.-The Chinese pilgrim F a Hian vis~ted India in the beginning of the fifth century after Christ, when the glorious reign of Samudragupta had come to a close. He has left us a fairly comprehensive account of the people, their arts, their learning, and their civilisation. He speaks thus of Northern Inrlia, extentling from Mathura to Behar, which was thrn known as Madhyadesa : ''.I'he people are well off, without poll-tax or official restrictions; only tt'ose who till the royal lands return a por~ionof the profit of the land. If to they desire to go, they g o ; if they l ~ k e stop, they stop. T h e kings govern without corporal punistlment. Criminals are fined according to circun~stances, lightly or heavily. Even in cases of repeated rebellion, they only cut off the right hand. 'I'he king's personal attendants who guard him on the right and left have fixed salaries. 'Throughout the country the people kill no living thing, nor drink wine, nor do they eat garlic or onions, with the exception of Chandalas only." Fa Hian travelled through Mathura, ICanouj, and ~ o ; a l a , and came to Pataliputra, or Patna, where the last Andhra kings were still holdlnq a feeble sway amidst the ruins of Asoka's magnificent palaces. "The walls, door-wags and the sculptured designs," says the astonished pilgrim, "are no human work. ?'he ruins st111exist." The traveller then visited Rajagriha, Gaya, Benares, and Charnpa (near the modern Bhagalpur), and then came to 'ramralipti or 'rumlook, then a great seaport near the mouths of the Ganges. After a stay of two years in this seaport. Fa Hian shipped himself on board a great merchant vessel, and went to Ceylon. There he remained for t ~ years, and then o left In another merchant vessel with a crew of 2 0 0 men for his native country.
A great tempest arose in the way, but gradually abated, and after a voyage of go days, the vessel reached Yepoti (Java), where according to Fa Hian, Brahmans and Hinduism flourished at the time. Thence Fa Hian embarked in allother merchant vessel with a crew of zoo men and after a voyage of 82 days reached the southern coast of China.







Vikramaditya the Great-We saw in the last chapter that, during the fourth and fifth centuries of the Christian Era, India was the scene of foreign invasions, and the Western Provinces were desolated by the Huns and other Turanian tribes known to the Hindus as the Sakas. At last a great defender arose to check the foreign invaders, and to give India s o m e repose. Vikraniaditya the Great, who has been identified with king Yasodharman of Malwa, allied himself with Baladitya king 4 of Magadha, and defeated the H u n Mihirakula in 5 2 8 . D. in a great battle. And having thus repelled the foreign invaders, h e consolidated the whole of Northern India under his powerful rule. and encouraged arts, literature, and science, in which great results were now achieved. India was virtually free from great foreign invasions for nearly five centuries, from the defeat of the H u n Mihirakula to the time o f Sabaktagin and Mahmud of Ghazni. S o great was the power of Vikramaditya, that when the throne of Kashmir fell vacant by the death of Hiranya, the Emperor of Ujjayini placed his own friend and courtier, Matrigupta, o n the throne of that distant region ; and Matrigupta, ruled in Kashmir as long as Vikramaditya ruled in Ujjayini. T h e Malavas had an old Era of their own which they reckoned from the date of their tribal constitution in j 6 B.C. And when Vikramaditya the Great became the supreme ruler in Ujjayini and in Northern India in the sixth century A.D., this ancient E r a came to be known as Vikamaditya's Era. T o the present day the Santvat Era is known as Vikramaditya's Era, and this has often led to the erroneous supposition that the great Emperor ruled in 56 B. C. W e know, however, that



the great emperor, the patron of the poet Kalidasa, and the foe of the Huns, lived in the sixth century A. D., although other kings, also bearing title of V~kramadit~a,ruled in preceding centuries. In literature the history of the Vikramadityan Age opens Revival in Literwith the brilliant name of Kalidasa. His ature. creations of fancy seem to live and move among us; his matchless melody of verse never ceases to please ; and his inexhaustible and apt simlles are as natural and as profuse as the wild flowers of an Indian Jungle, and quite as surprising and sweet. Kalidasa's Sakuntala is the best Indian drama; his Raghuvansa and Kumara Sumbhava are the best narrative poems ; and his Meghaduta is the sweetest descriptive poem in Sanskrit. His name stands high in the rolls of Hindu poets, second only to the authors of the immortal Mahabharata and Ran~ayana. Shortly after Kalidasa lived Bharavi, also in the sixth century. His Kiratarjuniyam lacks the creative fancy and the sweetness of Kalidasa's composition, but is vigorous and spirited. T h e works of great astronomers like Parasara and Garga were handed down from ancient times ; but a new astronomer, Aryabhatta, rose in the fifth century after Christ. H e was born in Pataliputra in 476 A. D., and maintained the theory of the revolution of the earth on its own axis, and also spoke of the solar zodiac which the Hindus borrowed from the Greeks. H e was followed by Varahamihira, one of the " nine gems" of Vikramaditya's Court, who recast the five older Siddban/as, and also composed a great original astronomical work. H e was succeeded by the astronomer Brahmagupta who wrote in 628 A. D. Vikramaditya the Great was succeeded by Siladitya I., about 553. Siladitya was favourably inclined towards ,,,kramaditvP.s ~UCC~SSO~S. Buddhism as Vikramaditya was inclined towards Hinduism.





Siladitya was succeeded by Prabhakara Vardhanaabout 580, and Prabhakara was succeeded by Rajya Vardhana about 605. Rajya Vardhana was defeated and killed in a war with the king of Western Bengal, and was succeeded in 610by Siladitya II., known as Sri Harsha in Sanskrit literature, and the greatest ruler of India after the time of Vikramaditya. When Siladitya 11. ascended the throne, he found himself surrounded by enemies. I n six years, however, the vigorous young emperor conquered all his enemies and became the master of Northern India. . Kanouj which had thrived under the Gupta kings was now the capital of Northern India, and when the Chinese traveller Houen Tsang came to Kanouj about 640, he found twenty princes from different parts of India attending the quinquennial Buddhist festival which Siladitya was celebrating with great pomp. It is remarkable that the king of Kamarupa or Assam, a staunch Hindu prince, attsndej this Buddhist ceremony as an honoured guest, and this is an indication of the mutual good feeling which existed betweed the followers of the two creeds. Siladitya himself was a Buddhist, but he respected and honoured Hindu Brahmans, and made gifts to them as well as to Buddhist Sramans. Siladitya is the reputed author of the Ratnavali drama, while the renowned novelists, Dandin and Banabhatta were his courtiers. Bhartrihari, author of Bhattikavya and the Satakas, also lived in this age. Siladitya died about 650. We know very little of his successors, till we come to the time of Yasovarman who reigned from about 710 to 730. H e was a weak prince, and was defeated in war by the powerful king of Kashmir. What makes this incident famous, is that the great dramatist Bhavabhuti, who lived in Yasovarman's court in Kanouj, was taken away to Kashmir by the conqueror. T h e history of Northern India becomes obscure after this period. Houen Tsang's A c c o u n t of India.-Over two centuries after F a Hian, we have the account of another Chinese




pilgrim, Houen Tsang. H e visited India about 630 A.D. He *ravelled and lived here for many years, and has left a full account of the different kingdoms and their people which is -exceedingly valuable. H e travelled through Kashmir and Mathura, and visited the Kura-Kshetra battle-field and the %holyshrine of Hardwar, where hundreds and thousands of people gathered to bathe and wash in the Ganges. Kanouj was then the capital of Siladitya II., Emperor of Northern India. Siladitya was a Buddhist, and celebrated with great pomp ;the quinquennial festival to which twenty kings from different parts of India were invited, as we have said before. Passing through Ayodhya, Houen Tsang came to Prayaga, where Hindus came in great numbers to bathe, and also to fast and to die in the hope of a happier life in heaven. Benares was another holy place where the god Mahesvara was worshipped, a n d there were twenty Hindu temples. There was a copper statue of Mahesvara roo feet high, " its appearance," says Houen Tsang, " is grave and majestic, and appears as though really living." The Buddhist pilgrim remained long in ' Magadha, which was for him full of holy associations connected with the life and acts of Gautama Buddha. Pataliputra was now in ruins, but the pilgrim visited the monasteries at Gaya and the University of Nalanda, then the greatest religious and educationa l institution in India. Houen Tsang says :-" Learned men 'from d~fferent cities, on this account, who desire to acquire quickly a renown for discussion, came here in multitudes to settle their doubts, and then the streams of knowledge spread far and wide." T h e great Vihara or monastery of Nalanda was worthy of it. Four kings contributed towards its construction, when it was completed, men came from a distance of 2,000 miles to attend the assembly that was held. Passing through Hiranya Parvata (near Monghyr) and Champa (near Bhagalpur) our traveller came to Bengal, which was then divided into 6ve kingdom:, via., Pundra or N o a h Bengal, Kamarupa or Assam, Samatata or East Bengal, Karna

"some hundred families or so who possess a hundred lakhs. then one of the bravest nations in India. each being armed. but quick and hasty. If they are going to seek revenge. Houen Tsang now passed through Orissa where the people spoke a different language from that of Northern India. If they are asked to help one in distress. and spoke a language different from that of India. so he is driven to seek death for himself. "they are grateful . they d o not inflict punishment. The people of Samata!a were small and dark. to their enemies. Pundra was thickly populated and rich in all kinds of grain produce.36 UJJAYINI AND KANOUJ. and Tamralipti. At Tamralipti the people were hardy and brave. I a general loses a battle. and turning northwards from these places.-a description which applies to the people ot East Bengal t~ the present day." sajs Houen Tsang. At Kamarupa the people were simple and honest. the south-western sea-coast. "There are. Turning southwards. they first give their enemy warning . The maritime trade brought immense wealth to the people. He went through Kalinga and the great Andhra country. but present him with woman's clothes. and thence to the flourishing kingdom of the Valabhis in the Katiawar Peninsula." says our traveller. . relentless. they will forget themselves in their haste to render assistance. H e then passed on to Malwa." On the eastern frontier of the Maharashtra country Houen Tsang saw the Ajanta caves. "To their benefactors. Houen Tsang at last came to the country of the Maharashtras. then. If they are insulted they will risk their lives t o avenge themselves. the latter of which has been identified with the Amaravati tope near the mouth of the Krishna river South of the Krishna were the Chola and Dravida and Malakuta kingdoms . and the people were fond of learning and honest. Suvarna or West Bengal. but hardy and fond of learning and diligent in its acquisition. Karna Suvarna was thickly populated. of small stature and dark yellow complexion. Purvisila and Aparasila. they attack each other with f spears. and came to two mountain monasteries.

and the truthfulness of the ancient Hindus. Those who cultivate the royal estates pay one-sixth part of the produce as tribute. the third is for rewarding men of distinguished ability . Hence the taxes of the people are light. who engage in commerce. as well as the Greeks. and all till the ground for their subsistence.field of merit is cultivated. 37 T h e rare and valuable products of dhtant regions are stored here in great quantities. the uprightness." says Houen Tsang. excepting the acts of a few persecuting kings. bear the same testimony to the honesty. and in administering justice they are considerate. and Buddhism and Hinduism flourished in mutual respect and peaceful toleration of each other for over a thousand years. Hindu temples and Buddhist monasteries. Ujjayini and Sindh.UJJAYINI AND KANOUJ. come and go in carrying - . They are not deceitful or treacherous in their conduct. the first is for carrying on the affairs of the state and providing sacrificial offerings. and the personal service required of them is moderate . It should be noted that Houen Tsang found Hinduism and Buddhism. "although they are naturally light-minded." After passing through Gujrat. yet they are upright and honourable. It is with pleasure also that we note that the Chinese. and the fourth is for charity to religious bodies whereby the . flourishing s ~ d e side almost in every kingdom through which he by passed. "With respect to the ord~nary people. Indeed." w e will make one more extract from Houen Tsang's travels relating to the system of administration in the olden times: "The private demesnes of the Crown are divided into four principal portions. and are faithful to their oaths and promises. Houen Tsang lek India and returned to China in 645. They dread the retribution of another state of existence. religious persecution was almost unknown in ancient India . the second is for providing subsidies for the ministers and chief officers of state . In money matters they are without craft. and make light of the things of the present world. T h e merchants. each one keeps his own worldly goods in peace.

The soldiers are levied according to the requirements of the service. by his friend hnd patron Vikramaditya the Great. Sankara was the successor of Kumarila. and both strove to revive the Hindu faith. and the Chandella inBundelkhand. the Gihlot in Mewar. so Hindustan remained in darkness from the ninth century. The river passage and the road barriers are open on payment of a small toll. The Chauhan Rajputs established themselves in Ajmere. and officials have each a portion of land assigned to them for their personal support. but paid for. The governors. and revived the Vedanta religion and philosophy in India. and are publicly enrolled.-The three brilliant centuries.-Kashmir has a connected history called t h e Raja Tarangini by Kalhan a Pundit from the time of Kanishka in the first century after Christ to the Mahomedan conquest. The military guard the frontiers. as we shall see. Thirty kings are said to have ruled Kashmir after Kanishka.3rtions to the work done. When the public works require it. As western Europe after the fall of the Roman Empire remained engulfed in obscurity for about five centuries. magistrates. closed with the great Sankaracharya who lived early in the ninth century. the Chaura in Gujrat. which opened with Vikramaditya and Kalidasa." The Rajputs. Siladitya and brought back from Ujjayini the throne of Kash- ~ 1 . laid the foundations of modern Europe. the Paramara in Malwa. They also mount guard at night round the palace. His successor is said to have defeateb. and then Matrigupta was helped to the throne in the middle of sixth century A. ministers. 1 I out their transactions. India was parcelled out into a number of small kingdoms which. T h e payment is in strict prop. Then followed what may be called the Dark Age of India. until the Rajputs issued from their wild countries in the west and the south conquered and founded new kingdoms. till the Germanic tribes issued from their forests in the north and. or go out to punish the refractory. Kashmir. made the work of conquest so easy for the Mahomedans. labour is exacted.38 UJJAYINI AND KANOUJ. D. they are promised certain payment.

the Chalukya Rajputs from the south forced their way into Gujrat. the Shah Kings. gallantly. however. Another Rajput dynasty wrested the kingdom from the Chalukyas about 980. and the same dynasty continued to rule in Gujrat. became independent. was founded on the south coast of the Katiawar Peninsula in the Epic Age. was a centre of the sea-borne trade. The former. H e carried his conquering arms as far as Bengal and the Karnatic.and Valabhipura. *The reader must dietinguieh between Anhilwara Pattan and Somuath Pattan. destroyed the Valabhi kingdom. and of civil wars. when he visited this country found the Valabhis flourishing and much given to trade . Houen Tsang.UJJAYINI AND KANOUJ.* Mahmud's invasion left no lasting result. It formed a portion of the extensive empire of Chandraguptaand Asoka in the fourth and third centuries before Christ. tried to oppose the march of Mahmud of Ghazni when he came to sack the temple of Somnath Pattan. Another famous name was that of Avantivarman. but vainly. was the . and the ruling prince of this dynasty. who was also a powerful coriqueror. H e built in the ninth c e ~ t u r ya new capital called Avantipura. over a thousand years before Christ. and then passed under the rule of Kanishka in the first century after Christ. About 780. T h e dynasty of Bhataraka reigned for over three hundred years (460-780). Gyjrat. After Kanishka's death his vassals. 39 mir. near modern Bhaonagar.-The ancient Hindu Kingdom of Saurashtra. Later on the Valabhis under Bhataraka founded a powerful kingdom there. He died while leading an expedition . rich in the legends of Krishna. After him the history of Kashmir is mainly a story of weak and profligate kings and queens. north of modern Ahmedabad. a n d founded their new capital at Anhilwara Pattan which rose in power and fame.across the Himalayas to conquer the unexplored north. the ruins of which are still visited by travellers in Kashmir. O n e of his successors was the powerful Lalitaditya who conquered Kanouj and brought away the poet Bhavabhuti to his own court. and returned through the Vindhyas and Avanti.

the sovereign of Southern India (south of the Krishna). and was reigning when Houen Tsang visited the country. Jaya Sinha. 8outhern India.s. and the old family managed to regain their power after every revolution until the kingdom passed by marriage to Rajendra Chola. D.-The sister kingdoms of Chola. Pulakesin I1 was the great and powerful rival of Kanouj. T h e Deccan. and held sway till some centuries after Christ. The Yadava kings of Deoghar then succeeded. ascended the throne in 470.boardalong the Kav:rri river and to its north-and had its capital in Hindu capital of Gujrnt from the close of the eighth to the close of th. but was re-established within the same century. and the last of them. Siladitya conquered all Northern India.40 OJJAYlNI AND KANOUJ. from the mouths of the Krishna to the frontiers of Cuttack.-The great Andhras founded a powerful kingdom in the Deccan several centuries before Christ. Hisc sixth successor. The Eastern branch of the Chalukyas ruled in the Eastern Deccan. The power of the dynasty was subverted for a time in the heginning of the tenth century. latter was a seaport in the south of Katiawar Peninsula. Some of the great Hindu temples of Ellora were built in the 8th or 9th century A. Vishnu Vardhana founded this dynasty in 60j. and had their capital at Rajamandri. but could not conquer Pulakesin and his Mahrattas. the founder of this branch. thirLeenth century. The western branch of this royal house held sway in the Konkan and the Maharashtra country. Th. within tba ancient Hindu Kingdom of Ssurashtra. Chera and Pandya existed to the south of the Krishna river from before the Christian Era. and had its capital at Kalyan. when i t wcla conquered by Alla-ud-din Khilji. Rama Chandra. was conquered by Alla-ud-din Khilji. . and is otherwise known ail Prabhes Pattan oonnwted with the legends of Kri8hn. and continu4 till the extinction o f the dynasty in 1189. Chola was the eastern sea. an4 then the most powerful ruler in India. Then the Chalukya Rajputs came and conquered the Deccan and ruled from the fifth to t h e latter end of the twelfth century.



the classic town of Kanchi, or the modern Conjeveram. Chera was the western sea-board and included Malabar and Travancore. And Pandya was in the extreme south, including the modern districts of 'Tinnevelly and Madura. Pandya was the most ancient of the three sister kingdoms, and is said to have been so named because it was founded by descendants of the Pandava race, who came here by the sea from Gujrat, and founded a capital which they named Mathura (Madura). Anyhow it is certain that the Pandya kingdom was sufficiently civilized, immediately before and after the Christian era, to carry on a brisk trade with European nations. T h e Cholas, however, rose to supreme power in later times, and Rajendra Chola annexed Eastern Deccan, and was the master of Southern India, in the eleventh century after Christ. , As elsewhere in India, the Rajputs came and conquered in Southern India. The Ballala Rajputs rose in the tenth century, and founded a powerful kingdom on the ruins of the three sister kingdoms in the eleventh century, and ruled over the whole of the Karnatic. They built the Hullabid temple, one of the finest specimens of Hindu architecture. After nearly three hundred years they were subverted by the Mahomedans in 13 10. Another great Rajput House, the Kakatis, rose in Warrangal in Eastern Deccan towards the close of the eleventh century, but their power was also subverted in 1323 by the Mahomedans. The more distinguished kingdom of Vijayanagar was founded in 1344 and lasted for over two centuries, until the last king was beaten by the Mahomedans in the battle of Telicota in 1565. But of this we will speak later on. 0rissa.-Turningnorthwardswe come to Orissa. Asoka's conquest of Kalinga brought Orissa in closer contact with the West, and generations of Buddhist kings ruled in the province. Tlre remains of Buddhist caves, palaces and inscriptions may still be found in the Khandagiri and Udayagiri caves. Buddhist rule came t o a close in the fifth century after Christ, and Hinduism triumphed under a new dynasty.



Yayati Kesari founded the Kesari or "LionJ' dynasty in 476. T h e dynasty ruled in Bhubaneswar, and built those great temples dedicated to Siva, which are the oldest existing specimens of Hindu temple architecture. They also had a capital at Jajpur, and Nripa Kesari founded Cuttack in 950. T h e Ganga o r "Gangetic" dynasty succeeded the Kesaris in 1132, and held sway till I 534. Vishnu, or Krishna, was the favourite deity of this dynasty. Ananga Bhima of this line built the temple of Jagannath in I 174. Purushottama, a later king who ruled at the close of the fifteenth century, carried his conquering arms to the south, and defeated the king of Kanchi and married his daughter. His successor Pratapa Rudra was ruling when the great Vaishnava reformer Chaitanya visited Orissa.








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After the extinction of the Gangetic House, five kings of a new dynasty ruled, after which the country was conquered by the Moslems under Kalapahar in 1560. Benga1.-Lastly, we turn to the history of Bengal. When Megasthenes visited India in the fourth century B. C., he found several powerful kingdoms in Bengal, which he called by tbe general name of Kalinga. And the conquest of Kalinga by Asoka the Great in the third century brought Bengal into closer contact with the West. Buddhism and Hinduism flourished side by side in Bengal when Houen Tsang came to this province about 640, and the account which the Chinese traveller gave of Bengal has been alluded to before. The province was then divided into-five powerful kingdoms, via, Pundra, or North Bengal; Samatata, or East Bengal ; Kamarupa, or Assam ; Tamralipti, or South Bengal ;and Karna Suvarna, or West Bengal. In the ninth century, the Rajputs, then masters of all India, founded the Pala dynasty of Bengal. Gopala began his reign about 850, and was the master of all Magadha and Bengal. Dharmapala succeeded him, and his successor Devapala, who ascended the throne about goo, is said to have conquered the whole of Northern India from the Himalayas to the Vindhyas, as far as Assam to the east. Two kings succeeded; a d then we come to the time of Rajyapala, who was still master o all Northern India, and held Kanouj under his sway, f when Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni invaded India and came to Kanouj. After the retreat of Sultan Mahmud, Raiyapala's successor, Mahipala, founded a new capital at Bari about 1026. H e reigned for fifty-two years and extended his supremacy as far as Orissa in the south. H e was, however, the last great king of the dynasty. The Sena Rajas of Eastern Bengal now rose in power, and gradually extended their possesSions wards until they were masters of all Bengal.

or Vira $ena. made a classification of the Brahmans and Kayasthas of Bengal. Madhava and Kesava then successively filled the throne. Magha. composed the famous poem Sisupalabadha. Harsha. In Arithmetic. which have been much abused in. H e had a long and prosperous reign of over sixty years. more recent limes. who lived in the court of king Bhoja of Malwa. 45 T h e origin of the Sena Rajas of Eastern Bengal is lost i n obscurity. And Jayadeva of Bengal composed. during the tenth. who ruled in the eleventh century. Ballala. and made some rules about Kulins. learning and sciences. and brought some learned Brahmans and Kayasthas from Kanouj to Bengal. composed Naishadha. The great astronomer Bhaskara Acharya lived in the twelfth century and his solutions of great algebraical problems were n o t known in Europe till the eighteenth century. Lakshmaneya. and raised that branch of mathematics to a science. and ruled probably in the tenth century. eleventh. and then the last Hindu King.UJJAYINI AND KANOUJ. Some progress was made in poetry. and twelfth centuries. Gifa Govinda. was conquered by the Musalmans. and in his old age Bengal. the Decimal Notation discover-. Lakshmana. Adi Sura. probably of Benares. ascended it in I 142. . was the founder of t h e dynasty. ed by the Hindus was carried to Europe by the Arabs.

and before his death. Babylon a n d Palestine. and they carried on much of the maritime trade between India and the Western countries. .~ h e country of Arabia is composed of vast sandy deserts. T h e early Arabs worshipped the stars and were idolators. who was born in the sixth century after Christ. and thus. of Egypt. T h e hardy and warlike Arabs gradually gathered round their leader and embraced his noble religion . with rich oasis a n d comparatively fertile tracts here and there. The tide of wars and conquests continued to spread after his death. For ten years he preached in vain in his native town of Mecca . and proclaimedithat he was authorised to employ them to convert unbelievers. . on account of the poverty of their country. 7 1 to 1206. . MAHOMEDAN INVASIONS AND CONQUESTS. But Muhammad.CHAPTER VI. The tribes who dwelt in these favoured spots lived a settled life. Syria. Persia a n d India. Egypt. Muhammad had brought the whole of Arabia under subjection. The Arabs came early in contact with the civilization of Assyria. while bands of nomad tribes roved through the deserts with their camels a n d horses in quest of pasture or of plunder. A. and they never founded any great and civilized empire in ancient times. they could never develop a high civilization of their own. Persia. of Media. Greece and Rome. 1 Muhammad and Arab c o n q u e s t s . and at last his life was threatened and he escaped from Mecca to Medina in 6 2 2 . in 632. and the whole of Northern Africa gradually fell under the sway of the victorious Arabs. But nevertheless. Spain was conquered early in the eighth century. D. Muhammad now appealed to arms. conceived the great idea of spreading the religion of One God among his rude countrymen.

.MAHOMEDAN INVASIONS AND CONQUESTS. the Hindus were beaten. the Rajput women perished in flames. But for over two hundred years. under f the supremacy of the great Kalif of Bagdad. and came in course of time to . where he founded a new kingdom in 961. a n d Jaipal. but a furious tempest prevented a battle. however. Multan was then conquered and the whole of Dahir's dominions fell under the sway of Kasim.was deprived of his government.laptagin and be appointed Governor of Khorasan by the Sabaktagln. and he successively reduced Dewal. in 71 I .. But provisions failed . which was refused by Dahir. Kalif. invaded the possessions of Sabaktagin. and fled to Ghazni. T h e intrepid general then penetrated as far as Alor. The Musalmans retained possession of some parts of Sindh after this date. After his death. the empire o the Saracens extended from the Atlantic to the Indus. T h e two armies met. and fell fighting to a man.000 men. the Musalmans demanded restitution. Jaipal refused to fulfil the agreement . It was in the eightieth year after the death of Muhammad that the first Musalman invasion of-India took Muhammad Kasim. a n d the Rajput warriors rushed out of the town. and promising a large ransom. O n the death of his master. Accordingly Muhammad I(asim was sent with 6. king of Sindh. and Jaipal retreated after surrendering fifty elephants. place. A pitched battle was fought. India was free from any fresh Moslem invasions. the Rajput king of Lahore. his slave Sabaktagin succeeded him in Ghazni in 977. sword in hand. and Sabaktagin accordingly assembled his troops . His widow bravely defended the town for a time. T h e Hindus looke3 with alarm on the establishment of a new and powerful kingdom so close to their own provinces. Alaptagin was a Turki slave. Hyderabad and Sehwan. On returning' to his kingdom. Alaptagin . the capital of Sindh. 47 within eighty years after the death of Muhammad. and the brave Dahir fell fighting gallantly in the midst of the Arabian cavalry. An Arab ship having been seized at the seaport of Dewal.

in 1008. mounted a pyre. nist. who had withheld tribute. a n d ' ~ h a t i a was stormed.-He was succeeded by his son. His fourth expedition. Kanouj and other places. and to assume the title of Sultan. Kanouj. Jaipal being taken prisoner with his sons. T h e gallant chief obstinately resisted the Moslems for three days. Sultan Mahmud : his Expeditions. which has been so frequently assumed by Mahomedan prince since. Preferring death to captivity he turned his sword on his own breast and fell. in 1004. and then returned to Ghazni.48 . the Rajas of Ujjayini. near Multan. was more important. but the discipline of the Moslems prevailed over the valour of the Rajputs. Mahmud's second expedition. T h e rebellious ruler was pardoned on promise of future obedience and a large annual tribute.MAHOMEDAN INVASIONS AND CGNQUE8TS I and marched towards the Indus. . and Jaipal's army was defeated with terrible slaughter. and they all fought with the ardour of men defending . Anangapal had asked and received assistance from his compatriots. Delhi and Ajmir. But unable to bear the disgrace o defeat and captivity he made over his kingdom to his son f Anangapal. the renowned Mahmud. 'l'he Hindus were beaten after an obstinate battle. glory and plunder.was directed against the Raja of Bhatia. the brave Jaipal. H e was subsequently released on payment of a large ransom. which presented an unlimited field for conquest. Having secured himself on his throne. The following year Mahmud undertook his third expedition which was directed against the Mahomedan ruler of Multan who had renounced his allegiance to Mallmud. Sabaktagin took possession ofthe country as far as the Indus. in the neighbourhood of Peshwar. One of his first acts was to declare himself independent of the Kalifs. Jaipal was joined reinforcements from Delhi. Ajmir. it was undertaken to punish Anangapal for the assistance he had rendered to the ruler of Multan. H e died in 997. he turned towards India. but had at last to give way. and perished in the flames. and had an immense army. I n I ~ IMahmud marched against his father's old antago.

but had to give up the enterprise. and submitted to the invader without striking a blow. and the sixth to the holy temple of Thanesvar between the Saraswati and the Jumna. he returned !o Ghazni. or without many slaves. which he plundered. pillaged the town as usual. and returned to Ghazni laden with an immense booty in gold and j e ~ e l s . He collected r oo. no soldier of the camp b:ing without wealth." Mahrnud halted in Mathura for twenty days. In 1017. in course of which he sacked several Hindu temples. hlahmud returned to Ghazni it is said with horse and 200. 4 .MAHOMEDAN INVASIONS AND CONQUESTS.000 captives and so much wealth that. and the Jumna unexpectedly appeared before Kanouj. In his seventh and eighth expeditions he tried to penetrate into Kashmir. The terrible conqueror was himself struck with the beauty of the town and wrote to the Governor of Ghazni thus :-"There are here a thousand edifices as firm as the faith of the faithful. Ferishta tells us that Hindu females sold their jewels and melted down their ornaments to furnish resources for their war. "which raised its head to the skies. But RIahmud defeated the vast Hindu army. for some further distance. Ghazni appeared like an Indian city. "He there saw a city.000 foot. besides innumerable temples : nor is it likely this city has attained its present condition but at the expense of many millions of Dinars nor could such 'another be constructed under a period of two centuries. most of them of marble. Mahmud undertook his tenth Indian expedition on a grand scale. hIahrnud then took Mirut and other places and at last appeared before Mathura. melted down the idols and left the place with immense booty. which he took and plundered." writes Ferishta. and passing near Kxshrnir and keeping close to the mountains. H e then marched against the sacred fort of Nagarkot. His fifth expedition was against Multan." Rajyapal was taken unawares. in the words of Ferishta. After continuing his march along the Jumna. which was then rult?d by Rajyapal. 49 their freedom and faith. successively crossing the rivers of the Punjab. and which in strength and beauty might boast of being unrivalled.

Mahmud's tenth:and eleventh expeditions were undertaken to punish the king of Kalinjar who had a hand in killing Rajyapal of Kanouj for having submitted to Mahmud without striking a blow. he reached Somnath Pattan. Mahmud collected 2 0 . and reached Ajrnir. the reigning kilig. broke through the Hindu lines. 0 0 0 camels. T h e next year Mahmud undertook his last and greatest expedition. On the third day the neighbouring Hindu princes arrived with their troops and compelled Mahmud to relinquish the fort and move against them. The battle raged with great fury. but in the latter Mahmud was conciliated by various presents and a Sanskrit panegyric which soothed his pride. and routed the Hindu army. safely crossed the great desert over 300 miles broad. But in the end the Moslem troops furiously rushed forwards. But it is now a deserted ruin. H e accordingly set out from Ghazni in September 1024 with a large army. Mahmud then entered the temple. On reaching Multan. Chamunda Deva. . and was famous for i t s wealth and sanctity. and for a long time the victory was doubtful. and still stands an imposing edifice on the sea-shore. which fired liake the cupidity and religious zeal of the grim invader. I n the words of Ferishta the treasure found in the Somnath temple* was more * Somnath temple was frequently sacked by Inter Xlahomedans. the capital of Gujrat. Mahmud followed up his march till. was perfectly unprepared for the attack and fled on the approach of the enemy. and worship is now performed in a neighbouring building constructed by the pious Ahayla Bai of Indore. and was frequently reatored by Hindus. Here he met with a very obstinate resistance. The Temple of Sotnnath Pattan was situated in the south of the Katiawar Peninsula. sacked it and destroyed the images. he marched southwards along the foot of the Aravalli Mountains until he reached Anhilwara Pattan. After plundering the town. For two days all attempts of the invading army to scale the walls proved fruitless. In the former Lahore was taken and a Mahomedan Viceroy was stationed there.

he consented to abandon the place. but not consolidated by the wisdom of statesmanship. his energy and activity in carrying out his designs. Multan. many perished of thirst and many died ravlng mad before Mahmud could reach H e returned of Ghazni in 1026. and his coolness and determination in the midst of the most appalling dangers. Mahmud was unboutedly the most consummate general His add conqueror of his age. of the enslaving of unoffending men and women and children to be sold in the bazars of Ghazni. command our admiration and prais-. He then returned to Anhilwara Pattan and was so pleased with the place that he was tempted to make it his future capital. His prudence in maturing his ambitious plans. Ghazni was entirely destroyed by Alauddin of the House of Ghor. after. and so proceeded to Multan through the sands of Sindh.than any royal treasury contained before. and certainly it is difficult to discern any other motive in all his Indian expeditions. Mahmud with his reduced force was anxious to avoid a fresh encounter. Alauddin was succeedzd by Saijuddin in I 156. crumbled to pieces after his death. and returned to his native country. But he died the next year and was succecded by his cousin extreme. But Mahomedan writers charge Mahmud with an inordinate avarice.garrisons. they did not spread the Moslem faith. T h e miseries of the army across the pathless sands were Death of Mahmudl . But yielding to the advice of his officers. They did not serve any civilizing purpose. News now reached Mahmud that the king of Anhilwara P a ~ t a n had assembled a large army to cut off his return by way of Ajmir. They form a sickening record of the plunder of rich towns and holy temples. and died four years . of the massacre of brave. His vast dominions won by the force of arms. One hundrerl twenty-two years after the death of Mahmud. nor were they undertaken with any consistent plan of conquest.

T h e rout was complete. Shortly after. Shahabuddin now entered upon the conquest of India. and ravaged Gujrat. and his brother Chawand Rai at Tirouri on the Sarasvati river. H e proceeded towards Ajmir and took the town of Bitunda. and with dificulty carried of by a faithful follower. His lieutenant Bukhtiyar Khilji. Muhammad Ghori's former slave. A second battle w a s fought at Tirouri. in which the H i n d u army was completely defeated. took Lahore i n 1 1 8 4 . and the f Mahomedans were pursued for forty miles. king of Kanouj. From that time Kutbuddin became he master of Northern India. when a band of Gakkars entered his c a m p and killed him. took Delhi. about eighty miles from Delhi. took Anhilwara Pattan.-A descendant of Sultan hlahmud was still holding sway at Lahore. who had already conquered Oudh and North Behar. After this victory Ajmir was taken. Mahomedans were signally defeated. while about to depart from India. Muhammad Ghori returned to India with a very large army of T u r k s and Afghans. the bravest among his subjects. Muhammad Ghori was encamped on the Indus. Kutbuddin followed u p these conquests. W h e n returning. a n d Shahabuddin himself was wounded. Shahabuddin Muhammad Ghori. now trusty subordinate. reduced the rest of Behar and Bengal and took Gaur. Chawand Rai being a m o n g the slain. he encountered Prithu Rai. after a number of rninor expeditions. Kutbuddin. I n 1893. Ghiyasuddin's brother hah ha bud din Muhammad Ghori was the real Moslem conqueror of India. and took Kanouj and Benares. T h e Tirouri. 'The next year Muhmmad Ghori defeated Jaichandra. Prithu Rai was captured and afterwards put to death in cold blood. but Shahabuddin. - .52 MAHONEDAN INV-4SIONS AND CONQUESTS. Ghiyasuddin. and sent the last Ghaznivite king a prisoner t o Ghiyasuddln. the king of Delhi and Ajmir.

D.-Kutbuddin. in Delhi. leaving behind him the reputation of an able. Kutbuddin reigned for four years and died in 12 10. called the Dynasty of Slave Kings. had been in his early life a slave of Muhammad Ghori. 1206 to 1625. still preserves his name. 1 4 2 feet high. . A. The lofty and tapering shaft of red sandstone.CHAPTER VII. SLAVE KINGS. vigorous and just ruler. T h e line of kings of which he was the first was. therefore. who now became king of Delhi and Northern India. gatbuddin. PATHAN KINGS.

and every country through which the Moguls passed was devastated and ruined. and took it after a year. uncle. N o such calamity had befallen mankind since the time of t h e H u n s in the fourth and the fifth century. I I e first took Rintambor and then Mandu. a n d forced him to hold Bengal under the sovereignty of Delhi. and the statue of Vikramaditya contained in the . Altamsh attacked his wife's Sindh. but was beaten by the son of Altamsh. H e then turned against Ghiyasuddin Khilji. Nasiruddin Kubacha. Behar and Bengal. into Europe under the terrible Chengiz Khan.-Shamsuddin Altamsh was brought to Delhi a s a slave and was bought by Kutbuddin.54 PATHAN KINGS. and was dethrone d within a twelve month from the date of his accession. and lost his life in the conflict. Nasiruddin was accidentally drowned in his retreat. After the retreat of the Moguls. H e was governor of Behar when t h e weak Aram was o n the throne of Delhi. A1tamsh. Last of all. and he had little difficulty in dethroning his brother-in-law and ascending t h e throne in 1 2 1 1 . T h e great temple of Mahakala celebrated by the poet Kalidasa. Altamsh deprived him of Behar. After this. His son Aram had n o capacity as a ruler. who had asserted his independence. He then besieged the hill fort of Gwalior. Governor of Bengal. the ancient capital of Ujjayini was taken. who had asserted his independence in Sindh. quest uf Malwa. It was during the reign of Altamsh that the locust hordes of the Moguls spread over Asia and penetrated Moguls. Happily the storm passed by India . and the whole of Sindh submitted to Altamsh. the terrible invaders did not penetrate beyond the Indus. a town of great extent and strength. T h e proud Ghiyasuddin made a subsequent attempt to retrieve his fortunes and his position. Altamsh was engaged for six years in the conMalwa. who gave him his daughter in marriage.

and shortly after she and her husband were killed. she changed her apparel. the son of Ruknuddin. Though a woman she had a man's head a n d heart. and they both marched towards Delhi. Her brother Bahram was raised to the throne. And thus all trases of the works of the great Hindu Emperor. Altamsh died shortly afterwards. and his short reign was inglorious. and Rezia fled to Bitunda. her favourite was killed. assumed imperial robes. in I 236. Rezia now had recourse to a woman's art. On her accession to the throne. S h e showed great favour to an Abyssinian slave. Ruknuddin was deposed. f succeeded. .PATHAN KINGS. but was again defeated . and gave public audience f r o m the throne every day. were effaced after a lapse of seven hundred years. Nasiruddin Mahmud. Rezia marched against him. governor of Bitunda. however. but a single act of indiscretion caused her fall. who was a monster of cruelty. whom she raised to the office of Master-of the horse and to that uf Amirul-Omra. and the reign o this dissolute prince was equally barren of results. and his sister. were demolished by thffloslem conqueror. Rezia. The king's general. 1239. &ram Maraud. She reassembled her scattered forces and once again marched towards Delhi. For a time everything went on smoothly under her able administration . defeate d them after an obstinate conflict.-liezia had been left in charge of affairs in her father's life time. Malik Altunia. H i s son Ruknuddin was a dissolute prince and left the c o n d u c t of all buainess to his mother. Alauddin Masaud. 55 temple. who had defeat-d the Huns and had saved his country from foreign invasions. Shah Turkan. Rezia Begum. and she was made prisoner. Maizuddin Bahram was one of the worthless sons of and Altamsh. but her Turki soldiers mutinied. Altunia was induced by love or by ambition to marry her. raised to the throne. revolted on the plea of the queen's partiality to the Abyssinian.

A man of piety and studious habits. But at Iast the Hindus were beaten. whole of the country south of the Jumna. Balban formed the frontier provinces into one strong government and placed it under his nephew Sher Khan. The king himself proceeded to the Punjab. m I 1 ' . the provinces west of the Indos. Nasiruddin Mahmud and Ghiyasuddin Balban After tne death of Altamsh. The Rajputs thus rendered desperate. and Ghiyasuddin Balban went aeainst them and ravaged their country. The administration of the country was entrusted to his minister Ghiyasuddin Balban who was formerly a slave. H e ' had been released and placed in charge of the government of a small place. the youngest son of Altamsh. Two Hindu Rajas had. losing r o . Nasiruddin was a patron of learning. The attack was viclent and fierce. and were now in possession o all f The PunJab. and chastised the Gakkars for their co-operation with the Moguls. and brought the whole of Malwa under subjection. the Rajas and Rajputs of hlewat again increased in power. Three years after. collected all their forces and descended from the mountains to attack Balban's forces. and brought refractory Jaigirdars under obedience. T o guard &gainst any danger from that quarter. and Balban had great difficulty in keeping his men together. was at last raised to the throne in 1246. Shah Turkan.56 PATHAN KINGS. during the weak reigns of Nasiruddin's predecessors. kept the young prince Nasiruddin Mahmud in imprisonment. T h e Moguls had repeatedly invaded India since the time of Altamsh. taken possession of the Mewat and Matwa. his cruel widow. and now he was elected by the noC!es as king. in place of the deposed bIasaud. Some years later. Nasiruddin and Ghiyasuddin defeated the Rajas. and had eventually married the daughter of Altamsh. and settled the hilly country of Mewat. Nasiruddin and his Vizier took some forts in Bundelkand.

Another army of the Moguls came into the Punjab and a very sanguinary battle ensued. T o quell the Rajputs he at once marched to Malwa. and the country was once more subdued. Balban was a man of considerable ability and vigour and enjoyed almost regal powers during the reign. first to Gaur and then to Sonargaon. and broke many Hindu temples. the Governor of Bengal. Balban's eldest son. after a reign of twenty years. that of the Khiljis. and. S o Balban personally proceeded to Bengal. KHILJI ICINGS. was written at his Court and takes its name after him. now raised to tbe throne. the Moguls were defeated. Tughral had. Balban sent a n army. Prince Muhammad was killed in this battle. It is said that Balban gave shelter to n o less than fifteen exile kings who had been driven from their countries by Chengiz Khan. after a terrible slaughter. After a weak reign of 3 years he was assassinated in 1288. but returned without taking the . Balban died in 1286. had renounced' allegiance to the throne of Delhi. had the forest cleared and the land brought under cultivation. of Nasiruddin whom he now succeeded. defeated them and recovere& the country they had overrun. fled into the forests but was discovered and slain. in the meantime. T h e Tabakat-i-Nasiri. too. near modern Dacca. Tughral Khan.PATHAN KINGS. Nasiruddin died in r 266. Kaikobad was a dissolute young man and made a bad king. T h e Moguls now again invaded the Punjab. Prince Muhammad. Jela1uddin. T h e Zemindar of Sonargaon agreed to guard the river Rlegna t e p r w e n t the escape of Tughral. founded a dynasty viz.-Jelaluddin Firoz. 57 m e n in the field. sacked Ujjayini. and beat back two armies sent by Balban. . T h e forests of Mewat were still filled with bold and warlike Rajputs who made incursions even t o the gates of Delhi. in which.. a famous history of Persia and India. a n d was succeeded by his grandson Kaikobad.

and Alauddin raised the siege on the payment of an immense ransom in money and jewels. H e hastily collected three or four thousand citizens. The garrison left there by MuhamQujrat. After a march of about 703 a neighbouring temple out of the city. A treaty was now concluded. . The Hindu King Karan Rai fled. mad Ghori had long since been withdrawn. and an obstinate battle was fought. governor of Kara. Alauddin's brother. fort of Rintambor. The king Rarnadeva was taken-by surprise. Alauddin suddenly appeared before Deoghar in the. Gujrat was thus 'conquered from the Hindus in 1297. he had gone with his wife . The first great event of his reign was the conquest of Gujrat. and Mahomedan governors were . Jelaluddin made him the governor of Oudh also. Alauridin. and ascended the throne in rags. in ~ a l w a and devastated their . just a century after the conDeoghar. Aluf Khan. the king. ~ l u n d e r e d the Buddhist monastery at Bhilsa. besides the cession of-Elichpur. His nephew. Pleased with his success. The town was taken by Alauddin without resistance and given up to pillage. but was defeated.-After his return from the Deccan. country. and the fort was invested. and Nasrat Khan ravaged the country and took Anhilwara Pattan the old capital of the kingdom.58 PATHAN KINGS. in the meanwhile. mostly through the mountains and forests of the Vindhya range. He then marched against the Hindus of Mandu. The first inbasion of the Deccan by the Moselrns took place in 1294. and the Hindus had recovered their independence.~ a h r a t t acountry. Alauddin sought an interview with his affectionate uncle. came up with a large army. quest of Northern India by Muhammad Ghori. that is. Ramadeva's son. Sankaradeva. Alauddin. but eventually the Hindus were beaten. The next year he defeated an army of the Moguls who had invaded the Punjab. and took shelter in the fort. in which the Moslems were at first overpowered by numbers and fell back a n all sides. and had him treacherously murdered.

i t is said." Alauddin marched out to meet the enemy with 300. Katlugh Khan crossed t h e Indus.PATHAN KINQS. with great slaughter. and at last the Rajput women perished o n the pyre. T h e Raja Hambar Deva and his family and all the gal risons were put to the sword. and a third invasion. T h e whole country was struck with panic. 'I'he Moguls were beaten back a n d pursued for 30 miles. and hesieged the town. immediately followed. H e besieged the fort of Rintambor. T h i s was the last Mogul incursion during Ala's reign.000 horse and 2. after a year wrested it from the Jaipur Rajputs (1390). T h e first endeavour to hring the brave warriors of Mewar under subjection was made by Alauddin. and the warriors rushed out of the fort and fell fighting with the Moslems. H e Chitor. with too. marched to Chitor. " famine began to rage. Chitor was thus taken in 1303 and placed in charge of Malladeva. and marched as far as t h e ja:nna wlthout any opposition.700 elephants. " and desperation and dismay were exhibited on every countenance. T h e siege continued for a long time. E v e n after this defeat the Moguls made subsequent attempts to conquer India. A second invasion of the RIoguls was also beaten back .ooo horse. they were again signally beaten. one of the strongest in Hilidustan. T h e Moguls have invaded India early in Ala's reign. who soon removed the seat of government f r o m Auhilwara Pattan to Ahmedabad. . the capital of the Rajput tribe of Sisodia. on a w i t scale." says Ferishta. provisions and water failed. 59 appointed. in 1305. until. All the men taken as prisoners were killed and the women and children were sold as slaves in the bazars of India. and. Delhi was filled w ~ t h fugitives from t h e surrounding countries. a n d had been defeated by Ala's brother at Lahore Moguls. ' Ala now directed his attention to the conquest of Rajputana.

a ~ l d was sent to Delhi. Malik Kafur who was a eunuch. In the meantime Rlalik Kafur. the prince of Deoghar. then in her thirteenth year. and her father refused the offer of the Moslem. king of Deogtrar. Kamala Devi and Devala Devi. A romantic incident marks the commencement of his conquests. Alif Khan. on the banks of the Godabari. Malik Kafur was now o ~ d e r e d o t invade that country through Deoghar. Dlrar and Chanderi. Hostilities were commenced. Rama Deva. formerly the queen of Gujrat. By the merest accident they fourid Devala Devi there in charge of a Hindu troop. That able commander marched to the south and invested Warangal. Kamala Devi. and she desired to get her back. and was destined to be the conqueror of the Deccan. An expedition which Ala had sent through Bengal to brarangal. Mandu. was sent to Dell~i and given in marriage to Ala's son. defeated Karan Rai in a pitched battle. Ein-ul-Mulk. and had been the slave of a Cambay merchant.60 PATHAN KINGS. and while the victor was halting near Deoghar. but Sankara Deva. a general appointed byOAla conquer Malwa. Great preparations were now made for the conquest of the Deccan. where he was honoured by Ala and restored to his kingdom which he now consented to hold on payment qf tribute. the brother of Ala's queen. sought the hand of the beautiful Devala. The town was . Amir Ktrasru. wrote a poem on the loves of IChizr Khan and Devala. and gave her in marriage to Sankara. duced Ujjayini. was now a wife of Ala. IChizr Khan. having failed. had risen to distinction in the service of Ala. having subdued a great part of the Rlahratta territory. Malik Kafur sent these orders to Karan Rai . Warangal. invested Deoghar. and young Devala. submitted. some of his troops went to see the famous cave temples of Ellora. ' The troop was soon put to flight. She had a daughter named Devala Devi by her former husband Karan Rai. Deoghar. to defeated the Raja of Malwa in battle and reMalwa. the courtpoet.

not without suspicion of being poisoned by the unscrupulous Malik Kafur. and the fort was saved by the payment of a ransom. and was often capricious and tyrannical." But his rage only aggravated his illness. im and the increase of wealth showed itself in public and . I 3 I 6. Malik Kafur now proceeded to the Deccan for the fourth time. But nevertheless his undoubted vigour and ability had their effect on his administration. Gujrat rose in rebellion . who h ~ risen. his son withheld the tribute. The last Ballala Raja was taken prisoner. H e marched by Deoghar. and inhumanly put him to death. quiet and security prevailed in the provinces . and penetrated to Dvara Samudra on the Western Sea. the Rajputs of Chitor under Hamir. the sonin-law of Ram Deva of Deoghar. and Malik Kafur returned in triumph to Delhi. Alauddin had ascended the throne by the murder of his affectionate uncle. to such distincd tion and power under Ala. Alauddin's constitution was by this time ruined by a long course of intemperance. and the whole of the Karnatic as far as Ramesvaram was conquered in I 3 I 0. and he died in December.PATHAN KINGS. and his last days were embittered by misforiunes. O n e more expedition to the south was undertaken by hIalik Kafur. a hundred miles north-west of the modern Seringapatam. "the king bit his own flesh with fury. and whonow openly aspired to the throne of Drlhi. his mle was fr . seized the Raja of Deoghar. Rama Deva of Deoghar being Deoghar. I n the next year the invincit~le Kafur was aaain sent to the BallalaKingdom south. threw the bIahomedan officers over the walls and asserted their independence . 61 taken. and ravaged the Maharashtra country. and Harapal Deva. crossed the i n the Karnatic." says Ferishta. His conquests were brilliant . stirred up the Deccan ta arms and expelled the Mahornedan garrisons. A mosque was built on the extreme southern point of India which was still existing when Ferishta wrote. and then the capital of the Uallala Kings. dead. Godavari. "On receiving these accounts.

transferred the beautiful Devala Devi to his own harem. "The vengeance of God. After a number of revolutions Malik Kafur was killed." says Ferishta. n o w returned with a large booty from the Malabar Coast. Wlthout the genius or the true sgreatness of Akbar. the inhuman Mubarak put his own brothers to death. and took Devala Devi. into his own harem. immediately after the death of Alauddin. r7. he neverthelrss stands prominent among the Pathan kings both for his extensive conquests and for his vigorous administration. who had recovered the country of the Mahrattas. The King cast aside even the semblance of p u b l ~ c decency. was raised to the throne. and for the streams of innocent blood which flowed from his hands. and tiad embraced the Moslem faith. "overtook and exterminated the race of Alauddin for his ingratitude t o his uncle Feroz. tIe saved India from the Mr quls who at that age were desolating the fairest countries c~ Asia . and obtained supreme power at court. and proclaimed himself king. The history of the Delhi court. Malik Khasru." 1 . and Mubarak. and then made a bid for popularity by releasing Mubarak. Shortly after. is disfigured by almost unparalleled crimes a114 cruelties. who was a low-caste Hindu.62 PATHAN KINUS. Khizr's widow. alld h e was the first Moslem conqueror of the Deccan. This prince began his reign by cruelties and executions. private buildings throughout the Empire. Other crimes followed in rapid succession. a son of Ala. he finally annexed Gujrat aud Malwa . Insurrections in Gujrat were quelled by the king's officers. the son-in-law of Rama Deva of Deoghar. and the king went in person againsl prisoners from the prisons of his kingdom. He at last murdered liis master and all the survivors of Alauddin's family. intrigues and debauchery. Deoghar. and disgusted liis court by his indecorous behaviour. T h e patriotic Harapal was captured. and was cruelly flayed alive.

and put an end to the reign and the life of thef usurper. His son. was pursued in his retreat by the Hindus with great slaughter. and on his way back took the fort of the Raja of Tirhut. Ghiyasuddin settled some disturbances of Sonargaon. marched towards. the son of his father's master. and returned to Delhi with only 3. surrounded by seven ditches full of water and and high wall.Delhi. 63 But the crimes of Malik Khasru were too shocking to b e borne. Bengal. and put the Kabul frontier in an effective state of defence against the Moguls. Ghiyasuddin Ralban.000 troops out of his great army. put many thousands of Hindus to death. he had calmly watched from that far retreat the crimes and follies. still retained his government after a lapse of forty years. His reign was commendable . and sent the Raja a prisoner to Delhi. near the modern Dacca. the Jat tribe. he reduced Bidar and took Warangal. the varying fortunes and destinies of six kings and two usurpers on the distant stage of Delhi. the victories and cruelties. Ghiyasuddin Tughlak was the son of a Turki slave of king y Ghiyasuddin Balban b a Hindu mother of Ghiyasuddin. The rule of the Kakati dynasty in Warangal was thus subverted in 1 3 2 3 . When returning touiards his capital Ghiyasuddin . was sent to subdue the Raja of Warangal who had stopped his tribute. he restored the administration of the country to order.PATHAN KINGS. Ghazi Khan Tughlak. and founded a new dynasty in 1 3 2 1 . where old Bakarra Khan. He was more successful. the governor of the Punjab. Happy was the old and estimable Bakarra in his peaceful government of Bengal . in his next attempt. Ghazi Khan became king under the title of Ghiyasuddin. however. Ghiyasuddin Tughlak then went t o Bengal. Juna Khan. But Juna Khan failed in his attempt to take Warangal. Warangal. TUGHLAK KINGS. defeated the royal troops on the banks o the Sarasvati.

64 . was received by his son. Farmers fled to the moods and maintained themselves by plunder .en as Ala had ascended the throne by murdering his uncle. he wrote Poetry. he delighted in impracticable and almost insane projects. he kuew Persian and Arabic. orbitant duties on the necessaries of life. After off subjueatlon their departure Muhammad completed the o f t h e Empire. Moguls Then followed a succession of wild schemes. Exactions I ' . reduction of the Deccan. complished as Ala had been illiterate. Juna Khan. Juna Khan ascended the throne in 1 3 2 5 under the title of Muhammad Tughlak. It was suspected. knew History. he studied Astronomy and Mathematics. Logic and Greek philosophy. and he wholly dmregarded the miseries and sufferings which his capricious projects caused to the people. that the ambitious and wild Juna Khan thus paved his nay to the throne by the murder of his father. which proved and disastrous to India. el. which Juna had raised on the occasion. and was crushed to death by the fall of a wooden pavilion. and brought the most distant parts of his empire into perfect order. He began by levying exCopperCurren~. and caused to pass current at its nominal value throughout Hindustan. T h e results were as might have been expected. T h e hloguls invaded India early in his reign and were bought bought off by an immense subsidy. and there were good reasons for the suspicion. trade was ruined. which he issued at a high imaginary value. 'The king next tried to introduce a sort of copper coin. But with all these qualifications. and even aspired to be a high pi'iest as well as a king. he was a wild visionary . and famine desolated the provinces. H e was famed for his memory and his eloquence . He was as acMuhammad. Foreign merchants refused to accept the coin. and confusion and distress spread through all ranks. lands were left uncultivated . PATHAN KINGS.

twice they were allowed td revisit Delhi a n d twice compelled to leave it again. f Darker cruelties followed. because the . and carried pillage. A vast army of ~ o o . The people of Delhi . A general massacre of the people of Kanouj was ordered on one occasion. m d worn out by famine. H e assembled a vast army which soon dispersed for want of pay. pursued by the Chinese. Hassan Gangu founded the great Rahmani dynasty in 1347. a n d the low-lands were inundated. The Indian a r m y now began their retreat. and niany of those who had survived were put to death by . In order to avoid the king's heavy exactions. ordered the circle to gradually d o s e towards the centre. Famine ensued on one o these occasions. o o o horse was sent through the Himalaya Mountains. Nearly the whole of the Indian army perished in fifteen days. Then came t h e idea of the conquest of China. woods.sacre. 65 Schemes to conq u e r Persia and China. ruin and death to every quarter. Enraged at this. Torrents of rain fell. and caused misery and death to thousands. Among the many wild projects of Muhammad. as if for great hunts. the king repeatedly took out his army. the Raja of the Karnatic. surrounded extensive tracts of the country. Muhammad's next scheme was to conquer Persia and Tar. Capital. and husbandmen their fields. harassed b y the local mountain tribes. one of the worst was to abandon Delhi and to make Of Deoghar his capital. and massacred all the men found within the circle. tlie king. Rengdl revol~edunder a Mussalman officer and became independedt of Delhi. only to find a larger Chinese army assembled on their frontier. T h e vast fabric of the Pathan Empire in India trembled in consequence of such unparalleld barbarities and crimes. exped~tionhad not succeeded. the hills were covered by impervious jungle. were forced on pain of death to leave the city a n d repair to Deoghar . founded the kingdom of Vijayanagar in I j 4 4 ..PATHAN KINGS. which ruled in the Deccam 5 . Bukka Rai. to live in the Ctue'tv . tary. citizens had left their towns.

was Iost to Oujrat. until they were all overwhelmed in one common ruin by the invasion of the terrible Timur. The history of Muhammad Tughlak affords a parallek to that of Aurangzeb of a later age. After Humayun's death. both were learned and accomplished . Muhammad's nephew. But both of them alienated the nation and its leaders by madness or bigotry. Malwa. and the king's Vizir founded an independent kingdom in Jaunpur in Behar. and the Empire. any importance. DeIhi was torn by sanguinary broils among ambitious chiefs. T h e governor of Gujrat became an in. In 1 3 5 1 . Mahanimad died . H e received embassies from the ~ a h o m e d a n rulers of BengaF and the Deccan and thus practically acknowledged their independence. deprived of its natural support. fell to pieces. Mahammad acted with great vigour a n d tried to quell them. was placed on the throne in 1394. and Sindh. Malwa. . Nasiruddin and Humayun were marked by few incidents of Short reigns. and by encouraging learning and literature.Abubakr. next became king. the last of the Tughlak dynasty. of which the Jamuna Canal is the most important. his younger brother. He died in 1388. when chasing some rebels in Sindh. Malwa. T h e weak administration of this minor king. and the Pathan Empire never afterwards regained the power and glory it had enjoyed under Alaud-din. Mahmud. Rebellions broke out in Gujrat. Firoz distinguished himself as a humane a n d enlightened prince by putting a stop to torture. too. T h e short reigns of Ghiyasuddin. was marked by insurrections Mahmud and civil wars in all directions. Firoz Tughlak. for over a century and a half. and by the loss of provinces. i . Both Q £ them inherited an extensive empire . and the empire. . inaugurating many works of public utility. both were brave in war and vigorous in their administration. dependent kingdom.66 PATHAN KINGS.

and had ravaged Tartary. Timur crossed the Indus.PATHAN KINGS. and the king left the city by night and fled to Gujrat. He had conquered Persia and Transoxiana. but he claimed descent from the same stock with the Mogul Chengiz Khan. and Timur proclaimed himselt Emperor of India. born near SamarLand. 67 I was a Tartar. Timur's invasion. and proceeded towards Delhi. The army of the king of Delhi was soon defeated.-Timur II . and certainly practised the cruelties and barbarities of the Moguls. Turkey and portions of Russia before he turned to Hindustan in 1398. ruin and carnage marking his course.

but are barren'of any memorable events. carried on a war of twenty-six years with the king of Jaunpur. belonged to Delhi. and the inhuman conqueror then left the deserted and ruined capital of India.gles then ensued for its possession. and permanently annexed that country to Delhi Thus a great portion of Northern India. H e also 8ehlul. from 1 4 1 4 to 1450. Muhammad and Alauddin-occupied 36 years. His reign and those of his successors-Mubarak. after a nominal reign OF twenty years Daulat Khan Lodi succeeded him but was expelled after fifteen months by Khizr Khan. For two monttrs Delhi remained almost without inhabitants. Petty wars continued. Plunder and violence led to some resistance on the part of the inhabitants. I . Timur had appointed Syud Khizr Khan governor of Multan and Lahore previous to his departure from India. SYUD KINGS. and the kingdom-of Dehli was contracted to a small province within a few miles from the capital. LODI KINGS. !%rup. . and the last Syud king abdicated. in r 488. when Behlul died after a reign of thirty-eight years. once more &"Jab and aaunpur.68 . and without the forms of rojalty. from the Punjab to Jaunpur. dragging into slavery innumerable men and women of all ranks. when Rehlul Lodi took possession of the Ernpire. the governor of ttie Punjab. Behlul Lodi's accession to the throne brought hack the Punjao to the kingdom of Delhi. and this led to a general massacre of the people. Mahmud was restored to the possession of Delhi where he died in 141 2. PATHAN KING& The usual cruelties and barbarities followed. and Khizr Khan now ruled as Timur's Viceroy. Immense booty was ob:ained. and after vatinus iricidents.

Delhi. a n d in the west.but in the villages the Hindus lived as hefore.e. or heir hereditary chiefs or zamindars. by rebellions in all directions.O n the' death of Behlul. his son Siliandar was elected king. Never~heless there was a large increase in the Mahopedan population in two provinces of India. btrt Baber defeated him with a-much sialler force on the 2 1 t h April. The eastern portions of the Ibrahlm. ?nd Kazis were appointed in towns to administer justice . Baber occupied Delhi and Agra. otltained tribute frnm Tirhol~t. State of the Country. under their own village communities. its fall was complete. in Baber came and advanced towartl!..-The IJathan Empire in India begill to decline from the time ot Muhammad Tughlak. apd the bigotry ot the conquerors and the destruction of Hindu shrines and temples only made the Hindu religion dearer to the mass of the peop. and Ibrahim was kill (1. cated man. f I t was something like a military occupation. of Bengal. kingdo111soon threw off the yoke of Delhi . The population of India continued to be mainly Hindus. which last place had lately been t h e royal residence. who was then r e i g n i ~ ~ g Kabul. Jaigirs were given to military leaders. In Western Punjab thq . Ibrahim. H e re-annexed Behar a. . Battle of panipat.far as the frontiers Sikandar. T h e collection of revenue was made mainly through Hindu officials. and a l s o extended his kingtioln in other directions. and the Moslem conquerors interfered little with the old ~ i n d u institutions which preserved peace and order in the . was continuously disturbed. widely aparf from each ~ t h e r . but a higot I he reign of his successor.couitiy. 1 5 2 6 . and invited Baber. lbrahim had collected a large army at Panipat . H e was a vigorous rul-r and all accomplished and' e d u ~ Bettar. . the governor of t t ~ e Punjab revolted. and in course o one hundred and fifty years. to invade India. Garrisons of soldiers were stationed in the Iarge cities and the chief centres of Hindu influence. Shortly after the \ictory.

too. courts. "The city of the Hindu God. And in East Bengal millions of lowcaste Hindus escaped the social degradation in which they were held by embracing the Moslem faith and thus seeking equality with the ruling race. palaces. His followers improved the Bengali language considerably. continual influx of Mahomedans swelled the ranks of the Moslem population." said he "is in the East (Benares). hlinahjuddin the historian. while in the rest of India the people are largely Hindus. who was born in the latter part of the fifteenth century. and as a result. and according to him love of god was the only way to salvation. the population of West Punjab and of East Bengal is largely Mahomedan.70 PATHAN KINGS. preached the unity of God . preached in Hindi. T h e Kutb Minar in Delhi.. His Granth is written in Punjabi. u p to the present day. but search your hearts. And thus it follows that. and mosques. Almost contemporaneous with Nanak was Chaitanya who preached in ' Bellgal the unity of Go3 unier the name of Vishnu. Fifth in apostolic succession from Ramanuja was Ramananda who preached the same noble doctrine in Northern India. They beautified their capitals and chief cities with magnificent buildings. who lived in the twelfth century and belonged to ~outtlerhIndia. Many of the Pathan kings were patrons of art and learning. Many Hindu religious reformers flourished during the Pathan rule. Kabir was a disciple of Ramananda. H e preached and wrote in Hindi. Ibn Batuta the traveller were among the more famous . the Mosques at Gaur and Pandua are some of the architectural monuments erected by the Patlians. had the same object. the Atala Mosque in Jaunpur." Nanak. He. and there you will find the God both of Hindus and Musalmans. The great mission of his life was to unite Hindus and Mahomedans. the Hindi language was greatly improved. and his folIowers improved the Punjabi language. Before his death he founded hundreds of Vaishnava monasteries in his native province. the city of the Musalman God is in the west (Mecca). Amir Kbasru the poet. Ramanuja.

the language of the people. Amir Khasru composed his verses sometimes in Persian and sometimes in Hindi. and all of them more o r less enjoyed the patronage of the court. And the Persian language which was the language of courts. was learnt by the upper classes of the Hindus as thoroughly as by Mahomedans. .PATHAN KINGS. 7r literary men of the Pathan period.

but his triumph. H e lost these places shortly after. at the early age of twenty-twocrossed the Hindu Kush to try his fortune in the south. Baber surmounted !all these difficulties. Three years after. in unsuccessiul attempts and strange adventures. Baber had to meet a great Hindu foe. In the year 1494. D. Passing some time in poverty and distress. BABER a Tartar and was the sixth in descent from was Timur. A.t CHAPTER VIII. Kabul was in a state of the utmost disorder at this time. which had belonged to the House of Lodi. The chiefs were disaffected.. RISE OF MOCUL POWER. Being now acknowledged as tlie Emperor of India by the Musalmans. Humayun. an& reigned there for twenty-two years b e f o ~ ehe turned to India and won the battle of Panipat. was of short duration. L~owever. soon bruught all the revolted provinces. and his own troops were discontented. . a small but richl and beautiful country on the upper course oi the Jaxartes river. under subjection. But the dynasty which Baber founded in India i s known as the Mogul dynasty. T h e position of Baber. 1626 to 1606. as has been stated in the la* chapter. succeeded his father in the kingdom of Fergana. Baber. Baber. even after the conquest of Delhii was beset with difficulties. he conquered: S~markand which was the capital of his ancestor Timur . With his accustomed1 vigour and perseverance. because the people of India1 call all the Northern Musatmans by the general name OF Moguls. and his son. BABER. then only twelve years old. and Baber occupied it almost without opposition in 1504.

"on all sides. that he was poisoned or slain by some of his own followers. he had opened a f. King of Malwa. never to return to his kingdom.iendly communication with B'aber when he came to invade India.s suspected. and Baber was for a time dispirited. and had lately defeated and taken Makrmud. $ 0 .Rana Sanga. was acknowledged as the head of all Rajput chiefs. and gave away gold and silvef drinking-vessels to the poor. 1527. In February. w ~ t h "charged his personal guards. Hpmade r vow lt~ and !om?ke the dbsert hi. was the sixth in descent frpm Hamir. Rana Sanga advanced as far as Riana within fifty miles of Agra Baber also advanced as far as ~ u t k h ~ u ri. prisoner. . . until $ethq4. ~ ~ . forswore wine.k r about twenty miles from Agra. like a lion rushing from his lair. in the reign of Alauddin Khilji. But history. and he made a vow to let his beard grow and to remit the stamp-tax on all Musalmans if it shpuld please God to give him victory. after an obstina!e conflict. Baber's army became disheartened and alarmed. Rana Sanga regard: ed him as his enemy. But now that Batjer had secured 'himself on the throne of Delhi. compelled the Indians to give way." and Baber himself. Raber's artillery. He ruled over Mewar.mpre ~f ~ h y brave ~ h i t f and it i. and prol)ably aspired to establish a Hlndu kingdom in that ancient capital. The battle of Futehpur Sikri was foughtwithdesperate valour dp both sides. H e appealed to the sense of tlonour of the veteran chiets who had accompanied him through so many dangers. on perceiving a f a v u u r a b l e * ~ ~ ~ o r t u n i ~ ~ . ~ ' tells us in his Memoirs tl at he. or Sangram Sinha. and his advanc~ i ed guard yas beaten back by the Hindu army. ret. which was placetl in the centre "hurled destruction. who had recovered Chitor in the War dith Rana &ngaofChitor. Q ~ i a r s np.. and. and Rana Sanga escaped with t the u t m b t d ~ f f i c ~from \he field of battle. Being thus a rival of the King of Delhi in power.rievcd his bopour and defeated Bahei. on this occasion." says Ferist~ta. and they all took an oath on the koran to conquer or to die: . e repented of his sins." Many ~ a i p u chiefs were slrfin'.

leapkd from the ramparts. he wept for the playmate of his boyhood . puts put their women to death. I have borne it away. and reminded him of his exile from his native land. He was genial in hisdisposition. and that Baber devoted himself t o save his son. a bridge over the Ganges. Mahmud Lodi advanced as far as Benares with 103. Baber's deri and Rintamtroops had mounted the walls. spent some moments in prayer to God. He threw Bebar. Intelligence having been received of the defeat of his troops in the east by an Afghan chief. and after all the trials and privations of a long and eventful life. when the Raj&or. but to die. and he shed tears when a muskmelon was brought to him ih India. It is said that Humayun fell seriously ill. A strange story is narrated about Baber's death. he speats of his mother.In the next year Baber marched against the fort of Chanderi of Ch. and then exclaimed : "I have borne it away. and the sociable temper of his early years. and Rintambor was made over to him by the second son of Rana Sanga. Baber put the fort in order. The founder of the so-called Mogul Dynasty of India was an accomplished prince. and ultimately compelled the enemy to retire beyond the Gogra. He walked three times round the bed of Humayun.000 men . he still retained the kind and affectionate heart. and Babar fell ill and died in 1530. and rushed forth not to conquer. the natural candour. . He has left us in his "Memoirs"apictureof hisevery-day life . Baber immeOf diately marched in that direction. It is said that after that time Humayun recovered. until they were overpowered and destroyed to a man' and the Musalmans then entered the empty fort. They drove back the Musulmans. but he retreated as Baber advanced. and possessed many excellent virtues. a Rajput Chief.nheld by Medini Rai. and continued their charge unabated.andall Reharwassubjugated. crossed that river. his relations and friends with the utmost affection and interest .

" It is believed that his indulgence in wine shortened his days. in his "Memoirs" he speaks of more than one cruel and inhuman execution. he surprises us by bolder exploits and fresh conquests. and probably the example of Timur who was a model to him. and as he showed no inclination to submit to his elder brother. After quellinp an insurrection at Jaunpur. Though not possessed of . hardehed his heart towards his enemies.uftz$zt. and after every crushing defeat and fall. was a s cruel as that of Timur. nevertheless. Humayun turned his attention to Gujrat.extraordinary military abilities. had conquered Malwa. king of Gujrat. he often burnt towns to ashes and massacred all the garrison . He passed through more vicissitudes of fortune than usuallyfalls to the lot of kings and conquerors. 75 I n the sterner qualities of a soldier. Bahadur Shah. Kamran. HUMAYUN. in places which resisted him.HUMAYUN. was governor of Kabul and Kandahar. . zq. and also openly assisted a member of the old Lodi family to assemble an army and march against Humayun. and. Raber was fond of wine. It is to be regretted that his long and evehtful military career. Rumayun defeated the army and then marched against Gujrat. and had received the homage of the kings of Khandesh. and compelling Sher Khan of Hehar to submit to him. and retain the newlyconquered provinces of Northern India under his rule. Humayun thought it wise to give up to him those kingdoms as well as the Punjab. Raher's second son. Baber was not wanting. His bchaviour. and speaks of many a convivial drinking-party in his "Memoirs. brave in the field. Berar and Ahmadnagar. almost rash in many o his daring exploits. This powerful prince gave shelter to a brother-in-law of Humayun who had been engaged in plots against his life. persistent and tenacious in his endeavf ours. Baber was.

The hill-fort was scaled in the night by means of steel spikes fixed in an almost perpendicular rock by 300 chosen assailants. Dissensions ensued among his followers. Sher Khan was one of the many chiefs of Behar who had war Khan. and Rahadur continued his flirht to Champanir. Humayun now once again marched against Sher Khan. Humayqn still pursued him. Bahadur at last left the intrenchments by night and fled to Mandu. The two armies met at Mandasor. and Bahadur Shah profited by these disorders. When Chltor fell. and left h i 9 in possession of Ctrunar before he went againsi Bahadur Shah of Gujrat. Humayun subjugated the open counlry of Gujrat. In Humayun's absence in Gujrat. leaving his I~rother Mirza Askeri in charge of the new conquests. and thep ~ r p c e e d e d Benga). Pressed by famine. Sher Khan again made himself &aster of Behar and invade4 Bengal. Soon after taking Champanir. but very little was effected for two months.Leaving him there. where Sher KJan had already taken to Gaur and made himself vaster of the p'rovince. Humayun heard of the fresh insurrection of Sher Klian of Behar. . but was upable to carry o n operatiam ..96 HUMAYUN. ahsr made their submission to Baber in rszg. Mupayup took Gaur in hie turn. and appeared before Champanir.. Bahadur was at that time berieging Chitor. and his army dibpersed. H e accordingly left for Agra at once. We have already stated that Humayun marched against him and received his submission. recovered the whole of Gujrat and Malwa without a blow. H e took Chunar after a siege t ~ f several months. Humayun allowed him time to take that stronghold of the Hilrdus. Humayun invested and took Mandu. this active chief made himself master of Rehar and of the fort of Chunar. except almost daily skirmishes. t i in the confusion which followed. and reactred Canibay on the evening of the day on which B a h a h r lrad quitted it for D I Uin the most remote part of the Katiawar Peni~~sula. and thence to Cambay. of &horn Humayun was one. But . * Bahadur marched against Humayun. and it is said.

77 any further. and Humayun would have perished in the stream if two soldiers had not tied their turbans together and thrown one end to him. and suddenly attacked the camp at daybreak. The two armies met and intrenched themselves near Buxar. and his army driven into the Ganges. and tlie . and Hurnayun and vast number of his soldiers fled and plunged into the Ganges. and Humayun after a reign df ten years. Kamran was not willing to receive him and so incur the displeasure of the conqueror.Raja was not inclined .-but the opposite bank was too steep for the elephant to ascend. and Humavun himself owe4 his life to a warercarrier who crossed him over with the aid of his inflated skin. during which he lost many followers from fatigue and thirst. The deserted Humayun now turned towards Sindh. he appeared before Jodhpore . left Agra and Delhi in 1540. Humayun was again defeated. so as to enable him to make good his landing. in 1539. In the next year.-~umayun again turned against Sher Khan who had now advanced as far as Kanouj. Thus saved.HUMAYUN. His Fate o f negotiations with the chief of that country were hmavun. All hopes of further resistance were given up. Humayun himself crossed the stream on an elephant. and went to his brother Kamran at Lahore.000 Musalmans were drowned. he even ceded the Punjab to Sher Khan and retired to Icabul. Raja of Jodhpore and Marwar. After a march through the desert. Wnen the rains were over. but the . and recovered the fort o Chunar. . It is said that 8. Sher Khan took possession of Behar and give him shelter. Humayun escaped to Agra. Resistance was gopeless. and he sought the protection of Maldeo (Malla Deva). and thus remained for two months. fruitless. At last Sher Khan with .he choice of his army made a secret march one night to the rear of Humayun's position. so that Humayun was comptlled to turn westwards f to meet his agile enemy. after the total destruction of his army. as the Delta of the Ganges had in the rains become one vast sheet of water.

A body of Rajput horse pursued t q . wise administration. Sher Shah's rule of five years was spent ia extendtng his conquests and consolidating his rule by Bher 8hahI8ur. however. Humayun and his small train were left . and-. that Akbar was born on the r 4th October. chastise them for this intrusion into their territo-y. Humayun then went to Sistan. reached Amarkot. After several more wearisome marches Humayun. After another unsuccessful attempt on Sindh. Rana Prasad of Amarkot received the exiled monarch with respect and hospitality. which belonged to Kamran. so as to make further rebellion impossible. The j ~ ~ u r n e y through the desert was attended with iodescribable sufferings from fatigue and thirst.appeared with a white flag. Askeri tried to make EIumayun ptisoner. Humayun went to Kandahar. . SUR DYNASTY.completely at their mercy. and was sent on to Herat to wait the orders of the king of Persia. The Rajputs had. no intention of destroyibg them . marched towards Amarkot. and in the midst of these calamities. at last . and was held by his brother Askeri. supplied them with water. and after: reproaching them for entering his father's territoriesand having killed kine in a Hindu country. In the following year he conquered Malsa. and the straggling survivors gradually assembled at the place.ZS. It was at Amarkot. and many o f . unfortunate Humayun left the place a n d . 1542. H e suppressed a rebellion in Bengal. Maldeo's son . and the latter fled hastily leaving the infant Akbar a t the mercy of his uncle. and then divided the districts of the proBangal and vince among officers wholly independent of Malwa each other. his followers perished. with seven mounted attendants. . Birth of Akbar. ando allowed them to proceed. SUR DYNASTY.

obtained the opinion of a Mahomedan lawyer that it was not necessary to observe faith with infidels . he besieged the fort of Raisin . one of the Rajput chiefs who was thus wrongly suspected by Maldeo. declaredalluding to the poverty of Marwar and its produce-that " for a handful of jowar. T h e king now turned against the Hindu princes of Rajputana. burnt and died the same eveNng. however. Kumbhu. While. he succeeded in exciting Maldeo's suspicions against his chiefs. and he determined to wash off the stain on their reputation with his blood or to subdue Sher Shah with his own tribe alone. he had almost lost the empire of India. I 543.000 Jodhpore. H e attacked Marwar with 80." With his band of I 2. cut down to a man. KallnJer :1545. Alter this. however.000 men he fell on Sher Shah with such impetuosity that he threw the camp into confusion and nearly defeate d the Moslems. and prepared ft r hostilities. superintending the batteries.000men. . Purna Malla. refused all terms. 79 I n the next year. attacked the small band of Rajputs. declared to Maldeo "that such treachery was unprecedented among true Rajputs. The Rajputs were. Sher Shah was involved in the explosion of a magazine . and Sher Shah. Sher Shah. Chitor. in contravention to the terms of capitulation. and Maldeo accordingly commenced a retteat.SUR DYNASTY. capitulated on terms by which Raialn. but by thb trick of letters written on purpose t o be intercepted. the garrison were permitted to march out with their arms and property. he went and laid siege to Kalinjer. T h e Raja of Kalinjer. t t ~ u s narrowly escaping defeat. the chief. and. and Maldeo of Jodhpore came to oppose him with 50. The Rajputs fought with all the bravery of despair and perished to a man. remembering Sher Skiah's treachery towards Purna Malla of Raisin. Sher Shah did not ~ i s k battle with the a brave Rajputs. men." Sher Shah then marched against Chitor which capitulated. he was dreadfully.

?'he proud Afghan cMefs chafed under this arrangement. During his short reitn he brought his territories into order. was raised to the throne. I 545 to 1553. of HUMAYUN RESTORED Humayun had taken shelter in Persia. and S. who Muhammad ascended the throne. with which Hurnayun conquered Kandahat in . seized on Delhi and Agra. He then gave him an army of 14. the exile Humayun re-entered India. under the title of Salim Shah. and commi~ted conduct the of Government to a Hindu. and introduced great improvements in civil government. Mosques and caravanserais and attend~ntsof the proper castes. Salim's son was murdered by his uncle. and rebelled against the confiscation o f t h ~ i rproperty. and took posse~sion Delhi and Agra. and the Indian Musalmans were Sunnis. and. Jalal. Among the useful public works which he executed. He gave himself up to coarse debauchery. constructed works of public utility. prudence. and eventually drove lbrahim from Delhi and Agra. but who proved himself to be an able administrator and brave warrior. the second son of Sher Shah. the king of Persia. and S~kandar Sur. the Grand Trunk Road from Bengal to the North-West remains to this day a monument of his far-sighted wisdom. ano~her member of the family.tlrn Shah Sur. and vigour. Ibrahim Sur. The Persian Musalmans were Shias. for Hindus as well as for Musalmans. a member of his family. forced Humayun to profess the Shia form of the religion. named Hemu who had been a shopkeeper before.000 men. Sher Shah was a ruler of great ability. which the profligate king bestowed on his lowborn favourites. defeated Sikandar Sur. but he had administrative ability. were provided. like his father. And to crown all this. reigned for e ~ g h years. Muhammad. Very t few incidents mark his reign. proclaimed himself king in the Punjab. and Shah Tahmash.30 8 U l t DYNASTY.

he defeated Sikandar himself. Six months after his return to Delt~i. His mildness of character is extolled by historians. to expel young Akbar from the Ponjab. collected together the whole of the Mogul army. ' 81 1545. the general and friend of Humayun and the tutor of Akbar.. then in his fourteenth year. and. and decided the question. wished to give battle to the enemy. set o u t from Kabul a n 1 invaded India. but Bairam Khan. Shortly after. But he had neither the prudence nor the ability of a general. and took Delhi and Agra. took Delhi. He defeated Sikandar S u r ' s governor an i took possession of Lahore. The rovernor OF Delhi. and then marched towards Lahore. Humayun then took Kabul. one of the greatest of English sovereigns. nearly corresponds in date with that of Queen Elizabeth.AKBAK THE GREAT. in January 1555. but Hemu defeated him in battle. leaving his royal master at Chunar marched against Agra and besieged and took that capital. Hemu. Treachery and cruelty were among his worst faults. the Hindu general of the last Sur king mefeat of Hemu. from the stairs of his library which caused his immediate death i n 1556. I j56 to I 605. End ofthe 8 u r Muhammad Adil Shah. his schemes were badly matured. Akbar was-the greatest of the Moslem kings who have ruled i n India . Humayun had a fall. Ferishta s a y s that his indecision and dilatoriness were often caused by t h e excessive use of opium to which he was addicted. still hoped to drive out Dynaaty. AKBAR T H E GREAT. and he was certainly brave in war. The commencement of his reign was b-set with dificulties. He quelled the rebellion in Bengal. and his mrwements were dilatory and feeble. Akbar's counsellors advised him to retreat to Kabul. and. and his reign of fiFty years. the Moguls and to keep Indi* under the Sur dynasty. was in unison with the sentiments of Bairam. and the voice OF the spirited young Akbar. 6 .

Akbar drove him across the Ganges. ?'he young king. He subjugated Adham Khan and quelled all rebellions in Malwa. he was kill-d by an assassin. tie continued to fight witti unabated courage.I . But t h e IvIoguls were victorious on every side. 1556. Hemu fought. the young and vigorous monarch subjugated a d pacified the whole country from the Indus to Behar. but he refused to hurt the hrave and wounded foe.the fall of Bairam.temper disgusted al) the llobles of the court. could scarcely brook the thraldom and sought to escape it. Bairam Khan's harsh and imperious. The battle was fought at Paniput on the 5th November. Ajrnir and Gwalior and Lucknow before .for some time longer. and he marched to Oudh and Allahabad against Khan Zaman.row. however. and quelled a rebellion which Sikandar Sur had raised in the Punjab. Akbar took Delhi and Agra. Akbar had taken. AKBAR THE QKEAT. T h e hopes of Muhammad Shah Sur fell with He~nu. After seven years of . At last in 1 ~ 6 0 he issue1 a proclamation that he had taken h e government into his own hands. and invaded the Punjab. Ijut these generals were little inclined to show respect to a y o u ~ h of ~kbar's years. heart of the Mogul army. who had advanced to recover the kingdom . While preparing to leave India for hiecca. and Hemu was made a prisoner. and defeated him. now Bairam Khan's fall. and though pierced through the e j e with a n al. His general. whosefather he had slain in battle. conquered Malwa. Bairam desired Akbar to kill the infidel with his own hands. 1660 Zaman. approaching his manhood. Hemu's army gave way. Bairam slew Hemu with his own sabre. with the utmost bravery in the ver!. Adham Khan. incessant toil. Akbar himself. Bairam rebelled. Khan Pacification of hecountry. surmounted every difficulty by his energy and vigour.82 . and forbade obedience to orders issued by any one else. ' . and another general. H e continued to reign in the eastern provinces. but was defeated and forgiven. beat back the son of the last Sur king o 1507. until he was killed in a battle with a new pretender i n Bengal.

and carried on wars with her enemies with success. The Rajputs then left the breaches undefended. Abul Fazl tells us that she not only governed her va-t dominions with abikity. "were. leaving Chitor in charge of the brave chief. Ruins of the fort which she bravely defended are still pointed out near Jubhulpur. Akbar instantly fired. and one of lie most remarkable characters in Indian his~ory. anti fell covered with glory. and had given his daughter in marrlage with Akbar. ' T e n thousand Rajputs. and fled into the hills and woods of the War with Mswar. continued to maintain the independence of his people in the midst of unparaHeled . and shot the brave defender dead on the spot. Among the Rajput princes. the Raja of Jaipur was on friendly terms with the Emperor of Delhi. and brought down wild animals with her own gun. withdrew within the fort. Chitor rejected all terms. Akbar o n e night saw the brave and watchful Jai hlalla superintending the repair of the breaches in the ramparts by torchlight. but that she was herseli a good shot. the queen of that province. and her name is still remembered in the Central Provinces. Having thus widened and consolidated his kingdom. A grand-daughter of the Raja of Jodhpur was married to Akbar's son Salim. Udai Sinha." says Ferishta. burnt their women. and the Emperor turned his arms against Chitor." Udai Sinha lived and died independent in his fastnesses. was a feeble prince. 83 and as far as Malwa to the south. While the siege was going on. Akbar now thought of more ambitious conquests. frequently went out hunting. and his son and successor Pratap Sinha. Aravalli on the approach of Akbar. killed near their temples. who had now mounted the ramparts unopposed. Durgavati fought valian~ly but in vain agai.AKBAR THE GREAT. The subjugation of Gondwana is specially remarkable for tile heroism of Durgavati. Jai Malla. one of the noblest and greatest characters in Indian history. the son of Rana Sanga.lst Akbar's army. and then came forward to meet death at the hands OF the Moslems.

and Akbar was invited to take possession. and Akbar . "the heroism of Roostoom and Isfunjyar. but was saved by the faithfullless and bravery of Raja Hhagavan Sinha of Jaipur.000 of the enemy with only I 56 men. several strong places were taken by the imperial troops under Man Sinha. and bis nephew and adopted son. ~t one time A kbar attacked I . Raja Bhagavan Sinha's brother. under Mozuffer Shah. Gujrat had been conquered by the vigorous C o n ueat o f ~ujrrt. His efforts and indomitable perseverance were finally crowned with success. . dissensions arose in Gujrat.84 AKBAR THE GREAT. After Bahadur's death. . dangers and privations. the celebrated Man Sinha. . and lived in the midst of perils. Gujrat was eventually bul)jugated. and founded a new capital at Udaipur. The rainy season had set in. and the nominal king formally ceded his crown to the Emperor of Delhi in 1572.of rebellion. at Haldighata. recovered the open coutltry of Mewar. and before the death o f Akbar. but Akbar hastened to Gujrat with his usual celerity. and finally threw off the yoke of elh hi and became independent after another fifty years (1397). and Bahadhr Shah of Gujrat conquered and annexed Malwa and reduced Cliitor. For iiearly two centuries Gujrat remained independent. "displayed on this day. as we haveseen already. but had risen in rebellion fifty years after in the reign of Muhammad Tughlak. But the coutltry was not subjugated without great difficulty. on the eve of Timur's invasion of India. and the hunted chief fled with his faithful tribe from rock to rock and from valley to fastness.returned to Agra. and fac'd the enemy wit11 3. was defeated by tbe Emperor's son. and continued his reign after the fruitless invasion of Humayun. Alauddin Khilji in 1297. Prataj. t~artlships and privations. Prince Salim.001 men on ihe ninth day froin leaving . too. the chief of Jaipur .of the province." says Ferishta. and was in great personal danger. the deterniined Rajput had beaten the Mogul troops at Dewir. still proud a ~ d unsubdued. but one of the insurgents re~urned again aud raised the standard ." and last his life. Akbar's next great-enterprise was the conquest of Gujrat.

A large detachment of his army. in 1204. Once more the Afghans rose in rebellion under Katlu Khan and made themselves masters of Orissa and part of Bengal. But in the reign of Muhammad Tughlak it lose in rebellion under a Mahornedan chief about 1340. There was a rebellion of the Mogul Jaigirda~sin Bengal and Behar in 1580. pursued Daud K h ~ ninto Orissa. On Munayirn's death. 'Todar Malla's successor completed the conquest. ant. the Afghan king. and in reconquering Bengal. was defeated by the Afghans. Akbar's next great conquest was Bengal. and tranquillity was restored in Gujrat in 1 5 7 3 . Bengal remaine d united to Delhi. Akbar now sought to bring the province once more under the rule of Delhi. and advanced to Behar in 1575. and remained independent for tw centuries from that date. Akbar's generals. Raja Man Sinha of Jaipur was sent to subjugate the rebels. That province had been conquered by Kutbuddin's lieutenConquest of Bengal. and had remained under Delhi for over a century. who reigned from 1386 to 1392. The leaders of the astonished insurgents were killed in action. and Jagat Sinha was taken prisoner. but the imperial general attacked him. and Daud was defeated in a great bmle. Among the independent kings of Bengal we find one Hindu name-that of Raja Ganesa.AKBAR THE GREAT. but the connection was severed on the restoration of Humayun. and Todar Malla was sent to quell it. Daud Khan. Daud Khan rose in rebellion and recovere d a part of Bengal. But Katlu . Duringthe rule of the Sur Dynasty in Delhi. He surrendered Behar and Bengal to Akbar and was allowed to retain Orissa and Cuttack. H e had great influence with local zemindars. Munayim Khan and Todar Malla. and the battle terminated in Daud's defeat and death. and succeeded in br~aking down the Mogul combination. under his son Jagat Sinha. 89 Agra. retired into Bengal. and Akbar left instructi~ns with his general to pursue the conquest and returned to Agra. as far as the Damodar river. Bakhtiyar Khilji. Elis son succeeded him but embraced the Moslem faith.

and finally reduced them to submission. The expedition ended in disaster. were in possession of Afghan mountain tribes. but in I 581 he again invaded the Punjab. The repentent Hakim now asked forgiveness. to quell these tribes. Mirza Hakim. who occasionally gave trouble. and reduced them to some kind of submission. Akbar. and Zein Khan made a precipitate retreat.86 AKBAR THE GREAT. and his greatest personal favourite. Akbar followed him and took possession of Kabul without opposition. Bir Bal and his troops w'tie cut down by the mountaineers among the hills. and Mirza Hakim raised the siege and retreated to his own dominions. Todar Malla and Man Sinha then occupied some fortified places in the country and thus kept the Yusufazais in check. Sinha was sent as Governor of Kabul. by which the Afghans evacuated Bengal and were allowed t o retain Orissa under the Emperor of Delhi. the Yusufzais and others. was unwise enough to invade India once in 1566. Mirza Hakim died in 1585. A far more profitatrle conquest was that of Kashmir. Akbar sent his foster-brother. therefore. thc Governor of the Punjab. bounded by the Hindu Kush on the north. retired to Lahore which was invested by Hakim. Raja Man Sinha. and Kabul. Khan died soon after in 1593. and Man The Yuaufzals. Bir Bal. defeated the Afghans on the borders of Orissa. but was repulsed t)y Annexation of Kabul. We have narrated its earlier history in previous Conquest of Kuhmir. chapters. Akbar's brother. T h e plains to the north of Peshawar. and the kingdom remained under Hindu rule until the beginning of the four- . and Akbar generously restored to him the government of Kabul. Zein Khan. pursued by the enemy as far as the Indus. Man Sinha once more visited Bengal in 159a. Akbar inlmediately marched against his brother. On his return to India Akbar ordered a fort to be built on the Indus which he called Attock. and a peace was concluded. came under the direct rule of Akbar. Since then he remained in undisturbed possessiop of Kabul for fifteen years.

. but ithe other Rajput chiefs became active and attached adherents .AKBAR THE GREAT. kings of Warangal and Deoghar had con' cg4. according to Akbar's custom and policy. Thus the enlightened and conciliatory policy of Akbar towards Hindu chiefs strengthened his power . Other tribes .Emperor now held peaceful sway over the element 0' Norwhole of Northern India and Afganistan. and the Hindu Decun. when it fell into the hands of a Mahornedan adventurer. - 87 teenth century. though the Arabs are said to have held portions of it till the tenth century after Christ. The Rana of Udaipur.. I n 1585. Akbar conquered the province without much difficulty in 1592. honoured as one of the nobles of the Empire. The progress of t h e a r m y wis retarded by snow.of Rajputs and Musalmans succeeded and a new family of h~usaiman adventurers had now the supreme power in ~ i n d h . and he sent another a r m y i n 1587. but the chiefs succeeded in penetrating into the valley. Sindh. retreat of the emperors of Delhi. and the undisputed master of Northern India now tried to subjugate the Deccan. Akbar waq not pleased with the treaty.of Akbar. and supported his throne by troops drawn from their own hereditary dominions. T h e Deccan was first conquered by the Musalmans in the reign of Alauddin Khilji. three hundred years before. Akbar's next conquest was Sindh. and the majority of the people were forced to embrace the Moslem religion. thorn India from Kandahar to Bengal. Shah Rokh hIirz. the valia~?. Kashmir was completely subjugated.1 and R i j i Rhagavan Das were s e n t t o conquer this delightiul hill-country. After the retreat of C>nquest of ICasim. The early M thomeddn~ exercised great cruelties i n these secluded highlands. Kashmir thencef o r t h became the summe. by which he acknowledged the supremacy of Akbar.Pratap S ~ n h a . and conclud-d a treaty with the local king. and the local king retreated as a Jaigirdar to Behar. and the Kandahar fell into the hands of Akbar in Complete 8et. a n d the ruling prince was.still remained unsubdued. the Rajputs recovered portions of Sindh. as Alauddin Khilji had done.

and the monarchy of Vijayanagar was extinguistied. in the reign of Muhammad Tughlak . the last king of the Vijayanagar House."d". About the close of the fifteenth and the beginning of the sixteenth century. broke out soon after.88 A. Nayaks. stilk remained in the hands of the Hindus. a hIogul army was sent to conquer the place. Akbar took steps to conquer Southern India.Akbar. and at last the three Musalman powers combined and defeated Ram Raja. courage. Thirty years after this event. r) was pardoned.-petty princes.KBAR THE QREAT. in 1 5 6 j . and excessive indulgence in wine and opium . and t h e Mahomedatl kingdom of the Bahmanis. Her example. in the battle of Telikota. new Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar. and patriotism inspired tire garrison with new valour. and continued in his life of cruelty and ingratitude. The new kingdoms were Ahmadnagar. ~ a h a n ~ iopenly rebelled against his father. Zemindars and Polygars. The old Raja was put to death. 1 h e brave regent Chand Sultana. and zt". however. three new Mahomedan kingdoms arose out of the ruins of the Bahmani kingdom of the Deccan. i. yeam Of His eldest son Salim (afterwards Empe:or . in the tenth year of Akbar's rule in Northern India. Fresh dissensions.". Bijapur and Golkonda. and the Moguls were obliged t o withdraw. Dissensions having broken out in Ahmadnagar. made noble efforts to resist the Moguls. But the whole of the country south of the Nurbudda was lost.&arr Ahmadnagar was taken in 1600. T h e last years of Akbar were made miserable by the misconduct and undutiful behaviour of his sons. Chand Sultana was killed by her own soldiers... and appeared on the ramparts in full armour and with drawn sword to repel the invaders. c. after about fif~y years. Khandesh Of and Berar were annexed shortly after. 'l'here were frequent wars between these kingdoms and the Hindu House of Vijayanagar. The country. and two new kingdoms were formed viz. however. sented to pay tribute to Delhi. south of the Krishna river. aunt of the infant king.





the Sanskrit Epics as well as of the Bible to be translated into Persian. accompanied the princess to Daniel's camp. and one of the wisest and noblest sovereigns that the world has ever seen. and he seemed indeed to be stimulated by a11 instinctive love of danger. Daniel. was married with great pomp to tile young princess of Bijapur in 1604 . And. Ferishta's history of Hindustan ends with the reign of Akbar. he appreciated what was good and noble in all races and in all religions . and with the aid of Musalman and Hindu miriisters he organised a perfect system of administration. 89 Salim's wife (Raja Man Sinha's sister) died by swallowing opium. because the historian Ferishta. lastly. wtio had vainly attempted to take Ahmadnagar from Chand Sultana.AKBAR THE GREAT. and Abul Fazal. and he has justly been called the real founder of the grep! Mogul Empire. that Akbar also prohibited the custom of making prisoners of war. was waylaid and k~lledby a Raja of Randelkand on the instigation of Salim. he was enlightened and tolerant and cattiolic in his views . " For if the husband pursues an evil course. His wonderful activity. H e was the greatest Moslem ruler that Hie death and character. We mention the inc~dent of the marriage. the favourite minister of Akbar and h i s able historian.he abolished the invidious tax of Jiziah. and settled the land rekenue of his great empire after a careful survey. Akbar's third son. ever ruled in India. dnd of redbcing the wives and children of rebels into slavery. how can the children be blamed ?" . what fault is it of the wife P and if the father rebels. on the Hlndus and the tax on pilgrimages. His administrative talentswere also of a high order. Overcome by these misfortunes Akbar the Great died in 1605. and he caused Sanskr~t works on Arithmetic and Algebra. and his great power of endurance were equally remarkable. and also went with Daniel to Burhanpur where the prince died. Akbar's second son Murad. His bravery in war was remarkable. who was in the service of the Bijapur House. his inexhaustible energy. Abul Fazl informs us. he conciliated the Rajput chiefs b y his generous behaviour . and died of hard drinking in the following )ear. died in 1599. but he was unworthy of his beauteous bride. and portions of.

In religion. and sternly protiibited the burning of widows against their wishes Once when he heard that the Raja of Jodhpur was about to force his son's widow to mount the funeral pyre. Brahmans. a history of AkbAr. Agra. Malwa. and Ahmadnagar.90 AKBAR THE GREAT. A viceroy or chief officer was appointed to each . T h e latter has written the Akbar-nania. Akbar. Kazis administered justice and Kotwals superintended the Police . Ajmir. and Abul Fazl. Kabul. Gujrat. Charbaks or Hindu sceptics. Akbar ttie Great was a pure Deist.hs or provinces. permitted widow-marriage. aamsly. The brothers. The innate greatness and genius of Akbar will a p pear all the more striking when it is remembered that he owed little to education. and he honoured Christian missionaries and. and the Ayin-i-Akbari a statistical account of the country.n. says Abul Fazl. and Raja 'l'oda~ Malla made the famous revenue settlement of the Empire. Berar. in the court. but he was anxious to learn the doctrines of all religions. H e forbade child-marriage. Tan Sen was a celebrated musical composer. Haider Ali and Ranjit Sinha are names of men more or less illiterate. It is a remarkable fact that some of the gredtest names in modern Indian History. and Raja Bir Ral was a persotla1 favourite who amused the emperor with his conversation and wit. Stiias. Buddtiists. Oudh. Jains. Akbar sat up whole nights to hear controversies between divines of different persuasions. K h a d e s h . were the most learned men in Akbar's court and his inseparable compaoions. Parsees and men of every belief were gathered together. and prevented the barbarous sacrifice. Lahore. Bengal. like Alauddin. Delhi. Christians. and the Foujdars or military commanders. Multa. Raja Man Sinha helped the Emperor in his conquests from Kabul to Bengal. . Sunnis. the images of Jesus Christ and the Virgin which were shown to him. he mounted his horse and rode with speed to the place. he associated with Hindu Yogins to know their practices . and under him were the Drwans or revenue authorities. Behar.province. Jews. Allahabad. Akbar divided his empire into fifteen sub. Sivaji. Feizi.

and the proceeds of the assessment from his fifteen subahs came to nearly fifteen Krores of Rupees-an exc e s s i v e l y heavy assessment if it was ever fully realized. 9r i n all [owns.AKBAR THE GREAT. . while village communities had an organization of t h e i r own in villages to keep the peace and repress crime. A careful revenue survey of his empire was made by Akbar.

and rose in rebellion and took the city of Lahore. named Mirza Ghyas. Jahangir punished t h e rebels with l~arbarouscruelty. and used often to come to Akbar's harem with her mother. Sher Afghan refused f to give up his wife. D. was never liked by his father. and gave the beauteous girl in marriage with one Sher Afghan. Nur Jahan forgot her resentment. MOGUL ASCENDENCY. and her marriage with the emperor was celebrated with great pomp. however. but refused for a time to wed the man whom she looked upon as her husband's murderer. and sent him away to Bengal where he bestowed o n him a Jagir. and killed Icutbuddin on the spot and was himself despatched by Kutb's attenddnts. Khasru. Akbar refused his consent. . Being an artful and spirited woman. Jahangir saw her and was attracted by her beauty.CHAPTER IX. A. She was the daughter of a Persian.-The story of Nur Jahan brings to light s o m e traits of Jahangir's character. T h e spot where this tragic event took place is still pointed out in Burdwan. Nur Jahan was taken to Delhi. After a while. however. When Jahangir became emperor. JAHANGIR. H e was. and Khasru was kept in captivity for years. the eldest son of Jahangir. 1806 to 1707. Nnr Jahan. Jahangir was a cruel prince and he was too much addicted to wine to look after the affairs of the State. SALIM ascended the throne under the title of Jahangirnow Unlike his father. he sent his foster-brother Kutbuddin as governor of Bengal with orders to obtain the wife o Sher Afghan for the imperial harem. completely defeated by the royal troops a n d brought as a captive to his father. and desired to marry her.

But the high spirited Pratap was Of now dead. All Rajputana had owned the supremacy of Akbar except Merar. but for peace in 1 6 1 4 .. and his son. Prince I<hurm (afterwards Emperor Sliah Jahan) went with 20. unable to cope with the imperial troops. was Mewar. and the Rana was compelled to sue received liis homage. Prince ~ h u r r n following [the wise and conciliatory policy of. . 93 : .MOGUL ASCENDENCY. she soon managed to obtain the supreme power in the empire. Amar Sinha.-:left\Um .Akbaf.000 troops to Mewar. NURJAHAN. Her weak husband was henceforward merely a 3001 in her hands.

and restored to him all the country which had been conquered since ttie invasion of Akbar. . sent by Jahangir. . and the jaigirs of Khurm in Northern India weTc lso transferred to Shahriyar. From there he came to Bengal and obtained possession of that province and Behar.94 MOQ UL ASCENDENCY. and Malik. but Muhabat defeated him in battle and the prince again fled t the Deccan. The Abyssinian minister of Ahmadrsrv of Ahmad. but was defeated by prince Khurm. Prince Khurm's influence in court was supported by the all powerEul Nur Jahan. Prince Khurm was now sent to the Deccan and achieved complete success in I 6 I 7. She gave her daughter (by Sher Afghan) in marriage to the Emperor's youngest son Shahriyar. to be sent against the prince. but the artful NurJahan caused Muhabat Khan. and submitted. A second army. and compelled t h e imperial troops to retire in 1610. ruler of the country.Ambar remained master of Ahmadnagar. H e broke the confederacy formed b y Malik Ambar. was equally unsuccessful. . The affairs of the Emperor in the Deccan met with ill Loss and S L I C C ~ S S . she f caused a' great part o the army of Khurm to be placed under this young prince. and she now endeavoured to supplant him by a weaker prince who would continue to be under her influence. Unable to effect any thing there. and that chief was compelled to restore Ahmadnagar and all the territory which he had conquered from the hIoguls. named Malik Ambar recovered that napar.nagar. But the great reputation he had won in Mewar and in the Deccan aroused her jealousy . Malik Ambar rebelled once more a few years after. two years after. place from the Moguls. a rising and . whose niece he had married. Prince Khurm rose against his father . he at last o surrendered himself to the mercy of his father. and the latter was compelled to flee to the Deccan and thence to Masalipatam. and the triumph of Nur Jahan was complete. able general.

and had in his turn awakenmbe"ion quellsd. Thus Nur Jahan's triumph was once more complete. and the elephant dashed into deep water and swam back to the other shore with difficult?. was wounded. The artful Nur Jahan now came and joined her husband in his captivity. her driver was killed. But Jahangir died the same year. to the people below. received the salutations of the nobles. and the Emperor became a willing tool in her hands.was among the foremost on her elephant. and Nur Jahan's great influence ehded with the life of her husband.MOGUL ASCENDENCY. hluhabat suddenly surrounded the Emperor's camp and took him prisoner. Muhabat was summoned to court to answer charges of oppression and embezzlement. and endeavoured the next morning to cross back with the troops and recover her husband. Nur Jahan used to sit at the ~ f i a r o k a . 95- Muhabat Khan had gained great reprltation and pnwer in these transactions. 16a6. The attempt to cross the river with the army and to recover Jahangir failed. the royal seal bore her signature. who was on her lap. She gradually enlisted men and formed a strong party and proposing to take him to see a review of troops rescued him from Muhabat's power. and issued her commands. "is wise enough to conduct the matters of state. It was a custom with Mogul emperors to show themselves from a Jharoka. ed the jealousy of Nur Jatian who was now determined to quell him. but in the latter part of Jahangir's reign. She had assumed the imperial power both in reality and in form during her husband's reign." ' . "Nur Jahan. Jahangir was at the time encamped on the Hydasp~s his nay to K ~ b u l on and most of his army had crossed over. trying to cross in the midst of a shower of balls and arrows. or lattice of the palace. The infant daughter of Shahriyar." he used to say. I want only a bottle of wine and piece of meat to keep myself merry. She. and was ordered to proceed to the Deccan against Prince Khurm. Coins were struck in her name. Muhabat was no longer the master of the situation. The spirited Nut Jahan crossed over to the army in disguise.

and Ahmednagar. . were also put to death. had already been murdered under his instigation five years before. Sir 'Thomas Roe was sent by K i n g Roe. T h e two sons of . nagar territory to the enemies. A!l possible claimants to the throne were thus removed. who had sided with Shahriyar. I n I 6 I 5. his elder brother. 1 Jahanglr's reign saw the beginning o the trading operaf tions of the English in India. Khan Jahan Lodi. James I of England a s an ambassador t o Jahangir's Court.(father of the famous ~ i v a j i ) had served under ~ a l i kAmbar and had distinguished himself in the recent wars . had made peace with Malik Final Bub. T h e Emperor returned to the Deccan. and Khan Jahan ultimately Bed t o Randelkand where he mas killed. Cambay. In the Deccan. Prince Khurm now ascended the throne under the n a m e -of Shah Jahan. and he now set u p a fresh king and tried t o maintain the independe n c e of Ahmednagar. a n officer under t h e Mogul Emperor. Sir Thomas has left an interesting account of his experiences i n India from which much valuable information is obtained a b o u t the state oE the country at the time.prince Daniel ( ~ k b a r ' s son). H e remained in India for about three years and secured many valuable concessions for his countrymen. Shah Jahan pursutd him into the Deccan. uga-tion of AhmadAmhar and given u p the whole of the Ahmadnagar. Shahriyar. T h e last endeavours to maintain the independence of Ahmadnagar were made by a Hindu chief.-96 - - MOGUL ASCENDENCY. T h e East India C o m p a n y who had received their charter from Queen Elizabeth f o r trading with 111dia and the neighbouring islands. and h a d hitherto confined themselves to the Indian Archipelago. S H A H JAHAN. who made an attempt to ascend the throne. Khasru. n o w established factories at Surat. was defeated and was afterwards put to death by his orders. and he commenced his reign by acts of inhumanity. Shahji Bhonsla .

however. b The t u n of lfijaphr came next. took the strong fort of Bidar. But all attempts failed. was extinguished for ever. T h e kings of Bijapur and Golkonda had remained true to ~ ~ l k the promise of ~ payment ~ tribute d the ~ ~ ~ of ~ to BiJapur. remained under Aurangzeb. Kandahar. to retain the place. the Emperor's eldest son. T h u s the kingdom of Ahmadnagar. ~ u r A n ~ z einvaded that territory. Rajputs under Jagat Sinha. Sultan Mahmud. Haidarabad was plundered and partly burnt. and compelled the king to sue for peace on humiliating terms. consented to the severe terms imposed by Aurangzeb. It was found impossible. and entered into the service of the king of Bijapur.and Shahji was compelled to give up the pretended king. and Dara. which had been recovered by Shah Jahan. Heroic efforts were made by the Kandahar. 1636. then went with a large army with the same object. Balkh. the capital of that kingdom. Emperor and had given no reasonable cause o offence. and the hillfort of Golkonda was invested. and the kings of Bijapur and Golkonda also consented to pay annual tributes to the Emperor. the partial conquest of which was first effected by Akbar. Princes Murad and Aurangzeb were then successively sent to achieve the conquest. and eventually' distinguished himself in his service. Mir Jumla. f nevertheless. and the idea of its subjugation was prudently abandoned. Aurangzeb at last retreated from the country. and suddenly appeared in arms before Haidarabad. These offers were . An obstinate attempt was made by the Emperor to conquer L . ofBalkh O. T h e king. who was the cause of this war. Aurangzeb was twice sent to recover it. obtained his father's permission to proceed against Golkonda. and they stormed mountain passes and repelled the fierce attacks of the Uzbeks. The king's daughter was married t o Aurangzeb's son. and Kandahar was thus permanently lost to India. finding resistance hopeless. But the intriguing and ambitious Aurangzeb. was taken by the Persians in 1648.I '7 .

Dara. was a perfect contrast b.attention was now called to more important matters in the north. defeated and disgraced. JT. Murad. and his gallant Rajputs bravely contested the battle. alon amone h h but imperious and impatient of opposition. was frank and highspirited. artful and distrustful. Murad was marching from Gujrat. but was beaten by the imperial force under prince Sulaiman (Dara's son) and the able Jai Sinha of Taipur. The artful Aurangzeb joined Murad. was bold and generous. the Raja of Jodhpur. Dara was in Agra. the second son. Jaswant Sinha retired in disorder to Jodhpur. and were at last beaten after great slaughter. led t o a scramble among his sons for the throne. but dull-in his intellect and vulgar in his pursuits. H e professed himself adevout Musalman. and a desperate battle was fought at Samaghar not far from Agra.98 MOGUL ASCENDENOY. as Aurangzeb's .": . declaring that her husband must have fallen in the field of battle. and the combined troops fell on the imperial army. to Dara. The Musalman troops of the imperial army scarcely took any part in the battle. but was the ablest among the brothers. the youngest. Shuja marched from Bengal with his army. and transacted much of the work of administration as heir-apparent. and he meant to keep the the throne to himself. Dara now went out himself to meet his brothers. A sudden illness of Emperor Shah Jahan in 1657. but to make the pilgrimage to the temple of God. but Jaswant Sinha. the eldest. he was cold and designing. but his proud queen for a time refused the vanquished chief admittance into the fort. accepted and peace concluded.. ." and appeared only to be zealous to further the interests and ambition of Murad. declared his own intention not to ' I take any part in the government of this deceitful and unstable world. and would not retreat. congratulated that prince on his assuming the imperial title. Murad was easily deceived . was given up to wine and pleasure. sons Shuja. ~ u r a n ~ z e the third. and rigidly conformed to the forms of that religion. which had come to oppose them at Ujjayini.

but Aurangzeb remained unshaken until Murad could come to his aid. Murad was now of no further use . Shah Jahan issued an . which mark Akbar alone among the Mogul emperors. his army lost sight of him and a panic ensued. He broke through the centre of the enemy and carried all before h i m . 99 I Dara's Rajputs fought with their accustomed valour. Three days after the battle. and Shuja had gone to Bengal.MOQ UL ASCENDENCY. throws a dark stain on his character. and his cruel example was but too faithfully followed by his son and successor. Tavernier." says Khafi Khan. There can be little doubt that Shah Jahan was an able ruler and a careful and strict administrator. S o far from imitating Akbar's catholic virtues. he changed it fora horse. After this narrow deliverance. Shah Jahan surpassed him as an administrator. Ichafi Khan. records his opinion. T h e French traveller. that although Akbar was pre-eminent as a conqueror and law-giver. by which he cleared his way to the throne. also commends the strictness of Shah Jahan's civil government and the security enjoyed by the people. Shah Jahan was also wantingin those attributes of a liberal and a great mind." and that simple prince never doubted Aurangzeb's sincerity. and the whole of the gallant army was put to flight. and ultimately sent him as a prisoner to Gwalior. Aurangzeb and Murad entered Agra. and then stripped him of his arms. Dara's elephant being wounded. Aurangzeb saluted his brother Murad. I n the meantime. who was the best historian of the times subsequent to those described by Ferishta. Aurangzeb became the Emperor of India. and " wiped away. But the murder of his relations. congratulated him on his acquisition of the empire. plied him with drink. cast him into chains. and Aurangzeb accordingly invited him one day to supper. "the tears and blood from his brother's cheek with the sleeve of condolence. T h e old Shah Jahan was confined in his palace. Dara had fled to Delhi and thence towards Lahore.

is not surpassed:' says . built over TAJ MAHAL. even among the Mogul emperors. as we are informed by his historian. at once brilliant and solemn. as a builder of splendid edifices. "which for the richness of the material. which is said to have cost over six millions sterling. Shah Jahan stands pre-eminent. for the destruction of all Hindu temples which had been begun throughout his domini~n. This. was a bad example which his successor faithfully followed." D <:c>o~[c .ILP. the tomb of his queen Mumtaj Mahal (Nur Jahan's niece).Elphinstone.order.the effect. and . "by any other edifice either in Europe or in Asia. the chasteness of the design. too. and its magnificent Jumma Musjid. its Noti Musjid. its Dewan-i-Khas.L> . he constructed its fortified Palace. the author of A'adsba Nama. He founded .the new city of Delhi. He also constructed the celebrated Peacock Throne. Nobler than all these is the Taj Mahal in Agra.

and his general. Dara was once more defeated : he fled to Gujrat hut. The unfortunate prince was loaded with chains. Shuja had fled to Bedgal . Dara had fled from Delhi to Lahore. Mir Jumla. the unfortunate Murad was executed in his prison. and the Murad. Aurangzeb wished for h ~ death. After his defeat at Benares. The Mahrattas were a powerful and sturdy race when . H e attempted to escape but was discovered. and tried to form a junction with Jaswant Sinha of Jodhpur. won over his mortal enemy.AURANGZEB'. Jaswant Sinha.wasnow a prisoner in Gwalior. T h e unfortunate Shuja was compelled to take shelter. and was soon after betrayed by a petty chief and delivered to Aurangzeb. imperial throne. he was executed.-While Aurangzeb was thus securing his throne in the north. who had helped Aurangzeb in winning Execution of two battles on his way to Agra. Dara's sons were zent as prisoners to Gwalior. and the story of his death is obscure. occupied Gujrat. Shuja again fled towards Bengal. but he now advanced with a fresh army. and a battle was fought near Allahabad Z which Shuja was n defeated. and Dara had to face his brother near Ajrnir without Jaswant's suppol t. Aurangzeb marched against him. in the rains. ' . however. first in Monghyr and then in Rajmahal. the throne. and are supposed to have been killed by order of the Emperor within a short time. and Aurangzeb sent his son. he had to fall back on Dacca. in purshit. a new power had arisen in the south. and a few days after this public indignity. After a series of unsuccessful struggles. and then went to hrracan. The brave Murad. H e cution o f Dara. . found n o shelter contest and death of 8huJa. placed 011 a sorry elephant and thus taken through the populous streets of Delhi. a n d on the complaint of a man whom s Aurangzeb had himself ins~igated. The artful Aurangaeb. . and left that city for Defeat and exeSindh on the advance of Aurangzeb. Rise of the Mahrattas.

was then a boy of nine years. then by the Bahmani Dynasty. and to take service under Bijapur. And being devotedly attached to the faith of his fathers. he at last surprised the hill-fort of Torna. with all the country attached to it. he mixed with his father's Mahratta soldiers and the sturdier highlanders of the Western Ghats. and was receiving his sivqji.102 MOGUL ASCENDENCY. Shahji. Sivaji. More daring exploits were performed in the following year. Houen Tsang visited India in the seventh century. south and southeast of Puna. a thousand years before the time of which we are now speaking. and Sivaji openly threw off the mask of subxnission to Bijapur. And in the next year. Emperor of Kanouj. huntingand military exercises in Puna. by the three Moslem kingdoms of Ahmadnagar. Shahji's second son. he obtained possession of the more important forts of Singhar and Purandar. and had remained supreme in the Deccan down to the twelfth. and the supreme power in the Deccan was held. in 1646. T h e Chalukya House then disappeared. in the seventh century.. and lastly. Hardened and emboldened by these expeditions. and belonging to the Bijapur kingdom. and cast Shahji into a dungeon for the sins of his son. H e plundered a convoy of royal treasure. when Ahmadnagar was finally conquered by Shah Jahan in 1636. took a large number of hill-forts. he revived Hindu institutions and restored Hindu endowments in his new possessions. but was compelled to giveup the endeavour. and threatened . It has been already mentioned that the Mahratta chief.. and was concerned in wild adventures in the Concan. Under the Chalukya kinqs they had defied the power of Siladitya II. and obtained possession of Kalyan. the ancient capital of the Western Chalukyas. borm in May 1627. where Shahji held a jaigir. first by the Hindu Kings of Deoghar. had tried to keep up the independence of the Ahmadnagar House. The court of Bijapur was now seriously alarmed. c. As the boy grew up. education in horsemanship. southwest of Puna. i. Bijapur and Golkonda.

his s o n . and the king of Bijapur himself took the field in 1661.MOGUL ASCENDENCY. 'as far as the Krishna river. and conquered much of Sivaji's possessions. and Sivaji too came with a single attendant. while by another account. while Sivaji retired to the fort of Singhar. a dispute arose betweenthe two chiefs. 1649 to 1659. Afzal was killed.of his soldiers.000. by which Sivaji was left in possession of the entire territory from Puna t o the Krishna in the south. 1 2 miles to the south. After the conclusion of this peace with Bijapur. which is more probable. and asked for personal interview. was dispersed. Sivaji appealed to the Emperor Shah Jahan. O n e evening. Sivaji pretended great alarm. For ten years. and became master of the whole of the hilly country south of Puna. Sivaji ravaged the country of the Moguls nearly as far as Deoghar (now called Aurangabad after Aurangzeb) and Aurangzeb sent Shaesta Khan with a large army against the bold invader in 1663. and himself occupied the very house in which Sivaji had passed his early boyhood. Shaesta Khanencamped at Puna. Sivaji treacherously attacked Afzal Khan . Afzal came forward with a single attendant to meet the Mahratta. and caused Shahji to be released from his dungeon. who received his overtures favourably. and Sivaji attacked his foe in fair fight. At last in 16j9. offered his submission. What followed is differently narrated by different writers. and appointed him to the rank of a commander of 5. Sivaji stole into the town with some . That chief escaped through a window. an army was sent from Bijapur under Afzal Khan to quell this turbulent and formidable enemy. and Sivaji soon recovered and increased his possessions. which was granted. By one account. 103 his execution. after dark. with a breadth of nearly a hundred miles from the sea. and entered the house in which Shaesta Khan was stopping. But his attention was now called to the Karnatic. and his army taken by surprise. A peace was then concluded in 1662. Sivaji continued his career of conquests from the Bijapur kingdom. A second army was sent in the following year.

and Jai Sinha of Jaipur. Sivaji was received with coldness and with apparent disdain and insult at Delhi. effect very little against Sivaji . If Aurangzeb had now treated Sivaji with the generosity and good faith which Akbar always showed to his conquered foes. which Sivaji himself held. And he further consented to co-operate with the Mogul troops in the war against Bijapur. now sent against Sivaji. was sent against Sivaji. another commander. where he had kept his famlly were both invested.and attendants were killed. which Jai Sinha had orders to carry on. plundered it for six days. and the chief who was so lately crowned as an independent King. D ~ l i r Khan. however. while that adventurous chief suddenly pounced upon the flourishing and defenceless Mogul town of Surat. and the surprise was complete. who was Aurangzeb's constant instrument in all cases of dlfficulties with Hindus. and the fort of Singarh. Jaswant and Muazzim were recalled. n Jtswant Sinha of Jodhpur was sent to the Deccan. This was in 1665. he could have undoubtedly turned him into a zealous friend all through his life.isons were pressed hard. now made his submission Sivaji gave up twenty out of his thirty-two forts. S ~ o after he was recalled by Aurangzeb. and the gar. They could. Sivaji proceeded to Delhi with his son Sambhuji on the invitation of Aurangzeb. a n @ prince Muazzim was deputed to his assistance. The bold Mahratta smarted under this breach ok . and left the Durbar in anger : and Aurangzeb ordered guards to be placed under his residence. It was in this year that Sivaji heard of the death of his father . and on his assurance of safety. Further resistance was hopeless. The fort of Raigarh. was associated with Jai Sinha in the command. But Aurangzeb was not Akbar. however. and consented to hold the remaining twelve small forts as a Jaigir from the Mogul Emperor. A great general was. and carried off an ample booty in 1664. he now boldly assumed the dignity and marks of an independent King and coined money in h i s own name.

Thus at the age of forty. and extended his ravages. and sere. There were other officers also. Aurangzeb w'as trying to entrap him again. gave Aurangzeb cause to regret his ungenerous and faithless behaviour. plundered Surat. such as TaIukdars and Subahdars. Jaswant and Muazzim were again sent to the Deccan. give us a high idea of his talents as a wise ruler and beneficent administrator. H e was now the recognized ruler of an extensive territory. as a rule. and found himself a prisoner. T e people lived under the village system. and after daring adventures and heroic struggles such as have seldom been excelled by any builder of a kingdom. which led to a fresh war. While Sivaji was making these and other administrative arrangements. mild. but he was equal to t h e occasion. Civil cases were decided by Panchayets. the great Sivaji attained the object of his ambition. and had leisure to mature and settle a system of civil administyation. Sivaji was not a loser by this declaration of war. assessed annually upon the actual state of crops. who collected the revenue and preserved peace and order. H e soon contrived to effect his escape and returne d te his native land and in 1666. again. The land revenue was heavy but was. and Sivaji soon obtained from them a treaty of peace on the most advantageous terms. and Sivaji took a great number of other forts. His Mawali troops stormed the hillfort of Singhar near Puna. Jai Sinha had failed in the war against Bijapur and was recalled. issued orders for an open attack.MOGUL ASCBNDENCY. His title of Raja was acknowledged and a considerable portion of his territory was restored to him in 1667. but failing in that attempt. T h e strict and methodical rules which he framed and enforced. each village h being placed under a headman called Patel. whose ofice was hereditary. . 105 \ faith. Several Patels. were under a Dcsiadhikari. and also to organise his army on fixed rules. Sivaji's administration was_based on the old Hindu custom. and died on his way to Delhi. and criminal laws were derived from the Hindu Sastras.

and also all the king's rights over Shahji's jaigirs. in 1670. by which the latter consented to pay him revenue. T h e war of the Moguls against Bijapur gave Sivaji fresh opportunities. from which province he levied a charfh or a fourth of the revenue. at the age of 53. of which he was crowned king . Sivaji's troops made an incursion into the Mogul territory in Khandesh. A peace was now made with his brother. This was Sivaji's last triumph . H e took Jinji and Vellore. he died on the 5th April. from which his daring genius created a new and powerful . In 1675. and recovered the whole of his father's jaigir in Mysore. was weighed against gold according to custom. Sivaji rose to .106 MOGUL ASCENDENCY. 1680. and Sivaji returned to his capital. he crossed the Krishna to the south.000 troops under Muhabat Khan t o reinforce Prince Muazzim. Aurangzeb now sent 40.Hindu kingdom in the south. In the following year. and distributed large presents. but large body of the Mogul troops was totally defeated by the Mahrattas in 1672. to wrest from his younger brolher his father's jaigir. The dissensions between the Moguls and the House of Bijapur gave him opportunities. and for the first lime crossed the Nerbudda and extended their ravages beyond that river. This was the first victory of the Mahrattas in the open field against the Moguls. H e appeared as an ally of Bijapur. As a price of his co-operation. and all Hindu rites and ceremonies were henceforth more scrupul~ u s l yobserved. Berar and Gujrat. Sivaji obtained the territory between the Krishna and the Tumbhadra. I a s far as Khandesh. and in 1674. The titles of the principal state offices were now changed from Persian to Sanskrit. Sivaji conquered from Bijapur nearly the whole of the Southern Concan. Raighar. and the Mogul general was compelled to raise the siege of Bijapur. In the two following an independent chief and king. he was again formally inaugurated as in independent King. Born the son of an officer and jaigirdar.

his kingdom. worship. to mitigate the evils of his predatory warfare. H e took off one half of the customs paid by Mahomedans while he left those of the Hindus unchanged. but the treachery of Aurangzeb turned him into a mortal enemy. received punishment. Aurangzeb was himself staggered at his success and greatness. and was crowned king once more in 1674 . and consented to be a feudatory under the court of D e l h i . Sivaji would take his seat.igotv and its forbade all ostentatious display of image consequence. F o r a time he yielded to the superior prowess and fame of Jai Sinha. and any one wha disobeyed them." Elsewhere. His injunctions upon this point were very strict. the same writer gives u s a glimpse into Sivaji's kind and almost paternal tenderness for his people. H e defeated the Moguls in the open field. "Upon this bench. 107 in 1664. and talk to the women as to his mother and sisters." As an administrator. or an Arab horse. He imposed the Jiziya on the non-Musalman population. while I have been endeavouring to destroy the ancient sovereignties of India. Khafi Khan admits that. he would give their children fruits. H e Aurangzeb's t. and destroyed many of the most famous Hindu temples in India. H e had dug a well for the convenience of villagers in a barren and hilly tract. "he was careful to maintain the honour of the women and children of Mahomedans when they fell into his hands. and said of Sivaji : "He was a great captain and the only one who has had a soul great enough to raise a new kingdom. while Sivaji plundered caravans and troubled mankind. extended from the Nurbudda to beyonl the Krishna. and his simple and endearing behaviour. and when the women of the traders and poor people came to draw water. without permission. by humane regulations. and before his death in 1680. and he passed an order that no Hindu should ride in a Palki. Aurangzeb further prohibited the writing . prohibited Hindu religious fairs. Sivaji endeavoured." In the meantime Aurangzeb had alienated the affections of his Hindu subjects by his bigotry.MOGUL ASCENDENCY. and had erected a stone seat near it. which he strictly enforced.

A peace was at last concluded in I 68 I . and discontinued the annals of the empire which had hitherto been kept by a royal historiographer. This series of inhuman and thoughtless acts against a brave and faithful and highly sensitive nation for ever alienated the Rajputs. Rajput territory was devastated. and for the Moslem pomer in India. Three years aiter Sivaji's death. Muhammad Hashim commenced to write his history in Aurangzeb'n reign. T h e lady and the children were rescued by other Rajputs. Aurangzeb besieged Bijapur. and the nation combined against the House of Delhi which they hap so long served so bravely and faithfully. Mahrattas were rising in pou7er. were further offended at Autangzeb's harsh war with the measures against the widow and childreh Rajputs. As the Avrangzeb in the Deccan. of the brave Jaswant Sinha. for his house. That chief had died in Kabul in the imperial service. but concealed it under the . it would have been a wise policy for Aurangzeb to have left the feudatory Musalman Houses of Bijapur and Golkonda supreme in the south. fruit trees were cut down. but unable to take that fort he turned on Golkonda. Aurangzeb moved with his whole force to the Deccan.and the throne of Delhi lost the support which they had rendered for over a hundred years.of.* T h e Rajputs. The results were disastrous for himself. But the Emperor would brook n o great power under him. and wished to demolish and level down every semblance of authority except his own. and women and children carried away. The war went o n for years. This slight reason led Aurangzeb to surround her encampment with his troops. villages were burnt.history. and his widow forced her way back to Iadia without passports. peace with him and then returned and in- * The beet Historians of the times derives the name by which he is popularly known from this incident. H e crippled the Bijapur resources of the king of Golkonda and made destroyed. annoyed by the imposition of the Jiziya.

in the very face of the imperial army. the Mogul Emperor were of little avail against tlre system of war adopted by the Mahrattas. and they swept over the whole of the Deccan. Two years after. leaving his widow Tara Bai regent. whenoe the author ie known as KhaJi ~ h c a a i . The great resources of Wahratta of War. out 'with red-hot iron.zEz. his tongue was cut out.MOGGL A S C E N ~ E N ~ ? 149 vaded Bijapur again. another son of Sivaji. the son of Sivaji. or Khqfi hiskqr. which was punished with barbarops cr. Raja Ram. ravaging and plundering a s they went. Raighar. An offer made m to him to embrace the Moselm faith was rejected with an insult to the Emperor. Sambhuji. and stands to this day with its noble ruins.tara and nearly all the most important forts of the Vahrattas. as her child was a minor. commanding the admiration of every visitor. T h e artful Aurangzeb now broke his peace with Golkosda and invaded that place. That capital was taken in 1686.the place fell. and he was then beheaded. But the loss t o arder of prohihition spoken of above. Aurangzeb took Sivajl's capital. but their fleet horsemen spread on every side and attacked every place with their claim.ddq seven months . Sambhuji's eyes were put. The great monarchy now came to an end.uelty. H e was accidentqllg ~ k prisoner when in a state of intoxication. and prepared for a systematic attack on the $E. The Moguls rook Sa. The concealed. In the following year."jji forts. was 8 killed. one by one. was afterwards. and had none of his father's virtue except courage. and the city was soon deserted. 1686. escaped to Jinji and was proclaimed kink. Aurangzeb then turned all his power against the Mahratfas. Raja Ram died. Raja Ram had repaired to Jinji which the Mogul at last took in 1698.. in four or five years.b:. and the monarchy of Golkonda thus ended in 1687. worthless and dissolute printe.of chaufh. After a siege of dQ. They avoided a pitched battle.

While the former were exhausted by this interminable and fatiguing war. he (Aurangzeb) had penetrated into their wretched country. plundering and destroying wherever they went.the Moguls was greater than that of the Mahrattas. the latter. enfeebled in health. had subdued their lofty forts. over Malwa and Gujrat. and they penetrated into the old territories of the imperial throne. At last Aurangzeb began to retreat and reached Ahmad-gar." In the north. therefore. he passed some of the . distrustful of his sons and of all the world. "by the expenditure of the vast treasure accumulated by Shah Jahan. and had driven them from house and home . as the Moguls became feeble and exhausted. which were towers of strength for the Moslem power. He bad disgusted nobles and chiefs by his jealousy and distrust. "and I know not with what punishments I may be seized. "I have committed numerous crimes. burning down villages. a d had offended the people by insults to their religion and their most cherished feelings. and levying contribution everywhere. I n course of time." he said. continued For years without any definite result. and drew closer to the Mogul army.-had reared. and by the sacrifice of many thousands of men. Both Akbar and Aurangzeb were distinguished for bravery . plundering towns." Aurangzeb's efforts were like blows on water which offeis n o resistance but receives n o impression. of his omm man ding abilities. still the daring of the Mahrattas increased. in the south.-more than his military prowess. which the generous sympathies and enlightened policy of Akbar. he had destroyed the great Houses of Bijapur and Golkonda. the Mahrattas succeeded in recovering nearly all their forts. Disappointed in his endeavour to conquer the south. heedless of the loss of forts. were spreading triumphantly over all parts of the Deccan. "By hard fighting. he had alienated the Rajputs and other Hindus who had k e n a stay and support to the Mogul throne .nost unhappy days of his life immediately before death. And in spite. he brought ruin on that dynasty and that great empire. H e came only to die in r 707." says Khafi Khan.

they both possessed a n extraordinary intelligence and a vigour and capacity for work which astonished their contemporaries. was distinguished by a narrow bigotry. To these qualities. and a cold calculating duplicity. and ungenerous distrust. on the other hand. which. in spite of his great qualities.MOGUL ASCENDENCY. Aurangzeb. Akbar added a large-hearted sympathy and a wise and generous toleration which helped him to found and weld. . 11 1 in w a r and for abilities in administration . together a great empire. wrecked the great empire which he had inherited.

H e maintained that the Hindu and Mahommedan modes of worships were equally acceptable to the great Deity. and defeated him near Haidarabad. Their founder Nanak. Moguls . in which the former was killed. Azam and Muazzim. promising to pay the chaufh claimed by the Mahrattas. both assumed the imperial title. and he endeavoured. to unite the followers of those two religions into a new sect. i. and concluded a truce with him. of Udaipur. and were giving trouble in the Punjab. with the but he was a prisoner in the hands of the Mahrattar..-The Sikhs were now becoming a great power in India. BAHARUR SHAH. Tara Bai. . towards the close of the Pathan ruleiin India. and in the meantime. and a battle was fought near Agra.. e. . and the latter marched against him to the Deccan. The Sikhs. Treaties were also concluded with the Ranas of Marwar and Jaipur.3 CHAPTER X. carried on the government on behalf of her infant son. whom she and her party hoped to see at the head of the Mahrattas. was the rightful Raja of the Mahrattas. The disputes with the Rajputs were also settled. . flourished about the end of the fifteenth century. The Mogul profited by these contending claims : they released Sahu. . and that chief remained virtually independent.. Prince Kambaksh died of his wounds. DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. T h e Peace withthe Emperor restored all conquests to the Rana RajpUts. His . his sons. in fact. Muazzim became Emperor under the title of Bahadur Shah. fi ONthe death of Aurangzeb. Sambhuji's son Sahu. Prince Kambaksh would not acknowledge Bahadur as sovereign. the widow of Raja Ram.

cruel and profligate prince. I n 1606.. defeated the governor of Sirhind in a pitched battle. After the usual struggle among the princes. his strongholds were taken. until hloslem bigotry changed them into warriors aud implacable foes. his mother and children were massacred. the eldest son of Bahadur Shah ascended the throne under the title of Jahandar Shah. 8 . a ~ ~ each memct ber was a vowed soldier from his initia~ion. His wrongs were. plundered mosgues wherever they went. and drove them into the hill. 'I'be Sikhs under him repeatetlly overran the whole country between Lahore and Delhi. But within a year of his accession he was defeated and slain by his nephew. 'l'he dislir~ctionsof caste were abolished among the members of tile sect . however. And at last. and cruelly put to death all the princes of the blood within his reach. and took their last fortress. conceived and carried out the idea of conver~ing sect into a the powerful military commonwealth in 167j. the tenth politiff from Nanak. in the reign of the bigoted Aurangzeb. and he lost all power before his death. T h e Emperor proceeded againstthem. the Sikb pontiff was put to death and the whole sect took up arms under the son of the deceased chief. Farok S t ~ i r . ie. but Banda e s c ~ p e d . Guru Govind. and massacred the inhabitants o f towns.DOCLINE OF MOQUL POWER.who now ascended the throne in 1 7 1 3 . Shortly after Bahadur Shah died in 1712 . 113 followers lived peacefully for over a hundred years. H e was base. G u r u Govind failed in his efforts against the Mogul power. Banda.I\H. J A H A N D A R SH. in the very year after Akbar's death. a perfect equality was established among the converts .. revenged with terrible barbarity by his successor.

and was sent to Delhi with over 700 of his followers. were. and again ravaged the country. Thev retained. and the Emperor was dragged out of his hiding-place in the harem and killed. and they were allowed to levy chaufh over the whole of the Deccan. in spite of his feeble efforts to shake off their yoke. The Syud brothers successively set up two feeble princes as Emperors. and their power was thus effectually broken for a long time. on Mahrattas. Syud Husain Ali now returned to Delhi. and Banda was at last taken prisoner. repeatedly defeated by the imperial troops.114 DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. Husain. his child was butchered before his eyes . but they both died one after the other .Sikhs. Banda had issued from his Ietreat. and he was at last torn to pieces with hot pincers. governors of Allahabad and Behar. dying with unshaken constancy. . The heads of his followers were placed around him . T h e y were beheaded on seven successive days disdaining every offer to save their lives by giving up their religion . and to receive a further payment of one-tenth of the remaining revenue under the name of Sirdesrnukhi. or obtained possession of all the territory formerly possessed by Sivaji together with later horse. their chief being reserved for a more cruel death. and that of his brother Syud Abdulla. The . however. In return Sahu was to pay a tribute of ten lakhs of rupees and to furnish 15. where the Emperor was entering into various intrigues to shake off his power. FAROK SHIR. and they exercised supreme power during the reign of this weak prince. Syud Abdualla and Syud Sikhs. Syud Husain Ali who had been sent to the south made peace with Sahu Raja and the Mahrattas. The intrigues failed. and glorying to the last on the sacredness of his mission. T h e Sikhs were then hunted down in their country like wild beasts. Farok Shir had ascended the throne mainly through the help of two brothers. terms very advar~tageousto them.

AS the Mogul power was declining in the north. H e resigned his post and returned to the Deccan in 1723. however. now defeated the imperial Dsccan. Another royal house was established in this reign which continued to flourish for over a hundred years. He was the founder of the Brahman dynasty of Peshwas. and the Nizam of Haidarabad is now the greatest Mahomedan potentate in India. Asaf Jah. who had already distinguished himself as viceroy of the Deccan. his brother Abdualla was defeated and taken prisoner. and henceforth the Peshwas. but was disgusted with the state of affairs there. 115 a n d then a healthier boy was chosen and installed under the n a m e of Muhammad Shah in 1719.DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. His successors were the Nawabs of Oudh until that kingdom was annexed by the British in 1856. but took the Emperor with him to prevent any intrigues. I . but his Peshwa. MUHAMMAD SHAH. Oudh. power in India. Syud Husain Ali marched against this new enemy in the south. the Mahrattas were fast rising to be the greatest MahmttP. A conspiracy. Balaji Visvanath. had been formed against the Syuds . had rlsen to a military command aud gradually his power in Oudh. Balaji Visvanath died in 1720. under the imperial power of England. or minister. and the power of the Syud brothers was thus fillally extinguished. and not the descendants of Sivaji. were the real leaders of the Mahrattas. Asaf Jah was now appointed Vizir and came to Delhi. Sahu was a youth of little blent. and obtained from the Emperor a ratification of the treaty concluded in the previous reign. and from that time the Deccan became practically an independent kingdom. Sadat Khan. originally a merchant of Khorasan. The house founded by Asaf Jah continues to this day. army and established his power in the Deccan. was a man of consummate abilities. Husain Ali was assassinated.

but Nadir Shah. and the Indians fell on the Persians.116 DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. Baji Rao. the greatest warrior that Persia has ever produced. and his great abilities. All further transactions were n o w arrested by a great and disastrous invasion of India from outside. Referring to the weakness of the Mogul power. was originally a freebooter. There was n o real cpposition to Nadir's progress till he came to the Jumna where he defeated the Emperor and Asdf J a h and Sadat Khan. T h e descendants of Sindia and Hollrar. "Let us strike the withered trunk. and was at last crowned king of Persia in 1736. a n d t h e branches will fall of themselves." H e established his right t o an annual tribute from Gujrat. recovered all parts of Persia which had been conquered by the Turks and Russians. some of v h o m were killed. To . lived to b e the deliverer of his cuuntry. Balaji's son. Nadir Shah. harassed his troops. and Holkar are now among the most powerful Hindu potentates in India under the imperial power of England. which raged from sunrise until the day wao far advanced. drove out the Ghilji invaders. and usual scenes followed. 1 . without much difficulty in I 739. This led Nadir to issue a general order of massacre of the inhabitants. Asaf Jah came f r o m the Deccan in aid of the feeble Emperor. Nadir Shah then marched to Delhi. I l e recovered Khorasan from the Abdalis. Two years after he took Kandahar and Kabul. a n d Maharatta Houses of Sindin fought under him. and compelled him td c e d e all the countries between the Nurbudda and t h e Chumbal to the Mahrattas. It should be mentioned here that Ranaji Sindia and Malhar R a o Holkar were officers of Baji Rao. h e recommended an i n v a s i o ~ i ~ of Northern India . a n d was equally distinguished by his lofty a m b i t i o n Baji Rao. and then advanced to India. and was supported by troops under a nephew of Sadat Khan of Oudh. conquered Rfalwa and ande elkand. stepped into his office. A report oE Nadir's death caused a tumult. But Baji Rao appeared before him. and appeared before Delhi in 1737.

and a train of elephants. Muhammad Shah died in 1748. under the imperial power of England. ~ o ''Pratinidhi" of the royal house. the son of Sadat Khan . Raghuji invaded Bengal then ruled by the Subahdar Ali Vardi Khan.DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. camels and several hundreds of skilful artisans. which flourished for over a hundred years until it was annexed by the British kin 18j 3 . And while Balaji was attempting to get a formal grant of Malwa from Emperor. horses. including the celebrated peacock-throne and the effects of great nobles and rich officers were first secured. Baghuji was thereby allowed to levy chauth from Bengal. Another Mahratta House. within a month after his son Ahmad Shah had repulsed a new invader Ahmad Shah Durani of Kabul. ~ ~ . and drove out Raghuji from Bengal but was subsequently compelled to come to terms with him. . Contributions were also levied on governors of provinces . Balaji obtained the grant he sought for. independence in consequence of the weakness of the imperial house. that of the Gaekwars of Baroda has been founded by Pildji Rao Gaekwar. Baji Rao died in 1740. several millions in gold and silver plate. AHMAD SHAH. and was succeeded by his son Balaji Rao. and the grim spoiler at last left Delhi after a residence of two months with a spoil of eight or nine millions sterling in money. A rival to him had appeared in Raghuji Bhonsla. the~ ~ ~ h I t " .Baroda. and continues $0 flourish to the present day. and the common people were then subjected to every species of cruelty to disclose the amount of their fortunes and to pay accordingly. The imperial treasures and jewels. Safdar Jang. - 117 t h i s succeeded plunder. besides jewels which were not valued. T h e short reign of Ahmad Shah was marked by a war with the Rohillas who had risen to power and dohillas. Behar a n d founded the Bhonsla House of Nagpur.

a n d reduced it to a state from which it did not recover for many years. was now appointed minister by the Emperor. the Peshwa's brother. This was followed by a massacre of the unoffending inhabitants 06 Mathura in the midst of a religious festival which they were celebrating.Delhi. took Delhi and recovered the Punjab. who had now made himself the minister. H e then called in the Mahrattas to his aid. not only recovered the Punjab. This led to a fresh invasion by Ahmad Shah. and his cousin Panlput. and Raghaba. and obtained possession of Ahmad Shah the province without much difficulty. emperor was soon after deposed by Ghaziuddin. T h e Dumnl conquers the Punjab. . As soon as Ahmad Shah left India. Sadaseo Rao Bhao came to Northern India. ALAMGIR 11..and Delhi once more presented a scene of slaughter and rapine. The power of the Mahrattas was now at its zenith. Ahmad Shah Durani of Kabul made a second invasion into the Punjab. but h e f was defeated by the brave Rohillas. a son of Asaf Jah of the Deccan. came to Northern India. Raghaba Battle had returned to the Deccan. The Mahrattas ravaged the country. who raised a prince of the royal blood to the throne under the name of Alamgir II* in 1754. o Oudh. Sadaseo took Delhi and proposed t~ proclaim Visvas Rao. Ghaziuddin. and they were supreme from the Himalayas to Cape Comorin. Ghaziuddin called in the Mahrattas.118 DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. and with their help defeated the Rohillas in a pitched battle. Emperor of India The Emperor Auraogzeb waa Alamgir I. took possession of Lahore by treachery. son of the Peshwa. Ahmad Ahmad Shah Shah Durani hastened to revenge this act. to face the great invader. but took Delhi and plundered and ravaged that city . and Durani t d e ~ .

besides about 20. at this date. he was seldom interfered with. therefore.i followers. The history of the Mogul Empire terminates. or commanders of forces' maintained peice and order in districts. 119 The measure was postponed till the Duranis were expelled from India. A great battle. and intrenched himself. Shah Alam. briefly alluded to in our account of the reign of Akbar. and his son. Malhar Rao Holkar and Nana Farnavis escaped by flight. and acknowledged the supremacy of the Emperor. The empire was divided into provinces or subahs. and the office sometimes descended from father to son. The Viceroy was practically supreme in his own province. After the close of the rains Ahmad Shah marched against Sadaseo.DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. and a Subahdar or Viceroy was appointed to each province. and 38'000 Indian infantry. Visvas Rao and Sadaseo Rao being among the slain. and Fouzdars. Ahmad Shah had 49. Icazis were appointed in towns to try civil cases. Mahdaji Sindia (son of Ranaji) was lamed for lite. and Kotwals were the heads of tow11 police.000 predatory horse an.000 paid horse and infantry. and as long as he remitted the imperial revenue with regularity. Dewans were appointed under Viceroys to collect revenue. No such officers were appointed in agricultural State of t h e Country.000 Afghans. T h e Mahratta army consisted of about 70. was an exile in Bengal. Sindia and Holkar extenjed Mahratta conquests and power in Northern India at a subsequent period.-The . . I 3. which is known as the Third Battle of Paniput was fought in I 761.000 Indian horse. The Mahratta army was totally defeated. T h e Mthratta pomer was crushed in Northern India. and was never virtually Emperor. and the Peshwaj never recovered that power again. Alamgir I1 had been murdered in I 759 . but was unwilling to attack such a vastly superior force. system of administration adopted by the Moguls has already been Administration.

and conciliated the Subahdar by gifts o r the payment of additional revenue. Jaigirs were often granted by the Emperor to meritorious 0 f f i ~ e r Or to fdvourites. and a percentage o n debts realized by the help of n~agistrates. preserved peace. Withln their own estates the jaigirdars and zemindars were practically the lards of the villages. subject to payment of rent to jaigirdars and zarnindars o r of revenue direct to the State. preserved order a n d peace. t o multiply such jaigirs. therefore. Various taxes also swelled t h e imperial revenue. a n d exerc~sedcriminal and police powers. villages. taxes on spirits. and he adopted the fixed rule of paying his officers in money. All lands held by the people. added to their estates by robbing their neighbours. and paid the quota of land revenue due from each village to the royal officers. T h e State revenue was realized by the Subahdar and remitted to the imperial treasury. bdt by the gifts of jaigirs. because the creatlon of j ~ i g i r s mas a decrease of the imperial revenue . v~llagz c3mmunities administered their own affairs. Tolls. local zemindars had rights similar to those of the jaigirdars. by immem3rial custom in India. and enjoyed t h e revenues of their estates subject to the payment of the imperial revenue. gambling-houses. taxes on all trades and on live stock.120 DECLINE OF MOGUL POWER. brothels. It is needless to add that in troublesome times the jaigirdars and zemindars often fought among themselves. enjoyed the revenue derive\i from their jaigirs. Military officers under the empire were often remunerated. T h e Emperor Akbar set his face against this policy. as. subject t o the payment of the imperial revenue. house-cess. and jaigirdars multiplied in all parts of India. . and transmitted them to their descendants. and there was a constant tendency. and srlch jaigirdars ~ Jaipirdarsand Zemindars. Jn Rengal. and the performance of the duties imposed on them. collections at Hindu and Mahornedan fairs and festivals. But weaker Emperors did not or could not always adhere to this healthy rule. not by fixed pay. a s a s well as in many other parts of India.

Hut the same writer tells us. . . was chronic in those times. By degrees." And further on.I DECLINE OF MOUUL POWER. Such oppression. and it must not b e supposed that it killed off arts o r manufactures o r trades in India. however prone they might be to exactions. that these and other imposts. goods a n d merchandize pay double their cost in tolls. And agriculture and trade suffered much from the oppression of the men in power. though they lived in fear of the great. now exact more than ever from the traders and poor and necessitous travellers. where the people were at the mercy of local chiefs or governors. matters have come to such a pass. T h e rulers uf great kingdoms were sometimes wise a n d beneficent. that between the time of leaving t h e factory o r port and reaching their destination. and we are told by that historian. by force and tyranny. nearly eighty m nrrrnbrr. but their power scarcely extended to the provinces. unostentatious way. I a r e enumerated by Khafi Khan . and it was not the interest of Subahdars o r jaigirJ a r s o r zemindars to ruin their province or their estate. knew how to conc~liate them. 121 . seeing that n o inquiries a r e made. he says : " In most parts of the imperial territories the fouzdars and jaigirdars. The system of administration power. that "the royal proclamation had n o effect. Condition of the people. T h e zemindars also. speaking of the Rahdari. T h e people plied their humble trades and professions under the shadow of the royal power. extort more on roads within their boundaries than is collected o n roads under royal officers. T h e people. s e r e abolished hy Aurangzeb throughout Hindustan on one occasion of scarcity. and large commercial transactions were carried on in a quiet. manufactures flourished. and fouzdars and jaigirdars in remote places did not withhold their hands from these exactions. War was less disastrous in India than in Europe during the same ." T h i s gives u s an insight into the real weakness of the adof popular ministration. however. was in fast as rude as prevailed in most parts o Europe in the sixteenth and seventeenth and eighteenth f centuries. o r tolls.

Bengal was the great granary of India. and the fields were covered with rice and sugarcane. with an abundant supply of the simple food they stood in need of. and trade flourished. silk. And the accountsof European travellers who visited India from the thirteenth to the seventeenth century leave little doubt that arts. Crowded towns. and were also exported to the other parts of the country. teenth century. Bengal sugar was exported as far as the Karnatic. opium and various drlg3 were also produced. The condition of the agriculturists. centuries. and villages were situated on both sides. is lavish in his praise of the beauty and the abundant supplies of the country. fruits and live stock and fish were pler~tiful and cotton. . mustard and feel. saltpetre. tolerably well in India during the Musalman rule. and the fertile soil of the country supplied the agriculturists. He saw numerous crteks or canals on both sides of the Hughli. and its abundant rice crops supplied the needs of the people. and that the material condition of the common people was not unsatisfactory. . lac. was better than that of agriculturists in many European countries in the same age. who lived in their Village Communities in India. who have always formed the bulk of the Indian people. The celebrated French traveller Bernier who travelled from place to place in the latter part of the sevenBernler. from Rajmahal to the sea. who were little better than serfs.122 DEOLINE OF MOGUL POWER.

ooo miles of coast. when he actually discovered America. arrived at Calicut on the Malabar Coast. and attempted to discover a direct route to India by sea. long maintained a sort of monopoly of the trade of the Mediterranean Sea. The products and manufactures of India were greatly valued in Europe hy the ancients. to dbtain a share in this trade. T h e Portuguese rose as a naval and commercial power as The Portuguese the Italian cities declined. he conq u e s d Malacca after an obstinate defence. The daring and in theEut. the route to India. and. all the principal . by sea. and in the Middle Ages. an extent of I a. From the Cape of Good Hope to the frontier of China. and the proudest sea-port in Asia. H e conquered Goa and made it the capital of the Portuguese possessions in the East. in order to reach India by that route. Arabtraders carried Indian commodities to Bagdad and Syria a n d Constantinople. whence they found their way to many ports in Europe. in 14ga. in 1497. across the Atlantic. Five years after. a Portuguese navigator. by her position. comprehensive genius of Alfonso de Albuquerque soon established the supremacy of the Portuguese through all the Indian Seas. and in r 5 I 4.CHAPTER XJ RISE OF BRITISEI POWER. the key to the trade of Persia. round theCape of Good Hope. was actually discovered. and believed he had reached India. KARNATIC. and Vasco da Gama. Columbus sailed' westwards. and Venetian an& Genoese merchants carried the products of the Easl to thekings and nobles of all parts of ~ u r o ~ eOtter nations trie& . Italy. he conquered Ormuz. The Portuguese empire was in the height of its power during the sixteenth century. in the Persian Gulf.

The French and the English contended for supremacy in India in the eighteenth century. of territory and population vastJy in excess of those of Holland itself.cherry in I 673. . The French in theEast. Dutch influence and trade declined. the English bought from the Dutch their last Indian possession of . D~~~~ in the East. Malacca and the Spice Islands in the Indian Archipelago. the ~ u ~ c h ~1ndiat Coma s pany was formed. and Masalipatam on the Coromandel Coast. Mozamcbique in Africa. and in 1824. in 1623. T ~ O ~ ~h. throughout the sixteenth century. made an effort to have a share in the trade with India. e. Throughout the seventeenth century. and Pondicherry $ecame the capital of Frerich India. Thomas. The first French East India Company was founded in I 604. he compelled the English. I n 1619. Muscat in Arabia.. Ormuz in Persia. . Goa.t~h in she shook off the yoke of Spain in the latter the East. Holland fast rose as a naval and commercial power. But as the Dutch rose in power the Portuguese fell. too. Their settlement at Serampore was -bought by the English in 1845. who thus India. in Pondi. In the following century. the Dutch founded Batavia in Java. and Goa and one or two other insignificant places are all they now possess in India. . the monopoly of the trade with the East.. and they gradually wrested from the Portuguese many of their marts were in the possession of the Portuguese. Cochin and other ports on the Malabar Coast. as the British power rose . to retire from the Eastern Archipelago. Madras.2 24 RISE OF BRITISH POWER. The Danes. But Sumatra and Java still own the supremacy of Holland. all belonged to the Portuguese. half of the sixteenth century. and contain an exten. after the massacre of Amboyna. in 1602. Factories were established in Surat in I 664. but never had much influence or power. Diu. both in the Archipelago and . when . Early in the seventeenth century i. and. St. and in Chandarnagar in I 688 .in India. the Dutch were supreme )in the Archipelago.Chinsura.

In the following year. but after 1623. and thus founded Madras. del Coast to destroy the French settlements. whom Charles 11. Patna. in 1 6 8 7 I n Bengal. to Bombay. and the Company removed their trading concerns from Surat. George. I t had I 2 5 shareholders. Hugli. War broke out between the English and the French in Europe in 1744.t war in the . a descendant of the Hindu H o u s e of Bijayanagar. came down to the site of modern Calcutta. I n 1661. where they had a factory before. I n the following year. the Subahdar issued orders confiscating all the English factories in Bengal. they bought a site from the Raja nf Chandragiri. and turned their attention more exclusively to India. I n 1686. and Anwaruddin prohibited the English from carrying on war within his dominions. of England married.RISE OF BRITISH POWICK. a French fleet appeared under L a B o ~ r d o l ~ n a i s . the island of Bombay was ceded by Portugal to the British Crown as part of the dowry of the princess. I n 1639. the English had factories in Kasimbazar. the English practically left those islands to the Dutch. and was the first private Company formed to carry on the Eastern trade. Govindapur and Kalikata (Calcutta) were formally purchased by the English from the son of Aurangzeb. an English fleet appeared off the Cupleix was then the Governor of Pondicherry. 125 The the East. but had n o territorial possessions till the close of the century. under Job Charnock. where he laid the foundations of a fort.7o. Carnatic. T h e English East India Company was established in. in 1600. and asked for 'his protection. sold his rights over Bombay to the East India Company for L I O . Dacca. and the merchants of Huqli. I n 1700 the three villages of Sutanuti. and other places. Madras surrendered to L a Bourdonnais on the pledge that it would b e restored to the English on the payment of a Fir. Charles 11. and built Fort St. At first the company turned its attention to the Indian Archipelago. Nawab of the Icarnatic. and a capipal of A. H e made presents to Anwaruddin.

It was a surprise to all. and for the first time proved how the humble traders from Europe were immensely superior in disciplined valour t o the vast armies led by the Indians chiefs. and the English were compelled to retire. La Bourdonnais left India. the great army was defeated by a French force of a few hundred men. Jah. Soon after. Major Lawrence arrived from England and -took the command of the land we saw in the last chapter. the attempt failed. La Bourdonnaia waa im~rironedin the Baatile for three years and died shortly after his release: . and the French sided with one party. In 1748. and the English were sent to Pondi-cherry as prisoners of war. were bothmade by the French.there was a dispute for the throne. v i ~ . and confiscated all the property of the English. Asaf Duplelx. for conquering India. but after a siege of two months. The Nawab was annoyed at those proceedings of the French. and sent an army of ~ o . Similarly there was a dispute for t h e throne of the Karnatic and Dupleix favoured one of t h e claimants. T o his surprise. Dupleix now indulged in ambitious schemes to establish Fiench supremacy in India. O n his return to France. and Madras was restored to the English. . The treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle was concluded between England and France in the same.* and DupJeix declined to respect the pledge.the weakness of Indian armies against European discipline. remarks Mr. A combined attack was made on Pondicherry by land and sea. who had founded the House of the Nizams in the ~ e c c a n . died i n 1748. T h e two important discoveries. and the facility of imparting that discipline to Indian sepoys in European service. Madras thus became a French settlement for a time.9 26 RISE OF BRITISH POWER. o o o men to capture Madras. ransom. while Admiral Boscawen c a m e with an English fleet. Mill.year. His endeavours were crowned with success *The French nation treated this diatinguished offioerhith ingratitude.

was closely besieged in Trichinopoly by the French and Chanda Saheb. and thus to compel the besiegers of Trichinopoly t o raise the siege. I n the Karnatic. Muhammad Ali. rescue Arcot. When war broke out between the French and the English. marched against Arcot . he entered the military service of the Company as an ensign . Salabat. also a creature of the French was supreme. O n his return from Trichinopoly to Madras. as writer in the Mercantile service aive. Clive made his escape in a Mahomedan dress. Two years after. son of the late Nawab. Clive hit upon a bold scheme. and fled to Fort St. For fifty days Clive repulsed all . But the daring genius of Clive retrieved their fortunes in the Karnatic. A large portion of the army besiegi jg Trichinopoly. a creature of the French. in which he distinguished himself by his daring intrepidity. was sent to Siege o f Arc&. the garrison left the fort in panic. David. was raised to the throne of the Deccan through the influence of the able French Officer. and when Madras was taken by the French in 1746. Chanda Saheb. tiis rival. and Clive took possession of it without a blow Clive's expectations were fulfilled. In r 7 j I he went to Trichinopoly as Commissary with the forces which were sent to help Muhammad Ali against the French. which exactly suited Clive's daring genius. Captain Clive second war in ths Karnatic. of the Company.RISE OF BEITISH POWER. to hold it for Mahammad Ali. Bussy. he took a part in the unsuccessful siege of ~ o n d i c h e r r ~ . to take that place by assault. With 100 Europeans and 300 sepoys. 127 in both the kingdoms. Robert Clive had come out to Madras in 1744. and come to the relief of Arcot-was a bold manceuvre. Arcot was the-capital of the Nawabs of -the Karnatic . and was already offering to surrender. For a time the English were bewildered at the ambition of Dupleix and the success of his schemes. at the age of nineteen.

but was beaten back. the French achieved a triumph in the Deccan. Salabat T h e French in Jung could not maintain his position without t h e Northern Circars. altacks and held the fort. and refused to depart. T h e besiegers then raised siege and fled. H e also took some strongholds for Muhammad Ali in the Karnatic but Major Lawrence now returned from Europe and took the command in 17j2. 1 he French force capitulated. and their creature RIuhammed Ali was now de facfo Nawab of the Karnatic.and the Mysorians continuell the siege. Lawrence went to Trichinopoly to help Muhammad Ali in his defence. When the English triumphed in the Karnatic. Even in the Karnatic the prospects of the English again became clouded. I n the following year Clive left for England. 'The success of the English a t 7'richinopoly was thus complete. The Frencti. a n d h e therefore ceded the whole of the Northern Circars to the French. a n d the regent of Mysore came with his own army and with a body of Mahratta. and Clive pursued and dispersed thern. and all English garrison had to be left to defend the place. and other allies also came to help him. Siege of Trich'nOpo'v. the support of Bussy and the French army. T h e besiegers were now humbled. I 7 55 by w l ~ i c l ~e English obtaiued every tlii~igt h y were fighting h for. Muhammad Ali's Rlysore allies were disappointed of the rewards they had expected. and Captain Clive now acted under him a s second in command. for the permanent maintenance of their forces. Ttie final attack was given by t h e Mahomedans. A force came from Tanjore. I 7 jz. Muhammad Ali remained virtually the Nawab of the K a r n a t i c . I 7 5 4 .128 RISE OF BRITISH POWER. and the French lost every advantage they-had gained. and thus active operations went on at 'Trichinopoly f o r another eighteen months until October. and peace was concluded at Pondicherry in January. Chanda Shaheb surrendered himself to the Tanjore general and was killed. England and Fiance now decided to terminate this Indian war.

The Raja of Vizianagram revolted against the successor of Fall of the French i n the BUSSY. who was sent out as Governor-General of the French possessions in India. 1 7 6 1 . David. Lally and his mutinous troops were Battieof Wandodefeated by the English under Colonel Coote wash. but the garrison was starved into a captulation in January. David from the English and then made preparation to take Madras. I n December. Lally made an obstinate resistance. and on the arrival of an English fleet the siege was raised in February. Pondicherry and some other places were restored to the French by the treaty of Paris. where that officer had firmly established French influence and power. who was then in and Deccan. Henceforth the English remained supreme in the Karnatic. This was the culminating incident of the downfall of French power in India. for help. Bent upon this great object. Bussy protested. and in 17j8. 129 War broke out again between France and England. at Wandewash. but the French never regained their former influence and power in India. and Colonel Forde eventually drove them out of the Northern Circars. but in vain. The attempt failed Siege o f Madras. Clive sent assistance under Colonel Forde . which was concluded in Europe in 1763. Count de Lally took the city of Madras and laid siege to the fort. Calcutta. Fall of cherry. laid siege to Pondicherry. 1758. Colonel Coote. he committed the almost inconceivable folly of recalling Bussy from t h e Deccan. Soon after his arrival he took Fort St. Towards the close of the same year. 1759. and his departure from the Northern Circars was immediitely followed by results which were disastrous to the French. Capture of Fort St. 9 .RISE OF BRITISH POWER. Third w a r I n the It brought a large force under Count de Lally Karnatic. I n the following year. wrote to Clive. a French fleet arrived at Pondicherry.

and obtained possession of the fort without resistance. Mr. The Tragedy of the =lack Hole. and the survivors were mostly either raving or insensible. Holwell was selected in his place. All the naval and land forces which by the could be spared were now sent to Calcutta. Soon after. Mr. T h e takesCalcutta batteries were abandoned. which was answered by a flag of truce. Ali Vardi Khan. and he captured the English factory at Kasimbazar and marched with a large army to Calcutta. On the 20th June. and when the day dawned. Holwell opened negotiations by throwing a letter over the ramparts. Suraj-ud-daula. the Governor of Calcutta. were confined in a dungeon only eighteen feet square with two small windows barred with iron. and they escaped on the following day. I 46 in number. Drake having . On the ~ g t h Mr. H e was succeeded by his grandson. I 2 3 were found dead. escaped in a boat. Drake. to demolish the additions which had been made to Fort William. Mr. Drake's reply provoked the Subahdar's anger. and the garrison sought shelter within the feeble walls of the fort. . the enemy climbed over the walls. but resistance was hopeless. BENGAL. died in 1756. who had saved Bengal from the attacks of the Mahrattas by the payment of a large annual tribute. and immediately on his accession called ul)on Mr. Then followed what is known as the tragedy of the Black Hole. their sufferings were so great that from eleven the prisoners began to die. The English prisoners. .RISE OF BRITISH POWER. Surajud-daula bitterly hated the English. a dissolute and tyrannical prince. the Subahdar of Bengal. We must now go back a few years in order to tell the story of the rise of British power in Bengal from its commencement. The air became pestilential and suffocating. Englishmen were not likely to remain inactive after such a Calcuttarataken disaster. At night the women and children were taken on board a vessel. On the 18th June a general attack was made on the English Buraj-ud-daula outposts defended by three batteries.

War having bcen declared between England and France. His iittle army was suddenly attacked by the Nawab's troops. and he and Admiral Watson had distinguished themselves by taking Gheria. r 757. Suraj-ud-daula assembled his army and marched upon Calcutta and Peace with the Nawab. the Commander of the Nawab's troops. and had levied contributions from merchants. leaving a nominal force of 500 to make a show of resistance . the stronghold of the pirates called the Angrias who had for fifty years been a terror to the Malabar Coast. The French made a brave resistance. the action was fought in a straggling manner and was indecisive. Clive commenced the siege in May. and as soon as Admiral Watson opened his batteries the place surrendered. Clive and Watson proceeded to lay siege to Chandarnagar taken by the Chandarnagar. On the 2nd January. the English were permitted to fortify Calcutta and to carry on trade as before. and Clive landed his troops at Baj Baj to go to Calcutta by land. which he took and plundered. Clive refused to retreat. but the English repulsed every attack made on them.SE OF BRITISH POWER. ' . On receiving this intelligence. and even an offensive and defensive alliance was concluded. a strongly fortified place held English. but were at last compelled to surrender and the garrison became prisoners of war. by the French. and Watson came up soon after with the fleet and opened a heavy cannonade. Suraj-ud-daula now consented to come to terms .R. Manik Chand. In December. with a force of over two thousand men. Clive. he quitted Calcutta. 131 Clive had returned from Europe to Bombay as a LieutenantColonel in the service of the Crown . he rallied his troops and beat back and dispersed an enemy vastly superior in numbers. Captain Coote was sent up against Hugli. intrenched himself in the neighbourhood of that town. 1757. Chandarnagar was restored . Clive and Watson came up the EIugli river. was struck with panic at the issue of this battle . 1756. On the jth February. advanced on the Nawab's army.

Suraj-ud-daula fled to Rajmahal. the zgrd June. of 16 sepoys killed and only 36 wounded.. come over to the English. and uas there arrested . ~ ~ ~ b .132 RISE OF BRITISH POWER. At last his troops were sien to separate from the rest of the Nawab's army and t. And " thus the English f determined. he was brought to .: .'I the fate o a great kingdom and of thirty millions of people with the loss of 20 Europeans killed and wounded. Mir Jafar's conduct was as mysterious as it had hitherto been . was ready to join the conspiracy if he could get the promise of the Nawabship in place of his master." says Mill. but the enemy scarcely waited to receive the attack. 1757. Clive then decided to attack the enemy. The next day he crossed the river and marched towards the enemy. The Nawab's troops commenced the attack . to the French by the treaty of Paris of 1763. Mir Jafar. protected by a grove and a high bank. On the 13th June. ' s Murshidabad. Battle of Plassy.100 men." Clive saluted Mir Jafar as Nawab of Bengal. Colonel Clive began his march from Chandarnagar with 3.gainst the fessed friendliness. The Company received the zernindari rights over the district of the 24-Perganahs. The Nawab was furious on receiving this intelligence. and Clive entered into this conspiracy. . the English. but the French never regained their lost influence and power in Bengal. Behar and Orissa. A conspiracy to depose Nawab. his corps remained inactive. . and fled at the first onset. remained on the defensive. and kept up a straggling cannonade while Clive himself fell asleep in the midst of the battle. and he probably waited to see the result 5efore taking any decided action. and on the following day." a . the pay-master of the Nawab's forces. The battle of Plassy was not a battle vigorously fought. where he was assassinated by orCer of Mir Jafar's son. the battle was fought. the Nawab was on foot. but as he was afraid of the English he still proConspiracy . of whom only 750 were British.

and passed his time in pleasure.c. in February 1760. he sailed for Europe. and the English deposed him and set up another Nawab. and the nominal Emperor formally con- . Clive next attacked the Dutch. Midnapore and Chittagong-to the CompanyThe Shahzada. Mir Jafar was deposed. inherited the empty title of Emperor of Delhi. i. Shah Alam. The English marched to Patna to oppose him. Mir Kasim and Major Carnac defeated his army. It was in the same year that Clive sent Colonel Forde to the Northern Circars. who could pay. And in Bengal. Forde drove the French from that province and established British influence. and as we have seen before. Behar and Orissa. the Emperor of Delhi. the eldest son of or of Bongal.I RISE OF BRITISH POWER. defeated them. He had also failed to pay off the arrears due to the English. on the death of his father. Clive was appointed Governor to the Company's settlements in Bengal. who had. 1758. Clive sent him 500 gold mohurs. and he ceded three districts-Burdwan. 133 I I n June. It witnessed the surrender of Pondicherry and the extinction of French power in Southern India. and the prince retired. and. Mir Jafar made a worthless Nawab. It witnessed the downfall of the Mahratta power in Northern India at the battle of Paniput. came to Behar to establish his claim. being appointed by his father Subahdar of Bengal. and the Shahazada was left without support. Mir Kasim soon paid off the arrears due to the English. The year 1 7 6 1 is an important date in the history of India. and his sonin-law Mir Kasim was made Nawab. In the Clive as Qovernsame year the Shahzada. was again making incursions into Behar.. he was incapable of superintending the administration of the country. but dissensions broke out among the enemy. and begged a sum of Clive for his subsistence. and then installed him at Patna as Emperor of India .

thus placing his own subject. a boat arrived at Monghyr laden with goods for the English factory of . and Warren Hastings. who f could hire a Dastak or fly the Company's flag. Eehar a n d Orissa. But after the battle of Plassy. This immunity gave the Company a great advantage over Indlan traders. and he disciplined a picked army. They derived vast profits from their trade. the European servants of the Company had begun to trade on their own account. at a considerable sacrifice of his revenue. 1763. Mir Kasim bitterly complained against these abuses which ruined his revenues. Quarrels soon rose between him a n d the English on questions of trade. I n May. as usual. who thus traded all over Bengal without the payment of transit duties. " T h e Nawab. ferred on Mir Kasim the Nawdbship of Bengal. Mir Kasim had a will of his own and wished to be a real Nawab. The English loudly complained against this measure. has granted a boon to his subjects .134 RISE OF BRITISH POWER. then a Member of the Council. and claimed immunity from transit duties. they gave the sanction of their name to Indian agents. 7'he East India Company was exempt from those heavy transit duties ~ h i c hwere levied from other traders on all goods passing up and down the river. but they appealed in vain to men who drew their chief income from private trade. and there are no grounds for demanding that a sovereign prince should withdraw such a boon. The Nawab at last ended the controversy by abolishing all inland duties. He removed his capital from Murshidabad to Monghyr. supported the action of the Nawab. or for threatening him with war in the event of refusal. in the same position with the Company's servants. Worse than this. Every Indian gomashta or adventurer. somewhat after the European model. and drove the regular traders o f the field. supported the Nawab's objections." he said. cheated the revenue. Vansitart then Governor." Matters soon came to a crisis. Warren Hastings. and regular trade was ruined.

attacked them. ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i and 8. and Mir Kasim left his dominions and sought the protection of Suja-ud-daula. with E only 3. and presenting the aspect o a European army. and further detained Mr. after an obstinate battle of four hours defeated the enemy. Hay as a hostage for the safety of his own officers whom the English had arrested. he would put to death the English garrison of the place. 1763.000 men. once attacked and took that city. now his prisoners. The English army under Major Adams now proceeded to Murshidabad. was arrested and killed by the Nawab's troops. The Nawab retreated to an intrenched camp at Uday Nala. Mr. and sent notice that the moment the English force would advance upon Patna. By this barbarous and inhuman conduct Mir Kasim forfeited that sympathy which his spirited and just policy had so long enlisted in his favour. but at last it was surprised and carried. after a vigorous resistance of eight days. . Fifty English gentlemen and a hundred soldiers were put to death in cold blood. On receiving this intelligence. and Mir Kasim fulfilled his cruel purpose. Mir Kasim was Massacre o f Patna. thrown into a paroxysm of rage. 135 Patna. and. Major Adams now marched upon Monghyr and took it after a siege of nine days. Mr. Nawab of Oudh. who was proceeding to Calcutta by river. The English factory at Kasimbazar was also taken. and the English garrison were made prisoners. and they f met~ the~ Nawaba with horse . T h e English took Patna in November. The reduction of the welldefended post took the English army nearly a month. and all the English there were made prisoners. Patna was soon recovered by the Nawab's troops.000 foot drawn up at Gheria. took the defences of the place. Amyatt. The English troops advanced. and with 500 matchlocks for the English garrison. Major Adams. Thus war began between the English and Mir Kasim. Ellis of Patna at War with Mir Kasim. The Nawab refused to allow the matchlocks to go to Patna.RISE OF BRITISH POWER. and two opulent Setts were also killed for their known attachment to the English.

The Nawab invaded Behar in April. 1764. 1765. H e found the Nawab of Oudh strongly intrenched at Buxar on the Sone. a Dewan was appointed for the collection of the provincial revenues. of Bengal. Mir Jafar again but he was unable to meet the fresh pecuniary made Nawab. but the Members of the Calcutta Council hurried through the arrangement before the arrival of Clive. Major Hector Monro took the field after the rains. detnands of the English. An illegitimate son of Mir Jafar. and. In the old days of the Mogul rule in India. Clive (now Lord Clive) arrived at Calcutta in May. Clive wished to make arrangements somewhat in conformity with this form. and was dissatisfied with the arrangements C'ive QOvernor which were made . but was quelled. under him. 1765. and died in January. Mir Kasim fled to the North-west where he died in obscurity.but they could not be upset. which were then transmitted to the imperial treasury of Delhi. O n the ~ 3 r d October. His idea now was to secure a recognized status for the East India Company in Bengal. and the Nawab of Oudh was again defeated by the English at Kalpi and surrendered himself. but were defeated after three hours. Mir Jafar had been again made Nawab immediately on the commencement of the war with Mir Kasim. Muhammad Reza Khan Najim-ud-daula was invested with the exercise of all real power. A mutiny now Battle of Buxar. The question of making a new Nawab was discussed : Clive was coming out again. made Nawab. a Subahdar was appointed in each province. the enemy advanced from their intrenchments and attacked the English. broke out among the sepoys of the English army.136 RISE OF BRITISH POWER. The Nawab of Bengal might be considered as the Subah- . The English army then took Allahabad and advanced to Lucknow. Najim-ud-daula was set up as Nawab. and the ringleaders were punished. but was repulsed by the English at Patna. and it was arranged that twenty lakhs of rupees should be distributed to the Governor of Calcutta and certain Members of the Council.

provided for the defence of the provinces. had been received. also received handsome gifts on every possible occasion. The scale of pay of the superior servants of the Company was yet very low. But the East India Company also took upon itself the military defence of the country. paid the Nawab and his officials their salaries. Clive also effected a reforni in the Service. civil and military. The Nawab was left in charge of law. "anarchy. to use his own words. that an association or society should . and there met the Emperor and the Nawab of Oudh. It has been stated before that the servants of the Company Reform In the obtained large profits from private trade. With these ideas Clive went up to Allahabad. The Emperor was glad to accept Allahabad and Kora in lieu of tribute which he had never obtained. justice and police . and what is an almost general corruption. 137 dar. for which duty the Nawab was incompetent." The Directors strongly condemned the state of things and sent out new covenants. but the East India Company might be the Dewan for Bengal.RISE OF BRITISH POWER. And the East India Company was made Dewan on promise of payment of a yearly tribute 26 lakhs ofi rupees. he found. These were duly signed. sent the stipulated tribute to the Emperor. 1765. and which the Company's servants. the Company collected the revenues. and Service. In January.r i s s a and O a a the tribute due to the Emperor. which prohibited the receipt of large presents. the letters of the Court of Directors prohibiting inland trade and the receipt of presents by the Company's servants. confusion. The Emperor also granted to the Company the territorial jurisdiction of the Northern Circars. Behar and Orissa. and Clive and his Committee resolved. were required to sign. East India ComOudh was restored to the Nawab on condition pany as Dewan of of his ceding Allahabad and Kora in lieu of sen@'. and transferred the surplus revenues to its coffers. but had remained unheeded . but the inland trade was not given up at once. and when Clive came in May.

was dissolved.138 RISE OP BRITISH POWER. and nearly two hundred officers resigned their commissions. H e estimated the revenues of the provinces under the English rule at 250 lakhs of rupees . for the third and last time. . and the administrative expenses of 60 lakhs. English officers had been allowed an extra allowance. Lord Clive left India. strongly condemned it as a violation of their orders. but its final transactions were not closed ti11 after the departure of Clive from India. These matters had engaged the attention of Clive. and absolutely forbade the trade in salt. m d he committed suicide in 1774. The Company being now the paymasters. and orders were accordingly issued. on learning of this arrangement. was soon quelled. The society. the Court of Directors. resolved to abolish it. but he Financial intaralso boasted that he had placed the financial ssts of the pany secured. and exhibited a steady obedience. while others submitted. A reform in the army was more vigorously carried out. be formed to carry on private trade in salt. In the following year. he anticipated a clear gain of 1 2 2 lakhs to the Company. and had continued to receive it from Mir Kasim. betelnut and tobacco. which had threatened serious consequences. in 1767.* Lord Clive not only assured the position of the English Political and aS a great political power in India. however. Some of the officers were sent down to Calcutta. after deducting the imperial tribute of 26 lakhs. and thus the mutiny of English officers. betelnut and tobacco. After effecting all these reforms. interests of the Company on a satisfactory basis. and the sepoys remained true to their salt. Clive. and. after payment of the duty due to the Company the profits should be shared among the superior servants of the Company. the pension to the Nawab of q a lakhs. therefore. and that. was equal to the occasion. He was the first great architect of the British Empire in India. but he did not 'The last years of Clive in England were unheppy. 'The officers resented this. called double bhafa. by Mir Jafar.

the Hindu kingdom. and the Company's servants. got the blame for all the sufferings of the people. and were grievously oppressed. and many fair villages relapsed into jungle and became the home of wild animals. of Vijaynagar arose. The subordinate collectors robbed the people. which was then to be handed over to the English. who refrained from interfering with the internal administration. Revenues began to fail and even trade declined with the inFamine creasing poverty of the people. the people were left without protectors. Clive had recognized Muhammad Reza Khan as Deputy Nawab at Murshidabad and Raja Sitab Rai as Deputy Nawab at Patna. And thus. Alauddin Khilji destroyed the Ballala kingdom in 13 10. They were in charge of the administration and of the collection of revenue.. any direct rule in these parts. The subordinates who collected the revenue were responsible only for its collection. . and were not likely to look to the protection and welfare of the people. but never established. and in r 344. The admlhistrative arrangement was rude and defective.RISE OF BRITISH POWER. We must now go back a few years to trace the rise of a new power in Southern India. ERicientadministration of the country not secured. This double government was vicious in principle. The kingdom of Mysore had never been entirely subjugated by the Mahomedans. MYSORE. One-third of the population of Bengal was officially reported to have been swept away by t h e famine. 139 stay long enough to settle the actual administration of the country on a saiisfactory basis. The supreme power which obtained the revenue took no interest in its collection and in the welfare of the people. ' . was reached when Bengal was visited by a terrible famine in 1770-71. and i t failed. and the climax '770-71. by a faulty division of duties.

o n e of the ministers. by payment of 35 lakhs of rupees. In course of some negotiations which took place. T h e western portions of ~ a i d e r ' s dominions were rapidly fi* Mysore War. He therefore commenced negotiations. the Mysore chief soon regained his losses. and the English thus found themselves isolated. attacked and plundered Calicut. H e succeeded M ~ S O ~ eventually. I 760. whose light horse spread in every direction. then a rich emporium of trade. Haidar Ali candidly declared that he always wished to be on good terms with the English as he could not fight both them and the Mahrattas . and after the fall of the latter. The war was now of a desultory character.140 RISE OF BRITISE POWER. Mysore became practically independent. Haider Ali began to extend his conquests on all sides . and in other directions. T h e allies began to move early in 1 7 6 7 Haider Ali failed to stop the Mahrattas. Nanda Raj. usurped all power. The Nizam of the Deccan joined the Mahratta commander to crush this rising power . vexation of the Court of Directors who attributed "this rage for negotiations. on the extinction of the old ruling house. detached the Mahrattas from the alliance. by various tricks in destroying the influence of the regent of Mysore. much to the Ali. Mysore continusd as feudatory state of . and spread the terror of his name on all sides. Haider was at Trichinopoly during Haidar in the famous siege of that place. and. also. recovered by the Ellglish and as rapidly recovered by Haider. he conquered Bednore. He also won over the Nizam .Vijaynagar . Nanda had an officer under him named Haider Naik. and the English against Haidar also joined this alliance. The Hindu kings of Mysore grew more and more powerful till the beginning of the eighteenth century. and he eagerly expressed . treaties and alliance. I n I 733. and in a critical position in the enemy's country. and in obtaining the supreme power in the state. in the heart of his country." to the corruption of their servants.

h e continued to extend his dominions by conquests in various directions. therefore. again bought them off by payment of I j k k h s of rupees. he made a rapid sweep of 130 miles. Leaving the British army in his rear. ant1 by ceding a great part of his northern dominions. . were very high. The Mahrattas had again the Mahrattas. entered his kingdom and were laying his territory waste with a vast army. and agreed t o Haidar's demands. however. T h e demands of the English. who penetrated as far a s his capital Seringapatam. 1769. A defensive alliance was also entered into' between the two powers. and Haider. T h e Council of Madras was struck with panic. He. .Haidar turned naidsr and against another. Having concluded this treaty with one enemy. and appeared within five miles of Madras. therefore: harboured a deep resentment against them.RISE OF BRITISH POWER. according to the terms of the treaty of 1769. In the meantime. and Haider found himself powerless to resist these desultory invaders. 141 a desire for peace. as we shall see hereafter. T h e English had not helped Haidar in this war. on he condition of placing the possessions of both parties on the same footing as before the war. in less than four days. A treaty was concluded in April. and Haidar. therefore determined to conclude the war by arapid and daring enterprise.

and the important administrative venue arrangereforms of Hastings may be briefly mentioned ments. WARREN HASTINGS was appointed Governor of The administration of the country needed immediate attention. The arbitrary and oppressive administration of justice by local Zemindars and by low-paid Fouzdars was thus abolished . on the ground Emperor and Nawab. inadequate. also. . the Sudder Dewani Adalat. Dakaits ravaged the country. assisted by Hindu and Musalman officials. f Hastings now took steps to improve the revenue o the Raduction oc Company. and the administration of justice thus continued to be polluted hy corruption. for criminal cases. but the European Judges continued for a long time to be entirely in the hands of their corrupt and lowpaid subordinates. The actual collection of revenue was taken from the hands of ill-paid and corrupt officials and placed in the hands of well-paid European Collectors. here. H e stopped the stipulated tribute allowancas t o the of 26 lakhs to the Emperor. viz. D. Two Courts of Appeal were established in Calcutta. often with the connivance of the Zemindars and the Thanadars. that the Emperor was no longer his own master. who since then have been the heads of districts. A. 1772 to 1805. And he cut Judicial and Re- Rengal. and the district Collector presided at these courts.CHAPTER XI1 ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. failed to repress crime. IN 1 7 7 2 . and the measures adopted t o check this offence were. but had been seized by the Mahrattas.. acting without the co-operation of the people. The new courts. for civil cases and the Sudder Nizamut Adalat. Hastings also established a civil and a criminal court in each district.

The British Parliament was little disposed to Regulating Act. and asked Hastings for an English brigade. marched into the Rohilla Rohilla War.English brigade for the sum of forty lakhs of rupees. and established in Calcutta a Supreme Court. the Regulating Act. The great fortunes acquired by the sale I I . consisting of a Chief Justice and three other Judges. barbarity. and defeated the Rohillas in battle.. which vested the government of Bengal. Accordingly in 1733 was passed.ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. knd when the dreadful famine of 1770-71 drew the attention of Englishmen to Indian affairs. Champion's brigade received a bonus of ten lakhs and a half from t h e ~ a w a b . A great change in administration was introduced in 1773. the Nawab let loose his troops to plunder the unhappy country with every kind of atrocity. the Rohillas. Hartings considered the act cancelled. and the family still flourishes as the Nawabs of Rampur. and the son of the !ate Rohilla leader became a vassal of the Nawab of Oudh . because the Emperor was a prisoner. The power of the Rohillas was broken for ever. When the victory was won by the English. to the Emperor by Clive . it was felt that Parliamentary interference was necessary. and violence. beside Aid to the Nawab expenses. The want of funds led Hastings into many questionable Kora acts. The Nawab further desired to crush his neighbow. o f o u d h in the under Champion. and sold those provinces to Nawab of Oudh for fifty lakhs of rupees. But when large provinces were acquired for the Company by Clive. accompanied by the Nawab and his army. In 1774. 143 down the stipulated pension of the Nawab of Murshidabad to one-half. the English brigade. and Hastings consented to lend the services of an . interfere with the concerns of the Company so long as the Company was managing a few obscure factories in India. Allahabad and Kora had been granted and A"ahabad. country. made Bombay and Madras subordinate to the Bengal Presidency. Behar and Orissa in a GovernorGeneral and four Councillors.

. T h e three other members. but pleaded that he had received it as " entertainment money. was appointed a member. 15." according to the custom of the country. various charges were brought against him. and a new Council of five members was canstituted. 36. Hastings declined to meet these charges in the Council. The Rani Nandakumarof Burdwan. that Hastings had received over jf lakhs from Mani Begam. and Hastings after his retirement from India admitted this charge.000 annually to Hastings. and forming the majority. a miserable and highly improbable charge. Qovernor-Qeneral In 1774. 'f he Foujdar of Hugli was accused with having paid Rs. and Execution of . Lastly Raja . but the charge was never proved. aided by Clavering and Monson. came out from England. and it was now enacted that no servants. Clavering. Hastings was made Governor-General of India under the Regulating Act. The old Council of Calcutta was abolished. but his troubles and hiscouncil. Francis. and from his own son Gurudas on the occasion of their appointment t o their posts at Murshidabad.Nandakumar brought a graver charge. A present of a lakh-and-a-half from Mani Begam o< Murshidabad was said to have been received b y Hastings. Hastings as GovernorGeneral was president. widow of Tilak Chand. complained of the cprrupt administration of her estates by the Company's servants.003 to Hastings. As the power of Hastings declined in his Council.144 ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. a servant of the Company. either of the King or the Company. began with this increase in his dignity. Monson and Philip Francis. the . charge was admitted and Nandakumar was released on bail. and papers were produc'ed showing a present of Rs. Six weeks after Nandakumar was arrested for forgery. should be allowed to receive presents. He brought an action against Nandakumar in the Supreme Court of Calcutta for conspiracy . and Barwell. commenced to attack Hastings in the new Council . they for a time wielded all real power. Company's servants in India were also looked upon with displeasure and indignation by Englishmen at home.

and the Endlisll took up his side in the quarrel to obtain the spoil. W. An3 after the death of Monson. and n o other charges were brought. his uncle. who. that of Kaghunath who aspired to be Peshwa.ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. who was supported by the able minister. the new Chief Justice of Bengal. The widow of Narayan gave birth to a boy. Balaji Rao. promising the port of Bassein w ~ t h Salsette Treaty of Burat. Hastings and his Council strongly condemned the treaty of of Surat as unjust in itselE and contrary puranJarto the policy of' avoiding interference with f the concerns o the Indian states.. and a friend of Hastings. and that of the rightful heir. but he was assassinated through the instigation of Raghunath Rao. and the Mahrattas thus became diviJed into two parties. We have seen before that soon after the disastrous battle of Paniput. Colonel Upton was sent direct from Bengal to conclude a fresh treaty. The treaty of Puratidar was accordingly concluded in. 10 - . and.. Raja Nandakumar was hanged in Calcutta in I 775. and other islands . succeeded. ?'he treaty of Surat was concluded in 1775. and was for a time supreme in the Council.IS succeeded by his brother Narayan in 1772. Nana Farnavis.but they retained Bassein and Salsette. Hastings was able to carry his measures by his casting vote. the third Peshwa. the Bombay Government took possession of Salsette and Bassein. vis. Madhu Rao. Narayan's infant boy. Raghunath applied to the English of Bombay for aid. died in I 761. 145 condenined to be hanged by 'Sir Elijah Impey. The opponents of Hastings in the Council were humbled. by which the English undertook to withdraw from the side of Raghunath. His son. and began preparations for helping Raghunath to the dignity and post of Peshwa. in his turn. . 1776. Affairs in Bombay now engaged his attention.

and had reached their climax in 1780. The action of the conimanders was strongly disapproved both in India and in England. Quarrels between Philip Francis and Hastings had broken out afresh from time to time. and the English commanders were compelled to enter into the . sent from Bengal by Hastings. Goddard. the able minister. distinguished himself by taking . and compelled to retreat t o Bombay with severe loss.146 ' ASCENDENCY OF 'BRIT~SB~ W E B . but was met by a large Mahratta army. . and Raghunath was allowed a monthly pension of Rs. Treaty of 8albai. but was harassed by the enemy. Francis was wounded. He then advanced towards Puna. humiliating convention of Wargaon. They were dismissed. who had conducted this war against the English. But retreat in the face of a Mahratta army is a hazardous undertaking. and it was decided to prosecute the war. Convention annulled. and proved. Salsette was retained by the English. A duel ensued. Convention Wargaon. The infant Madhu Rao It. who had also been sent by Hastings. and his Council of Regency were recognized . Gwalior. The Bombay army advanced towards Puna. reached Gujrat and took Ahmedabad. Captain Popham. m t tors approved of the treaty of Surat. ~ i hfahratta it was ultimately decided to continue the war in favour of Raghunath against the Puna Government. and was compelled to retreat. but the other conquests were restored to the Mahrattas.000. Nana Farnavis. After various other transactions. a general peace terminated the war. This treaty of Salbai was concluded in 1781. by which they agreed to restore their recent acquisitions. P Another change in the policy of the English tsok place soon after. was recognized as Peshwa . The court of DirecBurat *Treaty ofwar. the convention of Wargaon was annulled. 25.

While these things were happening in Calcuttil. and the Governor. the rest was rejected a s falee. The servants of the Company had entered into usurious pecuniary transactions with the Nawab of Arcot.A. A majority in the council recommended arrangements in Tanjore which would facilitate the recovery of the claim . and all their claims were therefore admitted toithout inquiry. Claima t o the extent of over thirty millions were adjudicated upon. The English considered this argument insufficient and took the French fort. Haidar Ali had not forgotten the indifference and inactivity of the English at the time of the invasion of his dominions by the Mahrattas. us the money was payable by t h e Compnny after the Nawab whu pensioned off in 1801. Benfield and others had amassed large fortunes and created great influence in Parliument. And when war broke out between the English and the French. Lord Pigot. . The governor of Madras deposed the Raja and made over his kingdom to the Nawab. Haidar Ali protested. and urged that the country round Mahe was his the Raja. prosecute the war.ENDENCY OF BRITHE POWER. Other creditors of the Nawab then came forward with more clhime. Lord Pigot now succeeded as Governor and restored Tanjore. who resisted the action of the majority. a little ovgr 21 millione wan admitted. The sums paid up to all claimants up to 1804 amouuted t o near five million^ sterling.SC. and the former took Pondicnerry. and was wholly unprepared to State of Madraa. and announced their intention of taking the French settlement of Mahe on the Malabar Coast. but this time a n inquiry weo made. and Hastings was left supreme . 147 and left India for Europe. and while the first Mahratta War was still going on in the west the English at Madras were drawn into a fresh war. but his council was torn by dissensions. an unjust act for which he was dismissed by the Court of Directors. and the Nawab wanted to annex the kingdom of the Raja of 'ranjore to pay their the Council.* 'The subjequent history of the claims against the Nawab is remarkable. was arrested and confined. Madras at this time was a prey to misgovernment and corruption.

the Of spot where he had destroyed Colonel Baillie's loor. destroyed the greater portion of it.T h e Court of Directors directed the restoration of Lord Pigot. black coMysore lumns of smoke. and took the rest prisoners. After many harassing marches. and signally dtfeated his vast army after a contest of six hours.and in July. Sir Hector hfonro was near Conjeveram and Colonel Baillie tried to join him. Sir Thomas Rumbold who succeeded gave little satisfaction. within a few miles of Madras. and especially . Haidar retreated and took up his post at Polilloor. succeeded him. Sir Eyre Coote fought him there. and he took the field with 7 0 .o t ~ o u p s . Much oppression was caused to the zemindars. announced to the English that the enemy was 'at their gates. Haidar took the field with a vast army of abourgo. 'then only fourteen miles from each other. who strongly interceded for their lives. sent Sir Eyre Coote f to Madras.& Battle Of 'Orto men. The above facts will shew that the Madras authorities were -utterly unprepared to prosecute the war with Haidar.a. Hastings undertook that onerous task and he performed it with his untiring energy and usual vigour. The small number of survivors would probably have been Baillie's massacred but for the exertioris of Lally and destroyed. In June. Sir ~ h o m a was openly charged a s with corruption . but . other French officers under Haidar. but Haidar interposed his whole army between the two divisions of the English army.000 men. but Lord Pigot had died after a confinement of eight months. Lord Macartney. and the Court of Directors dismissed him for 'various faults in I 78 1. and also ordered his recall immediately after his restoration . H e attacked Baillie's division consisting of nearly 4. War. he at Novo. troops. 1780. on hearing o this disaster. a nobleman of acknowledged integrity and honour. the ~ a j of Viziznagram. last met Haidar at Porto Novo.

Haidar too was a d v a ~ c e d age." says Professor Wilson . and nearly 3. leaving the Karnatic to the English and the French.coo men under the same Bussy who had fought to English in the Karnatic thirty years before. but Haidar's army. But while these victories crowned the British arms. and died in December. Eyre Coote. and "this. another Brathwaite. The annihilation of the Peace between t h e English & t h e British army by Bussy. . and landed his men . Never had the prospects of the British in Southern India been more gloomy. 1782. and then retired with little loss as the English advanced. This was the last action between Sir Eyre Coote and Haider. Sir Eyre Coote returned Ali. the greatest of her admirals. Haidar Battle of Arnee. and all his troops were destroyed or made prisoners after a brave resistance for three days. gained some success at Tanjore. Haidar next took up his post at Sholinghur. Haider was now joined by a strong contingent of French troops. But he went to prosecute the war on the Western Coast. and had at his disposal an army of 88.000 troops. and he concerted measures with Bussy to annihilate the Rritish army. and he set sail for Bengal in September. certainty.ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. to Madras to resume the command. succeeded in reinforcing the garrison of the place. and Suffren was now a French. Colonel Brathwaite troopsdeatroyed.ring in health. more than ten times in number surprised him. and there wis an action at Arnee. in Death of In the following April. France sent out a powerful squadron under Suffren.a disaster was at hand. Sir Eyre was advanced in age and suff-. The war between the English and the French now assumed a serious aspect. but succeeded in saving his guns. Suffren drove the British fleet to Madrag. 1782. He was there beaten by Sir . 149 the battle was more sanguinary than decisive. and in carrying off the treasure. and was considered a drawn battle. but he died three days after his arrival at Madras. Tipu was recognized as the successor of his father.

and killed the British troops. "that but fsr the opportune occurrence of peace with France. by which both parties M'sO". and hostilities were stopped in India. T h e . the south of India would have been lost to t h e English. and the tribute of Benares was doubled. Raja of pounds to the Government. 'The people of Benares rose at this outrage to their Raja.150 ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. held that place on the payment of a tribute to the British. Shortly after a treaty of peace Peace was concluded in 1783. was exacted. Chait Sinha was then defeated and deposed. and was betrayed into unjust acts for which he was tried on his return to ~ n ~ l a n dChait Sinha. Hastings now required the Raja to keep a body of cavalry for the British Government. the Raja was unjustly arrested and placed in the custody of troops." says Wilson. bu: Hastings. with a fine of L10. intelligence was received of peace hiving been concluded between England and for delay. when pressed for funds. retained their former possessions. The Raja was in dismay and offered Etoo. . The Raja paid the contribution in 1 7 ~ and again in I 779. General Mathews had Capttulation of aeneraiMathsws. The Raja paid the usual annual tribute of z03. Chait Binha. He came to Benares. the Raja escaped from custody . Hastings now demanded half a million." But at this moment. but Tipu surrounded him. and Mathexs had to capitulate. Tipu was now left to fight the English alone. and as the 'money was not paid. to propitiate the ~ o v e r n m e n t . During the long war with. Proceeding from the Western Coast. and Hastings escaped for personal safety to Chunar. demanded an extraordinary contribution 8 0 f E j 0 . m . "would have been followed by the seige of Madras. "It seems probably. the Mahrattas and with Mysore Hastings was repeatedly in want of funds.oo:. his nephew was installed in his place. and in I 780 the same contribution. and t h e r e was I~ttle chance of defending it successfully against T i p u and the French. taken Bednore.



however. and their estates were resumed. And Hastings never obtained the coveted peerage. By the treaty of 1775. The verdict of the House of Commons. or any office of trust under the crown.ABCENDENOY OF BRITISH POWER 151 treasures of Chait Sinha which Hastings had hoped to secure had however been seized by the British army. after which a. The proceedings dragged on for seven years. he was impeached by the house of Trial of Ha. decided to send a nobleman of rank and of high character a s He lived a private life to a ripe old age at Daylesford. T h e Begams themselves were confined in their palace. The guarantee was now ignored. now called upon the new Nawab of Oudh to pay up the arrears. subsidy payable by the Nawab of Oudh had been largely increased. was felt by Hastings as a stain on his reputation. The Begams were the mother and the grand mother of the Nawab. After the departure of Hastings the Court of Directors. Hastings resigned his office and left India. and considerable pressure was put on them. O n his return to England. and had received a guarantee from the British Government against such demands.tingr. Commons before the Lords. verdict of 'not guilty' was given by the Lords on all the charges. and was never withdrawn.* ' CORNWALLIS. for his conduct towards Chait Sinha and the Begams of Oudh. and Hastings Oudh. their two agents. were arrested and put in irons. and the army refused to give it up. . as well as for corruption and for extravagant expenditure. I n 1785. until over a million sterling was extorted. and died in 1818. T h e Nawab urged that he could not pay unless he was placed in possession of the treasures which' had passed into the hands of the two Begams of Oudh. who were persons of rank and distinction.

Shore. I n August. composed of six members chosen by the king.152 ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. The great administrative act of Cornnallis in India was the Permanent Settlement of Bengal. The assessment was made from 1789 to 1791. he abolished the private gains which the Company's servants derived from various sources . a Board of Control. he compelled the Court of Directors to allow them large salaries. and the total came to about 268 lakhs of rupees. The scheme was worked out by Mr. Governor-General. was formed for the proper control of all matters relating to the civil. but by a reference to what had been paid in the past. been effected. Tho. in reality a Secretary of State for Indian affairs. not by actual measurement of land. and many new houses oppressed their ryots to meet the demands of the Government. afterwards GovernorGeneral of India. . military and revenue administration of India. and they chose Lord Cornwallis. Pitt's Bill for the Better Government of India was passed. Mr. Bill. in the meantime. many zeminders were unable to pay the revenues fixed and their lands were taken from them and let on yearly leases. and he set a wholesome example by his own elevated character. Hastings had allowed the local zaminders to hold their lands on leases for five years at s fixed rates . which had much influence on English society in India. Lord Cornwallis effected a Permanent Settlement. he was ousted. prestige of his rank enabled him to carry into effect great re-. Thus the Directors and Proprietors of the Company surrendered their power to govern India to the E~lglish nation and the English government. forms which Clive and Hastings had attempted . A great change in the power of the Court of Directors had. and whenever a zeminder did not agree to h ~ rates. Many old families in Bengal were thus ruined. 1784. and his lands were let to the highest bidder. This harsh system failed. and under this Act. and the President of the Board of Control was.

try criminal cases.a higher tribunal for final appeals. Murshidabad and Patna . Lord Cornwallis effected other reforms which Hastings had Administrative only begun. and the increase has remained with the people. The setdement has proved to be an unqualified boon to the country. the income from lands has greatly increased. the duties of the Collector were now confined to revenue work. to make it permanent. but both Cornwallis and the Court of Directors wished Settlement. and it was made permanent in 1793.ABCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. however. Hindu law was administered for Hindus. Four appellate courts were establisl~ed at Calcutta. while the Sudder Dewani Adalat and the Sudder Nizamat Adalat at Calcutta f0rmed. T h e settlement has given a fixity to the value of landed property in Bengal . and Mahomedan law for Mahomedans. and a senior officer WAS appointed in each district as Judge for judicial work. while. Under the'system introduced by Reforms. Other matters now received the attention of Cornwallis. it has raised the middle classes of Bengal by a distribution of the profits from land through various means . Since then cultivation has largely extended. Tipu Sultan of Mysore had carried on a system of religious Permanent . Mahomedan law with some modifications continued to be administered in criminal matters . and this defect had to be remedied by latter legislation. in civil cases. . it has conduced to the well-being of the cultivators themselves by preventing undue exactions from them by zrmindars. Dacca. and for the good of the people. 153 T h e settlement was at first made for ten years. both civil and criminal. Hastings. Cornwallis disapproved of this system. the District Collector performed both revenue and judicial work. T h e Judges ordinarily heard civil cases and went on circuit t o . that the protection given to the cultivating classes was found inadequate . It must be admitted. and it has helped the cause of progress and enlightenment by securing the material well-being of the people.

The Mahrattas now appeared. who succeeded Mr. T h e Mahratta army had. he could not effect much. but was compelled to retreat for want of supplies. and took Bangalore. eight thousand temples in the Calicut territory.. Mr. but he was directed to restore the revenues. he sued for peace by surrendering half his dominions.. charge of the revenues of the Karnatic in order to prevent further usurious claims against the Nawab. and though he displayed courage in the field. Lord Cornwallis charged him with neglect of duty and disobedience o orders in not helping Travancore . Me forcibly made converts by tens of thousands in each place. In 1792. He was soon in the heart of Mysore. which was under British protection and Lord Cornwallis decided on war. and Cornwallis had to give them a loan of twelve lakhs to keep them in good humour. commenced the war. and he demanded a large present from the f Raja of Travancore as the price for help against Tipu. and destroyed. an ample supply of provisions. Cornwallis now advanced towards Seringapatam. I n 1791. H e then attacked Travancore. who succeeded. Holland resigned f and sailed for Europe. but they fell into arrears immediately after. the whole country having been laid waste. In 1790. Cornwallis himself came to Madras and took the command. campaign. He also paid 330 lakhs of rupees for the expenses of the war. concluded a treaty. and delivered . however. Lord Macartney had taken State of Madrab.. the Hindus of Coorg. and he resigned and left India& Sir Archibald Campbell. was himself deeply implicated in loans to the Nawab o the Karnatic. persecution against the Christians of Canara. Holland Third Myra. who succeeded. Madras was as unprepared for the war as it was in the time of Hastings.154 ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. Mr. General Meadows. and the Nairs of Calicut. Holland. as Governor of Madras. When ' Tipu found resistance hopeless. according to his own account. and besieged it. for the punctual payment of the sums due to the Company . and the distress of the British army was relieved. Cornwallis appeared before Seringapatam.

155 up two of his sons as hostages. and Indian affairs were once Charter.intervtn- . that he should pay six lakhs to his creditors. The English obtained a slice of country to the east. T h e misgovernment of Oudh called forth vain protests from. and south. It was settled that the Nawab should pay nine lakhs annually for the peace establishment . Lord Cornwallis had taken charge of the revenues of theKarnatic during the war. and high-souled ruler. reputation of a benevolent. now became Governor-General as Sir Johm tion Policy. Pitt's Bill of 1784 mere upheld. SHORE Mr. T h e Mahrattas and the Nizam. All the leading features of Mr. The affairs of the Mahrattas were. and soon after he left Iildia in March.ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. and Calicut and C o o r g to the west. more discussed in Parliament. who raised for him a force of sepoy battalions trained by French officers. Sir John Shore. on his failing to pay. and a general of consummate abilities.. and the Nizam was beaten. w h o had rendered little help in this war. and he left India in 1 7 9 3 ~ Ieaving behind him t h e . the powers of the Board of Control in England. 1798. the real author of the Permanent Settlement. the English would enter upon the receipt of the revenues from the kingdom. however. T h e period for the renewal of the Company's Charter Renewal of arrived in 1793. but it was refused and the Nizam then employed a French officer. came in for their shares in the territories given up by Tipu. now directed by the profound political genius of Nana Farnavis. 'Phe Nizam of Haidarabad asked the help of the English against the Mahrattas. and lost half his kingdom. Shore. just. Shore. and that. Lord Cornaalli's task was done. and carefully avoided all interference with the Native States of India. having been raised to the peerage as Lord Teignmouth. and the powers of t h e Non. the revenues were again restored. The war being now at an end.

and declared war on not receiving sa~isfac~ion his demand. Governor-General and his Council and of the Governors of Madras and Bombay and their Councils were maintained. afterwards the famous Duke of Wellington. he entered the Mysore territory and took Seringapatarn. The Charter was renewed for 20 years with one great innovation. WELLESLEY. on their own account. Lord Mornington. and Lord Mornington demanded fresh securities from Tipu.ord Teignmotlth. better known' by his later title of Wellesley. H e was accompanied by the Governor-General's brother Colonel Arthur Wellesley.000 men belonging to the Nizam War. and Mornington was resolved to stamp out French influence in India. Tipu Sultan had opened negotiatiotls with the French. T o meet the loud protests of the other mercantile houses of England against the monopoly of the Company. Early in 1799. trade with India. was formed into a kingtiom and restored to the ancient Hindu family of Mysore. it was provided that the East India Company should afford annually 3. His first impo~tant was to compel the Nizam of Haidarabad to act disband his French battalions.003 tons of shipping. This was the first blow against the Company's monopoly of Eastern trade. and now under British command. Tipu gallantly resisted the English as they stormed his fort. s~rcceeded 1. of General Harris advarrced on Mysore with zoo. and the remainder. A boy of five years belonging to that family was placed on the throne .hting with the assailants. and to maintain an English force in its place. The French Revoluti011and the wars of Nepoleon Bonaparte had aroused bitter feelings between the English and the troops Fourth besides I 6. it was arranged that the whole military force for the .156 ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. Large slices OF the Mysore dominions were taken by the English and the Nizam. in which private merchants might. and fell fi.

and Nawab retired on an annual pension of a lakh of Rupees. subsidized for the protection of the Nizam. His.ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. Amar Sinha was dethroned. in case of misgovernment. and the Government recognized the claim of his 8urat. brother to inheritance. was increased . T h e result of the Mysore War was hailed with joy in England a n d Lord Mornington received the title of Marquis of Weilesley. I n 1798. 18~0. and undertook not t o make war o r to enter i n t ~ negotiations with other powers without the sanction of the ~ n g l i s h . discovered that the legal heir to the throne was Sarbaji. and the territory was accordingly divided between the English and the Nizam. and the Nizam ceded for its maintenance the territory obtained from Mysore. it was Tanjore. in 1800 by which the British army. T h i s was done. the Company should have the power to take the administration into their own hands. that seven lakhs of Pagodas should b e paid annually for the maintenance of this force . the Governor-General directed that the government a n d revenues of Surat should be assumed by the English. A portion of t h e territory conquered from Mysore was reserved for the Peshwa if he would enter into such a !'subsidiary alliance" with the English . whom the former Raja had adopted. besides a fifth of the surplus reven-ues. but the Peshwa declined t o surrender his freedom. successor declined to abdicate the powers of government and wa set .the powers of government to the English. however. 157 defence of the country should b e English .Nizarn of the ~ e c c a n Deccan. In March. and Sarbaji was made to resign. and retired oil an annual pension of a lakh of Pagodas and a fifth of t h e surplus T h e Nawab of Karnatic died in 1881. T h e Nawab bf ~ u F a t died in January.a n d that. 1799. T h e Raja of Tanjore died in 1787. and was succeeded by his son Amar Sinha. After the conclusion of the Mysore War a treaty was concluded with the.

ceded over half his kingdom with a revenue of 135 lakhs t o the British. Lord Wellesley in 1881 sent t ~ o Oudh. but was ultimately compelled to accept it. and was recognized by the English 1 at the treaty of Salbai. Lord WelFarakkabad. A l l the chiefs and great powers of India except the Mahrattas. This young prince committed suicide. The Nawab of Farakkabad was a minor. The administration passed into the hands -of the Company. lesley wished to make an arrangement suitable t o his own views. and an annual pension of one lakh and eight thousand rupees was granted to the Nawab in I 802. and Peshwa Baji Rao was thus released from that minister's vast influence and power. retiring on a pension of -one-fifth of the net revenue of the Karnatic. and the Nawab was urged to vest the civil and military government in the hands ofthe British. f The aEairs of the Mahrattas now engaged the attentSon o Five Mahratta Weilesiey. and the termination of his minority was approaching. T h e Nawah protested against the proposal. that on the powarr death of Narayan Rao his infant son Madhu Rao 1 . We have seen before. and another prince was set up and made to resign the powers of government to the English. and by the treaty of Novemher 1881. the Nawab reluctirntly gave his -consent to the second proposal. . or cede to the Company a portion of his territories adequate for the subsidy due for the British troops. and was succeeded bv Baji Rao son of the same Raghunath who had in vain tried to be Peshwa by the help of the British. alternative proposals to the Nawab.158 . retaining territory with a revenue of about i o o 'lakhs of rupees for himself. The aged and the able minister Nana Farnavtr died in 1800.desired that the Nawab should either transfer to the Company t h e exclusive management of the civil and military government of the country. After a great deal of negotiations.ASCENL)ENCY OF BRITISH POWER. It was . Negotiations went on with the Nawab of Oudh for three years. aside . was made Peshwa. were thus brought under British control.

he was succeeded by Daulat Rao Sindia. but he inherited his father's immense power. Holkar was also a great power. There were constant wars among them. Two other Mahratta houses also wielded great power as we have stated in a previous chapter. By this treaty he undertook to hold no communication with the other powers without the consent of the British Govern- ' . After the death of Ranaji Sindia. and Tukajl's son Jaswant Rao Holkar wielded great power at the time of which we are now speaking. Sindia. 1802. but was restored to him when peace was concluded. 15'9 Sindia now wieliied a ereater power than the Peshwa. Ahalya Bai. carried on the administration for eighteen years with an ability and righteousness which have made her name a household word among the Hindus. He had an army trained by French officers. and was the most powerful among the Mahratta chiefs of his time. She transformed the village of Indore into a large and wealthy capital and died in 1795. ruled in Berar and held Orissa. Malhar Rao Holkar who founded the kingdom. his son Mabdaji Sindia had risen to great power and fame and had drawn the exile Emperor Shah Alam from Allatlabad a n d placed him on the throne of Delhi. the Bhonsla and the Gaekwar were thus the five great Mahratta ~ Z 3 c f powers. H e repaired to Bassein where he signed the treaty of Bassein the English on the 3rst December. His son's widow. After his death. The Gaekwars ruled in Gujrat and had their capital at Baroda The Peshwa. The Bhonslas had their capital at Nagpur. and Jaswant Rao Holkar defeated the combined army of the Peshwa and Sindia in 1802. Her commander-in-chief was Tukaji Holkar. in his distress. His capital Gwalior was taken by Captain Popham as we have seen before.OF BRITISH POWER. the founder of the family. Holkar. died in 1767. at last accepted the "subsidiary alliance" which the Governor-General had in vain been pressing on him so long.ASCENDENW . held Delhi and the Doab. a somewhat indolent and unsteady chief. The Peshwa.

a strong hill-fort was taken. went against the Bhonsla and in November 'found him and his army on the plains of Argaon. . Treaty o f Treaty of Deogaon Deogaon was accordingly signed in December. and General Wellesley. and Sir Arthur Wellesley commenced operations.000 infantry . a n d established the fame of the young general who was destined to win brighter laurels in . T h e Mahratta army was defeated. Sindia and Bhonsla were then on the frontiers of the Nizam's dominions.000 cavalry and 18. on the Nizam's frontier. 1 . and he consented to the establishment of this force at Puna. but Holkar preferred to watch the march of events. European a n d Sepoy. Baji Rao was conducted to Puna. The British General next Battle o f Argaon. They replied that they were willing to withdraw if the English would withdraw to Madras and Bombay. Sir Arthur Wellesley had a much smaller force but he determined Battle o f Arsya to attack the enemy.160 ABCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. T h e Mahratta army had 38. advanced in the face of the fire and bore down all opposition T h e British suffered a heavy loss of over two thousand in killed and wounded. f In September 1803. he ceded a territory for the maintenance of a British subsidiary force. Nothing came of these negotiation. and the latter to his capital at Nagpur. who was a t Puna. a n d &e Bhonsla sued for peace. necond Mahratta war.Europe. Sindia now sued for peace and the terms of an armistice were arranged. They called on Holkar to make common cause against the English. he came on the combined army o Sindia and Bhonsla near the village of Assye. and installed as Peshwa by the English with great pomp. General Wellesley reached Puna. but the victory was complete. meat. The Mahratta artillery opened a destructive fire but the Rritish infantry. demanded that the former should retire beyond the Nurbudda. Sindia and Bhonsla were taken aback by this treaty which enabled the English to interfere in Mahratta affairs.

Mahdaji Sindia's army had been disciplined by an eminent Frenchman. had been superseded in command. found there. and intended to resign his service at once. welcomed the English as his new protectors. Lake then went II . But t h e weak and unsteady Daulat Rao began to be jealous of this faitlrful servant. and the immense treasure Agra taken. and Perron was disgusted witti this want of confidence. who had so long been under t h e ' protection of Sindia.ASCENDENCY OF BRITISK POWER. De Boigne. 1803. Lord Wellesley had express ed his wish to purchase the surrender of the military resources under Perron. known as Bernr. Lake marched on Delhi. But he declined to be a traitor to his master. The English treated him with respect. where Sindhia was the vbtual master of Delhi and the Doab. and triumphantly entered the capital of India in September. 161 T h e R a j ~ Nagpur gave up the maritime district of of Cuttack to the British. even though he had received ungracious treatment . and he was succeeded by Perron. The old Emperor. General Lake commenced operations in these provinces stormed Aligarh. courtesy and kindness. I 803. 0 0 0 . General Lake met with success equally brilliant in the north. General Lake now advanced upon Agra and took that city in October. and the latter could have obtained a large sum if h e had consented to transfer to the English the resources entrusted to him. Perron virtually ruled the Doab. amounting to ~ 2 8 0 . on the Warda river. After taking Aligarh. and some territory. I 903. who served under Daulat Rao Sindia and held the Doab. was distributed among the troops as prize money. and gave up his service under Sindia. Shah Alam. was take:> from him and added to the Nizam's dominions. defeated Sindia's troops. and he retired with the humble fortune of a private individual. Perron. collected a revenue of 80 lakhs. and maintained the supremacy of Sindia in Northern India. Aligarh and ~ ~ l h and i taken. in the meantime.

overtook it a t Battle of Laswari and signally defeated it. and hastily determined to check their further rise in power. Colonel Monson was left with small army to watch his Monson'a retreat. trained by De Boigne and Perron. and was not even stipulated that the troops would be stationed in his dominions. the territory between the Ganges and the Jumna with some possessions to the west of the Jumna. The great power of Holkar and his own shattered resources induced Sindia to form a "subsidiary alliance" with t h e English. A retreat before a Mahratta army is always perilous. resolved on retreat. in pursuit of the remaining force of Sindia. movements. and after a disastrous retreat. The'year 18c3 is a memorable year in the history of India. and TrtPtY Sindiq 'Dsihi. a severe loss to the British army. including Delhi and Agra. and feeling his position critical. Jaswant Rao Holkar who had so long watched the course of affairs. H e invited Sindia to join him against the common enemy. In one word. that he consented in this instance.000 British troops. but without the payment of any subsidy. was thus completely annihilated. So anxious was Lord Wellesley to conclude such an alliance with Sindia. IIolkar's first attempts were crowned with success. and in the north by General Lake. he signed a treaty ceding to the English Doab acquired by the Enalish. Sindia now sued for peace. and the English became the master of Delhi and Agra and the supreme power in India. In this year the Mahratta power was broken in the south by General Wellesley. the Mahratta Empire in India was supplanted by the British Empire. The powerful army of Sindia in No?thern India. not without a hope of deriving some advantages from the losses of Sindia. though with Laswari. to lend the services of British troops without any kind of return. Agra and the 1803. H e agreed to avail himself of 6. I n December. and loss of all . was staggered at the brilliant successes of the English.162 ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER.

in which Holkar's army was completely defeated. Holkar took Mathura and then advanced upon Delhi. Mollson at last reached Agra ia 1804. which Wellesley was consistently following. and after a breach had been opened. The Raja of Bharatpur did not.battle was fought at Deeg. and that chief at last joined his army at Deeg. and took shelter within the fort. wait for the operations of the siege to be renewed . The Jat Raja of Battle of Deeg. a greater loss than had been sustained in any battle in this obstinately contested war. in miserable plight. T h e great scheme of annexations. and deserted the side of Holkar. Afier the capture of Deeg it was considered necessary to take the fortress of Bharatpur. 163 artillery and baggage. and so they sent out the peace-bving . in spite of his treaties. The British were repulsed in four successive attempts an1 at last intermitted operations of the siege after a loss of over 3. however. and Sindia. The piace Siege o f BharatPU r. they made it impracticable by stockades and other defences. General Lake sent an army against Holkar and an obstinate . Bharatpur had now sided with Holkar. conquests and subeidiary alliances. and promised him the restoration of Deeg. was besieged. but was unable to take the place. T h e great successes of the British frightened all the Mahratta chiefs of India. Lake arrived there.ASCENDENCY OF BRITISH POWER. alarmed the Court of Directors. it was the only great attempt in which the British failed in this war. T h e English were glad of this peace. and their policy underwent a change. a11d took Deeg.030 men killed and wounded. and an obstinate attempt was made to storm it . The defenders of Bharatpur fought with the most daring valour. In the meantime General Lake himself chased Holkar across the Jumna. once more made common cause with Holkar against the English. he asked for peace and paid twenty lakhs of rupees. 0 1 1 the other hand the Company were tired of these interminable wars. and his fortress at Deeg afforded a convenient shelter to Holkar's army.

Clive had acquired Bengal and Behar and Northern Circars . so as t o establish British influence and British supremacy all over India. and h e f formed "subsidiary alliancesJ' with the large States. Oudh. and shortly after. the Bhonsla. Sindia. . Lord Cornwallis again as Go5ernor General. And lastly. Wellesley's policy in India may be described in a few words. and the Peshwa owned the supremacy of the British. and annexed their States . Roughly speaking. the Deccan. T h e Karnatic. Tanjore. Farakkabad and Surat were annexed . 1805. and the North-western I'rovinces. His Lordship arrived in July. Wellesley acquired Orissa. Mysore. H e pensioned o f petty chiefs. Wellesley left for England. the Madras Presidency.164 ASOENDENOY OF BRITISH POWER. the Rajputs were glad to obtain British protection against Mahratta invasions. and Holkar were humbled.


CORNWALLIS AND BARLOW. CORNWALLIS back to India with extreme views against came the policy of his predecessor, but he did not live to give esect to them. On his way to the North-West, the scene of the war, he died in October, 1805. Sir George Barlow, a Civil Servant, acted as Governor-Generat until the arrival of Lord Minto in r 807. During his administration a peace was concluded by General Lake with Jaswant Rao Holkar. All his terriPeace with tories were restored to him, except Tonk, and Holkar. he undertook not to commit aggressions on the British Government or on its allies including the Rajputs. These were very favourable terms for Jaswant Rao, yet Barlow had taken up the non-intervention policy of Cornwallis, and he modified the treaty. He restored Tonk to Holkar and annulled the protective treaties with the Rajput chiefs.
A mutiny broke out among the Sepoys of Madras which was attributed to their being compelled to wear a sort of headdress wnich they disliked, and some other similar innovations of a trifling nature. The mutiny was soon quelled, but the Court of Directors held Lord William Bentinck responsible for the innovations, and recalled him from his post as Governor of Madras. They made amends for this injustice by appointing that great and good nobleman Governor-General of India twenty-two years after.

Lord Minto arrived as Governor-General of India in 1807. A great power had now arisen in the Punjab and Lord Minto desired to conciliate that power, as the probability of Nap oleon Bonaparte's invading India by the Punjab was then discussed. We have elsewhere spoken of the rise of the Sikhs and their 8inhr. persecution under the Mogul emperors. T h e nation was now united by the genius and abilities of Ranjit Sinha. That chief was born in 1780, and, in his twentieth year, had been appointed Governor of Lahore by the Afghan king. But he soon threw off the Afghan yoke and made the Punjab independent. H e organized the Sikh army under ~ u r o ~ e officers, and spread his conquests to Multan in an the south, to Peshawar in the west, and to Kashmir in the north. O n the east, he made aggressions on the principalities between the Sutlej and the Jumna, but these principalities were under British protection, and Lord Mint6 sent Charles Metcalfe t o conductnegotiations with Ranjit Sinha.. Ranjit was induced to withdraw his troops from beyond the Sutlej, and that river formed the boundary between the Sikh dominions and the states under British protection. Lord Minto also sent Colonel Malcolm to Persia and Mountstuart Elphinstone to Afghanistan to counteract the supposed designs of Napoleon ~ o n a ~ a r t e . The system of administration organized by Hastings and Admlnict,,,tion. Cornwallis proved a failure. European Judges were unable to cope with their work, civil and criminal ; and arrears became so numerous, and decisions were delayed so long, as to amount to a virtual failure of justice. T h e opinion was then advanced by some of the ablest of the Company's servants that it was impossible to remedy the defrci without a more extended employment of the people of the country. The failure in the Police department was even more signal than in judicial matters. The zemindars and others. who had in former times preserved in a somewhat rude fashion the peace



of the country, had been deprived of police powers ; and the Darogas who were entrusted witti the work were incompetent and corrupt. The crime of Dakaiti increased to an alarming degree, and from I 800 to I8 10 the province of Bengal was kept in perpetual alarm. Sir Henry Strachy, Circuit Judge of the District of Calcutta, wrote that 4,000 convicts, ninetenths of whom were Dakaits, were confined in his division in 1801. "Since 1793," he said, "crimes of all kinds are increased, and I think most crimes are still increasing." T o remedy this state of things, two Superintendents of Police Were appointed over the Darogas, one for Bengal and one for the Western Provinces, and Magistrates were armed with special powers. But these vigorous measures became, as Professor wilson states, "as severe a scourge to the country as the Dakaits themselves." Gocndas or informes were employed, and these unscrupulous spies Ievied black-mail all over the country, and informed against thousands of innocent persons. Tliousands of villagers were apprehended on suspicion and kept in long confinement. Lord Minto left India in 1813, and was succeeded by Lord Moira, better known by his later title of Marquis of Hastings.

H ASTINGS. It was in this year, I8 I 3, that the Company's Charter was again renewed. T h e feeling in England against the Company's monopoly had now grown so strong that the monopoly in regard to Eastern trade generally was abolished, and private merchants were allowed to trade with India and the East, subject to certain restrictions made for the security of the Company. Only the Company's monopoly of trade in tea in China was continued. On these conditions the Company's Charter was renewed for another twenty years.
Renewal Charter.



Affairs in Nepal attracted the attention of the new Governor-General. Nepal was originally inNepal. habited by the Newars who were Buddhists. I n 1767, i. e., ten years after the battle of Plassy, the Gurkhas, a strong and sturdy race, and Elindos by religion, overran t h e valley of the Khatmandu, and became masters of Nepal. Prithi Narayan was the head of the Gurkhas, and founded the Gurkha kingdom in Nepal H e was a cruel conqueror, a n d treated the timitct Newars with great cruelty. After the death of Prithi Narayan the Gurkhas extended their invasions o n all sides,-into Sikkim in the east, into Kumaon in the west, and even into T l ~ i b e t in the north. T h e y plundered Lhassa, but were beaten back by a Chinese army of 70,000 men, restored all the plunder obtained, and promised to pay tribute to China. Rao Bahadur, the grandson of Prithi, took the administration into his own hands, and was as cruel as his grandfather. H e married a Brahman widow, who soon died leaving an infant. Rao Bahadur abdicated and made this infant the king of Nepal. Subsequently, Bao Bahadur was murdered in 1804, his boy remained king and Bhim Sen T a p p a wielded all the power in the State. T h e frequent invasion of the British territory in the south f by the Gurkha conquerors o Nepal led to protests. 'Two districts which had belonged to the Nawab of Oudh, and had been ceded to the British, were at last annexed by Nepal. Lord Minto sent a n ultimatum that unless the districts were restored they would be recovered by force. ?'he Nepal Government replied that the districts would not be surrendered. Lord Moira sent a British detachment and took possession of the districts. T h e Nepalese then sent a large force which attacked a small British guard stationed in the frontier, killed and wounded many of them, and then went back to Khatmandu. War against Nepal. was now commenced, and Generills Ochterlony and Gillespie were placed in Nepal War. . comniand. Gillespie penetrated 'into the Dehra Doon valley and attacked the fortress ot Kalanga, but.

169 was killed in a brave attempt to storm the fortress. and peace was concluded on the terms insisted upon Treaw of by the British Indian Government. When all the negotiations were closed. General Martindale ~ ~ ~ ~ *peration in 1* 8. and the military prepara~ionswere relaxed. and he brought the Nepal War to a satisfactory end. 86 army of twenty thousand men. but the fortunes of the British arms were retrieved by General Ochteriony's Ochterlony. Eyer Coote against Haidar Ali. Amar Sinha was now closely besieged in the last fortress Maloun. The English insisted on the interpretation of the word. was compelled to capitulate. renewed ' ~ . though o n honourable terms. the Nepalese denied it. H e also agreed to receive a British Resident at Khatmandu. Sir David Ochterlony. The fortress was defended by the Gurkhas until it was a heap of ruins. and he concluded a treaty. who succeeded Gillespie attacked the enemy stationed at the strong fort of Jaitak. as well as the whole of the Terai. however.CONSOLIDATION OF BRI 1'1s~ POWEB. and the Governor-General now created Marquis uf Mastings. Two successive defeats convin-ed the Nepalese that further resistance was hopeless. recommenced the war. H e compelled Amar Sinha the brave Gurkhar General to retreat before him . a question arose if the Terai included the forest on the lower slopes of the Himalayas. T h e attempt which was made by another division to penetrale Nepal from Sarun also failed. and a detachment sent by him took Almora the capital of Kumaon. marched towards Khatmandu in I 816 with an Success i n 1 1 . The fall of Maloun frightened Bhim Sen Tappa. but was beaten I~ack. ceding all the provilices conquered by the British in the west. ~ ~ when they evacuated it. who had now been made a baronet. The quesSegowlie. . These events produced an alarm in Calcutta. and he had repulsed the attacks of Jaswant Rao Holkar on Delhi in 1804 .he reduced Ramgarh and Bilaspur . and despa~ring of successful resistance. Ochterlony had fought under Sir successes in 11-5 841. tion about the Terai was.

During the disorder which ensued on the downfall of the Mogul power. Landour and Naini Tal. soon after his arrival in India. the Mahratta chiefs were glad to employ many of these fleet freebooters. but after the conclusion of that war. not was. another horde of twenty-five thousand plundered villages on the Coromandel Coast. The Marquis of Hastings reported to the Court of Directors. but their object was plunder. and extended their depredations everywhere on their own the Gurkhas in other forms. desolating villages. But the provinces conquered from Nepal in the west have remained British possessions. and the British Indian Government at last abandoned their point rather than go to war again. and a third horde swept through the Peshwa's dominions and plundered villages on the Malabar Coast. and spread their ravages over an area as large as England. the Marquis of Hastings was engaged with a more trouhlesome. Disbanded troops. During Wellesley's wars with the Mahrattas. that the battalions of hrnir Khan and the Pindari hordes numbered fifty thousand men. hut were composed of Afghans. known hill-stations of Simla. or they marched across the country under their own leaders. The area increased year hy year. hardy adventurers. and in I 8 I 5-1 6. that they lived on plunder alone. Having thus brought the Nepal War to a satisfactory conclusion. and contain the well. They frequently transferred their services from one chief to another. one horde of eight thousand plundered the Nizarn's dominions. multipiy in all parts of India. Jats and Mahrattas. the Pindaris seem to have dispersed all over the country. Mussouri. if not a more powerful enemy. and specially in the Central Provinces. . Lord Hastings :determined to put down these daring and organized freebooters. and living by plunder. They offered their service to chiefs o r leaders who could pay them. robbers and criminals joined these predatory bands. They belonged to no particular race or creed. and were known by the comprehensive name of Pindaris. swarms of freebooters began to Pindaris.

a n d 34. but to escape. Daulat Rao Sindia was a decided supporter of the Pindaris. who had gone to Puna under British protection. Elphinston. but escaped and fled among the Bhils. ever brought to the field. Khan. to reduce his army. and at last compelled him to deliver three important fortresses a s pledges of his good behaviour. and was compelled to sign a treaty. many of whom were finding shelter in h i s TrMwwith Bindia. Trimbakji was therefore imprisoned near Bombay. in June 1817. promising toTreaw with Amir abstain from further depredations in future. The idea was to form a circle round the Pindari positions. About this time. and to close in upon t h r ~ ~ ~ a s on a common centre. Treaty with and undertook not to hold communicatiorr Peshwa. T h e notorious Amir Khan was now growing old. The Peshwa's minister Trimbakji murdered the Gaekwar's minister Gangadhar Sastri.000 troops with I 3. Bengal. remonstrxted with the Peshwa. 57. Mr. with other powers. the different Mahratta powers began to give trouble.CONSOLIDATION OF BRITISH POWER. It was the only plan which was likely to succeed against predatory freebooters whose object was not to fight the British. While these vast preparations were being made. T h e Peshwa then signed. by which he gave up a considerable territory. the treaty of irregular cavalry came from .000 troops with 10. dominions. T h e Peshwa himself was collecting troops and placing his forts in a state of preparation. Sindia's proposals to other powers to make a hostile combination against the British were detected. 171 About the middle of 1817. and recognizing that the Rajput States were under British protection. Sindia was astonished and alarmed .000.000 irregular cavalry advanced from the Deccan and Gujrat. making a total of r I 4. and he forthwith agreed to a new treaty pledging himself to co-operate against the Pindaris. and to settle down as a . then resident a t Puna. the Governor-General put into motion the largest army that the British ha& Plndari War.

and were cut off from Rajputana and Bandelkand. and his wife Tulsi Bai and his son Malhar Rao Holker had Peace at Holkar. and was heard of no more. Mahratta Puna. sought refuge from their rebellious army in a .c2:ri. Karim and Chetu were the most notorious among the Pindari chiefs . Baji Rao continued to collect troops. and crossed the Jumna. and was permitted to live in peace .1'72 CONSOLIDATION OF BRITISH POWER. The Pindaris who had been dislodged from their homes by the Madras army fled northwards. The British force at Puna was removed to Battle of Khirki. or perished in the wilds. Of in. Khirki. 1817.remote fortress. Baji Rao. many mixed with the population and settled down as cultivators . Baji Rao a: last threw off all . In the meantime the Peshwa.. and in November. was chafing under the yoke imposed upon him by the treaty of ThirdWar. the former threw himself on the mercy of the British. the fatal circle of the British army began to close E. Jaswant Rao Holkar had become insane. Lord Hastings himself marched from Cawnpur in October. and to put his forts in state of defence. and was secretly collecting troops. peaceful ruler. On the same afternoon. They were anxious to come under British protection. Mr. but found themselves opposed by the Bengal army. Many died in the conflict or in the jungles in the utmost distress . The Nawabs of Tonk in Rajputana are descended from him. the latter fled into the jungles and was killed by a tiger. the vast bodies of Pindaris made ineffectual attempts to escape in all directions. I but was induced to restore to the Peshwa the three forts he had pledged for his good behaviour. Thus encircled. and Mr. and were not likely to help the Pindaris. and the vast Pindari organization was crushed for ever. Elphinstone himself left the Puna Residency and joined the force at Khirki. All these arrangements having been satisfactorily made. Mr. Elphinstone considered it necessary to take precautions. Elphinstone suspected what was going on.

but the rebellious army cruelly beheaded her on the banks of the Sipra river. The infant Malhar Rao. and t h e admfnistration placed under British control. his son was an idiot. and the State became a subsidiary S~ate. 1517. The attack was gallantly repulsed. army was repulsed. was afterwards raised to the throne. The result was tlre Battle of same as at Khirki. Baji Rao a grandson of Ragbuji Bhonsla. and Tulsi Bai and her general! Battle of Mehidpur and peace had led an army in support of the Peshwa. and the Residency was plundered. he was imprisoned.000 troops. ended his days. and elevated the Raja of Extinction Of the Perhwe Satara. The battle was fought at Sitabaldi. Appa Saheb was appointed commander-in-chief by the Peshwa. consisting only of 1. a descendant of Sivaji.400 sepoys. Appa Saheb now denied having authorized the attack. Sir John Malcolm opened negotiations. European and Sepoy. and in November I 8 I 7. and his nephew Appa Saheb murdered the boy and became Raja. to some share of the former dignity of the houie. T h e Raja of Nagpur had made common cause with the Peshwa and had risen in arms. The battle of Mehidpur was fought in December. but it being discovered that h e had killed the late men attacked the small British army. and attacked the British army. Raghuji Bhonsla died in 1816. When the Peshwa was at war with the British. All the . 173 disguise and attacked the British force of less than 3. The authorities at Indore had also taken up the cause of the Peshwa. Hasting3 erased the name of Baji Rao [from the list of Indian Princes. the immense Mahratta Sitabaldi.CONSOLIDATION OF BRITISH POWER. and the Indore army was completely routed by Sir John Malcolm. Tulsi Bai was willing to come to terms. with his army of 26.000 men. and found shelter in Jodhpur where h e Peace of Nagpur. his troops numbering nearly zo. was made Raja. with Holkar. He managed to escape.

but was repulsed and defeated. 1824. which Wellesly had begun. Baji Rao was at last surrounded Presidency.000 men. A pension of eight lakhs of rupees a year was granted to him. near Cawnprrr. and subsequently invad e d British territory. One of his sons . Lord Amherst was thus forced to war. Bundula attacked it with60. H e tried to make a i . by the British troops under the command of 'Sir John Malcolm. In Bombay June. the period of his administration. One power only remained independent. and he was permitted to live in Bithur. the Sikhs beyond the Sutlej. the British Army under Sir Archibald Campbell reached Rangoon. which was deBurmese war. and threatened Cachar. conquered Arracan. and Marshnian started a Press and established a College at Serampur .. David Hare founded a school for imparting English education to Indian children . 1818. They now form the Bombay Presidency. I n May. and thus Hastings completed the work. and founded Rangoon. In December following. Under his successor the Burmese general Bundula conquered Assam and Manipur. viz. Some progress and advancement among the people were observable during his administration.. it. and the first Burmese War is the principal event during Burma. of making the British power supreme in India.174 COIR~OLIDATION OF BRITISH POWER. Alompra founded a dynasty at Ava. AMHERSTLord Amherst arrived in India in 1 8 2 3 . and the Hindu College was founded in Calcutta in 1817. Hastings was an enlightened administrator and a friend to -education. some years before the battle of Plassy. Thus ended the last Mahratta war. the missionaries Carey. serted by its inhab~tants. and of making all States subsidiary or tributary to the British Empire. and surrendered himself to the mercy of the foe. and extended his conquests southwards as far as the sea. Ward. About 1750. dominions of the Peshwa were taken over by the British. Marlaban and Tenasserim.

T h e little State of Bharatpur was now in disorder. T h e Raja died in 1825. f and usurped the supreme power. and the British army rushed into it and captured 'the fort. and then towards Ava.but was checked by the Governor-General. 175 stand higher up the Trawadi at Donabew. The usurper was irnprisoned. but the British took the place. cousin o the little Raja. ordered a force to advance on his own ar~thority. and the infant Raja was restored to his throne. Balwant Sinha. ful siege of Bharatpur by the British in 1805. But Lord Amherst was forced to interfere. H e was grieved at this affront. and the British Government recognised the succession of his boy. and Mr. A terrific explosion caused a breach. resigned his appiontment and died two months after. Prome and Pegu. and Bundula was killed. Arracan. and an army was at length sent agains Bharatpur. and watched the present proceedings with the utmost anxiety. murdered his guardian. was provisional Governor-General until the arrival of Lord William Bentinck in July. Sir David Ochterlony. the hero of the Nepal War. and Tenasserim to the British in 1826. hut they were mined with ten thousand pounds of gun powder. Even now the mud walls of the fort were proof against artillery. and concluded peace by paying a kror of Rupees. as Senior Member of the Council. and the maritime city of Rangoon still remained with'the Burmese. Lord Amherst left India in February in 1828. and ceding Assam. But Durjan Sal. As we have seen before he was Governor o Madras 2 2 years before. Capture of T h e chiefs of India remembered the unsuccessBharatpur. T h e king was now thoroughly frightened. BENTINCK.CONSOLIDATION OF BRIPISH POWER. Lord William Bentinck's adf ministration was not distinguished by wars or important annexation . but the reforms he introduced and the blessings . imprisoned him. Butterword Bayley. The British Army proceeded up to Prome.

Madras and Bombay were ruled by able and enlightened Governors. Over. The appointment. but men with no character for respectability had been appointed o n miserable commissions. and finds no sanction in ancient Hindus works. in Madras the jurisdiction of District Munsiffs and Sudder Ameens were extended. Another act which distinguished Brntinck's administration was the suppression of Thug+. The custom was generally adopted in the last days of Hindu independence and seemed to fine greater favour after India was conquered by the Moslems. and they could not give satisfaction. Of The people of India now appreciate Bentinck's act of mercy. a n d the offence gradually died out. During the administration of Lord Amherst.500 Thugs were apprehended between 1826 and 1835. and the Hindus hnd ceased to be a living nation. &ti. or even in hianu's Institutes.176 CONSOLIDATION OF BRITISH POWCK. These hereBuppresslon of ditary assassins travelled in all parts of India Thugs. The inhuman custom of permitting widows to burn themselves on the pyres of their husbands was unknown to t h e ancient Hindus generally.Ameens in Bengal had been somewhat improved . and strangled and robbed trvellers. in various disguises. he bestowed on the people have endeared his name to t h e nations of India. In 1829 Lord Bentinck passed an Act abolishing this inhuman rite. and these measures were extended to Bombay when the Mahratta country was annexed. and declaring all who abettedthe act to be guilty of culpable homicied. Sir !1 1 . of Munsiffs and Ameens was an element i n Lord Cornwallis's scheme of 1793. Administrative reforms. Colonel Sleeman's name stands foremost among the officials who have helped to stamp out this crime. and are Rreatful for the aboliiibn of the rite. But it is for administrative reforms that the government of Bentinck is best known. Under the administration of Lord Hastings the pay of Munsiffs and ~ u d d e . 1.

and the Counc~l -empowered to pass Acfs applicable to the whole of India. and permit Europeans to freely settle in the country. A new Legal Member was was added to the Governor-General's Council. 'I'he period of the previous Charter of the East India Company expired in 1833. a true friend of the people. Bentinck did. He showed that the greatest benefit had resulted from entrusting District Munsiff. It was now Renewal of renewed oncondition that the Company should Charter. They were based on Indian institutions and bestowed large powers on Indian functionaries. they took the people into their confidence. The powers and emoluments. was the Governor of Madras. Shortly after.opera~ionof its people. He prol~ulgated regulations constituting a complete Code of Civil and Crlminal Law and Police and Revenue rules. and they were invested with the almost entire charge of the administration of civil justice. 'The result has amply justihed Lord William Bent~nck'senlightened policy. give up its trade. and evoked loyal and faithful service from the people. 'The North-Western Provinces were formed into a separate Government In addition to those of Bengal. I'he Hon'ble Mmntstuart Elphinstone who was Resident at Puna at the time of the last Mahratta War became the Governor of Bombay under Lord Amherst. What Munro did for Madras and Elphinstone did for Bombay. Madras and Bombay.. and ht: established aux~liarycT>urts under Indian Judges with civil and criminal jurisdiction. for Rengal. A new era thus commenced for India. on a still wider scale.they had faith in the people. with extended jurisdictions. Indian Deputy Collectors were appointed on adequate pay to assist European Collectors in the revenue administration of the country. and the administration of the country has been placed on a satisfactory basis by the loyal help and co. 177 Thomas Munro. but only administrators.OMSOLIDATION OF BRITISH POWER. The princ~pleon wh~cfithey acted was the same .of the Indian Judges in Berigal were fixed upon a comprehensive and liberal scale by Hentinck.-an era in which her rulers were no longer traders. And I2 .

The atrocities of the Raja of Coorg also required British interference. which continues to be the best account of the Musalman Rule in India. lastly. Horace Hayman Wilson and James Prinsep followed up those researches into Indian Antiquities which Sir William Jones and Duff compiled his masterly Colebrooke had started. or any of them. a published his History of India. and coCulture. and pelled to take the administration into their own hands in 1830. Macaulay was the new Legal Member of the Governor-General's Council. But stiil more distinguished writers than these graced the period of Lord William's administration. by reason only of his religion. whose histories are still regarded as standard works on the subjects they treat of. But f the culture which has shed a lustre on Bentinck's administration was not confined to Englishmen in India. Elphinstone retired from ~ o m b In ~1828. Lord Bentinck wished the people to c h o ~ s e Raja for themselves. and the British were com*'Ore Coorg. and Coorg was accordingly annexed. o which he compiled a stirring and sympathetic history." The names." The misconduct of the Raja of Mysore led to a rebellion among the people. and Mysore was restored to native Indian rule in 1881. place of birth. and Tod was employed in Rajasthan. it was enacted that no native of India "shall. descent. and after a short war the Raja surrendered himself.of eminent administrators and literary men have shed a lustre on this period of British rule in India. This was the only annexation made during Bentinck's administration. This arrangement continued for over fifty years. office or employment. he disabled from holding any place. Elphinstone was succeeded in Bombay by Sir John Malcolm. colour. but they expressed their prea ference for the rule of the East India Company. operated with Englishmen in the cause o f I ~ rant . and it was made "in consideration of the unanimous yish of the people. and Natives of India imbibed liberal ideas.178 CONSOL~DATION OF BRI'L'ISH POWER. Histury of the Mahrattas. and ten years after.

and Raja Ram Mohan Rai. Isvar Chandra Gupta. . A long controversy between those who advocated education in Oriental classics. started the Prabhakar newspaper in 1830 . on the recommendation of f hZacaulay and other sound advisers. T h e movement showed the degree of progress which the people of Bengal had made within two generations from the assumption of the Government of the country. was thus closed on utilitarian principles. the greatest Hindu reformer of the century. and Bengalee literature has expanded and improved since that date with the progress of English education. founded the theistic Brahmo Samaj of India in 1829.CONSOLIDATION OF BRLTISH POWER. and those who advocated English education. by the English. The first Bengali poet of the century. and one of the last acts o his administration was to rule. 179 education and progress . that education should be imparted to the people of the country In English. Bentinck helped the cause of progress .

and thus keeping a hold over that kingdom. was stationed thcre to preserve British influence. UNTIL arrival of Lord Auckland. Sir Charles hfetcalfe. The Duranis continued to rule in Kabul. accordingly. D. 8 h a h ShuJa in KP~UI. The extension of Russian power in Central Asia now caused some alarm to Indian administrators as the victories of Napoleon Bonaparte had caused uneasiness at the beginning of the century. as the Senior Member of Council. The next year . then ruler of the Punjab refused to allow a British arrry to march through his kingdom.Shah Shuja was placed on the throne of Kabul. Lord Auckland. AUCKLAND. acted as GovernorGeneral. The First Afghan War. INDIA UZU'DER ONE POWER. until Dost Muhammad of the Barukzai tribe became master of Kabul. who recovered the independence of the Punjab soon after 1830.CHArnER XIV. His descendants continued to rule in Afghanistan and in the Punjab until the time of Ranjit Sinha. and as Ranjit Sinha. His administration is memorable Llberty of t h e ~mrr for the liberty which he conferred on the Press.he declared war against Dost Muhammad .-Auckland formed the idea of restoring Shah Shuja to the throae of Kabul. We have spoken before of Ahmad Shah Durani who defeated the Mahratras at Paniprlt in I 761. Lord Auckland arrived in 1836. Kandahar and Ghazni weretaken in I 839. desired to have a firm hold on the frontier kingdom of Afghanistan. the army went by Sindh and Beluchistan. 1836 to 1868. Sir William Macnaghten. In 1838. and the English minister and envoy. and Shah Shuja of the Durani house was an exile in India. A.

T h e great Bazar of Kabul was blown up with gunpowder. and destruction Of the British force. 1g4a. Pollock cornpelle~l them to raise the siege. and then defeated them in battle. but tiley were supposed afterwards to have given cause for offznce. Baiza in reaching Jela1at)ad to tell the tale of this terrible disaster. The Afghans had besieged Retribution. T h e conquest of Sindh was the next great event of Ellenborough's administration. S I C h ~ r l e s ~ Napier defeated the Amirs in the battle of Miani in 1843. In January. Daulat Rao Sindia had died in 1827.030 followers. Lord Ellenborough was sent to supersede Lord Auckland. T h e Amirs Conquest o f 8indh. and reached Kabul. h British army under General Pollock proceeded through the Khyber Army of Pass to Jelalabad. began the fztal retreat from Kabul. and acts of retaliation were perpetrated by the conquering army in the city.1842. Dr. Sir and Alexander Burnes.INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. the English envoy. The Afghans attacked the retreating force from their he~ghts. the British force. Affairs in Gwalior now engaged the attention of the Governor-General. thousands were k~lled. and Sindh was annexed. leaving Dost Muhammad master of the kingdom. Sir William klacnaghten. thousands died of cold and wounds an 1 hunger. The presence of the British in Kabul was distasteful to the Afghans and disasters began in 1841. 18:l Dost Muharn~nad surrendered himstlE to the English and was sent to Calcutta. and arrived in India in Febru~ry. of Sindh had rendered good service to the B~itishwhen their army marched into Afghanistan in 1839. had adopted a boy and ruled . ELLENBOROUGH. the place. Bry. and his widow. the Political Agent. were killed. and of the whole body only one English Surg-on. The British army then returned to India. 4303 strong with r 2.

In June. his widow. a nominee of the queen-mother. At Indore.-and after the death of Ranjit Sinha no one could control this army which became turbulent and unruly.182 INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. Malhar Rao Holkar. On Janakji's death in 1843. and Tukaji Rao. and a new treaty was concluded by which the army of Gwalior was greatly reduced. Janakji Rao. Holkar. When the boy. was placed on the throne. who shook off the Afghan yoke and made the Punjab independent. A great and dubious war was however at hand. died in 1833. Baiza Bai was compelled by Lord William. and there had been short campaigns in Rharatpur and Coorg. . Ventura. Ranjit Sinha. died in 1839. adopted a boy Jayaji Rao an& w h wished to rule. There had been war in Burma and war in Afghanistan. She dismissed a regent who had been appointed by Lord Ellenborough. and Hari Rao became the ruling chief. Lord Ellenborough was recalled by the Court of Directors. hut a kinsman of mature years. Avitable and Court. and there was some disorder in Gwalior. Hari Rao died in 1843. . set up a claim to the throne. 1844. 'rara Bai. arrived at years of discretion. Sindh and Malwa. India had enjoyed peace for over a quarter of a century since the conclusion of the last Mahratta war. Lord William Bentinck persuaded the widow to retire with her adopted child. HARDINGE. but these scarcely interrupted the general peace of the country. ably as regent. H e had organized a formidable Sikh army disciplined by successive French officers-Allard. Hari Rao. a girl of twelve years. His widow adopted a 'boy and wished to rule as regent. on which L o r d Ellenborough declared war. Bentinck to leave the administration to Janakji. The formidable army of Gwalior was beaten in the battles of Maharajpur and Punnair.


But there was no money in Kashmir. but in the end they gave way.. Sir Henry infantry and r 2. . Gulab Sinha.-After a number of revolution.S i n h a . and were driven to the Sutlej. Dhalip Peace with the sikh~.iril~ngedemanded a million and a half towards the expenses of the war. The final contest took place the next month a t of and Bobrao~i.wo cavalry. The First Sikh War. Rut all were equally afraid of the formidable army. viceroy of Icashmir and Jlimmu. offered an obstinate resistance. ~ a l .$84 INDIA UNDER ONE POWER.000 disciplined troops. The offer was accepted. himself took the field. crossed the Sutlej and invaded British territory. offered to pay the money if he was recognized as the independent Maharaja of Kashmir. Dhalip-Sinha. the Sikh army consisting of 60. Then followed and the battle of Ferozshahar.ace was concluded.became minister. Sinha was recognized as Raja. The Bri~ishgained the victory dearly wtth a loss of over two thousand in killed and wounded. the treasury. They met and defeated the Sikh army under La1 Sinha a t Battlesof Mudki Mudki in December 1845. the Sikhs were again defeated at Aliwal. 1846. and the Sikh army was reduced to zo. an infant son of Ranjit. in which the Sikhs Ferozshahar. In January. accompanied 'him. was placed on the throne with his mother as regent. but were defeated. was annexed by the British. and Sir Hugh Gl~ugh. In 1845. The Jalan~larDoah. who had come out as GovernorGeneral it1 the previoui year.the commander-in-chief. or the tract between the Sullej and the Ravi. a n d Tej Sillha was appointed to the command of the army. and pe. tl. the army was launched on British territories. and Kashmir has since been a separate kingdom. The British army now crossed the Sutlej and pushed on to Lahore. Sobraon 'The Sikhs fought with a courage which astonished the English . and in order to save Lahore and the Punjab. to conquer British possessions or be crushed by Britisti arms.

1849. he joined the enemy. the viccroy of Multan. Lord Gough was unsuccessful in his attempt. complained that they had received ill treatment at the hands of Rangoon officials. and the colours of three regiments The t~dings of this disaster were receive? in England with alarm.400 officers and men. fought. The relations between the Sikhs and the British were strained. and Lord Gough advallced on Sher Sinha's intrenchments at Ch~llianwallaI n January. the second Burmese War broke out. the p~ovince of Pegu was annexed by Dalhousie to the British Empire. The Second Sikh War. Rang0011 and Annexation of Bassein and Prome were captured. was trzated wlth scant courtesy at Rangoon.I INDIA UNDER ONE BOWER. and was succeeded by Lord Dalhousie. and a Britiih army was sent to Burma in 1852. Three years after the annexation of the Punjab. revolted. DALHOUSIE. and Sir Charles Napier was sent out to Battle of Gujrat supersede Lord Gough.-War was again declared against the Sikhs in 1848. Sir Henry Hardinge received a peerage and returhed to England in 1848. 'The battle of Chillianwalla is memorable in the history of Indla for the obstinacy and determination with whlch it was or Battle Chillianwalla. War was therefore declared against Burma . and a captain. Gough had crushed the S ~ k h s the Battle of Cnjrat in in February. Minor States ir. I'heir army was a complete wreck. however. Sher Sinha was sent with a Sikh force against Mulr. and Pew. Before h ~ s arrival. and Sikh power destroyed for ever. and lost more than 2. 185. The custom of adoption on the failure of a natural heir had been .~j. who conveyed a remonstrance from Dalhouise. and the but veteran Sikh soldiers began to assemble on all sides. the Province of Punjab was then annexed by Lord Dalhousie.. and slight causes sufficed to lead to a fresh war Mulraj. . India -were annexed one after another. British merchants War.

1853. but the prayer was rejected. Nana asked for a continuation of the pension which had been granted to his father. failure of a natural heir to the last chief. and the extensive Mahratta kingdom was annexed. H e had no natural heir. and returned to Englan J. The Nizam of Haidarabad had agreed to pay for the maintenance of a British Contingent Force. But the most conspicuous instance of annexation on these grounds was Nagpur. arrears had accumulated to a large sum. would not recognize this custom in the case of Indian States. by the Nawab. Five years after this Jhansi was annexed on Jhansl. death-bed adoption was set aside. his Satara. Baji Rao. the soldiers. Nagpur. died without a male heir in I 848. . Lord Dalhousie annexed the province in 1856. who was now a pensioner. and Lord Dalhousie demanded the cession of sufficient territory for the maintenance of this force in future. T h e Berar.186 INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. I n the same eventful year. and now forms a part of the Central Provinces. and successive Governors-General had remonstrated in vain. the adoption of a sod by his widow was not recognised. T h e people of that province had been oppressed OIJ~~. the ex-Peshwa. was taken over by Dalhousie in 1853 for the maintenance of the Contingent Force. died. Nana brooded over his disappointment. recognized in India from ancient times. the last representative of the house of Sivaji. Raja of Satara. The last annexation of Lord Dalhousie was Oudh. Lord Dalhousie however. and Satara was annexed to the Bombay Presidency. Berar which had been taken from the Raja of Nagpur and given to the Nizam by Wellesley in 1803. The last Bhonsla Raja of Nagpur died in 1853. Nana8aheb. and the landholders of Oudh. and had adopted a son known as Nana Saheb. In the same year he resigned office. and the adopted son inherited the estate or the throne of his father.

and a catastrophe the like of which had not been witnessed in India for rt. hundred years. was also promulgated during this administration. burst on the realm soon after the departure of Lord Dalhousie. modern vernaculars of India. CANNING. 187 PrOgres8. Before leaving for India. and intriguing men. but I cannot forget that in the sky of India. Lord Canning uttered these prophetic words :-" I wish for a peaceful term of office. The policy of Dalhousie had unsettled the minds of the people . T h e acquisition of the Punjab.INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. Oudh and Pegu extended the Indian empire from the Indus to the Irawadi." These words have become historic after the breaking out of the Indian Mutiny. a small cloud may arise no longer than a man's hand. serene as it is. hostile to the British rule. The old controversy between classical education and English education had been decided in favour of the latter during the rule of Bentinck. But these rapid acquisitions roused the alarm of various Indian chiefs and peoples.-Railways and Telegraphs were introduced in India during Dalhousie's administration. while the acquisition of Nagpur and Berar joined Bengal with Bombay. the new despatch continued the same policy. The famous Education Despatch of 1853. but based English education on the. the belief spread that the East India Company aimed at the annexation ot all states . found it easy to spread rumours to rouse the alarm of the sepoys. The rumour . and resulted in the transfer of the Indian Empire from the East India Company to the crown. The Mutiny of 1857 has cast a shade on Dalhousie's policy of annexation. A rumour was spread that the cartridges served out to the sepoys were greased with the fat of cows and of pigs. and the universal use of the half-anna postage throughout India marked the commencement of a new era of progress. but which growing larger and larger may at last threaten to burst and overwhelm us with ruin.

Similar incidents began to take place in many stations in India. in which the English had shut themselves up. and marched off to other centres of revolt. Want of provisions. In June there was a mutiny among the sepoys of Cawnpur Cawnpur. the adopted son of the ex-Pest~waBaji Rao. fifty in number. Nana Saheb. who had not been perJhanrl. and the Europeans. Jhansi.188 INDIA UNDER ONE POWER ran like wild fire. but when they came out. For twenty days. /?if7 In May. and the religious susceptibilities of sepoys. massacred the European and Christizn residents. A mutiny broke out among the sepoys in June. and. and the Eurnpean and'ehristian officials and residents at Delhi. Indications of disaffection and instances of insubordination were manifest in many places. Hindu and Mat~omedan. and then went off to Delhi to proclaim the old Mogul as Emperor. plundered the treasury. met. the sepoys at Meerut broke out into open nlutiny. and they commenced their attack on the intrenchment. was secretly nursing his wrath at the refusal of the British Indian Government t o grant him a pension. were aroused. over fifty in number. The Delhi sepoys joined the mutineers who had comefrom Delhi. . cut down the Europeans whom they Meerut. they were massacred. mitted to adopt an heir. killed their officers. the garrison held out amidst Bcenes of suffering and bloodshed. But being short of provisions. had been annexed in 1853. Meerut. took refuge in the fort. were massacred. they relied on the assurances of safety which were given . was inflamed with a desire to be revenged. was living in half royal style in Bithur. The events which transpired at Jhansi and Cawnpur and Lucknow deserve special mention. while profuse in his hospitality towards English officers. a small state in Bandelkand. broke open the jail. and 6hot down their European officers. The royal family sided with them. and the Rani. T h e sepoys rose.

and the bleeding remains in the well. T h e women and children were reserved for a similar fate. and the Europeans escaped in boats to Cawnpur. the Chief Commissioner of Lucknow. Europeans and Sikhs. was prepared for it. in revenge he ordered the European women and children about two tiundred in number. but Sir Henry Lawrence. T h e y left the intrenchment. O n that same night Nana committed his crowning act of atrocity in Cawnpur. and was formally crowned as Peshwa. by which they were t o leave the place. and they surrendered. Only four men escaped the rest were massacred on the spot. O n the 1st July Nana Saheb went back to Bithur. too. compelled them to trust to the promise of safe conduct given by Nana:Saheb. T h e outbreak had begun at 1. unaware of what had taken place in that town. and went to the boats. 289 however. T h e mutineers . the men were slaughtered in the presence of Nana Saheb. and the women and children were kept with those of Cawnpur. Havelock defeated Nana Saheb and his troops after a stubborn resistance and entered Cawnpur. and. committed acts of retaliation. and burnt down villages along their route o n both sides. T h e British army. General Havelock left Allahabad for Cawnpur with 2. and the dead and the dying were thrown into a well the next morning. There he beheld the scene of the massacre. Suddenly. T h e poor victims were hacked to death. T h e y shared the same fate with the Cawnpur prisoners. but the perpetrators of the massacre had fled. Oudh. There was mutiny at Fatehgarh.ucknow in May. H e had heard that Havelock had beaten his troops and was advancing on Cawnpur. a murderous fire was opened o n the boats from both sides of the river.INDIA UNDER ONE men. O n the next day. Havelock defeated Nana Saheb's army in the wag. and by the night of the 15th July came to within eight miles of Cawnpur. to be slaughtered.or almost to death.

Two sons of the emperor were arrested on the following day . i. but his small force was reduced by cholera and dysentery. An obstinate attack made on the ~ 3 r d u n e i hundredth anniversary of ~ the the battle of Plassy. . Havelock attempted to come to the relief of Lucknow.. . But the British troops did not exceed 8. was repulsed. and he was sent as a State prisoner to pass his days at Rangoon. In September. the breaches were considered practicable. and at last marched off to Delhi. In August. The old Emperor was afterwards tried for waging war against the British Government.Sir Henry Barnard defeated a portion of the: Oelhi recovered. about a month after the breaking out of the mutiny. were on the contrary constantly attacked by the enemy. rebel army. Important events had. The mutineers escaped . Lawrence was wounded by a shell shortly after. but the city was the scene of plunder and bloodshed for six days.e. Lawrence repaired to the ~ e s i d e n c y with all the European inhabitants aud a weak regiment.190 INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. disbanded sepoys arrived from every direction. and the former.090 men. re-occupied the old cantonment on the ridge outside the walls of Delhi. and remained deserted for a time. and he fell back on Cawnpur. far from being able to commence regular siege operations. and a sentence of death was recorded. continued to surround the English garrison. In June. an English officer shot them both with his pistol. and the assaulting columns rushed into the city. 1 were repulsed and pursued. The old emperor was arrested. and the rebels.000strong . But the whole province was in insurrection. but the little garrison held out bravely. the mutineers within the walls were 30. taken place at Delhi. . and died of the wound. and as there was an attempt at rescue. and the seige of Delhi began in earnest. Brigadier Nicholson came up from the Punjab with a reinforcement. in the meantime. But the sentence was not carried out.

Havelock a n d Outram crossed the Ganges . His troops. was the turning point in the history of the mutiny.qo:. however. After these operations he considered he had brought the war to a close. General Lucknow. He came to Cawnpur and there defeated ttie Gwalior troops which had taken that town. Sindia had no sympathy with the mutiny. now Lord Clyde. and relieved the garrison in the Residency. and it took Sir Colin Campbell. the general of Nana Saheb. to quell the rebellion and to restore order. Sir James Outram was left at Lucknow. - .191 I The recovery of Delhi. men. Only two days after Relief o f the British troops had entered Delhi.000 men. Sir Hugh Rose quelled the mutiny in Central India.INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. but the Rani of Jhansi and Tantia Topi still persevered in their efforts.was joined by Sir James Outram. and they cut their way through the streets of Lucknow. and the people had joined the mutinous troops . Havelock who was at Cawnpur . But thropghOudh. deserted to the . with r. rebels. In September. 0 It was not till November that Sir Colin Campbell (afterwards Lord Clyde) finally relieved Lucknow Second Relief oflucknow. two cold seasons. and the English were compelled 1 remain on the defensive inside the Residency. had come to the help of the Rani-defeated 'Tantia Topi and his army of 20. Havelock died of dysentery the day after leaving Lucknow. But the mutineers were still strong in number and held the town. they routed the rebel armies which had conie to oppose their march .000 men after desperate actions near Kalpi. and soon drove the mutineeis from that town. Tantia Topi had gone to Gwalior and had collected troops. out Oudh and Rohilkand there was a national rising. and Tantia Top1 and t h e ~ a n of i he marched with his troops. He besieged and took the fortress of JhansiCentral India where Tantia Topi. H e cut his way to the Residency and brought away the garrison with the women and children. with 5. against the Jhansi.

and thence turned back into the jungles of Randelkand. except those who had directly taken 'part in murders.000 men. The Rani of Jhansi. and integrity. of whatever race or creed be freely and impartially admitted to offices in our service. afterwards Lord Napier of Magdala. He was . H e was the originator of Nana Saheb's rebellion and was Nana's chief support and stay.'Is2 INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. duly to discharge. Tantia Topi retreated from Gwalior with 6. - enemy. and was tried and hanged. and also announced the transfer of of 1858 the British Empire in India from the East India Company to the Croun. the duties of which they may be qualified by their education. and Sindia fled. and granted a general amnesty to all mutineers. 1858. and evaded British troops with remarkable celerity. and fell fighting at t h e head of her troops. a brave and heroic woman. ability. and stormed and took all the enemy's intrenchments in June. Sir Hugh Rose immediately marched against the enemy. Tantia fled into t h e desert of Rajputana. &Midst larke gatherings of a loyal and rejoicing .at last betrayed by one of his own followers in April 1859. the Proclamation of H e r Majesty Queen Victoria brought the mutiny Proclamation to a close. Tantia Topi retreated to the Nurbudda. Tantia Topi thus got possession of the city of Gwalior with all Sindia's artillery. boldly attacked him with only 600 horse. And Her Majesty the Queen declared in the Proclamation her will that "Our subjects. 1858.' Elderly men still 'remember the day when this Proclamiltion wds read in every 'district of India. and he continued the struggle long after it had subsided in other parts of India. On the 1st November. The chase continued for months. and routed the army. b u t Brigadier Napier. It proclaimed the principle 'of justice and religious toleration. fought in male attire during these operations. in English and in the Vtrnaculars.

Cries of "Lon live the Quaen" in English and in b n g a l i rent the air . 193 nation.* And the Indian nation has ever since held the document to be best security of their rights and liberties under the British rule. and the shouts of the assembled multitude.INDIA UNDER ONE POWER. and Brahmans held up their sacred thread and blessed the name of their gracious sovereign. amidst peals of mnnon. 'The preaent wri@r reoollects the imposing ceremony with which t h e Proclamation wasread in Pubna District in Bengal. . Hindua a n 2 Musalmans 'oined in the wish.

The policy of Lord Dalhousie of anncxing 'Indian States when Chiefs died without leaving natural heirs. From 1868.announced the right of Indian Chiefs to adopt heirs on the failure of natural issue. T h e epithet of "Clemency" Canning which was scornfully applied to him for his just moderation. INDIA UNDER THE CROWN. . and is the basis of the improvement in the condition of the Bengal ryot which is now apparent everywhere. therefore the first Viceroy of India. was passed into law in 1860 and the Codes of Civil and Criminal Procedure were passed in the following year. The Indian Penal Code which had been drafted by Macaulay. Tho great Rent Act of 1859 was the first great Legis!ative Act to protect the tillers of the soil from the excessive demands of their landlords. CANNING THEAct for the Better Government of India.CHAPTER XV. Lord Canning now publicly. he checked the spirit of retaliation which prompted retributive measures. which transferred the Empire from the Company to the Crown. but which had not yet been secured to them by law. Canning also took the first step to ensure to the cultivators of Bengal those just rights which the Permanent Settlement had ccntemplated. Lord Canning was. and the people of India still cherish his name with the affection due to a benevolent and just ruler. enacted that India should be governed by the Queen of England through a Secretary of State assisted by a Council of Members. H e had preserved his equanimity unruffled during the course of the terrible occurrences which marked the mutiny and when that mutiny was quelled. is considered by posterity as his highest praise. and bestowed on the Governor-General of India the new title of Viceroy. had caused alarm and disaffection.

which had been sent to Bhutan.and the active benevolence with which the people of Bengal relieved!he sufferers.. An English mission. had failed in obtaining redress . ELGIN Lord Elgin came out in 1862. In Afghanis- . and was buried in Westminster Abbey. In the end. INDIA UNDER THE CROWN. ry. LAWRENCE The administration of Sir John Lawrence in the Punjab had commanded general admiration. absence of effective measures for reIief. and the envoy had been insulted and forced to sign a treaty ''under compulsion. arrangements were made about the disputed territory . the Bhutanese were compelled to restore the British subjects whom they had carried away .--men. but died in ~ n g land within a month after his arrival. and an expedition was sent to Bhutan. women and children in the last stages of privation and distress." restoring the disputed territory to Bhutan. but died at a Himalayan station in 1863. and sometimes annexed British territoBhutan War. He was now appointed Viceroy and Governor-General of India.. was a terrible loss of life.. and was there buried. Calcutta and many Rengal districts were fitled with starving Uriyas. . and took charge of the Government in 1864 from Sir William Denison who was acting. The great famine of Orissa followed in 1866. The people of Bhutan used to make raids into British possession. In Oudh an inquiry was made into the condition of the peasantry and an Act was passed to secure oudh. where many of the greatest men of England lie Luried. and the Duars were annexed. them in their customary rights. 195 Lord Canningleft India in March 1861. The treaty was nullified.. there Orirr. received warm recognition. and the Sikhs of the Punjab had refrained from joining the sepoys in the mutiny of 1857. and in the .

a son Duke of Edlnof her let Majesty the Queen. visited India. and the head of each department was given a seat on the Viceregal Council. Ali was formally recognized as the ruler of Afghanistan. the collection and expenditure of revenue. as they were henceforth given the power of spending. railways. in 1872. and wisely refrained from actively helping any o f the different parties to the war. burghin India. Agriculture. Home . Revenue .left 1ndia in 1869 and was then . with the responsibility of meeting therefrom certain charges. Sir John ~a&renck.. Financial . recovered the throne in 1868. on works calculated to prove beneficial to their respective provinces. any sums that remained after defraying their expenses.raised to the-peerage. But his valuable career was cut short by a Musalman convict. The local governments thus became more careful in Internal Reforms. H e inaus) stem of gurated the system of Provincial Contracts-the allotting to the different provincial governments certain shares in the land revenue and other sources of income. Lord Mayo arrived io India in 1869. tab there was continuous fighting among the claimants to t h e throne after the death of Dost Muhammad. Sher Ali. Lord Mayo introduced many internal reforms. and Commerce . Public works . I n the same year the Duke of Edinburgh. Military and Legislative .Khan.196 Afghanistan. and canals. and at last his youngest son. Foreign . who stabbed him while he . and the visit evoked the deepest loyalty from all classes of the people of India. ~ N D I AUNDER THE CROWN. viz. in which Sher Umbala Durbar." as it was called. H e divided the affairs of the Government into seven departments. He gave a great impetus to the development of the material resources of the country by the extension of roads. and in the same year he held a Durbar at Umbala. Lawrence pursued the policy of "masterly inactivity.

. ' an& loyal add-ea on the part of the peaple were read in rypome. but measures werg ably. Bahar Famine.was op a visit t o the Penal Settlement at Poft Blair in the An. and the loss of life was terrible. ' - LYTTON Lord Northbrook was succeeded by Lord Lytton who came to India in 1876. NORTHBROOK Lotd ~ o r t h b r o b kcame to India in 1872. . was installed in his place. o f fndil. Edward Prlnee ofWalm in India. but the Government was satisfied of the misgovernment of the ~ a e k b a r . calamity were not adequate.. VIt. 1t:wm reoeived with enthuaiestie loyaltf. tion in that distriot. The deaths from starvation and from at* The preaent writer. _ - . and deaths from famine were successfully averted.. damans.* But the same year a severe famine visited the Madras Presidency. took his share of work in the isaue of the Proclama-. organized in time.~. and in every District in India. In 1874 a severe famine visited Behar. belonging to the family. The Quaen prothe Queen of England was proclaimed claimed Empr. On the 1st January. and a child. then an offioial in Baokergunj district in the Province of Bengal. The measures taken to avert the Madras Famlna. and Lord Northbrook ordered an inquiry to be made by three Indian chiefs and three English ofof BarodadepoSedficers. In the following year the Caekwar o Baroda was charged with an attempt to poison the British f Resident. then Prince of Wales. Empress of India at a great Durbar in Delhi. He was deposed. 1877. The verdict was not unanimous. The last notable event of Lord Northbrook's administration was the visit of our present Emperor. to India which evoked a passionate outburst of loyalty from all classes of people in the country.

and it was arranged that a British Resident would reside in Kabul. however. was restored to the Indian ruling family in 1881. but Sir Frederick Roberts immediately marched from Kabul to Kandahar and routed Ayub's army in September. - RIPON T h e Marquis of Ripon was appointed Viceroy an& Governor-General in April. Abdur Rahman. N o calamity so fatal and terrible had visited India since the Bengal Famine of 1770. and his son Yakuh was recognized as the Amir. passed by Lord Ripon. is an enlightened effort to entrust to the people themselves the administration of their local affairs. in so far as they are befitted by their education to perform. the Resident. the Bengai . and Kabub and Kandahar were occupied by the British force. The State of Mysore. fled and died soon after. Another benevolent measure. I 880. tendant diseases were computed at over five millione. Lord Ripon's name is dear to the people of India for his benevolent and enlightened offorts to secure their well-being and further their progress. Sher Ali refused admittance to a Afghan War. a nephew of Sher Ali. and the British forces retired from Kabul and Kandahar. Yakub Khan abdicated. resigned in 1880. Sher Ali. was now recognized as Amir. Sir Louis Cavagnari. the task. which had been under British Administration for over fifty years. 1880. British envoy and received a Russian missionLord Lytton declared war and sent three armies by the passes of Khyber. Affairs in Afghanistan now engaged the attention of t h e Victory. Bolan and Kurum. and his escort were attacked and massacred. The Local Self-Government Act. Lord Lytton. Within a few months. T h e British frontier was advanced to the farther sides of the passes. stan a British brigade was defeated at Maiwand by the troops of Ayub Khan.198 INDIA UNDER THE CROWN. A British army was sent again. In AfghaniAfghan War.

199 Tenancy Act. f In the following year the Jubilee of Her Majesty the QueenEmpress was celebrated throughout India with Jubllek : an outburst of loyalty. LANSDOWNE . the king was dethroned and removed to India. e& and . King Thibaw of Upper Burma was charged with ill-treating British subjects. as far as the confines of China. Lord Ripon was succeeded by Lord Dufferin in 1884. an expedition was sent against that place.One of the principal events during Lord Lansdowne's viceroyalty was the Manipur War in 1891. but was averted by Lord Dufferin's great ability and tact. War with Russia seemed imminent for a time. . w a l l o r redor.murdered at Manipur. was matured during Lord Ripon's administration.t. and war was declared. It had the same object as Lord Canning's Rent Act. and afforded further protection to the cultivators of Bengal against harassment and unjust exactions. was annexed in 1886. DUFFERIN 'I'he'first importent act of Lord Dufferin was to receive .INDIA UNDER THE CROWN. The Raja of Manipur was deposed and the murderers hanged. Afghani. Lord Dufferin was succeeded by ~ o f d Lansdowne in 1888. The Chief Commissioner of Assam and five other Englishmen having been . and was passed into law by his successor. There of "ppgr was no figh~inghowever .nand Russia which strengthened the friendly relations with that chief.this act o grace was hailed with gratitude. was restored to Sindia. and a British Commissioner was appointed to rule the Country during the Raja's non-age. and Upper Burma. T h e . . In the same year the fort of Gwalior which had been so long held by the British.the Amir of Afghanistan at a great Durbar. A minor of a distant branch of the royal family was raised to the throne.

During . son of the second Viceroy of India. It affected parts of Behar. became Viceroy. as the Universities and District and Municipal Boards were admitted to the Legislative Councils. in 1893. Soon after 9 famine broke out in the Punjab. and the death rate there s a s terrible. CURZON Lord Elgin was succeeded by Lord Curzon. T h e completion of the sixtieth )ear of Her Majesty the Queen Empress's reign was commemorated by demonstrations of loyalty in India. It' witnessed the passing away of &r Most Graciohs Majesty the E m p r q s he assumed office. T h e next year occurred a violent earthquake which caused great loss of life and property. but the Central provinces suffered most. 'The year 1921 waS a very sa'l year for India. ELGIN On the retirement of Lord Lansdowne. the United Provinces. by which representatives chosen by such popular bodies.200 INDIA U N D E K THI CROWN. The peace y of the north-western frontier was much disturbed L a number of tribal risings. Lord Elgin. and Bombay. a Bubonic Plague broke out in Bombay. . the Central Provinces. A f a m ~ n e also broke out in a more serious folm than was hitherto known in the country. A military expedition %as sent info [hat country to restore order. Rajputana. In 1896. Lord Elgin having completed his tr lm c f cffice left India in 1899. same year was passed the l n d ~ a n Councils Act. his admillistration. as in every other part of the Brt~ishEmpire throughout the world.did its best to mitigate the suffer~ngsof the famine-stricken people. India was visited by a series of misfortunes. which has since then spread all over the country. and Bombay. the chief of mhith was that of the Afrides. but the relief apzrations w-re not very successful in Bombay where the death-rate was terribly severe. The Government.

Her death was mourned in all parts of the civilised world.INDIA UNDER THE CROWN. and placed it under a Lieutenant Governor. Her eldest son. and to commemorate this event Lord Curzon held a Durbar at Delhi in January 1903. . ascended the throne amidst great rejoicing. T o keep the border tribes in the northwestern frontier in check Lord Curzon created the Northwestern Frontier Province and placed it under a Chief Commissioner. he transferred three entire divisions of Bengal to Assam to form the new province of Eastern Rengal and Assam. Excepting the expedition to Tibet which was undertaken to open up the Tibetan trade to British Indian subjects. and was succeeded by Lord Minto. His Majesty is the first English King to be crowned as the Emperor of India.of tlie Viceregal Council. the whole of Lord Curzon's administration was taken up with internal measures.. 201 of India after a most glorious reign of 64 years. In consequence of some difference of opinion with the Secretary of State on the question of the military membership . Lord Curzon resigned in 1905. our present Emperor Edward VII. their sincere grief at the loss they had sustained at the death of their beloved Empress. a descendant of the Governor-General who had ruled India a century before. T h e province of Bengal being considered too heavy a charge for one Ruler. and the people of India expressed.


I Bahadur Shah. I Akbar. I Tlaniyal. Raja Sahu (Slvaji 11. Azimuahan. I ~ u r a & e b or Alamgir I. I him. ~hdja. I Shahriyar. BABER. Sivaji 111. I Akbar 11. I Aa eri. Hakim N i n a I Hindal. SIVAJI. I I Ge?~ealo~ical Table of the Falnrily of Sivaji. I I Sambhuji II. - I M u k m or Bahadur Shah.the Mogul Emperor8. Muhammad Shah. I Ram Raja. I Kambak~h. Ahnlad Shah. Gencnlag ical Tuble o f . Sambhuji. ~ara. I Khurrum (Shah Jehan). I I Kamran. I I Parviz. I MULL I Muhammad. I I I Humayun. I .GEINEIALOGICAL TABLES.) I I I Raja Ram. I rJahandar Shah. I I Ferok Shir. Murad. Atbar. Jahai Shah. I I 1 Sefim (Jehangir). I Alamgir 11. Khnsru. Shah ~ i a m 11.

BALAJI VISWANATH. I ~himnaji Appa. I ~aji. Gensnbgical Table of the P 4 w a s . Narayan Rao. Rsgbava. I I Nsna Ssheb (Adopted a n ) .'Rso. I I I ~adaeeb Rao Bhao. I Baji Rao IT. I Balaji Baji 3Lao.204 OENCALOOICAL TABLES. . $1 I Msdhava Rso.



Rani of. Jni Chandra (of Kaoouj). Jeewant Rao. Sir Hugh. 148. 23. Malhar 'RAO. 18. Kalinya. 157. 60. Hulnayuo. 61. Indra. Gau~ama Buddha. K Kakatis. 27. Do. Grammar of the Hindile. 88. 17. Feroz 'I'ughlak. Haetinapur. Do. 182. 131. Gheria. Do Tugltlak. Elijah. 142. 7. Ancient H i ~ t o r y 10. 38. Ghyasuddin Bulban. Gujrat. Battle of. 69. Ganga l)ynaaty. 114. Knlhal~ Paodit. lbrnhim I d i . Lord. 111. Kallrrda (Philosopher). 39. 32. 142. Ha1. 189. Jdmini t Pl)ilosopher). Battle or. Goddard.2 . Impeachment of ~astingti. 169 . 56. J n i p l (of Lal~ore). Haidar Ali. 169. 83. Annexation of. 18. 184. Jrlaluddin Khilji. Gaekwars of Bdrodn. 4. Guru Govind. 157. Ghatotksch. 55. 65. 41. 144. 88. 27. 67. Forde. Hnl dinge. Warren. 65. sky-god or rain-god. 27.149. galidis t ~ & t j . 157. 180. Holwell. 137. 17. Governor Genetal. 180. Peiei. 51. General. (12. Jarnsandhs. 90-94. Rnnbar Devn. 37. 68. 110 under the Mahomedans Jllansi. 15. 144. Havelock. Oopla. 7 Kanisl~kn. In~pey. Gulah Sinha. 73 82. 18. 67. Gillespie. 28. Kan~p~lyn (town).71. Jai Sinha. 57. 63. Greek accounts of India. 87. 182. Gujrat. Jubilee of Queen'a reign. 102. 183. Gough. Hemu. Sir Geometry of the Hindus. Hnrris. Battle of. Holkar. 59. 95.. 41. 185-172. 96. 128. Ghiyasuddin Khilji.i Rao. 197. 18. Kamala Tlevi. 53. 62. 183. Jai Malls. 43. Colonel. Fmncis:Philip. Kai K O ~ I R I ~ . 180. 182. Tukaji. Juna Khan. Jnhnngir. 73-76. 147.183. 10. 157-163. 81. Jail~s. 32. 151. 7. 58. Do. 180. 22. 79. 103. 34. 195. 142. 56. Oolkonda. 43. 187. 27. Grihya Sutraa. Holkar. Bilrapal Deva rof Deoghar). Gene~al. Lord. 114. Konchi.INDEX. 7. Hmtil~gs. 60. Jiziya. Jagat Sinha. 12. Gautama (Logician). 140-150. 14. 133. Feroznhar.166. See Buddha. Bnstings. 139. Kalapahar. Jnllandar Shah. Hamir (of chit or^. Gal hasthya. General. 107. of. Ibn Batuta. Houen Tsang. Jaswant Sillha. Putehpur Sikri. 186. 46. 111. Hinmya. 34. Huns. Gupta Kings (of Kanou j).

21. 180. Meghaduta. 56. 51. 2. 193. Karun Rai (of Qujrat). 19i. Sir William. 13. 8. bIegasthen&. 2. Maiwand. 13. 188. 61. 44. XhiJji Kinge. 2. Maldeo (of Jpdhpur). 75. Matsva 9 7 Mau. 38.210 Karma. Kumar Sambhav. . 67. Kaaim. La11 . Khirki. 76. 68. Mathews. Mahratta Wars. (of Magadhe\. 8 . 16. 178. 129. M Macnaghten. 179. 148. Lord. 159-161. (Muhemmad). Mnharaiour. Do. 195. 7. 12. Malik Khasru. . Lake General. Kumargupta. 58. 'Beeeva. Kurns. k Khan Zaman. Metealfe. Malwa. Kosrlas. Battle of. 194. Monro. 182 Muhabat Khan. 56-62. Mahanandin. Mabmud (of Ghazni). 54. Mahi Pale. 15. 23. 69. Kntb-ud.din. 166. Lakahmana. 7. Madhu Rao. Khizir Khan. Katlugh Khan. 4. L La Bondonnais. Muharak. 163-165. ~ a h a v i i a 22. 171. 28. 5. 9". Kuyava. Major. 44. Lord. 62. 54. 127. 69. hwrence. 128. General. Mauaud.93. 197. 43.aewari. 1'70. Maruts or Storm-gods. Keeeri D p m t y . 13. 67. 68. 131. . 171. Minto. Katlu Khan. 34. INDEX. 7. 3. 184. Malla Deva. Mirz~ Hakim. Malik Amhar.Taler. 0 Kushanaa. a Vedic warrior. 17. 162 Medini Rai. Mahrattse in aucient times. Meadows. Mudki. 131-134. 2. Battle of. Martindale General. 161 . Maharnj Gupta. Mir Kaaim. 34. 198. Battle of. Minnh juddin. Lakahmaneya.Battle of. 59. a l l l a t i c Wars. Kavir. Sir Hector.ay Dynasty. 158. 160. 37. Mani ur War. Kutb Miner. temple of. . 27. 12. Battle of. 64. 170. 11. 83. Msnava 1)harma Saatra. law of. Malik Kafur. l. Kolarians. Knkia. 196. Mayo. 143. Muhammad. Mallk Altun~a. Annexation of. 41. 166. 182. Mir . Kaais. hfaaabharata. 44. 92. Mahmud Tughlak. . Ma adha. 133. Lord. 130. 81. 7. Mongolirtnn. 84. 68. Jfadhnvs. 123. I. 32. 169 -. Lel ginha. 76. Rutan. 59. 100 kc. 69. 27. 72. Niani. 'j8. Man iinha. 64. Battle of. Cihrnir. 13. Matrigupta. 143. Battle of. Monaon. 2 . 69. 47-50. General. Mebidpur. J ~ w r e n c eJohn. 45 Mufiamisd adil fibah. Henry. 14.Count de. Kirataqunlyam. 178. 80. Lawrence. Colonel. 123 to 128.. 198. Lodi Kings. 84. 194. 84. 68. Lanedowne. 65. Madura. 48. Mnhakala. 180. lh~ rise of. 66. 53. Manik Chand. IS.

Battle of. Nirvana. Porto Novo. 125. 162. 40. Nanda Raj. Oudh. Msseaore of. 193.163. 134. N i r p n t h a e . Treaty of. 186. Naerat Khan. 41. Nseimdclin Kubacha. Sir Charles. Nana Saheh. 133. Nanda. Puma Metla. 188. Purva Yimanee. Pratap Sinha. 67. 167. Raghuji Bhonela. N pur (see Berar). Prabhakara. Pollock. 168. 146. Mmro. Polilloor. 13. Treaty of. Pulakeain. Napier. 183. Punjab. 40. Nyaya. 13. Navi ation of the Hindus. Sir Thomas. 81. 190. Lord. 6 . Rajendra Chola. Ancient History of. Oudh. 116. 169. 18. Brigadier. Mysore Ware. 69. 113. 190. 130. 146. Nanak. Punnair. 167. 63-88. Postage. 157.61. 111. annexation of. Napier. Muhammad Chon. Nanda Kumar. Captain. Railway. 7. 63. Annexation of. 13. 43. 79. 18. 34. 138. Narayan Pala. . Pandavae. M n h j . Morsd. 124. Mutiny of Sepoye. Raja Ram. 191. Half Anna.136. Nagarkot. 2". 166. Ochterlony. Outram. Pahliliputra (Patna). Nana Farnavis. Popham. 144. Northbrook. Battle of. Yurushottsma. 57. Rajpnte. 143. Raghunath Rao. 99. 06. 143. 97. Battle of. 2. Puna. Prithu Rai (of Uelbi). Pratapa Rudra. Pals Dynasty. Painting of the Hindus. 38. 169. Battle of. 18. Purandar. Permanent Settlement. 160. 22. Nicholson.40. Provincial Contracts. Perron. 128. 179. 184. Orisan. Annexation of. 114. 110. 190. 161. Nagas. 179. Nagnajit. 184. Raghu Vanee. doctrine of. 186 to 190. 36. Panchals. 188. 77. . 61. 13. 174. 33. 137. P a n i p t . Pegu. Pindari War. 41. ' Queen's Proclamation. 183. Orises. 146. General. N z n d a . 6 Nesiruddin Mahmud. 28. 41. Pataulali (Philoeo her). Patna. 18. 187. 166. Battlea of. 60. 31. 48. Brigadier. Qeneral. Narayan Rao. Plaasy. 189. Muhammad Tughlak. 116. Philosophy of the Hindu. 180. Nanda (of Mugadha). Muhammad Reza Khan. 43. 18. 43. Nadir Shah. 143. 186. 29. 12 P a n d y ~ 12. 166. 160. Parsvanath. 142. 21. Raja. 117. Panini. 185. Nur Jahan. 41. 90-93. Pitt's India Bill. ~epaf War. 194.Mahammad Ali (of Karnatic). state of.

Shah Shuja. 67. Jnr~aki Rao. 13. 54. Ripon. 141. 15. 143. Annexatiorr of. 11. 100-105. 71. 8 Do. 107. 111. tlabnktagin (of Ghazni). 4. 159. Ancient H i s t o v Balirn Shah. Rartjit Sinha. 117. 5. Regulating Aot. Sinhavaho. Rajauya. 19. Daulut Ran. Ruknuddin. 19. 59. Do. Sahu. Sher Shah. 8. 179. 5. 157. 136. 178. 126. Sieunaga. 18. 49. Subraon. 46. 163. 141. 113. 54. 194. 180. Sanga) Sankara Deva (of Deogha~ I . 78. Rose. Segowli. Sati (Burning of widows). 179. 159 to 161. Shah Alam. Sanrashtrae.Roberts. Santhals. Silnilitya. 17. Sir Prederio. 4 . 96. Shahabuddin (see Mahammd . 159. 28. Salhai. Sindh.tlo of. 27. Baraavati. Sruti. Sivaji. Ramanuja. klinfus. Lisbita. 12. 154. 180. Treaty qf. 196. 196. 144. 171. Solinghar. Sikhs. o Vedic warrior. Jyaji Rao. 29. Somnnath. 112. 40. Shah Jnha~i. 68. 32. 8. Southern lt~dia. Rezia Begum. 99. 47. 1IF.Ghori). Samvat kra. Keli ious and Social Life of -the Sher Sunha. Battle of. of. 182. Sir Thotnrs. 16. 176. Rana Sanga. 17. Samudregu2ta. Sitah 11mi. 14. 17. Ramayana. 2. 146. Battle of. Seleuona. Rohillaa. Stupcls. Sraddha or Funeral secrifioe. 155. 94. 12. Sapteaindhu. Sanga or Sangram Sinha (see Rana Sri Aarsha. Sena Dynssty. RHm Mohait Rsi. Suddhodana. 16. 167. 13. 16. 57. Sadat Khan.97. 68. 33. 'Preaty of. 11. 115. Sobraon. (Sivaji's graudson). Sir Hugh. 183. 182. 112. Annexation of. Sher Ali Khan. Battle of. 179. . 153. 94-99 Shehji Bliot~sla. 150. 113 Smriti. 128-130. Sntran (Religious works). Rama Deva (of Deoghar). 78. ' Shore. Mahdnji. 18. 7. 33. bnt. Do. 73-78. 183. 182. Sntabrrldi. 76. Sindia. 6. Surat. Skanda Guptn. dun. 17. Saarificea. 4. Rajvapal (of Bengal). Sankhya. 52-56. 34. 159. 110. DO. Lord. Bambhuji. 95. 43. E&lseeo Rao Bhno. Sltuja. Sindhurnatn.Sekander Lodi. 27. 26. 117. Hin. 4 RaiYa Vardhana. 41. 33. Rannji. 131. 196. S lrernath.114. 17. Do. 56. 169.5. Shah kings of Ifnxrab. 110. Roe. Ksrnananda. Slave tinge. Srauta Putraa. 189. 27. Plslabat Janq. 7. Stldas. 94. Bur Uyansty. .Suraj-ad-daula. 190. Soience and Learning of Sunrsena. 8aka Era.

141. 5. 41. Videhaa. 67. Kings.C ~ ~ T T A . 65. Battle of. Timur. 113. 112. 51. . 4 to 6. 127. 3. 190. Widow. 86. Do. 128. 1 64. 84. 147. 2. Todar Mall. Vishnu Vardhana. 185. Tej Sinha. Convention of. Toramana. 1%. Tu hral Khan. Lord. 197 Thugs. Harrison R o a d . 10. Viceroy of ~ n d i a . 4. 62. 86. 29. Ta'ur and Atharva. Viheraa. Do. . Va u or wind.8. Tipu Sultan. Yati. 4. 67. Do. Tars h i . 59. Telegraph. Do. 156. 40. 129. 6. ~ e i a Ric. 7. Tirouri. 9. 154-162. W Wandewash. 6. Printed a t the "COTTON PRE88" 67. Tanjore. Udai Sinha. siege of. Trichinopoly. 133 Ujjayini.148. Vajjis. 32.lS. 170. Vaeiahtha. Tavernier. Battle of. 97. Admiral. Burning of (me Sati). Watson. Y Yaaadhara. Uday Nala. 32. Wargson. 34. 13. Sama. 7. Varuna or nky-god. 41.the. Yayati Keaari. Thibaw bf Burma. Tripitakn. z . . 180. Vijaynagar.INDEX. 36. 189. Vijnya (Conqueror of Ceylon). Warangal. 110. Yasovarman. Wellealey Arthur. 13. 174. 84. 8yud brothere. Vikramaditya the Great. Tughlak kings. i hranians. ~ a f a a Bai. Valabhis (Tribe). 56. 18. Yu~ufzais. Tmthfulneaa of the Hindus. 83. 13. 182. Annexation of. v Vaiseeika. 81. 169. Visvamitra. 151. 22. Upanishads ( Religious works) 6. Battle of. Tantia Topi. 18. Zemindara of Bengal. Tibeto-Burmans. 144. 154. Telicota. 41. 14. 27.










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