EEEB W2001

QUIZ 2

FALL 2007
Uni: _________________

NAME: _____________________________________

1. (1.2 pt) Rank, as best you can, the following vertebrates in order by the amount of mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood and the number of heart chambers. List the number of heart chambers in the right column. Note that the organism listed in the first (top) box should have the highest degree of mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood and the organism with the lowest degree of mixing in the last (bottom) box. Keep in mind that multiple organisms may have the same number of chambers in the heart. VERTEBRATES: MIXING OF OXYGENATED AND DEOXYGENATED BLOOD
FROG, EAGLE, SHARK, POLAR BEAR, CROCODILE, AND RATTLESNAKE

Highest

VERTEBRATE ORGANISM

NUMBER OF CHAMBERS IN HEART

FROG RATTLESNAKE SHARK CROCODILE POLAR BEAR EAGLE

3 3 2 4 4 4

Lowest

2. (1 pt) Use the terms below to fill in the blanks. Note not all terms may be used and terms may occur more than once. gills decreases oxygen deoxygenated sinous venosus systole lungs lamellae countercurrent nutrient concurrent sinoatrial node capillaries increases alveoli operculum serum oxygenated

In a teleost fish such as a trout or salmon, the COUNTERCURRENT system allows a greater oxygen uptake than a CONCURRENT system. Blood that is pumped through the heart is

DEOXYGENATED and becomes OXYGENATED when it passes the LAMELLAE in the GILLS, which is protected by a covering known as the OPERCULUM. When blood passes through the CAPILLARIES in the gills blood pressure DECREASES significantly. This DECREASES
circulation from the gills to the rest of the body, and limits oxygen delivery.

2.2 pts

-1-

EEEB W2001

QUIZ 2

FALL 2007

3. (1.3 pt) Track the movement of an erythrocyte as it returns to the heart after delivering blood to the brain. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. brain aorta left atrium pulmonary vein tricuspid valve lungs pulmonary artery H. I. J. K. L. M. N. right ventricle bicuspid valve left ventricle aortic valve right atrium superior vena cava pulmonary valve

A→M→L→E→H→N→G→F→D→C→I→J→K→B
4. (0.2 pt) Blood plasma a. is composed of 92% water b. is a concentrated salt solution c. contains copper d. a and b

e. a and c
5. (0.5 pt) What steps are involved in the absorption of lipids? a. Lipids broken down into free fatty acids by microvilli enzymes

b. Pass through the epithelial membrane via diffusion
c. Packaged in a carbohydrate coat in the golgi apparatus d. Absorbed into blood capillaries for distribution to rest of the body e. All of the above

6.

(0.5 pt) Which statement does not describe a function of the liver? a. Synthesize blood plasma proteins b. Detoxify compounds absorbed into the blood c. Release stored glycogen. d. Convert ammonia to urea

e. Secrete insulin
7. (0.25 pt) In the vertebrate nephron, filtration occurs at the

a. glomeruli
b. c. d. e. renal artery renal vein loop of Henle distal convoluted tubule

8. (0.25 pt) We examined a variety of negative feedback loops in class, three of which were associated with osmoregulation. Which of these accurately describes part of a negative feedback loop? a. Angiotensin II stimulates blood vessel dilation b. Anti Diuretic Hormone increases water excretion in the kidney c. Aldosterone causes increased Na+ and Cl- excretion

d. Osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus causes thirst
e. All of the above are, in fact, processes involved in osmoregulatory negative feedbacks. 3 pts

-2-

EEEB W2001

QUIZ 2

FALL 2007

The following is a diagram from your book, displaying the respiratory system of a bird. 9. (0.5 pts.) Part I. Please fill in the blanks by labeling the structures in the diagram. If necessary, terms may be used more than once.

ANTERIOR AIR SACS TRACHEA LUNG

POSTERIOR AIR SACS ANTERIOR AIR SACS

10. (1 pt) Draw arrows indicating the air flow through this respiratory system. You are only allowed to draw 4 arrows, representing the inhalation and exhalation of 2 breaths. You do not need to label these 4 arrows.

4

1. 2. 3. 4.

INHALE TO POSTERIOR AIR SACS AIR MOVE TO LUNGS PROCEED TO ANTERIOR AIR SACS EXHALED OUT BODY

3

2

1

1.5 pts

3

EEEB W2001

QUIZ 2

FALL 2007

11. (2.0 pt) Fill in the following table by placing an “X” to indicate which organs are needed for the listed digestive processes. Organ
Mouth Esophagus Pancreas Stomach Large Intestine Liver Small Intestine

Physical fragmentation

Protein digestion

Lipid digestion

Carbohydrate digestion

Water absorption

X X X X X X X X

(X) X X X

X

X

12. (1.0 pt) Digestion is a highly coordinated process involving several regulatory hormones. Match the listed enterogastrones with their source and effector organs. Note that an organ may serve as a source, effector, or both for a single hormone or multiple hormones. A. Gastrin B. GIP Source _A_ Stomach ____ Pancreas _BCD_ Deuodeum _____ Gall Bladder C. Secretin D. CCK Effector _AB_ Stomach _CD_ Pancreas ____ Deuodeum _D__ Gall Bladder

13. (0.5 pt) The vertebrate nephron resides in the kidney with a gradient in solute concentration that ranges from 1200 mOsm to less than 300 mOsm. Of the many diffusive and active transport processes involved with different portions of the nephron, one of the most important of these processes is a. the active transport of Na+ and Cl- ions out of the collecting ducts b. the passive transport of Na+ and Cl- ions out of the collecting ducts c. the passive transport of Na+ and Cl- ions into the peritubular capillaries d. the active transport of Na+ and Cl- ions out of glomerulus e. the active transport of Na+ and Cl- ions out of the ascending limb of the loop of Henle

14. (0.3 pt) The concentration of sensory apparati at one end of the body led to a concentration of ganglia and eventually the formation of a brain. Once a brain was formed, directed movement could be achieved by processing sensory inputs and making decisions to chase, flee, hide, mate, and much more. This evolutionary process of concentrating sensory apparati and ganglia at one end of the body is known as

CEPHALIZATION

3.8 pts

4

EEEB W2001

MIDTERM 2

FALL 2007

15. (0.8 pt) Write “ENDOCRINE,” “PARACRINE,” or “EXOCRINE” where appropriate (only one term per item and note that one or more terms may not be used).

Growth factors such as epidermal- and nerve-growth factors Cytokines Saliva Prostaglandins

PARACRINE PARACRINE EXOCRINE PARACRINE

16. (1.6 pt) Match the terms to the following descriptors – use a term only once and use all terms – choose the best term where there may be more than one possible term. A. B. C. D. Lipophilic hormone Hydrophilic hormone Oxytocin Adrenalin E. Parathyroid hormone F. Releasing hormones G. Juvenile hormone

_F_ produced by neuorsecretory cells of the hypothalamus _G_ produced by neurosecretory cells in some insects _B_ Involves a cell surface receptor ____ Asprin _E_ Regulates Ca2+ _D_ Epinepherine _A_ Binds to an internal receptor protein _C_ Target organs include uterus and mammary glands 17. (0.5 pt) The autonomic nervous system does not require a. the sympathetic ganglion chain b. the parasympathetic system

c. the cerebrum
d. ganglia near or within internal organs e. sacral regions of the brain 18. (0.5 pt) At the synapse, Ca2+ ions a. diffuse out of the cell upon arrival of an action potential b. bind to the chemically gated sodium ion channel thereby releasing the neurotransmitter c. increase in concentration at the terminal branch of the axon and cause neurotransmitter to be bundled into synaptic vesicles d. all of the above

e. none of the above
3.4 pts

5

EEEB W2001

MIDTERM 2

FALL 2007

19. (1.6 pt) Fill in the blanks in the following description of the production of the resting state of a neuron with one of the terms in the parentheses adjacent to each blank. At the resting state, the charge outside the axon membrane is POSITIVE (positive or negative) and the charge inside the axon membrane is NEGATIVE (positive or negative). This results in a voltage reading of -70mV (-70 mV, + 40 mV, or 0 mV). This resting membrane potential occurs because a LEAKAGE

CHANNEL (chemically-gated, voltage-gated, active transport, leakage channel, or sodium-potassium
pump) allows K+ (Na+, K+, Cl-) to pass through the membrane, because proteins and nucleic acids in the axon are NEGATIVELY (negatively or positively) charged, and because K+ (Na+, K+, Cl-) leakage is compensated for by the SODIUM-POTASSIUM PUMP (chemically-gated, voltage-gated, active transport, leakage channel, or sodium-potassium pump).

20. (1 pt) Plant cell walls are comprised of cellulose, a tough compound that vertebrates are unable to digest. Herbivores have evolved different anatomical and behavioral traits to maximize the intake of nutrients from plant material. Fill in the following table using ONLY terms from the list below (please, no substitutions). Note that all cells require only a single term for a complete answer, some terms may be used more than once and others may not be used at all. A. hindgut fermentor B. cecum C. regurgitation D. foregut fermentor E. rumen F. coprophagy HINDGUT FERMENTOR CECUM COPROPHAGY BACTERIA G. bacteria H. crop I. gastrolith FOREGUT FERMENTOR RUMEN REGURGITATION BACTERIA

2 Evolutionary Strategies Associated specialized organ Associated behavioral adaptation “Tool” used to break down cellulose

Which evolutionary strategy is more efficient at extracting nutrients? FOREGUT FERMENTOR Which evolutionary strategy was utilized by human ancestors? HINDGUT FERMENTOR

21. (0.3 pt) What is not a disadvantage of having an exoskeleton? a. periodic molting of the exoskeleton increases the organisms vulnerability to predation b. chitin is weaker than bone c. muscles are unable to enlarge in size and power with increased use d. chitin is non-living and thus cannot modify its shape in response to an injury

e. none of the above

2.9 pts

6

EEEB W2001

MIDTERM 2

FALL 2007

22. (2 pt) Fill in the blanks in the paragraph using only the terms from the list. Note that some terms may not be used or may be used more than once. ATP actin-myosin cross-bridge myosin head hydrolysis tropomyosin sarcolamella T tubules calcium ion

The power stroke of the actin-myosin complex involves a sequence of steps. First, ATP binds to the

MYOSIN HEAD which breaks the ACTIN-MYOSIN CROSS-BRIDGE and releases the myosin
from the actin molecule of the thin filament. HYDROLYSIS of the ATP leads to the separation of the terminal P from the ATP to produce ADP and P, both of which remain attached to the myosin head. The myosin head now reforms the ACTIN-MYOSIN CROSS-BRIDGE at which point the ADP and P are released and the myosin head undergoes a shape (conformational) change, bending sharply such that it pulls itself along the actin molecule. None of this can happen unless the actin binding sites for the myosin head are unshielded by TROPOMYSIN which typically wraps around the actin molecules, blocking the binding site.

23. (2.7 pt) Fill in the following table using only the terms from the list below. Use one term per cell in the table. Note that not all terms are used and some terms are used more than once. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Transient receptor potential (TRP) GPCR (G protein coupled receptor) light heat hair cell change in orientation intermediate vibrations STIMULUS H. I. J. K. L. M. N. low frequency vibrations chemical sensory neuron with free nerve endings rod cell olfactory receptor receptor cell with microvilli mechanical transduction TRANSDUCTION AND TRANSMISSION OF SIGNAL

SENSORY ORGAN Eye Skin Lateral line Ear Tongue Nose

KIND OF RECEPTOR CELL

C D H F I I

K J E E M L

B A N N B B

4.7 pts

7

EEEB W2001

MIDTERM 2

FALL 2007

24. (2 pt) The action potential is the heart of all activities of the nervous system, from simple reflexes to complex thoughts. If we were to insert electrodes into an axon and plot voltage on the y axis in mV and time on the x axis, we would be able to graph a variety of activities. For the axon of a sensory neuron, draw the following graphs. The dashed line indicates the threshold and arrows on x axis indicate when the stimulus was applied.

25. (0.5 pt) The part of the brain that has shown the most development in mammals is the: a. cerebellum

b. cerebrum
c. medulla d. pituitary e. hypothalamus

2.5 pts

8

EEEB W2001

MIDTERM 2

FALL 2007

26. (1 pt) Order the processes involved in an action potential (we provide the first step for you with the number “1”, but you have to put in steps “2”, “3”, “4”, “5” and “6”)

1 ____ Membrane potential reaches -70 Mv
_5_ excess potassium diffuses out before potassium channel closes _4__ maximum voltage is reached _3__ threshold voltage is crossed _6__ axon moves towards equilibrium state _2__ stimulus causes rise in voltage

1 pt

9

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