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Fehlen 2 Throughout history spiritual formation has adopted a number of images in order to make sense and bring clarity to the progression of growth in Christ. Various images that have found a place in Christian tradition are: the struggle, the desert, the ascent, and the way. Each image brings with it a level of understanding to the initial entrance into Christian fellowship and to the subsequent pathways of discipleship. The focus of this research, however, will be upon one of the most powerful images in the Christian life: the journey. This research will serve to broaden the understanding that the journey is the destination – that all of life in Christ is a process of spiritual formation and discipleship. There is no one singular event that constitutes faith, but rather an ongoing pilgrimage towards the likeness of Christ. Through this research the reader will better understand how the spiritual experience is to be rooted in a deeper journey rather than a singular event. Particular emphasis will be given to the implications a “journey mentality” can and ought to come to bear upon Pentecostal expressions of spirituality. Along with historical and contemporary voices regarding the journey, focus will be given to the Old Testament patriarch, Abraham, and five specific stops as referenced in Genesis. These stops were made on his journey from Haran to an unknown land. At each of these five stops Abraham erected an altar to the Lord. Those altars will serve as signposts for future generations that are, like Abraham, on a spiritual journey. Abraham, much like the focus of our faith Jesus Christ, has gone before us, and in doing so, has blazed a path of obedience and surrender to Father God – the One that invites as well as leads His children on this wonderful journey. What is the Journey? “The spiritual journey is deceptively simple and at the same time highly complex. Describing this paradox of spirituality is difficult, and can really only be ‘lived into’. This is why the journey
Fehlen 3 is so profound. And that is why it is critical. It is life itself.” 1 The journey is our life. The whole of our existence becomes the pathway for the journey to unfold. Nothing is exempt. All is integrated into the fiber of who we are and are becoming in Christ, and the longer a person lives the more nuance, progress and broadening of experience one will discover. The journey is lifelong and can be very difficult to define and condense into a clear, definitive statement. Our spiritual mothers and fathers have much to say regarding the journey. Origen of Alexandria (c. 185-254) believes the “spiritual journey was conceived as a recovery of the likeness of God in the soul in a movement upwards from the material realm towards greater light.” 2 In contrast to Origen, Gregory of Nyssa believes the journey is one towards darkness rather than light. John of the Cross, in his classic work, Ascent of Mount Carmel, employs the imagery of the spiritual journey as a climb up a mountain. His Dark Night of the Soul narrates a journey of the soul from her bodily home to her union with God. This journey, from the writings of John of the Cross, is centered in a detachment from the world and a reaching for the light of perfect union with the Creator. Many of the early church Fathers understood Christian life to be a pilgrimage. Such is the case with St. Clement (Bishop of Rome c. 90-99 AD) in Letter from St. Clement: Greetings from ‘the Church of God which dwells as a pilgrim in Rome to the Church of God in pilgrimage at Corinth’, and the second-century Letter to Diognetus which declared: ‘[Christians] live each in his native land but as though they were not really at home there [lit. as sojourners]. They share in all duties as citizens and suffer all hardships as strangers…they dwell on earth but they are citizens of heaven.’ 3 St. Benedict refers to the journey “in terms of a ladder…a ladder of our ascending actions.” 4 Teresa of Avila (1515-1582) in her classic, The Interior Castle, “vividly describes the spiritual
Fehlen 4 journey in terms of progression through the different rooms or mansions of the ‘castle’ of the soul.” 5 Each of these metaphors forms a tapestry into the rich understanding of spiritual formation as a journey. It is a tapestry that has many more layers, definitions, nuances, and dimensions than allowed space in this research, both from a historical and modern perspective. The story continues to add chapters. The song grows with more and more verses. The journey continues because it is the destination. Stages to the Journey If the journey is indeed the destination then one must wrestle with the notion that there are stages to the journey. In reference to St. Benedict, can there truly be rungs to the ladder of ascent? Is there a goal to the journey, and if there is, then what are the stages along the way in order to achieve this goal? These questions have been the source of much consternation to many spiritual thinkers throughout history. Indeed there are many phases, stages, transitions and stopping points along the journey. The convergence, although ambiguous, is to become more like Jesus. M. Robert Mulholland Jr. in his work entitled The Deeper Journey, expounds upon this foundational truth by saying: “It is being in a relationship of loving union with God that manifests itself in Christ-like living in the world. It is to this life of deep, loving union with God that the mothers and fathers of our spiritual tradition call us.” 6 The concept of union is one used historically to understand spiritual formation as a journey. Another concept is that of perfection. Philip Sheldrake references these “two rather static concepts…to express the ‘where to?’ of the journey, but ultimately the end in view is a more mysterious and dynamic fullness of life in God.” 7 In the history of the church many have attempted to delineate this mysterious journey in terms of stages. Soren Kierkegaard
Fehlen 5 mused on the ‘stages on life’s way’. Evelyn Underhill described phases or stages of faith. Even John Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress broadens the theme of stages in the Christian journey of faith. Of course, one must acknowledge the phases in human development: birth, childhood, adolescence, young adulthood, middle age, older adulthood, and senior adult status. Each of these stages builds upon the previous stage developmentally. Likewise, spiritual formation cannot be limited to only one event. It must be thought of in terms of stages of faith in which the Christian believer transitions progressively towards union with God through Christ. Mulholland agrees in Invitation to a Journey, “The Christian journey towards wholeness in the image of Christ for the sake of others progresses by means of spiritual disciplines. Just as a journey from one place to another requires varied sets of disciplines for successful completion (walking, driving, flying, navigation skills and the like), so the Christian journey has its own set of disciplines which enable the pilgrim to progress through the stages of the spiritual path towards wholeness in Christ.” 8 One such example of stages in the journey, and there are many, is from Janet Hagberg and Robert Guelich in The Critical Journey: Stage One, Recognition of God; Stage Two, Life of Discipleship; Stage Three, Productive Life; Stage Four, Journey Inward; Stage Five, Journey Outward; and Stage Six, Life of Love. 9 These fluid stages are subtle and often mystifying and yet essential to faith maturation. Stages of faith provide a map of sorts for the journey ahead as observed by Lawrence Cunningham and Keith Egan, “When one looks back on the Christian spiritual tradition it becomes clear that the great commentators on the Christian life instinctively looked to the scriptures for more precise maps and guidelines to understand the way. They found so many clues in the Bible and those clues have been so variously used that it would be impossible to catalogue them.” 10
Fehlen 6 One could easily turn to the scriptural passages that delve into the exodus of the children of Israel, or to the references to Moses upon Mount Sinai to discover these ‘clues’. Perhaps though the finest biblical portrayal of the journey is found in the personhood of Abram (to be referred hereto as Abraham), and his call to leave the land that he knew so well to discover a land that he knew nothing about. Along the way, Abraham, made a journey of epic proportions – one that serves as a potential model for all believers and reinforces the premise that spiritual experience is to be couched in a deeper journey rather than a singular event. Abraham’s Journey Genesis 12 begins with this directive from the Lord Almighty to Abraham: “Leave your country, your people, and your father’s household and go to the land I will show you.” There is a corresponding blessing that follows Abraham’s sheer obedience. It is one in which he will be made great, blessed by God, and a blessing to the nations. This promise, though yet to be seen, was his motivation to respond to the Lord and “leave as the Lord told him (12:4).” In Liturgical Spirituality by Philip Pfatteicher it is observed that: In its metaphorical use, beginning with Abraham, the pilgrimage journey is not a mere visit and return. It is a one-way trip. Abraham did not return to what had been his home, nor did he desire to return there having reached the Promised Land. Even when a pilgrim journeys to a pilgrimage site…there is often little report of the return trip. The focus is on the destination, which does more than renew, restore, and rejuvenate. It so transforms those who reach it that they cannot be the same again. 11 The context of Pfatteichers comments are that of a pilgrimage to a holy place such as Jerusalem or Rome, however, the intrinsic value is expressed in terms of the journey being one that eclipses the location in which the pilgrim has once been.
Fehlen 7 To Abraham, the journey was worth taking because it was in obedience to the Lord and the resulting destination was expressed as the Lord’s blessing. Even though Abraham did not know where he and his family were going, there was a strong sense of trust in God’s purposes. Maria Ruiz Scaperlanda reasons that “God’s invitation to Abram was, in essence, ‘Enter into a relationship with me, trust me, sojourn with me, and I will make of you a great nation, and I will bless you.’ He and God had developed a relationship; he trusted God and did what God asked, no matter how bizarre it must have seemed.” 12 Abrahams relationship, founded upon trust, would take him on a journey – one that can become a template for others taking similar journeys of faith in their Christian maturity. This journey for Abraham involved five specific stops in which he ‘built an altar there to the Lord’. Each of these altar times contains a theme expressing spiritual formation as a stage within the spiritual journey. Altar of Direction Abraham took his wife Sarah, his nephew Lot, all his possessions he accumulated, and the people he acquired and set out from Haran to a land the Lord would show him. Genesis 12:6 details Abraham’s travels through the land to the great tree of Moreh at Shechem. It was there that the Lord appeared to him and said: “To your offspring (seed) I will give this land.” In response Abraham “built an altar there to the Lord, who had appeared to him (12:7).” Having left Haran, Abraham, Lot and their sizable communities moved south, crossed the Euphrates and followed the main route through Aleppo and Qatna. Commentators shed light upon the first leg of this journey in saying “no-one dared to plot his own route, but traveled by the traditional ways taken by merchants and armies through the centuries. At regular intervals staging-posts marked the resting-places along all the ancient routes.” 13 This journey covered some 400 miles, to the Jordan Valley. The twisting valleys led to the pass between Mount Ebal
Fehlen 8 and Mount Gerizim – a route to the Mediterranean and the northwest, and southwards to Hebron and Beersheba. Ken Wade observes, “If Abraham had any hope that this part of his spiritual journey would be a quick, easy jaunt, he was in for a disappointment. Four days of walking probably brought the family to the next major town, Carchemish, where they could cross the Euphrates and head south. The next stopping place that we hear about after Abraham left Haran is Shechem in Canaan.” 14 It was at this junction that Abraham came to the oaks of Moreh. Interestingly, “Moreh is a name connected with the Hebrew word for ‘instruction’. 15 It was at this special place that Abraham erected an altar to the Lord and received direction from above. He paid formal tribute to the Lord and claimed on behalf of his offspring the land that the Lord would give them. It is in times such as these that one must look to the Lord for direction and instruction. The journey is full of confusion and indecision. A starting point for Christian pilgrims is asking the Lord this important question: “Where am I going?” The answer does not often come quickly and yet the questions continue to be asked. Herbert McCabe and Brian Davies expound upon the mention of Abraham in Hebrews 11: “Here, faith is all about trying to understand. It is about not being content to understand the things that are obvious, the things we can already see. It is about trying to understand what we do not yet see. It is about setting out on the journey to explore what we have not yet seen. We read: ‘By faith Abraham obeyed when he was called to set out for a place that he was to receive as an inheritance; and he set out, not knowing where he was going’ (Hebrews 11:8). Faith, for the author of Hebrews, is seen in terms of a journey, a movement. And not just a commuter’s journey, a movement from one familiar spot to
Fehlen 9 another. It is seen as a real journey, the kind of journey you make on a holiday, to see new places and to meet new people. It is a journey of exploration, an adventuring out.” 16 This journey of spiritual formation is full of decisions. One of which is the initial decision to become a follower of Jesus Christ. This decision cannot be made once and then never again. Spiritual formation is a series of decisions not simply one. Altars of Doubt & Dependence From Shechem, Abraham continued south and pitched his tents with Bethel on the west and Ai on the east. There he built an altar and called upon the name of the Lord. This is an interesting location rich with illustrative value. The Hebrew meaning for each of these cities is descriptive and provocative. Bethel means ‘house of God’ and Ai means ‘heap of ruin’. It is noteworthy that Abraham pitched his tents between those two extremes, and it is there that he called upon the Lord. Scripturally we know that it was during this stop that there was a famine in the land that drove Abraham further south into Egypt. While in Egypt, Abraham concocted an escapade in which his wife would be regarded as his sister. This led to problems with Pharaoh and an order to leave Egypt. Joyce Baldwin in her commentary on Genesis insists, “Early on in his spiritual experience Abram was discovering that to be in the place of God’s appointment is not to be exempt from suffering. There are indications in Scripture that spiritual ‘high points’, when God draws near or speaks in a special way, are often followed by unusual testings. In view of the fact that he knew he was in the land of promise, and had only recently had a special revelation of the fact, to leave it so promptly the minute difficulty loomed ahead ‘has every appearance of an unbelieving flight from circumstantial difficulty, a desertion of faith in favour of logic.” 17 It is at the altar between Bethel and Ai that we find Abraham in a season of doubt. He failed to
Fehlen 10 understand that the Lord who could provide a land could provide necessary food. He doubted the Lord. This led him to go into Egypt where his doubts grew into fear of loosing his wife because she was a beautiful woman. Because she was beautiful and because Abraham deceivingly referred to his wife as his sister, Pharaoh took her into his palace. It is here that she and Abram were treated well and acquired many things including maidservants. When one fast-forwards the biblical text we discover that this would prove to be disastrous. One of the maidservants acquired was certainly Hagar. Abraham and Hagar later had sexual union, and she conceived a child to be named Ishmael. Abraham and Sarah doubted that the Lord could give them a child so they took matters into their own hands. In the spiritual journey there are many doubts. Christians find themselves between Bethel (house of God) and Ai (heap of ruin) and struggle to trust the Lord. This is a natural stage in spiritual formation in which one experiences dark struggles. Kerry Walters confirms, “Since the earliest days, Christianity has described itself as hodos, ‘the way,’ the path or road by which adventurous wayfarers journey to the Divine.’ Walters also asserts that it is “a journey whose very dangers and trials unveil one’s true identity.” 18 Abraham, having learned some valuable lessons, left Egypt towards the Negev and made his way back to “where his tent had been earlier and where he had first built an altar (Gen. 13:3,4).” This is what will be referred to as an altar of dependence. He found his way back because the Lord had not given up on him any more than He would abandon His servants today. Instinctively he knew of his need for forgiveness and renewal, and therefore he sought out the place where he had already worshipped the Lord. He came back, and the Lord received him despite his previous doubts.
Fehlen 11 Abraham’s journey is much like the journey of saints throughout history. Spiritual formation often involves returning to places of clarity and truth. That which is known to be trustworthy must be reclaimed and restored following times of doubt. Abraham, like all pilgrims must come back – back to the altar of dependence. Altar of Separation The remainder of Genesis 13 follows Abraham and his nephew Lot as they navigate both the land and their relationship. Lot became enamored with the lush gardens of Egypt and found similar characteristics in the plain of Jordan. It was by the cities of Sodom and Gomorrah that Lot pitched his tents. Abraham chose to part ways with his nephew because the land in which Lot resided was wicked. Abraham moved his tents and went to live near the great trees of Mamre at Hebron. It was there that another altar was built unto the Lord. This was an altar of separation. In order to understand this decision, one must recall what Joshua 24:2 asserts: “Your fathers, including Terah, the father of Abraham and the father of Nahor, dwelt on the other side of the River in old times; and they served other gods.” Potentially, two of the gods that were served by Abraham’s extended family were Nanna, the moon god and Enki, the god of fresh water. How much of this polytheistic mythology Abraham absorbed is not known. But one must wonder if Lot ever fully rejected the idol worship of his family’s past. There seems to be a character flaw in Lot. He is drawn to the wickedness of Sodom, in that he once lived near Sodom and then progressively moved into Sodom. Genesis 19 elaborates upon Lot’s elevated degrees of familiarity with sin. Abraham felt compelled to separate from Lot for these reasons. Baldwin suggests, ‘This nephew of his…did not appreciate what motivated his uncle in leaving the rest of the family in
Fehlen 12 response to God’s call. Though he traveled with Abram he did not share his vision, and at some point it was inevitable that a separation between them would occur.” 19 This separation was felt in the leaving his father Terah from Ur as well as leaving Lot in the plains of Jordan. Pfatteicher agrees, “The separation…involves loss. The resulting transition, moreover, is a time of hardship and suffering. The difficulty and pain are given meaning by the constant focus on the goal of the journey, the sacred place…the place of the fullest presence and permanent abode of God.” 20 Separation most usually involves pain. The spiritual journey is full of grief and separation. This is an important stage in Christian formation in which the believer moves away (not just physically) from that which restricts growth and embraces the fullness of God through the person of Jesus Christ, whereby entering the place of the fullest presence. Sheldrake points out that “although the classic metaphor of ‘ascent’ retains a certain value in emphasizing a continuous journey rather than a succession of disconnected experiences, it also suggests a separation of the material world from a truly spiritual existence.” 21 Altar of Sacrifice The final altar that Abraham builds is found later in the biblical text and yet is so closely connected to Abraham’s spiritual journey especially in light of the covenant promise God made regarding fruitfulness and increase. Wade believes “Abraham’s life was full of the blessings of the Lord, but he also knew sacrifice. In fact his path, ever since he’d left Haran, had been a journey to a mountain where he would be called upon to make the ultimate sacrifice in order to demonstrate his faith in God.” 22Abraham was to be the father of the nations, and yet he and Sarah had no children. The word of the Lord to Abraham and Sarah was that they would have a son (Gen. 17:16). This was met with disbelief and human resolve as seen in Hagar and Ishmael. However, God’s way proved superior, and Sarah gave birth to a son named Isaac. In Genesis 22
Fehlen 13 it is recorded that Lord demanded that Abraham take his long-awaited son to the region of Moriah and offer him as a burnt offering. Abraham took the wood, the fire, and a knife to the mountain along with his son Isaac. Scripture tells us that ‘when they reached the place God had told him about, Abraham built an altar (Gen. 22:9).” This will be referred to as an altar of sacrifice. We know from the biblical account that the Lord stopped Abraham from completing his task because indeed he had proven his obedience. Yet for all intensive purposes the sacrifice had been made in his heart. Sacrifice is a stage in spiritual formation in which the child of God “offers his body as a living sacrifice, holy and pleasing to God (Rom. 12:1).” This becomes a spiritual act of worship that realigns priorities, reveals insecurities, and reassures one’s trust in the Lord who will provide. Maria Ruiz Scaperlanda writes, “God has promised to make Abraham’s progeny as numerous as the stars in the sky, but now he was asking Abraham to sacrifice it all by offering his beloved son, Isaac, as a holocaust to God. How would you respond to such a request? What emotions would embroil you?” 23 Jesus and the Journey These are important questions to wrestle with for anyone on the journey of spiritual formation. Even Jesus in his final hours questioned his Father. His journey to the cross is not unlike the journey Abraham took and not unlike the journey each Christ-follower takes through discipleship. Jesus was often found seeking direction from his Father through times of solitude and reflection. We also discover times of doubt in the life of Jesus, especially the closer he got to the time of fulfillment in which he would be crucified for mankind. In Mark 14:33 we read that he “was deeply distressed and troubled.” There in the garden of Gethsemane he told Peter, James
Fehlen 14 and John, “My soul is overwhelmed with sorrow to the point of death…going a little farther, he fell to the ground and prayed that if possible the hour might pass from him.” Correspondingly, in Luke 22 we see him cling to the Father with full dependence as he declares, “Yet not my will, but yours be done.” Jesus trusted his Father with his life and in his death. The entire gospel account of Jesus’ final days was an epic journey of separation. We see a number of his ardent followers desert him during this time of need. Judas betrayed him. Peter denied him. Jesus even felt abandoned by his Father. In Mark 15 he cried out in a loud voice: “My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?” Without a doubt that separation was necessary for our redemption in that he took on the sins of all mankind and became our scapegoat. The ultimate sacrifice was made upon the cross of Calvary. It eclipses all other sacrifices including the one in which Abraham was willing to sacrifice his son – his only son. God gave his one and only Son Jesus Christ as the ultimate sacrifice, paving the way for us to enter into the journey of faith. This journey goes far beyond one event. It is a life-long pursuit of union with God in becoming like his Son. The Event vs. The Journey The fundamental premise of this research has been to unpack how spiritual experience is to be inherent in a deeper journey rather than a singular event. This is an important distinction for Evangelical Christianity to make. Pentecostal tradition in particular has placed primary emphasis upon the event of salvation and the follow up event of Spirit-baptism. These certainly are events worth our interest – they are the launch pads for spiritual formation and yet, one cannot enter into salvation only (the event) without consideration of ongoing sanctification (the journey). As well,
Fehlen 15 one cannot only look to Spirit-baptism only (the event) without importance given to Spiritfullness (the journey). Steve Jack Land in valuable work entitled Pentecostal Spirituality asserts, “While the identification of sanctification and Spirit baptism gave way to an appreciation of the experimental and theological distinction of the two [Pentecostal and Holiness movements]…both the character and vocation of a Pentecostal were bound up in the doctrines of sanctification and Spirit baptism, respectively.” 24 Land goes on to note the passionate words of Seymour to the saints at Azusa, “Tongues are one of the signs that go with every baptized person, but it is not the real evidence of the baptism in the every day life. Your life must measure up with the fruit of the Spirit. Many may start in this salvation, and yet if they do not watch and keep under the Blood, they will loose the Spirit of Jesus.” 25 This is such a clear description of the event (i.e.: tongues and salvation) being just the entry point into the journey (i.e.: fruit of the Spirit and ongoing sanctification). Abraham understood the journey. Our early church fathers by and large captured the reality of an on-going journey. Perhaps even our earliest Pentecostal believers encapsulated this vital Kingdom principle. In our current context it has fundamentally been forgotten though. Steven Jack Land seems to give a clarion call to restore what was early Pentecostal orthodoxy in which “salvation was a narrative journey and pilgrims practiced their faith, in the light of the inbreaking kingdom through worshipping, walking (ethics) and witnessing in the Spirit of the end. The walk was a living out of a cosmic drama in which the testimony to Christ and the testimony about one’s daily life were processed in and with the eschatological community.” 26 He concludes his landmark work Pentecostal Spirituality by asking this valuable question: “Eschewing the exclusively relational and working toward an affirmation of a truly ontological
Fehlen 16 change in the believer can a soteriology be developed which reflects the eventfulness of the biblical narratives, historical and human development? Perhaps affective transformation and integration will prove to be new and useful metaphors…” 27 The metaphor of the journey is a helpful starting point. Rather than seeking only the event of salvation in order to secure one’s eternity, additionally one engages the journey of sanctification much like the people of Israel who were led out of captivity into the Promised Land. Our journey is a slow process of deliverance from the bondage of sin before being brought into the heavenly city. As well, Spiritbaptism is the introduction into a greater reality of the journey of Spirit-fullness. Ephesians 5:18 affirms this in the Amplified Version, “And do not get drunk with wine, for that is debauchery; but ever be filled and stimulated with the [Holy] Spirit.” Concluding Thoughts on the Journey Abraham and his journey from Haran to Moriah have served to inform spiritual formation as a journey. The larger discussion involves Pentecostal spirituality, one that requires more ongoing research and development. The conversation must be expanded in order to produce an expressive and viable ecclesiology within the Pentecostal expression of faith. Appropriately, for the Pentecostal thinker, like Abraham discovered, the journey is worth taking. Who knows what Pentecostalism will become as the journey is engaged? Sheldrake emphasizes, “A journey involves process, action, movement, change, experiences, stops and starts, variety, humdrum and surprises. For us a journey implies more than a quick trip from point A to point B. It is more extended, with the time and places between departure and final destination being important or their own sake. Whereas a trip focuses primarily on a destination, a journey has significance when seen as a whole.” 28 Perhaps it is true: the journey is the destination.
Notes Janet O. Hagberg and Robert A. Guelich, The Critical Journey: Stages in the Life of Faith (Wisconsin: Sheffield Publishing Company, 1995), xxi.
2 3 1
Philip Sheldrake, A Brief History of Spirituality (Blackwell Publishing Ltd. 2007), 27.
Craig G. Barthomew and Fred Hughes, Explorations in a Christian Theology of Pilgrimage. (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2004), 95.
4 5 6
Sheldrake, A Brief History of Spirituality, 36. Ibid., 139.
M. Robert Mulholland Jr. The Deeper Journey: The Spirituality of Discovering Your True Self (Illinois: IVP Books, 2006), 16.
Sheldrake, A Brief History of Spirituality, 35. M. Robert Mulholland Jr., Invitation to a Journey (Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1993), Hagberg and Guelich, The Critical Journey, 17.
Lawrence S. Cunningham and Keith J. Egan, Christian Spirituality: Themes from the Tradition (New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1996), 48.
Philip H. Pfatteicher, Liturgical Spirituality (Trinity Press International, 1997), 113.
Maria Ruiz Scaperlanda, The Journey: A Guide for the Modern Pilgrim (Illinois: Loyola Press, 2004), 68.
Joyce G. Baldwin, The Message of Genesis 12-50 (Illinois: IVP Books, 1986), 33.
Ken Wade, Journey to Moriah: The Untold Story of How Abraham Became the Friend of God (Pacific Press, 2004), 44.
Ibid., 34. Herbert McCabe and Brian Davies, God, Christ and Us (New York: Continuum, Baldwin, The Message of Genesis, 37. Kerry S. Walters, Soul Wilderness: A Desert Spirituality (New Jersey: Paulist Press,
19 20 21 22 23 24
Baldwin, The Message of Genesis, 40. Pfatteicher, Liturgical Spirituality, 113. Sheldrake, A Brief History of Spirituality, 37. Wade, Journey to Moriah, 126. Scaperlanda, The Journey, 68.
Steve Jack Land, Pentecostal Spirituality: A Passion for the Kingdom (Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. 1993), 124.
25 26 27 28
Ibid. Ibid., 183. Ibid., 222. Sheldrake, A Brief History of Spirituality, 5.
Bibliography Baldwin, Joyce G. The Message of Genesis 12-50. Illinois: IVP Books, 1986. Barthomew, Craig G., and Fred Hughes. Explorations in a Christian Theology of Pilgrimage. Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2004. Cunningham, Lawrence S., and Keith J. Egan. Christian Spirituality: Themes from the Tradition. New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1996. Davidson, Ivor J. A Public Faith: From Constantine to the Medieval World. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2005. Davidson, Ivor J. The Birth of the Church: From Jesus to Constantine. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2004. Downey, Michael. Understanding Christian Spirituality. New Jersey: Paulist Press, 1997. Hagberg, Janet O., and Robert A. Guelich. The Critical Journey: Stages in the Life of Faith. Wisconsin: Sheffield Publishing Company, 1995. Land, Steve Jack. Pentecostal Spirituality: A Passion for the Kingdom. Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. 1993. Leonard, Bill. Becoming Christian: Dimensions of Spiritual Formation. Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990. McCabe, Herbert and Brian Davies. God, Christ and Us. New York: Continuum, 2003. McGrath, Alister E. Christian Spirituality. Blackwell Publishers Inc., 1999. Mulholland, M. Robert. Invitation to a Journey. Illinois: InterVarsity Press, 1993. Mulholland, M. Robert. The Deeper Journey: The Spirituality of Discovering Your True Self. Illinois: IVP Books, 2006. Mursell, Gordan. The Story of Christian Spirituality: Two Thousand Years, From East to West. Fortress Press, 2001. Palmer, Parker J. A Hidden Wholeness: The Journey towards an Undivided Life. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2004. Pfatteicher, Philip H. Liturgical Spirituality. Trinity Press International, 1997.
Scaperlanda, Maria Ruiz. The Journey: A Guide for the Modern Pilgrim. Illinois: Loyola Press, 2004. Sheldrake, Philip. A Brief History of Spirituality. Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2007. Wade, Ken. Journey to Moriah: The Untold Story of How Abraham Became the Friend of God. Pacific Press, 2004. Walters, Kerry S. Soul Wilderness: A Desert Spirituality. New Jersey: Paulist Press, 2001. Webber, Robert E. The Divine Embrace: Recovering the Passionate Spiritual Life. Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 2006.
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