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By Dr. Thomaz Kalicki Hydro One Toronto, Canada V. Sankar P. Eng. Power Transformer Services Burlington, Canada
PRESENTED IN IEEE TRANSFORMERS COMMITTEE MEETINGS IN TORONTO, CANADA ON OCTOBER 25, 2010
• Assist users in writing autotransformer specifications that meet system needs and also in procuring autotransformers at economical prices.
• • •
Explain the effects of taps on design and manufacture of autotransformers.
Show how the electrical location of taps in autotransformers affects cost.
Influence organizations like IEEE, IEC and CSA to conduct workshops on how to determine the tap range, type of taps, and electrical connection of taps; considering operational requirements, reliability, manufacturing problems and costs.
Reduce energy costs by substituting reversing taps with linear or coarse/fine taps where economical and technically feasible
Highlight the usefulness and limitations of Standards and Guides in preparing autotransformer procurement specifications.
Remove restrictions in specifications (Examples: Load Tap Changer in a separate compartment, reversing taps only, reactive type tap changers only etc.,) and give freedom to designers to offer economical and technically sound autotransformers.
Discuss advantages and disadvantages of De-energized Tap changer (DTC) in the operation. Also to discuss complications of DTC taps in design and manufacture of autotransformers. Suggest ways to eliminate DTC taps without foregoing operational requirements.
Encourage users to purchase autotransformers contrary to the specifications when the alternates meet all system requirements and cost less without compromising the reliability. Some examples are: ---Different electrical location of taps. ---Linear taps in place of reversing taps. ---Extending Load Tap Changer (LTC) tap range to eliminate DTC taps. Pinpoint the importance of interaction between users and manufacturers to their mutual benefit.
This tutorial covers taps in autotransformers only. The authors recommend referring the tutorial titled “TAPS” presented at IEEE Transformers Committee Meetings in Las Vegas, Nevada on October 26, 2004 because it contains fundamentals on taps. “TAPS” tutorial can be accessed at: http://www.transformerscommittee.org/info/F04/F04-Taps.pdf The topics covered in this tutorial are listed below: Types of taps. Standards and Specifications. Tap locations and their functions. DTC taps (de-energized taps). LTC taps (on-load taps). DTC and LTC taps in combination. Effects of tap locations on dielectric design. Effects of tap locations on other parameters. Effects of taps in step-up and in step-down operations. Effects of HV or LV taps on tertiary. On-load tap changers. Overloads and life cycle cost. Tap windings. Metal-oxide arresters and static shields. Function of taps stated in specifications versus their operation in the system. Conclusions.
An autotransformer is normally comprised of two circuits: HV and LV. There can be an additional circuit such as a tertiary. An autotransformer is different from a two-winding transformer in that one winding is commonly shared between both the HV and the LV. This shared winding is known as the common winding. The LV is composed of the common winding. The HV is composed of the common winding, plus an additional portion known as the series winding. Figure 1 below shows autotransformer schematic. Tertiary is not shown in this figure.
Figure 1 The series and common windings are commonly abbreviated as SV and CV, similar to HV and LV. Tertiary is commonly abbreviated as TV.
TYPES OF TAPS
1. Based on Function Core flux is proportional to the volts per turn. Volts per turn is defined as the voltage applied across the turns of a circuit divided by the turns in that circuit. If a tapping winding is included in that circuit, then the turns in that circuit change with each tap position, or the volts per turn changes with each tap position or both. The taps can be classified into three categories based on their effect on flux in the core. A. Constant flux taps If the voltage changes with each tap position in direct proportion to the turns then volts per turn is constant throughout the tap range. Such taps are known as constant flux taps. For constant flux taps core flux density remains constant throughout the tap range. Two commonly used tap arrangements of constant flux taps are shown below.
Figure 2 Taps in Series
Figure 3 Taps in LV Line End
Taps in Figure 2 are constant flux taps when they are used to compensate for input voltage fluctuations in step-down operation or to compensate for regulation in step-up operation. Taps in Figure 3 are constant flux taps when they are used
to compensate for regulation in step-down operation or to compensate for input voltage fluctuations in step-up operation. B. Variable flux taps If the volts per turn changes with each tap position, then the taps are known as variable flux taps. With these taps flux density in the core changes when the taps are changed. Taps in Figure 2 are variable flux taps when they are used to compensate for regulation for step-down operation or to compensate for input voltage fluctuations for step-up operation. Taps in Figure 3 are variable flux taps when they are used to compensate for input voltage fluctuations for step-down operation or to compensate for regulation for step-up operation. A third arrangement of tap connections is shown below.
Figure 4 Neutral End Taps Taps arrangement in Figure 4 is always of variable flux taps. Number of tap turns will be determined based on whether they are for LV variation or for HV variation. C. Mixed regulation taps A portion of the taps act as constant flux taps and the remaining portion act as variable flux taps. Many autotransformers are purchased as constant flux taps or
as variable flux taps but in service they are mostly used as mixed regulation taps. 2. Based on type of tap changer A. DTC taps (de-energized taps). B. LTC taps (on-load taps). 3. Based on connection A. Linear taps. B. Coarse/fine taps. C. Reversing taps. 4. Based on electrical connection A. In series winding (at common end). B. In common winding (at neutral end). C. In LV line. D. In both series and common windings as shown in Figure 12.
At present no standard recommends type of taps, the tap range, electrical connection and the number of taps for autotransformers. The current ANSI standard C57.12.10 suggests ±5% DTC taps in 2.5% steps in the HV winding and ±10% LTC taps in 0.625% steps in the LV winding. But, the current C57.12.10 covers only two winding transformers of certain MVA and voltage ranges. Current C57.12.10 does not cover autotransformers. The IEEE Transformers Committee is working on a revision of C57.12.10 to include autotransformers and recommend, where possible, not to specify DTC taps. In a considerable number of autotransformer specifications ±5% DTC taps in HV and ±10% LTC taps in LV (similar to two winding transformers) are being specified. In most cases, these DTC and LTC taps make the autotransformer’s design complex and costly compared to two winding transformers. Design complexities and relative costs are covered later in this tutorial.
1. IEEE Transformers Committee should soon publish Standards for autotransformers. Since design and manufacturing problems in autotransformers are more complex compared to two-winding transformers, separate standards are required for autotransformers rather than including them in the next version of C57.12.10. 2. Until the National Standards are revised, users should consult with manufacturers when preparing their autotransformer specifications. Both users and manufacturers will benefit from this. 3. Users should strongly consider eliminating DTC taps (in particular when the LTC taps are needed) from their specifications. In many cases, the LTC tap range can be increased to cover the DTC tap range. 4. Specifications should not restrict location of LTC taps (e.g. in LV line etc.). Manufacturers should be given freedom to offer reliable and economical autotransformers with LTC taps in other locations. 5. Some suggested modifications to C57.12.10 are: (a) Include linear and coarse/fine LTC taps and recommend adopting them instead of reversing taps where possible. Linear or coarse/fine taps reduce life-cycle costs compared to reversing taps. (b) Where possible, eliminate DTC taps to procure reliable and economical autotransformers.
TAP LOCATIONS AND THEIR FUNCTIONS
An autotransformer’s output voltage changes depending on input voltage fluctuations and/or on changes in regulation due to load variations. The function of the LTC taps is to keep the output voltage constant at all the times by compensating for these fluctuations. An autotransformer with LTC taps on HV side and also LTC taps on LV side will compensate for both the above fluctuations and also keep the volts per turn constant throughout the tap range. To manufacture and maintain such autotransformers is expensive. So, it is normal practice to specify LTC taps either on HV side (in series winding) or on LV side (in common winding or in LV line). Understand from some users that based on MVA rating, HV voltage, LV voltage etc., that having DTC taps on HV with no LTC taps on LV or DTC taps on HV and LTC taps on LV will result in savings in life-cycle costs in their systems. 1. DTC taps DTC taps are normally located in the HV (series winding). The DTC tap position is set prior to energizing the autotransformer. During operation of the autotransformer, the DTC taps will neither compensate for fluctuations of the HV system voltage nor will they compensate for regulation due to load fluctuations. This is the main reason to extend the LTC tap range and not to specify the DTC taps. As DTC taps are seldom specified on LV side, this is not covered in this tutorial. 2. LTC taps in series winding (a) Step-down operation When LTC is varied to compensate for input voltage fluctuations then the taps will act as constant flux taps. When LTC is varied to compensate for regulation due to fluctuations in load then the taps will act as variable flux taps. (b) Step-up operation When LTC is varied to compensate for regulation due to fluctuations in load then the taps will act as constant flux taps. When LTC is varied to compensate for fluctuations in input voltage then the taps will act as variable flux taps. 3. LTC in common winding Either for step-down operation or for step-up operation and also either to compensate for input voltage fluctuations or to compensate for regulation due to fluctuations in load, the taps will act as variable flux taps.
4. LTC in LV line (a) Step-down operation When LTC is varied to compensate for regulation due to fluctuations in load then the taps will act as constant flux taps. When LTC is varied to compensate for fluctuations in input voltage then the taps will act as variable flux taps. (b) Step-up operation When LTC is varied to compensate for input voltage fluctuations then the taps will act as constant flux taps. When LTC is varied to compensate for regulation due to fluctuations in load then the taps will act as variable flux taps. Table 1 below summarizes the effects of LTC location on core flux. LTC Location Series Operation Step-down Compensate for Compensate for Input Voltage Load Regulation Core Flux constant variable Step-up variable almost constant
variable almost constant
1. Specifications should clearly state whether the taps are for LV variation or for HV variation. If the user’s requirement is mixed regulation, which is usually the case, then the specifications should clearly state the tap range for constant flux taps and the tap range for variable flux taps. IEC standards give some guidelines on mixed regulation taps. 2. Operating engineers must clearly understand the behaviors and operating limitations of the autotransformer when the taps are operated as constant flux taps and also when operated as variable flux taps. These behaviors effect the following: (a) Current division between the series and common windings. (b) Core flux density. (c) Impedance. (d) Fault current. (e) Sound level. 3. To reduce the severity during short circuit, taps in the common winding at the neutral end is preferred over the taps in series winding or the taps in LV line. The reason is, on autotransformers with the taps in series winding or the taps in LV line, when a line to ground fault occurs from tap leads to ground or from tap winding to ground or a ground fault in the tap changer then the shortcircuit current is very large as only the system impedance limits the shortcircuit current. Whereas if a similar fault occurs in an autotransformer with taps in the common winding at neutral end, then the fault current is limited by both system impedance and the common winding impedance. 4. Most of the specifications state that the system impedance is zero (or infinite bus). System always has an impedance. With zero system impedance the autotransformer will be over designed and the cost will be increased unnecessarily.
Linear DTC taps can be either bridging type or selector type. The names bridging and selector evolved based on the principle of operation of the tap changer. Linear or bridging DTC taps can be used in the body of the main winding. When DTC taps are used as a separate winding, then they will be normally of linear type. DTC taps of a separate winding can be connected as reversing taps if the number of turns in the tap winding needs to be reduced. Either two bridging type or two selector type tap changers can be used to connect DTC taps as reversing taps. Reversing taps can not be used in the body of the main winding, because due to flux reversal high voltage could be generated within the winding. Physical location of DTC taps Some of the considerations in deciding the location of DTC taps are: --voltage rating of the HV winding --ratio of HV and LV voltages --tap range --current and voltage ratings of available DTC tap changers. --Impedance at the extreme tap positions --winding insulation level (BIL of the winding) --short circuit forces --eddy losses and --autotransformer dimensions and weight. Preferred locations for bridging and linear DTC taps in the body of main winding are shown in the Figures 5 and 6. These figures also illustrate the principle of operation of these types of tap changers with a typical center-fed series winding, where the top and bottom parts of the winding are symmetrical paralleled halves. In either case based on tap changer current rating and design consideration one or two tap changers may be used. If one tap changer is used, then the top and bottom tap leads are paralleled before connecting them to the tap changer. On transformers with low impedance it is difficult to have the DTC taps in body of the main winding due to high short circuit forces. Additional difficulty for an autotransformer is that the percent of DTC tap turns to series winding turns will be large compared to the percent of DTC tap turns to HV winding turns of a twowinding transformer. In a two-winding transformer, when the tap range is 10% of HV circuit, then the tap turns will be 10% of HV turns. However, in a 2-to-1 ratio autotransformer, when the tap range is 10% of the HV circuit, then the tap turns will still be 10% of the HV circuit (HV turns) but 20% of the series winding turns. This makes it difficult to have DTC taps in the body of the series winding as compared to having the DTC taps in the body of HV winding of a two-winding transformer.
Figure 5: Bridging type DTC taps
Figure 6: Selector type DTC taps
The most commonly used physical locations of separate DTC winding are shown in the Figures 7 and 8.
D CV T C SV
FIGURE 7: Separate DTC Winding between CV and SV
DTC CV SV DTC
Figure 8: Separate Outside DTC Winding
DTC taps in HV If DTC taps are placed at the ends of the series winding then selector type taps (Figure 6) are preferred over bridging type taps. If bridging type taps are used at the top and bottom of the series winding, then the tap gap will be very near to LV line end. This makes it difficult to design the tap gap to withstand the high impulse voltages that will appear across this gap. Impedance on different tap positions of a 60/80/100MVA, 140/46/7.2KV autotransformer with +/-3.7% DTC taps at the top and bottom of the series winding and also at the middle of the series winding are shown in Table 2.
Taps at ends Tap 1 Maximum turns tap) = Tap 3 (Rated tap) = Tap 5 (Minimum turns tap) = 7.38 7.23 7.13
Taps in the middle 7.47 7.23 7.04
Impedance swing across the tap range for taps in a separate winding is not included as it is extensively covered in a CIGRE paper dated July 1973. When the ratio of HV and LV voltages is drastically different from those stated in the paper, then the impedance swing over the tap range will also be different. When the ratio of HV and LV voltages is approaching 3 or higher, the variation in the impedance over the tap range becomes similar to that in a two winding transformer. The disadvantages and limitations of DTC taps are not included because they are covered in the "TAPS" ”tutorial presented at IEEE Transformers Committee Meetings in Las Vegas, Nevada on October 26, 2004. When DTC taps are in the body of a series winding, axial amp-turn balance between the series and common windings is recommended. If not, the winding eddy losses due to the radial flux will be increased and the short circuit forces will also be increased. DTC taps in tertiary Occasionally, some specifications call for DTC taps in the tertiary. Depending on the tap range and short circuit forces, DTC taps can be in the body of the tertiary winding. However, considering the reliability and cost, it is highly recommended not to specify taps in the tertiary. DTC taps in LV line In 50 years of the authors’ experiences, they have come across only two specifications for autotransformers (280MVA and 167MVA) where DTC taps were specified in the LV line. For economic and reliability reasons, it is not recommended to specify DTC taps in the LV line. These taps will have very few turns and this makes it difficult to design a reliable autotransformer. High current in the LV line will cause additional problems in designing of the tap winding and in selecting a DTC tap changer. If system requirements need DTC taps in LV line, users will benefit if they discuss with manufacturers at the time of writing the specifications to achieve the same function by an alternate way of specifying the taps.
Eliminating DTC taps will result in economical and more reliable autotransformers. When the autotransformer has an LTC, then the LTC tap range can be increased to cover the DTC tap range and DTC taps can be eliminated.
In autotransformers LTC taps can be connected electrically in four different ways as described on pages 16 and 17. Figures 9 to 18 show these arrangements for linear, reversing and coarse/fine taps. In an autotransformer whether the requirement is a three-phase tap changer or a set of three single-phase tap changers is determined by several factors. Mainly these factors are phase to phase voltage and current rating. Based on HV and LV voltage ratings and MVA the cost difference between an autotransformer with a three phase tap changer and an autotransformer with a set of three single phase tap changers can vary approximately 3% to 10%. Therefore users should be aware that specifying a particular electrical location of taps could significantly increase the price of the autotransformer. Electrical location of the tap changer together with the physical location of the tap winding and the voltage ratio determine the impedance variation (impedance swing) across the tap range. The CIGRE paper of July 1973 shows the variation in impedance over the tap range for different LTC winding locations, electrical connections and types of taps. When ratio of HV and LV voltages is different from those shown in the paper then patterns of variations will change. Figures 9 to 12, Linear taps With presently available linear type tap changers a maximum of 21 steps can be obtained. Advantages and disadvantages of linear taps in series winding or in common winding or in LV line are same as that of reversing or coarse/fine taps in these locations. Arrangement of taps in Figure12 can only be linear taps, in this arrangement it is not possible to use reversing or coarse/fine taps. Figure 12 During LTC operation HV total number of turns remains same. During step-down operation when input voltage changes core flux density will change i.e. taps will be variable flux taps. During step-down operation with constant input voltage (constant HV voltage) when the tap changer is used to compensate for regulation then the taps will be constant flux taps. Whereas during step-up operation when LTC is used for variation in input voltage then the taps will be constant flux taps. But during step-up operation with constant input voltage (constant LV voltage) when LTC is used to compensate for regulation then the taps will be variable flux taps. In this arrangement except on extreme tap positions, in other tap positions some taps will be in series winding and some taps will be in common winding. As such, taps should be designed for maximum series current and also for maximum common current. Often phase to phase voltage requires using three single
LV Line End
phase tap changers and this will increase the cost compared to a design with a three-phase tap changer. For core form autotransformers with this type of taps based on dielectric and short circuit considerations, the tap winding will be mostly either between common and series windings or over the series winding (outer most winding). When LTC winding is between common and series windings, eddy losses in LTC winding will be high as it is in the main leakage flux path. To reduce the eddy losses in LTC winding, winding conductor dimensions or strand dimensions in case of continuously transposed cable (CTC) should be carefully chosen. When LTC is over series winding, during maximum turns position, series winding will be in fairly high leakage flux path and attention should be given to reduce series winding eddy losses and also to limit the hot spots temperatures in series winding to safe limits. In this arrangement LTC winding being at LV line end, unless LTC winding series capacitance is high, connecting metal oxide arresters across LTC winding will be a very economical solution. Use of shields between windings is another method to improve impulse voltage distribution in LTC winding. With shields between windings, unless the shield is brought-out, it is not possible to measure power factor between windings for maintenance purpose. Special LTC winding designs can be used to obtain a fairly uniform impulse voltage distribution in LTC winding. Figures 13 & 16 Taps in series winding at LV line end or at the “auto” point is most widely used arrangement. As these taps are at LV line end, many comments made for Figure 12 are applicable to Figures 13 & 16 also. When LTC winding is between common and series windings and when taps are for HV variation then impedance over the tap range will be almost constant when ratio of HV and LV voltages is around 2.
Note: -Reversing and coarse/fine arrangements are not suitable for the arrangement of Figure 12 i.e. taps in both series and common windings.
Advantages of these taps are, current will be not normally high and there will be enough tap turns to design a reliable tap winding. With this arrangement either linear or coarse/fine or reversing taps can be used. For step-down operation if the taps are used for HV variation then they will be constant flux taps. For step-down operation with constant input voltage, if the taps are used to compensate for regulation then they are variable flux taps. For step-up operation if the taps are used for input voltage variation then they are variable flux taps. For step-up operation with constant input voltage if the taps are used to compensate for regulation then they are variable flux taps. Figures 14 & 17 These taps are similar to the taps on the LV side of a two winding transformer. As such, all operating limitations, advantages, disadvantages etc., applicable to the taps on LV side of a two winding transformer are also applicable to autotransformer with taps in LV line. Main disadvantages of taps in LV line are high current and often not enough turns in tap winding to obtain an economical design. Another disadvantage is often three single phase tap changers are needed. Figures 15 & 18 Main advantage of these arrangements is, a 3-phase Y connected tap changer can be used. As common winding current will be flowing in the taps, normally a high current LTC is not required. However, LTC current is determined based on MVA, HV & LV voltages and their ratio. BIL level from taps to ground and also between phases will be small. Main disadvantage of this arrangement is that the autotransformer will be of variable flux design under all operating conditions. User should consider variations in parameters of the autotransformer from tap to tap in operating the autotransformer. In this arrangement linear, coarse/fine or reversing taps can be used. Compared to the arrangements of taps in series winding or in LV line, economics depend on savings in tap changer cost, reduction in oil quantity due to less clearances and increase in core and winding materials due to variable flux design. Being a variable flux design, this could pose a problem if the tertiary is brought-out and loaded. Because the tertiary voltage will be changing when LTC taps are changing. One solution to keep the tertiary voltage constant is by connecting a compensating transformer in the tertiary.
Considering the autotransformer cost and reliability, tap arrangements of Figures 9,11,12,13,15,16 and 18 are preferable over the tap arrangement of Figures 10,14 and 17. Users can obtain less costly and more reliable autotransformers by specifying only the operating requirements and by giving the freedom to manufacturers to decide the electrical location and type of taps.
DTC & LTC TAPS
The problems in autotransformers with DTC taps only and the problems in autotransformers with LTC taps only were described in earlier sections. In autotransformers with both DTC and LTC taps, the problems are compounded as the problems of both DTC and LTC taps are added. A considerable numbers of autotransformer specifications call for both DTC and LTC taps. Typically DTC tap range is 65% of HV in HV for HV variation and LTC tap range is 610% of LV in LV for LV variation. Understand from the users that these taps are based on ANSI C57.12.10 standard. This standard is for two winding transformers of certain range and not for autotransformers. Design and manufacture of an autotransformer with DTC and LTC taps is more difficult and expensive than a two-winding transformer with the same taps. Different variations in DTC and LTC taps are given below. (A) Based on electrical connections (1) DTC taps in series winding for HV variation and LTC taps in series winding for HV variation. (2) DTC taps in series winding for HV variation and LTC taps in LV line for LV variation. (3) DTC taps in series winding for HV variation and LTC taps in common winding for LV variation. (B) Based on physical location (1) DTC taps in the body of series winding and LTC taps between tertiary and common winding. (2) DTC taps in the body of series winding and LTC taps between common and series windings. (3) DTC taps in the body of series winding and LTC taps over the series winding. (4) DTC taps between common and series windings and LTC taps between tertiary and common windings. (5) DTC taps over series winding and LTC taps between tertiary and common windings. (6) Both DTC and LTC taps between common and series windings. (7) DTC taps over series winding and LTC taps between common and series windings. (C) (1) (2) (3) (4) Based on type of taps Linear DTC taps and linear LTC taps. Linear DTC taps and reversing LTC taps. Reversing DTC taps and linear LTC taps. Reversing DTC taps and reversing LTC taps.
Typical DTC and LTC taps arrangements are shown in Figures 19A to F. In arrangements of Figures 19A, B and C DTC taps should be of linear (bridging or selector) type only; in these arrangements reversing type DTC taps can not be used. In arrangement on Figure 19F LTC taps can be of linear or coarse/fine type only; in this arrangement reversing type LTC taps can not be used.
Figure 19: Typical DTC and LTC taps arrangements
It is very important for users to know that even when there is no change in DTC tap range and/or no change in LTC tap range; based on electrical connection, physical location and type of taps (linear or reversing) the impedance at extreme tap positions could change considerably. Calculated impedances for different tap positions and for different tap windings locations of a 90/150MVA 230/115/13.8KV autotransformer with 65% DTC taps in 4 steps in HV for HV variation and 610% reversing LTC taps in 616 steps in LV line for LV variation are shown in Table 3. DTC1 & LTC1 are maximum turns positions, DTC3 and LTC17 are rated tap positions and DTC5 & LTC 33 are minimum turns positions.
Calculated percent impedances on 90MVA base:
Figure 20 A Figure 20 B Figure 20 C Figure 20 D Figure 20 E
HV to LV DTC1 – LTC1 DTC3 – LTC17 DTC5 – LTC33 DTC5 – LTC1 DTC1 – LTC33 TV to LV LTC1 LTC17 LTC33 TV to HV DTC1 DTC3 DTC5
7.08 5.75 4.89 5.38 6.52
6.08 5.75 5.76 6.12 5.72
5.97 5.75 5.84 6.21 5.66
5.36 5.75 6.46 5.03 7.02
5.72 5.75 6.24 4.34 7.81
21.38 23.99 27.63
17.06 19.11 21.97
15.68 17.54 20.16
4.87 4.68 4.72
6.17 5.95 5.99
32.19 31.26 30.42
25.91 25.83 25.77
24.11 24.12 24.16
11.35 11.11 10.86
13.42 12.61 11.87
Due to the volume of work, impedances for all other combinations of DTC and LTC taps are not shown. Aim is to bring to the attention of users that if the impedance at rated tap is only stated in the specifications then most likely the offers will be with the least cost combination of DTC and LTC taps. This could give rude surprises of short circuit currents on extreme taps exceeding station design limit and inadequate breaker capacity. If the impedance is high on an extreme tap position then regulation suffers. In the specifications users must clearly specify how they will use taps, maximum and minimum impedances on any combination of DTC and LTC taps positions. Users should also aware of the changes in impedances for step-up operation and for step-down operation. During the design, manufactures must determine on which combination of DTC and LTC taps the forces will be maximum and calculate the forces for that combination. In some cases one combination of taps position may give maximum forces in one winding and another combination of taps position give maximum forces in another winding. TV to LV and TV to HV impedances for winding arrangements in Figures 20A, 20B and 20C are much higher than those in Figures 20D and 20E. For winding arrangements 20D and 20E most likely a tertiary reactor or some special design method is required to design TV for a three phase fault on its terminals.
At the time of evaluating the tenders users should know the losses at rated tap and also the maximum losses for any combination of taps position. This is very important because variation in losses at different taps positions could be very large. Only a few users are asking for this information with the tenders and using it in evaluating the tenders. To give an example, when tap winding is the outer most winding then on Tap1 eddy losses will be high as main windings will be in the path of considerable leakage flux. Maximum oil, winding average and hot spot rises may not occur at one combination of DTC and LTC taps position. If this occurs at different combination of taps positions then manufacturer should determine the maximum oil, winding and hotspot rises considering different combination of taps positions. Bringing-out the leads Which side (LV side or HV side) the main windings leads (CV and SV windings leads) and the tap winding leads are brought-out has to be carefully selected to avoid well known half-turn problem. This problem is very serious in core type five legged cores compared to core type three legged cores.
Users should avoid specifying both DTC and LTC taps for autotransformers. If required LTC tap range can be increased to cover DTC tap range. Users should know the changes in impedance over the tap range between an autotransformer with DTC and LTC taps and an autotransformer with extended LTC tap range with no DTC taps. User should obtain cost difference between an autotransformer with DTC & LTC taps and an autotransformer with extended LTC tap range.
EFFECTS OF TAPS LOCATION ON DIELECTRIC DESIGN
In autotransformers taps can be located in any one of the following arrangements. 1. In the body of series winding at the ends or in the middle. 2. Physically in a separate winding and electrically connected to the series winding at the LV line end (at the auto point). 3. Physically in a separate winding and electrically at the neutral end. 4. Physically in a separate winding and electrically in the LV line. 1. Taps in the body of series winding at the ends or in the middle
Fig. 21A: Taps at series winding ends
Fig. 21B: Taps at series winding center
When the taps are at the top and bottom of the series winding as shown in Figure 21A, the series winding will be a center-fed winding. This is by far, the most widely used arrangement. In this arrangement the impulse voltage that appears at the taps will be lower as the taps are at the series winding ends (away from the HV line end). In this arrangement short-circuit forces are normally at manageable limits as the taps are placed symmetrical to the center of the coil. The taps will be electrically near to the LV line. The insulation level of the taps is higher than the LV insulation level at the minimum turns position shown in Figure 21A. This is due to the overhang of the taps that effectively allows the ends of the series winding to float. Normally these taps will be linear type of taps. If bridging type taps are used in this arrangement then it is very difficult to insulate the axial gap (tap gap) in the middle of the taps. When the taps are in the middle of the series winding, as shown in Figure 22B, a tap gap is required, whether the taps are linear type or bridging type. Since these taps are closer to HV line end compared to the taps at top and bottom of the series winding, they have to be designed for a higher insulation level than the taps at the coil ends. Based on the type of winding, care is required in determining the insulation level across the tap gap, across the tap range and from the taps to the ground. Often RSG (Recurrent Surge Generator) test is done to know the impulse voltages that appear across different points in the winding and from winding to ground before the core & coils assembly is placed in the tank. For both the arrangements in Figures 21A & 21B, connecting metal-oxide arresters (zinc oxide discs) across the taps provide a simple and effective solution to control transient surges. Many autotransformers with metal-oxide arresters across the taps are in trouble free operation in many utilities around the world for many years. CIGRE had discussions on metal-oxide arresters and have concluded that these devices increase reliability. Benefits in using metal-oxide arresters are discussed in detail in a later section. Reversing type of taps should not be used in the body of the main winding because high voltages will be developed due to the magnetic field reversal. 2. Physically in a separate winding and electrically connected to the series winding at the LV line end (at the auto point) In this type of arrangement, in most cases, three single-phase tap changers are required rather than one three-phase tap changer. This is because of the high phase to phase voltage required in the tap changer.
Figure 22: Series Tap Winding
(a) Tap winding between the tertiary and the common windings
Figure 23: Tap Winding between TV and CV Dielectrically, this arrangement is not preferred. The electrical stress to ground will be high because the grounded neutral end of the common winding (HoXo) is
located between the two high potential coils (series and LTC windings). In this arrangement special care is required in designing the end insulation on the windings. Another difficulty with this arrangement is that the high potential tap leads are brought-out very close to the core clamps unless large end clearances are provided. Often, specially molded insulation snouts are required for the leads. Special care is also required to avoid undesirable hot spots on the tap leads. Creep stress must be considered in the insulation design because the tap leads are close to the core and the core clamps. If this arrangement is used for reversing or coarse/fine taps, then the recovery voltage when the tap changer goes through the neutral tap must be calculated. If this recovery voltage exceeds tap changer’s limit then tie in resistors must be connected to ensure that the recovery voltage is within the value of the tap changer’s limit. (b) Tap winding between the common and the series windings
Figure 24: Taps between CV and SV
This arrangement is more widely used. When HV line is placed at the center of the series winding; then difference in potential among LV line lead, LTC leads and the ends of the series winding will not be high. This simplifies the insulation design of these leads when they are brought-out through the end blocks (leads exiting above and below the coils). By using coarse/fine taps instead of reversing taps, the radial inward forces on the tap winding are eliminated. Modern vacuum type tap changers simplify the design with coarse/fine taps by removing the historical requirement of minimum mutual inductance between the coarse and the fine tap windings.
(c) Tap winding over the series winding (outer most winding)
Figure 25: Taps on outside This arrangement is the simplest to bring-out the tap leads because they can be accessed directly from the winding surface. However, this arrangement increases the complexity for the HV line lead exit (bring-out) insulation because it has to pass through the LTC winding. To reduce electrical stresses between HV line lead and the tap winding, often stress rings and special collars are used in the LTC winding at HV lead exit. A typical HV lead exit arrangement is shown in the Figure 26. Due to the capacitance currents flowing from HV winding to LTC winding, transient voltage distribution in the series winding could be less linear when compared to other physical locations of the LTC winding. The tap winding is almost always arranged in two parallel halves to reduce the short-circuit forces in the windings. This allows HV line lead to exit between the two halves of the tap winding. Due to this, there will be a large axial gap between two halves of the tap winding. Either pressboard blocks or pressboard cylinder is used to maintain this large gap. These blocks or the cylinder provides the needed support to the HV line lead and avoids any movement during the transportation and the life of the autotransformer. With this arrangement no additional support like clamps are needed for the HV line lead. The tap winding should have sufficient radial build so that it will have good mechanical stability. In this arrangement, the recovery voltage when the tap changer passes through the neutral tap is usually higher that the tap changer’s limit because of the high series winding voltage and the small capacitance between the tap winding and the tank. So, in this arrangement tie-in resistors are mostly provided in the LTC to limit the recovery voltage to be below the tap changer’s limit.
Figure 26: Outside Tap Winding Insulation
3. Physically in a separate winding but electrically at the neutral end Dielectrically, this arrangement is simple because the taps and tap-changer are at the lowest possible insulation level. This makes it possible to use one threephase tap changer. The biggest disadvantage of this arrangement is that the taps are variable flux taps. Cost reduction obtained by using one three phase tap changer has to be compared with the increase in cost due to the variable flux taps. The tap winding is normally located next to the core or between the tertiary and the common windings. These are the most economical arrangements because of the low insulation levels between the windings. However, bringing-out
the tap leads is not easy compared to when the tap winding is the outer most winding. Large potential difference between the tap leads and the LV & HV line leads and the tap leads and the CV & SV coils require increased clearances when the tap leads are routed to the tap changer.
Figure 28 Tap winding next to core
Figure 29 Tap winding between TV and CV
The type of tap winding and the method to bring-out the tap leads should be carefully chosen to avoid undesirable hot spots to occur in the core. 4. Physically in a separate winding but electrically in LV line Many users specifies +/-10% LV taps but are not clear whether they accept LTC electrically at neutral end in the common winding (Variable flux design) or their requirement is only with LTC electrically connected in LV line. Compared to the LTC in series winding at LV line end, LTC in LV line has increased complexity in both dielectric and short circuit designs.
Figure 30: Taps in LV Line End
For taps in LV line, most usual locations for the LTC winding are as shown in Figures 31 and 32. Arrangement in Figure 31, LTC winding between TV and CV windings, is preferred as it makes design of the coils to withstand forces simpler. This is because the impedance between TV & LV and between TV and HV will be much higher than other winding arrangements and this lowers the short circuit
currents in the windings. However, dielectrically this arrangement is not preferred as the electrical stress to ground will be high. This is because the grounded neutral end of the common winding is located between the two high potential coils (series and LTC windings). This arrangement poses two more difficulties also. The first difficulty is that the high potential tap leads are brought-out very close to the core clamps. The second difficulty is that the large current (LV line current) flowing in the tap leads could produce undesirable hot spots in the core and the core clamps.
Figure 31 Taps between TV & CV
Figure 32 Taps between CV & SV
Arrangement in Figure 32 makes dielectric design simpler. But this arrangement makes short circuit design of coils very difficult. In this arrangement, often a current limiting reactor is needed in the TV to obtain an economical design. Due to the high currents in the LTC leads their area of cross-section is normally large. This poses manufacturing difficulties, especially on large autotransformers. Due to the high voltage between LTC leads and the ground, thicker insulation is needed on these leads. This thick insulation makes it difficult to bend and in routing them to the tap changer. The use of metal-oxide arresters across the LV line LTC taps has a huge benefit in controlling the surge voltage distribution in the LTC winding.
Life cycle costs of autotransformers can be minimized if the users consult manufacturers while writing purchasing specifications. When there are no system restrictions then user should only specify which circuit is regulated, tap range and number of taps. The manufacturer can then best choose where the taps are to be electrically connected and where the tap winding is to be physically located.
OTHER CONSIDERATIONS OF TAPS LOCATIONS
1. Taps in the Body of the Series Winding This arrangement is cost effective because a separate winding can be eliminated. In this arrangement axial short-circuit forces are high. As such, this arrangement is limited to autotransformers with small ratings or high impedance. Short circuit forces and eddy losses are high without the proper amp-turn balance between the common and series windings. This arrangement is not suitable for reversing taps. This arrangement is usually not adopted when the tap range is large because the short-circuit forces become unmanageable. When metal-oxide arresters are not permitted by the user, this arrangement is not practical unless the HV BIL level is low. Sometimes it is difficult to bring-out the tap leads from outside the coil. When LV to HV voltage ratio is more than 0.5 this arrangement is mostly not possible to adopt because tap turns as percent of series turns will be large. 2(a) Separate Tap Winding and electrically connected to the Series Winding Location of the tap winding and ratio of LV to HV voltages determine the impedance swing over the tap range. When the tap winding is between the common and series windings, the gap between these windings is large. To obtain needed impedance, either the volts per turn or windings heights has to be increased. Usually, a multi-start type winding is used. Special winding designs are often adopted to increase the dielectric strength within the tap winding. Since the tap winding is in the main leakage flux path, eddy loss in the winding will be high. Winding conductor must be carefully chosen to reduce eddy loss and hot spots temperature. Normally the hoop stress in tap winding is high and often requires expensive work-hardened conductor. For a typical multi-start winding special attention is required on the winding pitch. A large pitch makes it difficult to bring-out the tap leads. A multi-start winding with a large pitch also causes the short-circuit forces to increase due to the large difference in electrical heights of the windings. Large edge strips used to square up the pitch are weak spots for short-circuit forces. Unless proper type of winding is chosen for the taps, large amp-turns in the leads will produce undesirable hot spots in other metal parts. When the tap winding is the outer most winding, the coil may be a multi-start winding, tapped helical winding or a disc winding depending on factors such as the number of taps, turns per tap and the maximum current in the winding. Eddy losses are low because the winding is outside of the main leakage flux field. This arrangement makes it difficult to bring the HV line lead out through the outer tap winding. Insulation design within the tap winding is complicated and costly especially when the HV line bushing lead is connected at the center of the series winding. In that case, a large axial gap is required in the tap winding and special care is needed to maintain the mechanical stability of the tap winding.
Arrangement of tap winding between core and common winding or between tertiary and common winding is not discussed as this arrangement is mostly not used due to many design problems. This arrangement will be used only when a particular swing in impedance over the tap-range in required by the user. (b) Taps in Common Winding Taps are variable flux taps whether they are for LV variation or for HV variation. Variable flux taps may or may not make the design costly compared to that with constant flux taps. It depends on whether the savings on the insulation and the tap-changer can compensate for the increased core size and increased CV and SV coils diameters. With variable flux taps, it is not possible to obtain tap steps with equal voltages; in some cases the difference can be minor. In an autotransformer with a tertiary, a compensating transformer is required to maintain a constant tertiary voltage. The primary advantage of this arrangement is that the taps require only an insulation level slightly higher than the neutral, rather than the insulation level of the HV or LV as in other LTC arrangements. The voltage between the taps of each phase is small; so a three-phase tap-changer is normally used, provided the current rating is adequate. The insulation level to ground is also low resulting in a much less expensive tap-changer. The current in the tap leads and the tap-changer is much lower compared to taps in LV line. When the taps are for LV variation, placing the tap winding between the tertiary and the common windings minimizes the impedance swing across the tap range. This arrangement results in low eddy losses in the tap winding. A simple tapped helical winding is often used to reduce cost and complexity. TV to LV and TV to HV impedances are normally large resulting in much lower fault currents. When the tap winding is placed between the common and the series windings, the LV to TV impedance is small; resulting in much higher short-circuit currents specially in TV. This arrangement often requires a current limiting reactor in the TV circuit to limit the short-circuit currents in TV. This will increase TV to LV and TV to HV impedances resulting in much lower fault currents. A tapped helical winding is not practical because of unacceptable hotspot temperatures on the tap leads as they are in the main leakage field. Placing the tap winding as the outermost winding is not practical because of cost and complexity. (c) Taps in LV line When the taps in LV line are used for LV voltage variation in step-up operation or to compensate for regulation in step-down operation then they are constant flux taps. These taps pose many design problems and a few are listed below.
--Current in the taps will be large compared to the taps in series winding or taps in common winding. --The number of taps and turns per tap often forces the use of an uneconomical design. --Winding arrangements which give least variation in impedance over the tap range is not preferred due to the complications in dielectric design. --Winding arrangements, which are simple in dielectric design, are more expensive and pose higher eddy losses. --Taps being at LV line BIL, in majority of designs single phase tap changers are to be used to meet clearances from phase to phase.
EFFECTS OF TAPS ON STEP-DOWN AND STEP-UP OPERATIONS Table 4 below summaries when the taps are constant flux taps or variable flux taps based on operation. This is extremely important to users because the autotransformer parameters change drastically based on operation. The users should not forget that the autotransformer will be manufactured to meet the specifications only and users are solely responsible how it is used. Tap Location Series Operation Step-down Constant Voltage HV LV Step-up HV LV Varying Voltage LV HV LV HV Core Flux variable constant constant variable
LV HV LV HV
constant variable variable constant
LV HV LV HV
variable variable variable variable
HV LV Table 4
During operation of the autotransformer when the taps become variable flux taps, users should be aware of the ramifications on impedance, sound level and tertiary voltage. This is due to the changing volts per turn with each tap position. --Flux density in the core is directly proportional to volts per turn. --Impedance across the tap range shifts, with a greater effect towards one extreme tap position.
--The sound level generated by the core varies greatly from one end of the tap range to the other end. --Tertiary voltage at no-load will change for each tap position. --Figures 35 to 36 show that during step-up operation of an autotransformer with arithmetic loading the common current increases when the tertiary loading is increased from zero. For an autotransformer with taps in common winding this has to be considered in determining the maximum current in the taps. For an autotransformer with vectorial loading the common current magnitude also depends on power factors of HV and TV loadings. --Figures 33 and 34 show that during step-down operation of an autotransformer with arithmetic loading the common current decreases when the tertiary loading is increased from zero.
Suggestion Autotransformers are designed by manufacturers to meet the specifications. They are not designed to meet system requirements. Autotransformer design engineers are not system engineers. As such, when preparing a specification, a meeting among system planners, system operators, user maintenance personnel and autotransformer manufacturing designers is beneficial to all.
EFFECTS OF HV OR LV TAPS ON TERTIATY
Very rarely taps are specified in tertiary. Authors have not come across any specification calling LTC taps in tertiary. Authors have designed a couple of autotransformers with DTC taps in tertiary. As these taps do not keep the TV voltage constant during operation, it is suggested not to specify taps in tertiary. Cost of an autotransformer with taps in TV is expensive due to complications in tertiary winding design, costly tap changers or link board and much higher than the normal short-circuit currents. When an autotransformer with taps in HV or LV is operated as variable flux taps, the tertiary voltage changes. Tertiary voltage is based on volts per turn and the changes in volts per turn on each tap position. Fault current in the tertiary varies based on the HV to TV, LV to TV and HV to LV impedances at each tap position. 1. Buried tertiary A buried tertiary is one in which the terminals are not brought-out but buried inside the tank. Some specifications call for one corner of TV delta to be broughtout. A few specifications call that two terminals of the tertiary have to be broughtout and connected together outside the tank. As the effects of HV or LV taps are same on all the above cases, all these are considered as buried tertiary. By definition a single-phase autotransformer can not have a buried tertiary because the delta must be made externally. But when this TV is not loaded effects of HV or LV taps will be same as in buried tertiary of a three-phase autotransformer. Whether the taps are in series winding or in common winding or in LV line, when they are variable flux taps then tertiary voltage will be changing from tap position to tap position. Normally this does not pose much of a problem in buried tertiary winding design. Tertiary voltage will be different at different tap positions based on volts/turn on that tap position. If a current limiting reactor is used in the buried tertiary then for short circuit current calculations, current limiting reactor impedance has to be recalculated based on the tertiary current at that tap position. Though the tertiary is buried, for different tap positions over the complete tap range fault currents in tertiary should be calculated to determine the maximum fault current and then the tertiary should be designed for this maximum fault current. For three phase autotransformers tertiary fault currents have to be calculated for both single line to ground fault on HV and also for single line to ground fault on LV. In single-phase autotransformers the tertiary fault current has to be calculated for three-phase fault on tertiary also.
2. Tertiary brought-out Variable flux taps cause the tertiary no-load voltage to vary with each tap position. Tertiary no-load voltage can be maintained constant to some extent by connecting a compensating transformer in the tertiary. Even in an autotransformer with constant flux taps tertiary voltage will be changing due to in-put voltage fluctuations and/or due to regulation (change in voltage the core sees due to voltage drop because of the autotransformer HV to LV impedance and the load on the autotransformer). Reactors or capacitors connected to the tertiary bus, must be designed to withstand the fluctuations in the tertiary voltage. 3. Effects of physical location of HV or LV tap winding on TV impedances Normal arrangement of windings in an autotransformer from core is tertiary, common and series windings. If the tap winding is located between the tertiary and common windings, then the impedance between the TV and LV is normally large. This helps to limit the fault current in the tertiary to an economically manageable level. If the tap winding is between the common and series windings or outside the series winding, then the impedance between TV and LV is normally small. This causes large fault currents to flow in the tertiary. A commonly used method to control the fault currents is to connect a current limiting reactor in the tertiary winding to increase TV to LV and TV to HV impedances.
ON_LOAD TAP CHANGERS
1. Taps in the Common Winding (Figure 11) This arrangement allows the selection of a less costly tap changer compared to any other location of taps. Since the taps are at the neutral end, a three-phase wye-connected tap changer can be used as opposed to three single-phase tap changers. Current in the taps is lower compared to the taps in LV line. Insulation levels of the tap changer between phases and also to ground are lower compared to all other tap arrangements. 2. Taps in the LV Line (Figure 10) Usually, the use of three single-phase tap changers is required due to the insulation levels between phases. The current in taps is much higher compared to taps in series or common windings. The above increases the autotransformer cost considerably compared to taps in the common or series windings. Tank size and oil quantity are also larger increasing the cost further. This arrangement has no redeeming characteristics and should be used when taps in other locations do not meet system requirements. 3. Taps in the Series Winding (Figure 9) This has all the disadvantages as taps in LV line, except that the current rating of tap changer required is much lower. Currents in tap leads are also much lower compared to taps in LV line. Due to these reasons this makes a much economical design compared to taps in LV line. 4. Taps in Series and Common Windings (Figure 12) Only a linear tap changer can be used in this arrangement. Thus, the number of taps is limited to a much lower value compared to reversing taps or coarse/fine taps. All the disadvantages of taps in series winding are also applicable to this arrangement. Current rating of the tap changer should be selected considering the maximum current in the series winding and also the maximum current in the common winding for all tap positions. 5. Specifications Most specifications from users in North America call for reversing taps. In many cases, the same performance can be achieved by using coarse/fine taps. A design with coarse/fine taps often yields lower life-cycle costs because of lower load loss for taps below rated voltage. Presently available vacuum type tap changers make the coarse and fine tap windings design simple, as there is no requirement of designing these windings with needed impedance between them. Most specifications from users in North America also specify that the main bid must have no exceptions and that any alternate bid must be accompanied with explanations of how it will benefit the user. In general, the design of an
autotransformer takes much more time than the design of a two-winding transformer. Usually, the designer does not have enough time to do a main design and an alternative nor can the manufacturer afford the cost of quoting two complex designs. When an alternate design is quoted, users seldom consider it. Users should give financial incentives to manufacturers to come up with economical alternative designs. Functional specification brings greater rewards to users than a rigid specification. Users should consider different bids with different designs based on performance and evaluated cost. For economic benefits to both users and manufacturers, specifications should allow alternate bids without a main bid. North American specifications should give a free hand to manufacturers to adopt existing on load tap changers to achieve overall performance and economics. Consultants of North American users should accept and encourage the designs successfully used in other countries.
OVERLOADS AND LIFE CYCLE COSTS
Most specifications have some form of the following statement: All transformers, including accessories and load tap-changing equipment shall be capable of overloading in accordance with ANSI C57.91. Overloading shall be limited only by the core and coils, not by any accessories such as bushings, tap-changers, tank or clamping structure. Leads should be designed to not be a limiting factor. The above statement is inadequate to design the autotransformer for overloads. Specifications must include the information per C57.91, clause 9.7, Loading Information for Specifications. This includes overload profiles (magnitudes and durations), ambient temperatures and limiting temperatures. Without this information it is not possible for the manufacturer to select ancillary equipment, and also design the autotransformer to meet the overloads required by the user. In many specifications, there is no correlation among overloads, impedance and the tap range. Often the tap range is too small to compensate for regulation and maintain the output voltage during the overloads. Users must realize that when the tap range is specified, the autotransformer is designed for that tap range only and the users bare the responsibility for its adequacy. A few specifications do not specify the tap range, location of taps etc, but instead give all of the operating conditions. The autotransformer designer determines the tap range, location of taps etc. In some specifications, the overloads and ambient temperatures specified are so high that the autotransformer is actually designed as if it has a higher capacity and this reflects in the cost, but not on the nameplate rating. Users should be sure that what they are specifying is really what is needed, and be aware of how much extra it is costing them. It is a good idea for users to ask for a price adder to meet the overloads. Before specifying the overloads, users should determine the cost implications. A considerable number of specifications ask for RCBN (Reduced Capacity Below Normal) taps, which is a good cost saving idea. Unfortunately, they do not state that the overloads are to be pro-rated accordingly for these taps, which then negates the savings. Often, an ambient temperature of +40ºC is specified throughout the overloads duration. This makes the autotransformer very expensive. Users should investigate the statistical maximum temperatures expected for the region and, if applicable, for the time of the day. To obtain savings users should specify ambient temperatures at different times of the day (say, each hour of the day).
Most of the tap windings in autotransformers are of three types, --tapped helix. -- multi-start. -- disc. 1. Tapped helix A tapped helix winding can be located either inside of the common winding or as the outer most winding (outside of the series winding), where the leakage flux is low. To minimize the short circuit forces, this winding is built in two axial halves. This ensures the loaded portion of the tap winding remains symmetrical about the electrical center of the main windings. A tapped helix winding is not used between the common and series windings because of the large leakage flux between these windings. This causes dangerously high hot spots at the joints where the taps are formed on the coil’s face. One advantage of a tapped helix winding compared to a disc winding is that taps can be accessed at every turn (one turn between the taps) also, allowing greater design flexibility. Another advantage of this winding compared to a multi-start winding is that good tension on the winding can be maintained by anchoring the taps and also the turns at which the taps are made. When tapped helix winding is used as the inside winding nearer or next to the core, some radial space is required between this winding and the next outer winding to bring-out the tap leads. This is because the tap leads come-out from face of the coil. Often an eccentric duct is used to bring the tap leads out. By using the eccentric duct radial space can be reduced and this results in cost savings. This was described in detail with a sketch in “TAPS” tutorial presented at IEEE Transformer Committee Meetings in Las Vegas on October 26, 2004. In tapped helix winding only two tap leads carry current at any given time. As these currents flow in opposite directions as shown in Figure 37, this winding can be safely placed next to the core without any risk of hot-spots being generated in the core or in the clamping structure. Tapped helix winding is mostly used when the taps are at the neutral end or when the insulation level at the taps is low. This is because the series capacitance of the winding is low, resulting in a non-uniform voltage distribution in the winding. This winding is handy to adopt when the taps are in LV line, because for taps in LV line often the number of turns per tap is small. When this winding is used for taps in LV line, special care is required in dielectric design of the autotransformer. This winding does not produce significant end thrust during
faults because the pitch of the winding is small compared to that in a multi-start winding. 2. Multi-start This winding can be placed either, --between the tertiary and the common windings, --between the common and series windings, or --outside of the series winding. This winding is very useful if the tap winding has to be placed between the common and series windings, where the leakage flux is high. This is possible because there are no joints in the winding to cause dangerous hot-spots. When this winding is used as the outer most winding, some special method is required to keep the winding tight. There are many variations of multi-start winding; each type is suitable to a given application. Near extreme tap positions, (when most of the taps are carrying the current) total amp-turns of the leads will induce high currents in the core and other parts that could generate unacceptable hot-spots. Based on the physical location of the multi-start, by adopting a variation of multi-start winding the ill effects of unacceptable hot-spots can be eliminated. Since the series capacitance of this winding is very high, it can be used at high insulation levels such as in series winding or in LV line. The turn pitch is usually
large in this type of winding; special precaution is needed to reduce the end thrust during the faults. 3. Disc A disc winding is normally used when the number of turns per tap is large and also when the tap winding is the outer most winding. To reduce axial force during faults this winding is built in two halves equally placed from the electrical center of the main windings, similar to the tapped helix winding. This type of winding is usually not placed as an inside winding because there is almost no benefit to do so. Placing this type of winding as outer most winding usually brings-in economic advantages as common and series winding diameters are reduced. Since there are many turns in the winding, it can be comfortably clamped to withstand forces during faults. When the taps are in the body of the main winding and the main winding is the outer most winding then by adopting the main winding as disc winding it is easy to bring out the taps. Main advantage of this winding is that the taps can be placed at ends on the main winding or at the middle of the main winding or at other parts of the main winding.
METAL-OXIDE ARRESTERS AND STATIC SHIELDS
1. Metal-oxide arresters
Metal-oxide arresters fall under the class of non-linear resistors. They have the same technology used in modern day lightning arresters. When the taps exposed to the high dielectric stresses (taps in series winding or taps in LV line) the use of metal-oxide arresters across the taps provides an economical and simple method of transient voltage control. Large numbers of autotransformers with metal-oxide arresters connected across the tap windings are in trouble-free service throughout the world. Metal-oxide arresters allow the use of less expensive tap changers. One example is given here. Presently available reactor type tap changer is with a maximum rating of 400KV BIL. A considerable numbers of specifications with taps in LV line have a voltage rating of 69KV with 350KV BIL insulation level. Connection of metal-oxide arresters across the taps allows the use of this tap changer. If the user does not allow use of metal-oxide arresters across the taps, then less reliable type of windings or complicated arrangements are needed to use this tap changer. Some specifications state that internal non-linear resistors are not allowed. The user needs to understand that this is based on one or two bad experiences and likely from the old technology of silicon carbide arresters. If the application and method of connection on non-linear resistors are done correctly, then they do not cause any problems in service and survive the life of the autotransformer. In tender and design review meetings users and their consultants should investigate these practices and the design methodology including operating voltage, switching surge and impulse voltages criteria. When metal-oxide arresters are not allowed, special types of windings or special arrangements must be used to control the impulse voltage both across the tap winding and also from the tap winding to ground. Users and their consultants should investigate the reliability and cost of these special tap windings and special arrangements verses the use of metal-oxide arresters. A few years back, CIGRE concluded that the use of zinc oxide discs (metal-oxide arresters) improves the reliability of the transformers. Authors have experience with these devices as users and also as designers. Many autotransformers with zinc oxide discs inside the tank designed by the authors and also purchased by the authors are operating satisfactorily for many years in USA and in Canada.
2. Static shields Static shields are conducting cylinders that are placed either inside the winding, outside the winding or both inside and outside the winding. The shields are connected to the tap winding. These shields prevent ground currents flowing in to the tap winding. This reduces the tap winding to ground capacitance almost to zero, making the impulse voltage distribution in tap winding almost linear. Use of static shields will increase the cost of the autotransformers. Special precautions are needed in the manufacture of static shields to avoid partial discharges, especially from the top and bottom ends of the static shields and also at the connection of the braid. An external connection (outside the tank) to the shield is required if condition-based monitoring of the autotransformer based on power factor is desired. To the knowledge of the authors there have been more failures in the field due to the static shields than there have been with metal-oxide arresters.
FUNCTION OF TAPS STATED IN SPECIFICATIONS VERSES THEIR OPERATION IN THE SYSTEM
Users want that autotransformer output voltage to be constant all the time in the service. If no corrective action is taken, the output voltage varies whenever the input voltage fluctuates. The output voltage also varies due to regulation when the load varies. 1. Taps in series Almost 100% of the specifications state that taps in series are constant flux taps i.e. keeps LV voltage constant for HV voltage variation when the autotransformer is operated as a step-down unit. During step-up operation these taps are constant flux taps when they are used to keep HV voltage constant for load variations i.e. to compensate for regulation. In reality in any station input voltage will be varying and also the load will also be varying. It is a must for users to know that autotransformers are designed to meet the specifications only. Users must not take it for granted that the autotransformers are designed to meet all operating situations even when they are not specified in the specifications. It is users’ responsibility to write the specifications of autotransformers such that they meet all the operating conditions. When users have consultants, then the consultants should ensure that the specifications cover all operating conditions. It is essential to have a detailed tender review meeting between the manufacturer and the user with the consultant present. It is authors experience as users that a tender review meeting is much more important than a design review meeting. Many specifications state that autotransformers with taps in series winding should be suitable to operate for both step-down and step-up operations. But these specifications do not say that the taps in series winding will be used for HV voltage fluctuation during step-down operation and to compensate for regulation during step-up operation. When users purchase autotransformers with constant flux taps and before using them as variable flux taps they must be fully aware what effects it will have on the autotransformers. At the time of calling for tenders users must ensure that their specifications meet their operating requirements. Users must have a tender review meeting to examine that the tendered autotransformer meets their requirements. Design review meetings are conducted after completing the production design. Often it is very difficult to make changes at this stage without affecting cost and delivery. So, a tender review meeting is much more essential than a design review meeting.
2. Taps in LV line These taps will be constant flux taps when they are used to compensate for regulation during step-down operation. During step-up operation these taps will be constant flux taps when they are used for LV voltage fluctuations. Other discussions for taps in series stated above are applicable to taps in LV line also. 3. Taps in common Consider an autotransformer specification with taps in common for HV voltage variation during step-down operation. Though these taps are variable flux taps when they are used to compensate for regulation during step-down operation then changes in autotransformer parameters will be different at different tap positions compared to the parameters on these tap positions when they are used for HV voltage variation. Users should be aware of these changes in the parameters to operate the autotransformers properly. Suggestions ---A tender review meeting is much more important than a design review meeting. Users with their consultants present should have a detailed tender review meetings with manufacturers before placing orders. ---There are many different ways to solve a problem. Consultants employed by users should not impose changes to design and manufacturing methods of a manufacturer simply because they are not coinciding to the consultants’ experiences. All parties should encourage innovations and developments, or else advancement in design and manufacture will cease.
1. Taps in autotransformers will have more effect on design complications compared to taps in two winding transformers. 2. Impedance swing over the tap range depends on ratio of HV to LV voltages, physical location of the tap winding and its electrical connection to the main winding. 3. It is strongly recommended not to specify DTC taps in autotransformers for the following reasons. (a) During operation DTC taps neither regulates for input voltage fluctuation nor for regulation. (b) ± 5% of HV DTC taps are ±10% of the series winding turns in a 2 to 1 ratio autotransformer. As such, there are more design complications compared to a two winding transformer. (c) Generally, DTC taps are near the LV line end and this makes the dielectric design of the DTC winding (or DTC discs when the DTC taps are in the body of the main winding) difficult and costly. (d) In many cases, it is not possible to use a bridging type tap changer. A linear type tap changer is more expensive compared to a bridging type tap changer. 4. For LTC taps in the series winding or in the LV line, single-phase tap changers are usually required. These tap changers are costly compared to neutral end tap changers. 5. For taps in the series winding or in the LV line use of metal-oxide arresters provide an effective, reliable and economical solution. 6. Taps in the common winding permit the use of a three-phase tap changer but the autotransformer is of a variable flux design. 7. The IEEE Transformers Committee should conduct a work shop on how to determine the requirement of taps considering the characteristics such as type of taps (DTC or LTC), the tap range, the location of the taps (in series winding, in common winding or in LV line) etc.
8. To avoid problems due to large currents and small number of turns per tap, taps in the series winding or taps at neutral end (in common winding) is recommended over the taps in LV line. 9. To avoid design problems and a higher cost specifying both DTC and LTC taps is not recommended. It is preferable to avoid DTC taps. If required, LTC tap range can be extended to eliminate the DTC taps. 10. A tender review meeting is more essential than a design review meeting. 11. Specifications should be functional. All parties in the transformer field (users, consultants and manufacturers) should encourage innovations and developments. 12. During preparation of purchasing specifications, both users and manufacturers benefit from the discussions to finalize the details of taps.
1. Mr. Frank David of FD Consulting Services, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada for his guidance and for valuable suggestions. 2. Mr. Peter Franzen of Manitoba Hydro, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada for drawing all the figures in the tutorial and also for correcting the draft to reflect all the technical discussions frankly without any bias. 3. Mr. Bernhard Kurth of Reinhausen Manufacturing Inc., Humboldt, Tennessee, USA for steering to the correct usage of tap-changers and for constructive suggestions. 4. Mr. Shivananda Prabhu, Retired Professor of Electrical Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada for pain takingly rewriting the draft such that a person with a little exposure to autotransformers can follow the tutorial. 5. Hydro One Networks, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. 6. CG Power Systems Canada Inc, Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada.
For comments/clarifications on this tutorial contact
Dr. Tomasz Kalicki E-mail: tomasz.kalicki@HydroOne.com Tel: 416-345-6111
Vallamkonda Sankar E-mail: email@example.com Tel: 905-634-5926
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