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Title: An aesthetic journey into the Tibetan Buddhist Meditational Art of Buryatia
By Carmen Cochior - Plescanu BA Religious Studies and Tibetan Department of Languages and Cultures of China and Inner Asia, 221618 Word count: 10.000
Under the Direction of Dr. Nathan W. Hill
Table of contents
Abstract I. Introduction
1.1 Buryatia - the birth of an ethnos , the atmosphere of the art of the steppe
II. The introduction of Tibetan Buddhist art to Buryatia
2.1 Buryatia - the vision of Buddhist Art
2.2Account of schools and stylistic interpretation III. The accomplishment of Tibetan aesthetic grammar in the Buryat cultural milieu 1718th centuries IV. Decomposition and regeneration of Buddhist Art and its revival throughout the 19th century 4.1 The survival of Buddhist Art during the Russian Protectorate V. The Great Revival - the reaffirmation of Buddhist aesthetics in Buryatia 19th to 20 th century VI. Afterword and acknowledgements 6.1 Tibetan-styled thangkas, tsakli, illuminations and dedications from the Matvei Nikolaevich Khangalov History Museum of Buryatia List of Figures i ii
vi vii viii
The Tree of Diagnosis, Atlas of Tibetan Medicine, History Museum of Buryatia Kalakuta or Halahaha, poison incarnate, Atlas of Tibetan Medicine, History Museum of Buryatia The Palace of the Healing Buddha, detail, Museum of Buryatia. The Tree of Diagnosis, detail, Atlas of Tibetan Medicine, History Museum of Buryatia Ritual Preparation of Rejuvenation Elixirs, Atlas of Tibetan Medicine, of Buryatia A set of four tsakli depicting Garuda, Gubilha, Kurukulla and Vajravarahi, Buryatia, 19th century Guandi - Geser, Painting on cotton, Buryatia, late 18th century Lhamo - Painting on cotton 18-19th century Vaishravana also known as ‘Vaishravana and the Eight Horsemen’ Painting on cotton, Buryatia, 18th century Śākyamuni Buddha - Painting on cotton, late 18th - early 19th century
The influence of Tibetan Buddhist aesthetics upon the Buryat artistry consists of an extraordinary array of remarkable sculptures in stone, wood and terracotta, cast bronzes with inlaid stones, gilding and pigment and the beautifully detailed religious, ritualistic paintings - maṇḍalas (Tibetan: དཀིལ་འཁོར; Wylie: dkyil 'khor) and images of gods and goddesses, bodhisattvas, spiritual masters, lamas and other prominent spiritual figures, cosmograms along with representations of various eschatological myths. The organization of the aesthetic adventure into the Tibetan artistic influence in Buryatia is envisioned, at the risk of being simplistic, following the exhibition narrative: the material has been divided in two broad historical and cultural zones with emphasis on the distinct aesthetic cohesiveness, whereas Tibetan influence should be of particular interest. Our knowledge of historicity of Buryat Buddhism is primarily based on very few comprehensive books and articles that provide data for the monastic chronology and for the special artistic motifs which distinguish within the tradition. The growing recognition of the importance of Tibetan ‘patronage’ in Buryatia is shown in Buyandalai Dooramba’s chorography bearing the title Buriyad yajar-un burqan-u
sasin ker delgeregsen kiged sasin bariyici kedun blam-a-nar-un cadig tobci tedui ogulegsen selte orosiba,1 (Lubos Belka, 2008) which is a valuable source of basic knowledge on Buryat Buddhism including detailed explanations on the context Tibetan monastic art has taken shape in Buryatia. Noteworthy is the aspect of tentative ideas dealing with the chorography of the artistic movements, in the lack of any official empirical case studies in situ or veritable inventory of Tibetan Buddhism in Buryatia.
Translated as “How the Teaching of Buddha spread in the Buryat land, together with a brief account of some of the lamas who upheld the teaching”; the Romanized text in written Mongolian was published by Professor Rincen in 1959, Origin and Spread of Buddhism in Buryatia - A text of Buyandalai Dooramba, Zsuzsa Majer and Krisztina Teleki, Eotvos Lorand University, Department of Inner Asian Studies, Published in Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum, Hung. Volume 61 (4), p. 447-497, 2008 3
Since the history of Buryat Buddhism has been given insufficient attention specifically and paradoxically equally by the representatives of the Western and Buryat Buddhological schools2, the disparate resources will however attempt an unprejudiced reconstruction of the diachronic evolve of Buddhist art within the Buryat mosaic of cultures. In emphasizing the distinctive features and styles of the works created most likely to fulfil the spiritual requirements of the Buddhist religion with an unerring sense of beauty, there will be presented an assemblage of few emblematic masterpieces, namely from Ukhtomsky’s collection at State Hermitage Museum St. Petersburg, Zanabazar Fine Arts Museum, Choijin Lama Temple Museum, Buryat Historical Museum, Bogd Khaan Palace Museum in Ulaanbaatar. The purpose of their visual exploration accompanied by their dedicatory inscriptions is to enhance and bring more insight into the contextual and spiritual significance of Tibetan art within the great monastic establishments of the Buryat culture. While the subject matter of the Buryat Buddhist artwork is primarily represented by the classical personalities of the Buddhist pantheon, the essay will additionally provide commentaries which
correspond with the ability of the Buryat artist to manipulate those features that are unique to the nature of the particular Tibetan Buddhist medium and to integrate them in the ethnic-cultural patterns.
The most significant papers of the Buryat Buddhological school are: K.M. Gerasimova, Lamaism natsional’ no-kolonial’ naia politika tsarizma v Zabaikal’ e v XIX i nachale XX vekov (Ulan-Ude, 1957); idem Obnovlencheskoe dvizhenie buriatskogo lamaistskogo dukhovenstva (1917-1930) (Ulan –Ude, 1964); Lamaizm v Buriatii XVIII- nachala XX vv. Struktura I sotsial’ naia rol’ kul’ tovoi sistemy (Novosibirsk, 1983); L.L. Abaeva, Kul’t gor i buddizm v Buriatii (evoliutsiia verovanii i kul’tov selenginskikh buriat, Moscow, 1992); Buddizm i traditsionnye verovaniia narodov Tsentral’ noi Azii (Novosibirsk, 1981); Buddizm i srednevekovaia kul’ tura narodov Tsentral’ noi Azii (Novosibirsk, 1980), Buddhism I kul’turno-psikhologicheskie traditsii narodov Vostoka (Novosibirsk, 1990); Buddizm i literaturno-khudozhestvennoe tvorchestvo narodov Tsentral’ noi Azii (Novosibirsk, 1985), Psikhologicheskie aspekty buddizma (Novosibirska, 1991), Filosofskie voprosy buddizma (Novosibirsk, 1984), N.L. Zhukovskaia, The Revival of Buddhism in Buryatia, English translation from the Russian text by M.E. Sharpe, Anthropology and Archaeology of Eurasia, vol. 39, no.4, Spring 2000-01, p. 24 4
Four thousand years ago a remarkable culture, that of the pastoral nomads, emerged in the Eurasian steppes north of the Great Wall of China, in the vast expanse of grasslands that stretches from Siberia into Central Europe. By the first millennium B.C., material prosperity among the nomads had brought about a flowering of creativity and the evolution of a new artistic vocabulary. The pastoral peoples left no written record but the legacy of their art that remained extant provide a key to understanding their culture and beliefs. Beautifully crafted, highly sophisticated and abstract in design, primarily embellished with animal motifs, these objects are the visual representation of the natural and supernatural worlds that guided their lives. The figures that populate the extant artefacts epitomize the ‘animal style’ that would remain a significant source of inspiration in the decorative arts of the Eurasian continent for years to come. This overview chronicles the legacy of the Buryat primitive art, traditionally relegated to the periphery of art history, in order to prepare the aesthetic interaction between the Eastern part of Eurasian steppes, Buryatia and Tibetan civilization.
1.1. Buryatia - the birth of an ethnos, the atmosphere of the art of the steppe
For the ancient Buryats, the birth of life and art has its origin in the natural and life cycles, considered to be the matrix of conceptualization. Buryat people believe that human being is connected with mother-nature by their navel and worshipping its five elements, the softness of wood, the earth’s expanse, iron’s strength, fire’s heat and
in animals. siinesun. A human of mythological consciousness. Взаимосвязи в природе. acting as a medium for the embryonic life-force to arise. Ulan-Ude 1998. The concept of vitality and its interrelations with nature in Buryat traditional culture. p.The secret history of the Mongols: a Mongolian epic chronicle of the thirteenth century. Витальность. Brill. According to ethnographic studies on the Buryat culture3.7 Therefore. therefore becoming totems. translation in English provided by the author. Issue 2. Russian Federation.water’s purity was the supreme reflection of the ‘knot of vitality’ in which life. Russian Federation. p. V. p. birth and death are considered to be a natural phenomenon. Russian Federation.6 The Buryat‘s sacred gnosis pertains to so such a distant historical reference that we must probably interpret these archaic traditional culture claims as example of the mythological thinking. What is customarily translated as ‘soul’ by the Western scholars. in the Sun and the Moon. funeral rites and most importantly accompanies the conception and birth. ВЗАИМОСВЯЗИ В ПРИРОДЕ. Volume 1. the form of the word is without final r) to that of the individual 'soul' (Mong. 2008. the wedding ceremonies. but his main tendency is the subjectivism which gives rise to anthropomorphism. The concept of vitality and its interrelations with nature in Buryat traditional culture. Zhimbeeva. “resides in trees. translation in English provided by the author.9 6 . Взаимосвязи в природе. asserts V. 11 7 S. Fetiskin. see Igor de Rachewiltz . ВИТАЛЬНОСТЬ. The idea of the nature’s sacral substance that nourishes the human beings (Mong. Culture of Central Asia: written sources. siir siinesun) is a much later development. Взаимосвязи в природе. in Written Mongolian and in the modern Mongolian languages and dialects. according to which everything in the world is assimilated to him. ВИТАЛЬНОСТЬ. siir. Витальность. the soul4 before taking refuge in the mother’s womb. within the Buryat primitive conceptualization of life-forces. Витальность. 2008. 3 S.4-6 4 Noteworthy is the ontological concept of the soul among Mongolian peoples.8 6 Gerasimova K. humans’ psychophysical forces are envisioned as the propensity of the natural forces. Zhimbeeva. in both Mongolian and Buryat languages sulde represents the “protective spirit embodied in the standard which has been worshipped since immemorial times”.5 The tree revered and worshiped as the souldepositary in the Buryat tradition.330 5 S. ВЗАИМОСВЯЗИ В ПРИРОДЕ. The assimilation of the concept of sulde(r) (indwelling spirit. Concept of human vitality in Tibetan texts on medical magic. translation in English provided by the author. M. respected as life-givers”. p. ВИТАЛЬНОСТЬ. p. The concept of vitality and its interrelations with nature in Buryat traditional culture. Zhimbeeva. 2004. “doesn’t strive for objective knowledge. is considered in his own image and likeness”. 2008. ВЗАИМОСВЯЗИ В ПРИРОДЕ. in stars. is the obligatory element in the material and aesthetic setting of the life-cycle rituals.
in the most archaic form of aesthetic expressions.11 The shaman attempted to do this by constructing the imago naturae. usually interpreted as kei morin. Skkrynniakova in her savant work ‘On sacral and vital by Mongolian 8 In old Mongolian astrological books the term sulde sometimes is used to translate the Tibetan rlung-rta.7-8 10 There is no real semantic difference between murgel and shazhan and their use is similar to Tib. such as the totemic petrogliphyc art.9 The mystical scenario in the paintings and carvings pertaining to Palaeolithic proto-Buryat time echoes the archetypal imagery of paramount importance in the quest of gaining a deep understanding of Buryat primitive culture. Issue 2. Culture of Central Asia: written sources. the primordial matter and the nature itself. Vajra Publications. the shaman artist becomes. the circular gold plated burial mounds (Mong. whose energy dimension was appeased. srog-rtsa). The nature of shamanism: substance and function of religious metaphor. Named Bo Murgel or Bo shazan 10. Ancient shamanic traditions of Siberia and Tibet in their relation to the teachings of a Central Asian Buddha. has its origin in the nature and particularly in the “sacral substance of the solar nature”. Nepal. kameny baba). M. According to the author. controlled and harmonized into the human disposition. a manifestation of prakṛti. the ‘vital vessel’ (Tib. Ulan-Ude 1998. the first organ to emerge within the embryo. ‘wind horse’. Kathmandu. Bo and Bon. State University of New York Press. Concept of human vitality in Tibetan texts on medical magic. see Dmitry Ermakov. 1993 7 . Chos. 2010. the primeval shaman developed empathy towards a highly abstract and symbolic imagination and towards sublimities which he communicated through powerful pictographic zoomorphic and anthropomorphic metaphors. Murgel remained closely tied with Bo religion while shazan is nowadays used to designate the Buryatian adaptation of Tibetan Buddhism. paralleling the Hindu etymology. Having attained those impressions of a mythical reality through a visionary entasis resembling to a numinous experience. the Buryat shamanic spiritual system was defined around its distinctive cults of Huhe Munhe Tengeri (Eternal Blue Sky) and Tengeriin (Sky Dwelling Gods). through the male Bo or the female Utgan shamans. p. 9 Gerasimova K. kurgany) or the standing stone idols (Mong. attracted.sulde)8 is interestingly paralleled to the Tibetan embryology by Scrynnikova to Dandar Dashiev’s commentary on the Atlas of Indo-Tibetan Medicine. p.31 11 Michael Ripinsky-Naxon. Essentially solitary. the archetypal image. bon and Tib.
2010. 99 15 Gerasimova K. P. 2006 14 The mythical ancestor of the Buryats is considered to be named Buh Baabai Noyon (Prince Father Bull) see Ermakov. being a repository of the soul acts as a phallic symbol and expresses the relation with the solar light. embodied in the banner”.. The petroglyphic imagery of the sheep and bull speak of the birth. 64–11 13 Skrynnikova Т. while the bull’s 14 cannon-bone was used during the ritual of activating the force of the fore-fathers. 1998. The most preeminent zoomorphic imagery reflected in the Buryat primitive art is that which represents the shaman’s protective spirit. p. Putting their bones in the burial place was connected with the worshipping of the sacral substance and with the ritual of granting the future return of the soul: “The sheep’s bone. Cosmic and Mundane. the deer. The 12 Skrynnikova Т. life and death within the Buryat culture. Sacral and vital in Mongolian culture. the geometrical shaped mounds remain impressive even today in their overgrown state due to their intricate motifs ubiquitous in the cosmological myths of most major settlements in Siberia. The world of Buryat traditional culture. 2006.15 Among the many reliquaries of sacred architectonics.people’12 emphasized that petroglyphs all over Buryatia are marked by an antenna on the vertex in the form of a pictogram which denotes the “absolute life potency concealed in the subtle spiritual substance of the soul”. p. Ceremonies attending the tribal initiation of the shaman or the consecration of the shaman’s costume frequently involved the sacrifice of a deer. Ulan-Ude. 12-20 8 . D. whose spirit would provide the shaman the vital sustenance during his visionary journeys into the land of the deceased. M. Each image and motif imprinted on the vertically erected plates as if meeting the rising sun and the sharp deer stones as if cutting the sky provide the viewer with a glimpse of the Buryat the two distinctive visions of the divine in a tangible form. D. 13 Representations of nomadic art forms denominated as the Central Asia Animal Style reveal connotations to the elementary basis of the body and spirit as they stylistically narrate the interrelations of the inner and the outer.
Materials for the study of shamanism in Siberia: Buryat Shamanism in Irkutsk Guberniia.see.interconnection of the deer and the tree is glimpsed frequently within shamanic imagery and representations that refer back to more archaic beliefs regarding the tree of life and its animal source. Vajra Publications.18 the ritualic silk robe orgoi. p. toli metal pendants in form of discs embodying the same symbolism and function the Tibetan me long19. p. During their initiation ceremonials. Khangalov. resembling the Chinese erhu) musical instruments employed for clairvoyance purposes and for summoning the spirits. 2003 9 . they employed the full repository of art by sacral play and yohor dance. Altaian kam. Izvestiia Vostochnosibirskago otdela Russkago geograficheskago obshchestva 14. zoomorphic and anthropomorphic amulets. 1-2. no. p. 21 Buryatian shamanic costume. The World and I. 2009.21 16 17 Gerasimova K. Ancient shamanic traditions of Siberia and Tibet in their relation to the teachings of a Central Asian Buddha. Bur. the tug (Mong. 155 18 The yohor dance is also performed during shamanist rituals. 347 20 Here sulde refers to a Mongolian type prayer flag. They are identical.. Bo and Bon. in function to the melong mirrors of various non-human beings who serve as Protectors of Bon or Buddhism. Nepal. Translated from German by Geoffrey Samuel. 1980. N.17 Perhaps the primitive shamans (Turco-Mong.16 To use trees bracketed by deer. container and disseminator of the light energy. pillar) the ritual support for sulde20 or the khur (bowed two-string fiddle) and kuchir (bowed four-string fiddle. 2 19 Toli were used as a support.. 1998. Agapitov and M. the horse- headed birch staff with whom the shaman used to journey into the underworld. correlates shamanic rite of summoning of the soul with that similarly practiced in Tibet under the name of Lu-gon Jyabo dung-dri. often in combination with representations of the sun and moon for ornamental stitching was a canonical requirement in the shamanic costume adornment. then. University of California Press. Ancient Mongols used the yohor to celebrate the election of a new khan.46 21 Formozov’s book ‘A study of the petroglyphs’. N. for translation see Andrei A. p. 1883. Znamenski. see Dmitry Ermakov. M. lit. p. See Walther Heissig. as a symbol of mind and soul and represented the warrior-magician’s life-force and protective energy. Music and Dance Among the Aginsk Siberian Buryats. the intricately decorated iron crowns embellished with two iron antlers perceived as the roots of a mythical tree. or Expulsion of the Prince of Devils. amitai (alive) or ezetei (having its own master spirit). see Dmitry Ermakov. N. The religions of Mongolia. boo) were the oldest sovereigns of art in the true sense.1-6. p. the hese-drum and the ritual shanginuur-bell. which is an important ethnic marker alongside the rituals and songs of conjuration (dayudalya) of ecstatic invocations. see J.. 2010. as a means of raising spiritual energy to help carry the shaman to the heavens. Lee Jacobson. Kathmandu.
A subsequent expedition led by P. arouse within the framework of Hsiung-nu culture (Chinese: 匈 奴 . p. Sergey Minyaev. D. Art and Archeology of the Xiongu: new discoveries in Russia. pinyin: Xiōngnú) dated between the second and the first centuries B. the earliest known examples being representations on the cylindrical seals dating from Period C in Susa. as well as bones of animals rendered in the same manner as those on the buckles from Peter the Great collection. Central Asiatic Journal. These tombs held a rich hoard of silver vessels. Corrected by Barbara Hazard. carpets and jade objects. the Near Eastern artistic and mythological cultures were exposed to the unique ethnic. p. 5-12 25 The first Xiongnu sites were discovered in 1896 by the anthropologist J. Issue 14. Russian Academy of Sciences. p. cultural and linguistic proto-Mongolian environment.C. rendered in the same manner as those on gold plates from the Peter the Great Collection.. 1996. see Serghey Miniaev. Russian Academy of Sciences. Only in recent years have some Xiongnu sites in the Trans-Baikal area been thoroughly excavated. are preserved in the frames of a number of bronze plates.22 The rapid transformation of the artistic scenes demonstrates that within the context of Hsiungnu tribal union in Central Asia.C. Volume 39.23 The splendid bronze plates made in the Ordos style techniques still retain the ancient geometric patterns and animal heads ornamented with minerals such as chalcedony. St Petersburg.1-7 26 The subject had been used in Near Eastern art from time immemorial. Corrected by Barbara Hazard. now in the Buryatia Republic. Talko-Grinzevich in the area around Kyachta. agate. but during the course of repeated copying and re-casting many original details have been lost. 5-12 24 It is probable that plates of this type were the prototypes for the manufacture of Hsiung-nu bronze plaques. This scene continued to be popular in the Near East throughout the period of 1500-900 B. Institute of the history of material culture. as evidenced by a fragment of a ninth-century B.25 makes it possible to trace an evolutionary sequence that sees their aesthetic root in the originally ‘Scythe-Siberian zoomorphic style’ stone carved representations. Some of the prototypical compositions of the new environment may have been retained. Repeatedly studied and published. A similar scene is represented on a golden pectoral 10 . jasper. Kozlov excavated several barrows in the Noin-Ula area of Outer Mongolia between 1924 and 1925.C. 1996. these finds have until recently defined the typical forms of Xiongnu art. and even later. carnelian. London. The origins of the Geometric Style in Hsiung-nu art. Russia. probably the earliest examples of such objects. Institute of the history of material culture. December 2001. 1995 Serghey Miniaev. but the principal mythological and epic scenes and images became stylized and transformed by the Hsiung-nu art in conformity with their own aesthetic norms. See Dr. Russia. St Petersburg. vessel from Hasanlu.In many respects the most exquisite transformation of early Buryat art of a purely aesthetic kind. Russian Federation. when it was depicted on cylindrical seals and bronzes. Newsletter. The heads of animals. K.26 22 23 Mouton. The origins of the Geometric Style in Hsiung-nu art. 24 A stylistic analysis of different objects of the later Hsiung-nu art collected from the Buryat sites. Circle of Inner Asian art.
Questions of iconography. A noteworthy aspect for the understanding of the sacramental art is that within Tibetan Buddhist milieu the artworks serve solely religious purposes and from the Sakkyz hoard. no. 39. holds that Buddhism was known to the Buryats as early as thirteenth. Spring 2000-01. the so-called ‘lattice’ bronze plaque-buckle adornments which present clear-cut silhouettes of stylized fantastic animals standing beside a symbolic tree.-that is. Issue 14.C. as the republic’s society celebrated in 1991. were copied and remodelled by Xiongnu jewellers. London. Art and Archeology of the Xiongu: new discoveries in Russia. one set of views.L. Zhukovskaia. the outcome of the process being seen on buckles from Peter the Great's collection. These. Sharpe. 1-7 27 Although earliest encounters with Tibetan Buddhism are likely to have occurred before 17th century: ‘For already four centuries and not 250 years. p. vol.The Vision of Buddhist Art The greatest contribution to the shift in Buryatia’s artistry after the 16 th century27.E. from the highly figurative style of autochthonous aesthetics to the Buddhist ritualistic mentality and iconographical imperatives is held by the Tibetan Tantric system which exported not only its system of faith. while important for the understanding of the artefacts themselves and their identification. Newsletter. December 2001. See Dr. The introduction of Tibetan Buddhist Art to Buryatia 2. p. the Buryats have professed Buddhism. and even second century B. sixth. but also its aesthetic language which could express most vividly its spiritual visions and aspirations. II. Anthropology and Archaeology of Eurasia. N.4.culminating with perhaps one of the most original compositions. which in a way may be viewed as an intermediate link between Scythian art and that of the Near East. Scenes of this type were adopted and modified by Scythian artisans. from the time of the Hunnu state in Central Asia’. found in literature. ought not to shadow the explanation of the profound religious and philosophical tradition of which they are a physical manifestation. 23 11 . Circle of Inner Asian art. The Revival of Buddhism in Buryatia. in turn. Sergey Minyaev.1 Buryatia . of meditational and yogic praxis. English translation from the Russian text by M.
Art of Buryatia. Early Sino-Tibetan Art. which would seem in the first stance to contradict the injuction to absolute integrity in the transmission of the teachings and canonical imperatives of one’s master or school. a condition which apply all the way through from meditation to painting in the Tibetan tradition up to 21st century. (Heather Stoddard. the deity takes a concrete embodiment in the form of images. the unio mystica between the worshipper and the deity is accomplished. until the very essence of Tantric praxis.-B. which is further gazed and employed in preliminary and advanced visualization stages. despite such well established aesthetic conventions. London. where the faith exhibits a prerequisite condition of transformation of the sacred form into emotional expression. 1996. Badmazhapov. clothing and accessories. The transformation of Buddhist Art in Buryatia was unconscious and gradual. I. 2 12 .5 29 Ts. 1999. (Heller. 1996. asserts B.4) This accounts for the extreme conservatism as well as the survival of the entire range of Buddhist teachings in Tibet and where it had travelled. II.mudras. p. Badmazhapov.they rigorously conform to the iconographical precepts often contained in the sādhanā meditational and invocational formulae. as well as precise aesthetic proportions of so called ‘handicraft style’. with ornamental and plastic inclusions of detailed gestures . VII. no. 29 Tibetan Tantric art is dominated by a type of highly ritualistic mentality. p. vol. Buddhist Icons from Southern Siberia. p.. Buddhist Paintings in Buryatia. which are imperative in providing the necessary 28 Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov. Tibetan Art. Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. To work upon the form within the canonical limits. Spink and Son Ltd. is an indication that belongs to a special union marked with the knowledge of the sacred rules and that the attitude towards the form along with its didactics and splendour can only determine the skill of the religious artist and his purity of style understood as a standard of harmony. 12) However.28 An artistic depicting Vajrayāna (Mongolian: Очирт хөлгөн) would follow the basic stylistic descriptions found in the compositions of the mystics and theologians. 2008. Thus. p.
one of the fundamental problems in Buryat art history is the lack of dated objects. A marked increase in the frequency and the number of participants in the missions from Buryatia to Tibet from the beginning of the 17th century period onwards is of great significance given the proliferation of images from different schools. p. The thangkas (Tibetan ཐང་ཀ་)31 and bronzes produced in Buryatia from the 17th century and throughout the latter half of the 19th century continued to reflect closely the developments taking place in Tibet itself and 30 31 Ts. The close homogeneity of style of the extant early images.consistency to the form. their Tibetan aspect and iconography. due to its seldom mingling with the individuality of style born of ethnologic distinctions. the artistic techniques applied in Buryat religiousaesthetic milieu are only partially recognizable to the connoisseur.3 Thangka literally means 'thing that one unrolls’. 1996. Kalmykia and Tuva were allowed a certain amount of morphological and stylistic experientials or ‘originality’ in the modern sense. Since many Buryat artefacts today bear no inscription to elucidate the monastic affiliation or the date. 13 . which has given rise to difficulty of deciding who was actually responsible for the execution of a given work and within what temporal sphere it was created. cotton. a thangka is a portable painted or embroidered banner or scroll made of linen. all tend to point to a precise origin for what we generically call the Buryat style. Badmazhapov. Unique to Tibetan Buddhism. Indeed.30 Consequently. thangkas are categorized by their background colour and serve as aids to and focuses for meditation. the continual presence of Tibetan hierarchs in the Buryat land. In many respects the Buryats acquired a mature Tibetan style characterised by a long assimilation of foreign styles and elements adapted to its aesthetic. beyond that of the already established Tibetan styles. the Buddhist artefacts of Buryatia. however in the lack of dated pieces and uncertainty surrounding inscriptions.-B. the attribution of an exact chronological reference would be at least hazardous. they were customarily expertised within a cross cultural context. or silk. solely on stylistic estimation.
trees garlands and strings of jewellery and the Chinese. 1979. London. characterized by the purity of painting. Art of Buryatia.32 The Tibetan thangka styles imported by the Buryat artists exhibit a plastic decorative quality within the limits of several schools including the early classic Kadampa33 (Tibetan: བཀའ་གདམས་པ་. who was not only accomplished in liturgical interpretation. II.2 Account of schools and stylistic interpretation The stylistic interpretation and analysis of the Tibetan pictorial scrolls in Buryatia is intimately connected with the Tibetan Buddhist iconology which traditionally is a stylistic blending with the Indian aesthetic expressiveness typified in the plasticity of the slight toned natural elements and restrained clouds. but he was both a skilled artist and calligrapher (Eimer. p. 124 14 . extensiveness and richness of the decorum. birds.The didactic illuminations found in the manuscripts used as teaching tools and the esoteric meditative visions 32 Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov.) who directly reveals the teaching to his disciples. both Mongolian and Tibetan patterned sculptures of ritual subjects were being abundantly produced in Buryatia. Tibetan Art. flowers. Wylie: Bka'-gdams-pa).) or lama (Tib. see Amy Heller. Buddhist Icons from Southern Siberia.already in the 19th century. trees and ponds as well as birds in colourful plumage. characterized by simplicity. with the Nepali style richly decorated with characterized by the abundance of mountains. resulting from a blend of original artistry with that of the master-darhans. Spink and Son Ltd. Jacka Book. impulsive contours. in modelling with clay and papier-mâché and in the carpet weaving from horse hair. composition and translation.. Local skilled craftsmen were excellent in wood carving and metal treatment as well as in painting with distemper on cloth and wood. emphasizing the primordial imperative of the guru (Skt. section 092). 1996. 1999.6-7 33 Kadampa school. This is how the first centres of professional art appeared. p. ‘those of the oral teaching’. The spiritual and artistic legacy of Kadampa is attributed to the Indian Buddhist scholar Atiśa.
Tibetan Art. p. p. Menla and his disciples designed and fulfilled the liturgical and decorative needs of Tibetan sanctuaries.60). 1999. skeletal structure and musculature/flesh contour are excellent. Jakabook. and clearness predominates. The colours are detailed. Tibetan Art..accounted in his treaties reveal Atiśa’s aesthetic ideals which would eventually be established in new iconographies in his original fashion.119) The third major influence on Buryat religious fine art was the Karma Gadri school of painting which developed during the second half of the 16 th century and which is 34 Amy Heller. Antique Collectors’ Club. acquiring such fame that later histories attributed them the transmission of the iconometric system of Buton Rinchen Drub (Tibetan: བུ་སོན་རིན་ཆེན་གུབ་. There is much shading. Malachite and azurite pigments predominate (these give green/blue tonalities). This is the tradition of (Menla).. p. sman bris) stemmed out of the vision of the reputed painter Menla Dondrub (Tib. and if one approaches. shoulders are withdrawn. Wylie: Bu-ston Rin-chen Grub) (Heller. The bodily posture. From distance the painting is very splendid. sman bla don-grup. 1999. Atisa’s presence in the Tibetan artistic reaffirmation at the end of 10th century may be viewed as the importation of eastern Indian visual ideals and intellectual discourses. Ulteriorly. Working in the second half of the fifteenth century. the layout is just like a Chinese scroll painting. with the exception that this is slightly less orderly.177) and described their style as such: “The coats of pigment and shading are thick. soft and richly splendid. to complement the Kashmiri and Nepalese currents already exerting their influence on art and spirituality (Heller. 1996. ” (Jackson. the Menri School34 (Tib. With his skilful contrivance he fertilized the artistic milieu with an almost baroque abundance in detail and with unusual pitoresque curved lines and twinkling space. 1999. Tibetan Art.. it is detailed. A history of Tibetan painting. p. Necks are long. 1425-1505). 189 15 . In most respects..
(Heller. The characteristics attributed to the Karma Gadri style are the distinctive Sino-Indian aesthetic imprint reflected in purity. as in the icons. Visual Dharma.intimately affiliated to its first Kagyupa spiritual patron the 7th Karmapa Mikyoa Dorje (Tibetan མི་བསོད་རོ་རེ་. Tibetan Art. Very often the Buryat Buddhist iconographic patterns present this very peculiarity of style derived from the early Tibetan Buddhist-shamanist syncretism as resulting from the specimens of the early laconic religious paintings. sensibility and preciousness. However. iconometry and on the mastering and reproducing experience of the canonical standards of materiality. Wylie: Mi-bskyod Rdo-rje. 1995 16 . the central religious figures can enter the secondary theme. Berkley and London. probably Pala Style and a completely distinctive use of diluted colours as an imitation of the subtle washes used in certain Chinese landscape paintings. there remains a considerable space for personal creativity. 188) The plastic embodiment of the iconic symbols in the thangkas depends of numerous aspects including worship rituals. The Buddhist art of Tibet.35 The founding artist was Namkha Tashi. who studied under the Menri virtuoso master artists and who further complemented the style by including iconometric proportions copied from older Indian metal sculptures. Shambhala. 1999. in the modus of style as well as in the reproduction of the standard metric patterns. p. the remarkable sense of ethereal space due to nuanced shading of vast fields of colours surrounding the central figure. 1507-1554). the interpretation of which depends upon personal taste of the artist. as well as the great pictural elevation in employing pastel colours. Although local artists were subject to the same iconographical and iconometrical cannons as the Tibetan master-artists. they have not conceived cliché reproductions of identical types but rather delineated themselves by commingling styles rooted in folk art as evidenced in “the charming naivety of the 35 Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche.
Art of Buryatia.. failings and its grace. The accomplishment of Tibetan aesthetic grammar in the Buryat cultural milieu. Despite the discrepancies within the academic discipline regarding the historical realities within Buryat religious and cultural milieu. their spontaneity actually reflects a mastery of complex rules of the form and proportion vocabulary. Some religious artefacts achieved such great heights of poignancy. Therefore. we should allow the stories of the artefacts become an object of reverent and unbiased understanding.7 17 . given the dominance of statist socialist discourse. revealing the evolve of the tradition more vividly and accurately than any historical documents and conveying countless details of its sufferings. with these observations in mind. Spink and Son Ltd. the Buddhist Tibetan are now visually organized and displayed within the Buryat museums or temples. consequent to the Nerchinsk Treaty 36 Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov. we have the opportunity to take this perspective as the nucleus of the further research. elegance and wit that they all serve to make the Buryat tale more real than history itself. and their subdued turquoise-blue palette”. passion. p. 1996. III. Once scattered artefacts. London. leaving up to the reader to observe and define the relationship of their values that accommodated within the aesthetic cradle of the steppe lands. 17-18th centuries Art and political historical narratives of Tibetan Buddhism in Buryatia often juxtaposes disparate or isolated elements rather than stating a connection between them. Buddhist Icons from Southern Siberia.36 Although many aesthetic elements in Buryat architectonic or plastic art are created with a high amount of spontaneity. Since the region along Lake Baikal (Buryat Pribaikal’e) and the eastern region (Buryat Zabaikal’e) was assimilated to Russia in 1658-59.early thangkas.
Having received his monastic education at the Drepung monastery in Lhasa. the two first stationary Buddhist monasteries (datsan) Tsongol (Buryat Tsongolski) and Sartulski. is considered to be the founding father of Buryat Buddhism. p. Narthang Publications. The Revival of Tibetan Buddhism in Inner Asia: A Comparative Perspective. p. In 1768.which defined the borders between the Sino-Russian Empires. 2002. by which the Buddhist religious. having built the first monastery in Buryatia. By the end 1720. 1983. a Buryat from the Tsongol clan. 12 39 Tzarina Elizaveta Petrovna decreed the ‘Tolerance Patent’ as early as 1741. Nauka Publishing. Vanchikova 2006).” This unique document provided an early glimpse into Buryat pilgrimage routes through the Gobi desert to Tibet (Russian translations are available in Sazykin 1986.ukaz). but rather responded to autochthonous nomadic migrations which determined the lamas to perform their rituals in felt temples (Buryat dugans) situated in the portable yurts of local princes as well as in large communal tents. A note on Tibetan Theocracy. Dharamsala. educational and artistic presidium in Buryatia was strictly regulated. p. A Cultural History of Tibet. he started active propagation of Buddhism among the Selenga Buryats.37 a dictum which prevailed and stigmatized the Tibetan history likewise. 11. Doctor of 18 . on the request of the Empress. Zaiaev composed one of the first Buryat written works describing his journey to the “Land of the Snows. Ch. Ch. also known as the Tsongol Monastery. 18 40 The First Khambo Lama Damba-Darzha Zaiaev (1711-1776). were built in the eastern part of the sacred Lake Baikal. Gerasimova. V Religion and Politics. 1989. G. Asian and African Studies.39 The political aim of this officious act along with the tsar’s legitimization of Bandido Khaambo Lama40 on the priors of Gusinoe ozero datsan 37 Namkhai Norbu. we may speak of a “ harmonious blend of religion and politics” (Tibetan chos srid zung ‘brel). see Lubos Belka. and in the proximate period Empress Elisaveta Petrovna signed a ‘tolerance decree’ (Rus. after which this date became known as the beginning of the formation of the official Buddhist church in the Russian empire. With conformity to extant historical accounts38 we acknowledge that by the second half of the 17th century. the existence of this decree has often been referred to in Russian literature. namely the shamanistic tradition but has also implemented governmental constrains which limited the legitimacy of Buddhist practice. who was fascinated with his stories about Tibet. 3. Lamaism in Buriatia. Novosibirsk. but real evidence has not been found in the archives.28 38 Galdanova. called Baldan Braibun (Buryat pronunciation of Lhasa’s Drepung). Buddhism in Transbalkania was not yet methodized and conventionally tailored. Anya Bernstein. The necklace of Gzi. In 1764 Empress Catherine the Great granted him the title of the first Pandito Khambo Lama of the Transbaikal. as a substitute or antidote against the folk beliefs and customs. Not only did the Russian Empire implemented the Orthodox Christianity and the religion of Old-Believers (Buryat Semeiskie) in the Altaic region.
p. Philosophy. Sino-Tibetan. LTD. Soyol Publishers. Although engulfed by the Russian Empire. New York University. Department of Anthropology. see Gennady Bashkuev. Buryatia. p. This drew upon an aesthetic revival consolidated in the Buryat national school of Buddhist architecture.4 19 . 1996. Spink and Son Ltd. London. 1357-1419) the Tibetan regenerative of the 14th century Tibetan Buddhism. on iconometry. His composition of the traditional themes Sansarin-hurde. 1708-1757) was to be the last Buddhist major dynamics from one country to another until modern times. Art of Buryatia. 1996. Badmazhapov. 42 This. p. 1995. From then on. Russia.9 43 Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov. the cult of Tsongkhapa (Tibetan: ཙོང་ཁ་པ་. Wylie: Tsongkha-pa.as the accredited leader of Buryat Buddhism was to guarantee de facto the status of ‘constitutional monarchy’ and autocephality of the Buryat ecclesiastical institution. a tradition was established for promising young Buryat monks to travel to Drepung Monastery in Lhasa in order to receive instruction on the aesthetic theories. Buryatia sublimated its desire for real sovereignty by focusing on the construction of an ethnic emblem and on its cultural augumentation. or the Wheel of Life shows both the causes of sufferings and the ways to salvation. painting and sculpture. Buryatia: Tradition and Culture. Religious Bodies Politic: Rituals of Sovereignty in Buryat Buddhism. among which the most refined are the complex of temples of the Gusinoe ozero (Tamcha) datsan. the thangkas of the renown lama-iconographer Osor Budaev41 or the wooden sculptures of the Orongoi masters from the Yangazhan datsan. It is the circle of the wheel which has neither beginning nor end that is an exact symbol of absolute movement and that characterizes the ‘sensual’ world where nothing is eternal and constant but rather everything is in a state of flux. Buddhist Icons from Southern Siberia. iconography and technical finesse. 170-171 41 Osor Budaev (1886—1937) was an outstanding representative of the school of Buryat zuragchins-monks and icon-painters. 3 42 Ts.-B.43 Throughout the Northern Buddhist belle époque. p. their application and interpretation. The typological stylistic atmosphere of the 18th century Buryat Buddhist paintings unfolds in the mellifluous convergency of the Nepali-Tibetan. May 2010. vis-a-vis the authority of the Tibetan Dalai Lamas and the Mongolian Jebdzundambas. during the reign of the Seventh Dalai Lama Kelzang Gyatso (Wylie: bskal bzang rgya mtsho. Ulan-Ude. SinoNepali.. Tibetan-Mongolian and Sino-Mongolian styles. that flourished until the end of the 19th century.
to salvage and acquire a considerable part of his famous collection of Tibetan art in Buryatia. turquoise and corals. dark blue-liliac. the votive stamped clay tablets (Tibetan tsha-tsha) and a vast palette of ritual artefacts crafted in multifarious Buddhist art styles. depictions of various Buddhist deities (dokshits. Buddhism and Nordland. gray-blue. Petersburg.I. gilt bronzes and copper sculptural aesthetics (Mongolian burhans). conches. 44 45 Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov. bells. prayer-wheels (Buryat maniin-hurde). cone-shaped suburgas. 2010. engaged in padmasana pose. exhibiting a Vajra mudra gesture. Leipzig.46 Intricately elaborated thangkas.found fertile ground in the passionate Buryat artistry. The particularity however.45 The German scholar Albert Grunwedel in his innovating Mythologie du Buddhism en Tibet et Mongolie sur la collection lamaique du Prince Ukhtomsky described Ukhtomsky’s collection as “being so perfect and complete that it can almost serve as the basis for the history of Lamaist art”. coral-red and green details seated on a triple lion throne. So great was the concentration on Tibetan aesthetics in Transbalkania that the Russian diplomat and true connoisseur of Buddhist art. corresponding to the Buddhist archetypal motifs the Sun. nowadays housed and staged at the State Hermitage Museum in St. Some reflections on Buddhist art collecting and collectors in Russia in the 18 th century-early 20th century. stands in the absence of the traditional accustomed mandorla. 44 These two strikingly different scroll compositions impersonate the accomplished master having a transparent cold-pane complexion including dense tones of dark blue. The new diversity of Tibetan chromatic as well as its new balance of style enhances the richness of the composition of two painted 18th century Buryat scrolls depicting Tsonkhapa. gray. incrustations of lapis lazuli. 1996. dakinis). p.Andreyev. P. Mythologie du Buddhism en Tibet et Mongolie sur la collection lamaique du Prince Ukhtomsky. Prince Esper Esperovich Ukhtomsky (1861-1821) managed during 1890s and 1917s.4 A.1 46 citing Albert Grunwedel. the Moon and the Lotus flower. 1900 20 .
1998) documented the prevalence of the cult among certain archaic groups and determined that the function of this ancestral character was later acculturated in Buryat milieu in agreement to the paradigmatic 47 A. Zhukovskaya (Zhukovskaya. 357-369. found their place inside the temples or in the canonical iconography. The typically heterogeneous iconography depicting Tsagan Ubugun (Buriat cayan ebiigen) is presented with great recurrence in all Buryat schools as he embodies the magical. N. transmutative force of Buddhism in the Buryat land. attempted already in his time to substitute the exclusively Lamaist divinities Mahakala. 48 A stylistic comparison of the thangkas crafted within the temporal boundaries of 18th and 19th centuries certainly indicate an earlier accommodation of the deity within the Buddhist ceremonial practices. On the propagation of the cult in Buryatia. p. with their old traits. 589-616). Esrua qormusta tngri. considering that there are very few dated examples to compare them against. the famous author of a Buddhist liturgy in the Mongolian language. however not earlier than this period did the pictural representations of Tsangan Ubugun. Tib.] some shamans call her (the Chinese mother goddess Wang mu niyang niyang) ‘White Mother (caran emege) or Holy Mother (borda emerge). Asian Folklore Studies. Hessing 1987. os much more significant because Mergen gegen Lubsangdambjalsan (1717-1766). Wheel of Life). for the help against illness and death for many children. Tara. Some reflections on Buddhist art collecting and collectors in Russia in the 18th century-early 20th century. Sridevi. the Cayan ebugen (Sarkozi 1983.I.སན་རས་གཟིགས་). purbas .225 “The stability of mythological figures.Andreyev. Tsagan Ubugun or the Mañjuśrī (Skt: मञुशी. thus providing a strong impetuous for the development of local artistic schools.47 Osor Budaev (1886-1937) was a distinguished representative of the school of Buryat zuragchins .. and Ginggis Khan for the ancient shamanist pentad of the five Jayayaci tngri (fate gods) [.’’ 21 . 49.vajras. 1996).. New Material on East Mongolian Shamanism. L. imploring her together with the old god of fertility and longevity. the patron of arts reflected a superior standard of harmony both in the colouring skills and in the beautiful transformation of the sacred-schematic form into a refined emotional expression (Badmazhapov. namely the White Elders. gabals. whose compositions cultivated traditional motifs such as Sansarin-hurde (lit. p. amulet-holders (Tibetan gau) pertaining to Tibetan art were introduced to the Buryat artists. Buddhism and Nordland. 1990. 2010 48 Walther Heissig .monastic figures and icon painters. Bonn Vol. The exact emergence of this ancient shamanistic chthonic god (Buryat sabdakov) of fertility and longevity in the Buddhist pantheon is difficult to determine.
dpe dkar) and to the Tibetan’s mysterious Tsam49 (Wylie: ‘cham) ceremonial dance’s divinities. Wylie: rgyal po dpe har .N. L.13 22 . visually...50 Despite the fact that the White Elder cult was included only in the third level of the official Buddhist pantheon.N.M. 2004. p. M. p. Ulan-Ude. 2 52 L. There is a certain proclivity among the Buryat artists for suave masses with linear. he is marked with a green halo and a crown-like head-dress plus a dragon’s head staff and shoes of a stylized decoration and the periphery of the scrolls are separated from the centre by the decorated compositions similar in form to the back of a throne reminiscent of a temple entrance (Skt. it often assumes a preeminent aesthetic role though the majestic sculptures and the various innovative compositional thangkas and texts preserved in Ivolginsk.‘keepers of the faith’ (Buryat srunma) models. such as Chinese Show-syn. Aga and Tsugolskom datsans. Cagan Ubugunov. Tsagan Ubugun‘s body is clothed in Chinese dress giving him a motionless look with the finger gestures similar to those of peaceful deities. Cagan Ubugunov. Zhukovskaya. M. 1988. elegant light-malachite shaded silhouettes 49 The ancient religious mask dancing Tsam is one of the significant religious rituals reflecting Buddhist teaching through correct apostolic images and essence. The Semantics of the image of the White Elders in the traditional culture of the Mongolian peoples. torana)”52 The transposing of Tsagan Ubugun in Buryat Buddhist visual expression in the scrolls of 19th century was materialized in the graphism combined with a gradually thickening of the colours alongside the edges. 1988 51 Nemanova Eleanor Allekovna. 50 N. the Tibetan Pehar Gyalpo (Tibetan: རལ་པོ་དཔེ་ཧར. Zhukovskaya. Tsam mask dancing is included in the art form called Doigar depicting independent imagination as one of the 10 kinds of wisdom according to ancient Indian philosophy.51 Some idea of sophistication of both style and technique can be gleaned from the archival aesthetic materials in the Museum of the History of Buryatia containing twelve multi-temporal matrixes of iconographic images of the White Elders: “flat as shell.Library catalof of Russian and Ukrainian Theses . which refract through the pale and watery paint consistency.also spelt: pe kar. Kizhinginskom. as if powdered with lazurite dust.M.
p. the ‘knowledgeable’ laical or religious individuals (Rus. in addition to the usual set of attributes.1 The survival of Buddhist Art during the Russian Protectorate The incipiency of Buryat Buddhist art fracture began under the Russian propagandist directive. indicate the artist’s pronunciation of the sacred canonical plastic directives. the artistic fulfilment of architecture. narody) suffered severe consequences which ultimately conduced to a mass annihilation: “From 1941 to 1946 . Badmazhapov. such as the rosary. such as a dragon heads staff and a boo. painting and sculpture within the framework of Buddhism and beyond that. namely the ‘construction of the first socialist state in the world’. Decomposition and regeneration of Buddhist Art and its revival throughout the 19th century 4. when the emblems of longevity are introduced .-B. The significant secular and religious literature. not a single Buddhist monastery existed on the territory of the region of the east of Lake Baikal (including the Aga [Bur. illuminated by light white outlines. The Buddhist symbolism emblematized here.and native red and black suave sartorial details. vociferated during the October Revolution of 1917.such as the Jina Amitayus (Tibetan rgyal-ba Tshe-dpag-med) peripheral portrayal in the upper corner of the thangkas . The symbolic dominative specificity of Tibetan Buddhism emerged in the late 19th and beginning of 20th century.9 23 .53 IV.Aginsk] Buriat Autonomous Okrug of Chita Oblast) and the region to 53 Ts. 1996.a fact that substantiate the rarefication of the autochthonic elements in the virtue of the assiduous blossoming of embodied Tibetan Tantric art in Buryat artistic tradition.
De facto. who became the devoted confidant. the Atsagat Tsanid-Hambo Lama. Atsagat Datsan was once a revered scriptorium and centre of Buriat Buddhist scholarship. Buddhist Perseverance in Russia. As a result of neglect and destruction “many bronzes. additionally entitled ‘microrevival’55. was rather a restorative endeavour of the almost extant Buryat religious life. Religion in the Soviet Union. has allowed rebuilding and reopening of two ritual settlements. Ivolginski (Ivolga) Datsan was founded as epicentre of Siberian Buddhism. 1 24 . nonetheless suffocated by Russian Committee on Affairs of Religions and Cults’ strict watchful eye.Kolarz. p. where they were hardly ever exhibited” (Zhukovskaya. Article. 2010.I. on the fictitious clisheistic pretexts of freedom of consciousness and of religious practice. this dramatic period of coercition.2 55 The first restoration. 457-458 56 Stephen Batchelor. Buddhism and Nordland. censorship and devastation of the religious and aesthetic destinies of the Buryats. whose extant fine manuscripts are displayed in Ulan-Ude’s Literary Museum was completely eradicated in 1930s. Aginski and Ivolginski. Macmillan Press.Predbaikal’e] (including the Ust’-Orda Buriat Autonomous Okrug of Irkutsk Oblast). Tricycle. restoration and revival.56 The multi-architectural religious complex . hosting not only Tibetan aesthetic atmosphere but also a Korean-style wooden Etigel Khambin Temple honouring the 12th 54 Khambo Lama ‘of all Russia’. also called microrevival took place from 1946 until the end of late 1980.2001). in the proximity of year 1946 the Soviet Union. In retrospect. 1992. thangkas and religious books were destroyed and those which survived were either hidden private households or locked away in small provincial museums. has called for. W. and one of the seven mentors to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama.Andreyev. The Trials of Dandaron. p.”54 However.the west of Lake Baikal [Bur. the first glimpses of revival. a return to remembrance. Pandito Khambo Lama A. 1961. following the disintegration of the Soviet machine of repression. Some reflections on Buddhist art collecting and collectors in Russia in the 18 th century-early 20th century. yet taking rebirth under the patronage of Agvan Lobsan Dorzhiev (Tibetan Ngawang Dorji).
the painful echoes of repression and of forced mass isolation into the Soviet gulags operated as an in memoriam nourishment among the Buryat Buddhist representatives. 2005 58 Lubos Belka. New York. the main repositories of the country’s artistic heritage. born in 1702. Naj Wikoff. the castigated lamanate has submitted itself to a metamorphosing process rising philosophy and art beyond the narrow ideological space. St. ritual and artistic life recommenced its restoration. a considerable number of metal and wooden sculptures.Itigelov. emerged again from obscurity and begun to attract attention to both scholars and Tibetan spiritual school leaders. Canton. revival did not meant merely a matter of rehabilitation of datsans or restoration of the ecclesiast tradition.10 25 . the Tibetan Buddhism which had fallen into oblivion until the perestroika. throughout the Stalinist époque. 11. 2002. Pandito Khambo Lama Itigelov’s Most Precious Body. Asian and African Studies. The Revival of Tibetan Buddhism in Inner Asia: A Comparative Perspective. 57 The 12th Khambo Lama is believed to be the reincarnation of the Lama Damba Dorja Zayayev the first Khambo Lama. In Buryatia. Lawrence University. devotional paintings of appliquéd fabrics and illuminated books on paper were salvaged by both monastic figures and the bourgeois Russian collectors. As part of resurgence of national sentiment which marked the ‘second revival’58 period since the 1988 onwards. Through the prism of Stalinist socio-political dictatorship. whose undecayed body is presently exhibited as a remnant of extraordinary spiritual attainment. The great revival of Buryat Buddhism began at the end of 1980 when under the influence of perestroika and in the context of the gradual thawing of the formerly repressive regime. whose spiritual eminence acted as an adjuvant and parasol for the Buryat community during the socialist domination. p.57 However. North Country Public Radio. but rather a transformative process of maturation of Buddhist tradition. Despite the massive destruction of monasteries and temples.
philosopher. Buryatia acted as a 59 Bolsokhoeva Natalya Danilova.60 the wooden Sandal Buddha statue Zandan Zhuu located in the Egita Monastery . lit. religious and artistic interchange with the Mongolian educational entities such as the Gandantegchinling Spiritual Academy in Ulaanbataar and with the paramount Buddhist higher education institutions in Dharamsala. Mongolian languages and Sanskrit. lit. Maitreya is unique in Buddhism because he is the only other figure besides Gautama Buddha who is universally accepted in all Buddhist traditions. the head of the theocratic state. the ‘Five Great Sciences’ (religious philosophy. he is referred to as Ajita Bodhisattva. In some Buddhist literature. not only that Ivolginskyi and Aginskyi Monasteries effectively recommenced their activity. Tibetan and Mongolian medicine. Buddhism and Northernland. several of the world’s ancient sacred objects delivered from Tibet and India were kept in Buryatia.118 26 . p. translation of the word) of 113 volumes and Tengyur (Wylie: Bstan-'gyur. the primary concern of enhancing the spiritual lives of eminent monks ultimately contributed to a strong experience of artistic and educational interchange with the cognate Buddhist nations. founder of the Ashagat Mamba Datsang and Emchi. among them the a colossal metal statue of Buddha Maidari. containing encyclopaedic manuscripts of medieval Buddhist teachings in philosophy. as he would come as defender of the faith and of the ‘khan of the three kingdoms’. Metteyya (Pāli). translation of treaties) of 300 volumes. astrology and other fields of knowledge. p. this is a period. 59 Following the Tibetan erudition systematization. grammar. see Caroline Humphrey. dances and music. proclaimed by the Buryat Buddhist Sangha one of the three National Buddhist Treasures Sacraments and the canonical Kangyur (Wylie: Bka'-'gyur. Marx went away but Karl stayed behind. astrology) were intensely studied. University of Michigan Press. medicine. but were allowed a cultural. 3 60 Buddha Maidari. technology of arts and craft) and ‘Five Small Sciences’ (poetry. is a future Buddha of this world in Buddhist eschatology. logics. he has been associated with predilection with the Shambhala myth. metrics. Iroltuev -Pandita Khambo. In Buryatia. 2010. Indeed. stylistics. or Jampa (Tibetan). such as the Amitabha Sutra and the Lotus Sutra. when. It may be recalled that throughout the 19th century religious restoration.Lama. linguistics. the Buddhists temples were reconverted into universities where Tibetan. Buryat nomination for Maitreya (Sanskrit). 2001.Yeravin Aimak.Apart from the resurrection of surviving material in the Buryat Buddhist shrines.
presently at rest in the Museum of History in Buryatia. since the exquisitely carved and polished statues.10-11 27 . After having been removed from the Buddhist Collection of the Museum of Atheism in Ulan-Ude during the Soviet period of repression. pharmacognostical treatises and prescription books were one of the most important components of medical education. these sculptures were crafted by the divine Visvakaraman (lit. The iconic illustrations epitomised in the unique medical Gyu-Shi (Wylie: rgyud bzhi)61 and Vaidurya-onbo (A treatise on Tibetan Medicine)62 and the only full copy of Atlas of Tibetan Medicine of the two preserved in the world. 1996). no visual prototype has yet been found in Buryatia or Tibet. Instructional Tantra (man ngag gi rgyud) and Subsequent Tantra (phyi ma'i rgyud) were compiled by Yuthok Yönten Gönpo in the ninth century and then rediscovered by Drapa Ngönshé in the eleventh century.Badmazhapov. which makes the aesthetic experience from both the form and the composition. medical. founder of the Ashagat Manba Datsang and Emchi.Lama. Iroltuev Pandita Khambo . the thangka collection has been rediscovered in 1958. however remained undisclosed to the public. The Theosophical Publishing House. 2010 63 Through the courtesy of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama who encouraged the proliferation of Tibetan Buddhist Medicine to Siberia. written by Desi Sangye Gyatsho. tantric and astrological faculties were founded in many Buryat datshangs. In addition pharmacological and pharmaceutical guidebooks. along with vivid paintings offer a priceless experience which have no verbal analogies. Although according to the hagiographic tradition. among of them the most detailed ‘Vaidurya . as it belongs to one of the five major sciences In the medical faculties the students learn a great number subjects of the Science of Healing. Tibetan tradition dates this text from the XIIth century. Tibetan healing: the modern legacy of Medicine Buddha. p. see Peter Fenton. see Bolsokhoeva Natalya Danilovna. the edition of the most famous medical thangkas illustrating a commentary on The Gyu-shi known as The Blue Beryl or the Blue Lapis Lazuli were offered as instructional tool to the Buryat practitioners. 1999.-B. the beautifully proportioned sculptures emerge from the sacred atmosphere of Buddha Śākyamuni’s life. Zadan Zhou) dated from the late 19th century to the beginning of the 20th century. Buddhism and Nordland. Ch. D. It too is accompanied by the numerous commentaries. Within the classical Tibetan education the study of medicine was very significant. Fundamentals of Tibetan medical education include learning by heart the main guidance on the theory and practice of Tibetan medicine rGyud bzhi (Four Medical Tantras). Explanatory Tantra (bshad rgyud).63 A special attention should be given to the Buryat iconography of the Sandalwood Buddha (Bur.’ (1687-1688). philosopher. both intriguing and complex (Ts. ‘the omnificent’) out of sandalwood. Aesthetically.repository for the preservation of Tibetan medical knowledge along with other related Asian systems. gold and seven precious stones.onbo. While the 61 The Four Medical Tantras (Root Tantra-rtsa rgyud. 62 Beginning from the middle of the XIXth century the philosophical.
A fine representative example which reflects the Buryat exalted 64 65 L.B. Zandan Zhuu and the Buryat Sangha: History and Present State.quintessential Tibetan styled sculptural representation is addressed to Buddha Candana-prabhā.30 Zadan Zhuu or the Sandalwood Buddha. 1977. A specific arcane esoteric ritual enables the mutual reversibility of the two space elementals and allows the artist to journey between the many levels and enforce several types of sacred meanings. p. Tibetan Religious Art.64 In the canonical Tibetan Buddhist iconography the structure of form corresponds to the coordination and symmetry. a landscape with blooming trees. the painted iconography presents two compositional patters with diversity in both the decorum and the secondary figures: Śākyamuni Buddha surrounded by his disciples Śāriputra (Sanskrit: शािरपुत) and Maudgalyāyana (Pali: Moggallāna) in the ‘Chinese style’ temple interior on a high carved altar framed with columns and railing including a canopy and a full set of altar precious ones and offerings. Buddha with his retinue in a natural atmosphere. Dagyab. Ulan -Ude : Izd -vo GUZ 2006 28 . the Buryat artists adopted the ‘ribbed lines’ arranged in rhythmical transitions between thick purple rigs and vibrating. Badmazphavov. (Ts. Wiesbaden. strings. clouds resembling coral brush and flowing dense dark-blue waters. Apart from the seductive gold. transliteration by Lubos Belka. The Ecological Problems and Spiritual Traditions of the Peoples of the Baikal Region. iridescent colours which illuminate the crown. This particular qualitative style in the Buryat iconographic development unambiguously ascertain that the commitment to canonical rigour and the high degree of mastery did not suffice for accomplishing a perfected sacred art. often denominated as Sandalwood Shining or King Udayana Buddha. paying minute attention at the placing of the centrum and the peripheral elements into the iconic space. jewellery. halo. the visual effect of which is one of opulent grandeur and ostentation. Sh. could be distinguished from the particularities of garment of the central figure and the abundance of gold as a graphic simulation of the water surface. and secondly. golden veined rocks. 1996) The linearly-chromatic composition of the Buryat Zandan Zhuu65 thangkas.
Menri Sarma remained influential and further integrated Chinese landscape devices such as billowing clouds and architectural motifs to break up as compositional divisions of the painted surface in addition to the ornate brocade styles emulating the Chinese silk upholstery. Following the nag thang genre (literally ‘black ground paintings’). Buddhist Paintings in Buryatia. birth name: Künga Nyingpo) the Great Fifth Dalai Lama (1617–1682) 29 .34-40) The ‘New Menri’ was esteemed particularly during the époque of the Fifth Dalai Lama 69 who reinforced the authority of Gelugpa aesthetic beyond the monastic confines. transliteration by TB Badmazhapov. (Jackson 1996. VII No. the Buryat artists popularized the black or indigo manuscript illuminations complementing them with gold and silver ink. Ulan Ude. it was mainly from this source that Buryat Buddhist iconographic milieu was primarily fertilized. p. which indicate that the inspiration came largely from the Gelug establishments 67 with unconventional incorporation of reconstructed autochthonic traditional values. The importance of the cults of protective deities is reflected by the numerous paintings and sculptures of the guardian deities of the Buryat Gelug tradition which is an area where the individual artists followed the iconographic stipulations but achieved great expressive liberty.-B. Vajra Keeper). The ceremonial paintings reflect the ritual stipulations which categorize white as the base colour for peaceful deities. red for deities 66 Bodgdo Zonkhobae. A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. p.68 During the 19th century. Badmazhapov. Some of the most refined examples of Buryat nag thang extant today in the Buryat Historical Museum. in which the illuminated manuscript of the Fifth Dalai Lama’s visions is painted. yellow as the colour for deities associated with development of wealthy and worldly aspirations.10-11 69 Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso (Wylie: Blo-bzang Rgya-mtsho. 1996. or the Precious Teacher Sumatikirti (Tibetan Blo-bzang grags-pa. 1996 67 Since Gelugpa acquired the official status of the state religion and was legitimized by the Dalai Lamas’s presidium. Vol. are 18th and 19th century thangkas illustrating the wrathful deities and the ritual diagrams employed in meditational or worship practice.style is the visual expression of Bodgdo Zonkhobae66. I & II. 68 Ts. Buddhist Himalaya. Lozang-dragpa.
2001. are the low mossy hills of the taiga.4 30 . p. reflect the authentic Tibetan tastes and its aesthetic mannerisms: the refined delicate balance. on the one hand. 1996. p. and the dharmapālas are also known as the Defenders of the Law (Dharma). p. as a consequence of the Soviet cynical divide et impera policy towards the satellite 70 Lubos Belka. the colouring with pale-pink predominating instead of the ubiquitous reds of earlier styles. it has been infused with substantial ideological agreements. V. The two main types of dharmapalas are mahakalas (male) and mahakalis (female). and lokapālas on the other.22 72 Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov. or the Protectors of the Law. see Chögyam Trungpa. 2002. The Great Revival . Asian and African Studies. The Revival of Tibetan Buddhism in Inner Asia: A Comparative Perspective. All dharmapālas. bright contrasting colours and strict proportions.71 Sridevi (Tibetan dPal ldan lhamo) along with the White Tara (Buryat Sagaan Dara Ehe. with the exception of most lokapālas. p. appear within the iconographic representations as wrathful. Visual Dharma: The Buddhist Art of Tibet. the distinctive linear or cumulous clouds floating above them. these Tibetan Gelug inspired artefacts were and continue to be regarded as the most prized achievements of Buryat aesthetics. 19th to 20th century Although Buddhism has not been deprived of its moral purpose during the repressionist regime. Taylor and Francis.70 The mount of the Gelugpa female Dharmapala. 193) Among other features inspired by the art of the famous Gelug East Tibetan Labrang Monastery. occasionally covered with pine trees.11 71 In Vajrayana Buddhism. The name means Dharma-defender in Sanskrit. 1999.the reaffirmation of Buddhist aesthetics in Buryatia. and the rich and varied textile designs which cloth the deities. (Heller. Hayden Gallery.worshipped for subjugation of evil influences and black or dark blue for fierce protective deities or coercitive rites. Tibetan: Sgrol-dkar) whose presence are central in the Buryat lyrical compositions and rich coloured thangkas of 19th century. a dharmapāla (Tibetan: chos-kyong) is a type of wrathful deity.72 Ornamented with abundant leaf. Sanskrit: Sitatara.
Eregdyn Dagbo Khaan. Mong. the ministerial appointments and the progressist ‘lotus essences’ (Rus. reinforces and amplifies in the times of constrainment. the 25th Kulika Rudra Chakrin Shambhala ruler (Tibetan’khor lo can. Quarterly Journal of Asian and African Studies. Quarterly Journal of Asian and African Studies. One can perhaps understand the Buryat desire to participate in the international appeal of Buddhism as well as the conscious desire to repeat the earlier. Archiv orientalni. Visualisation. Mongolian Buriat Rigden Dagpo. The Myth of Shambhala: Visions. byams pa. the reaffirmation of support for the orthodox Buddhism and of the salvic mythology surrounding it was ubiquitously reflected in the nature of aesthetics popular in Buryatia at the turn of 20th century. literally The Wrathful One with a Wheel) and the reputed mythological character Gesar from Ling. and the Myth’s Resurrection in the Twentieth Century in Buryatia.ethnoses as a means of ensuring its political quintessence. original aesthetic models and climate of orthodox Buddhism. as Lubos Belka asserts. Brno. Maidar. 2003. was broadly based upon the most preeminent utopian expectations. and the Myth’s Resurrection in the Twentieth Century in Buryatia. Czech Republic. Archiv orientalni. The Myth of Shambhala: Visions. Visualisation. Three major personifications were elevated to the soteriological status by both Tibetan and Buryats and became the resolute iconographic leitmotif of the late 19th and early 20th century: the future Buddha Maitreya (Tib. especially of an eschatological and chiliastic nature. obnovlentsi) became more mingled and a utopian-political magical character permeated the Buryat Buddhist milieu. Praha. literally The Loving One). 2003 31 . the Shambhala myth. accentuated at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Mythogenesis for the Buryat society. heterogeneous myths and rituals are joined and mobilised”. The idea of a great Buddhist Tibeto-Mongolian-Russian confederation.74 73 Lubos Belka. 249 74 Lubos Belka. In this course of time. research paper supported by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange grant. Bur. research paper supported by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange grant. p. Praha.73 Certainly. “when otherwise disparate. Brno. Czech Republic.
Systematischer Bestandskatalog.263). Munchen 1989. Prestel-Verlag. solely the two characters . VI. I would go further and state that not in the phenomenon of political radicalization but within its spiritual and esoteric aesthetic communication. but their principal purpose is rather different from the thangkas. The Buryat Historical Museum possesses a unique collection of Buddhist ritual art which survived the depredations of the 1930's. However. Orientations. at which time most of the monasteries were destroyed and only a small fraction of the abundant artistic and spiritual heritage survived. Buddhistische Kunst Tibets. November 1997. Die Gotter des Himalaya. A set of thirteen century tsakali. the very few extant Buryat artefacts such as stupas. they are used as ‘cultic cards’ (see Gerd-Wolfgang Essen . p.Maitreya (Buriat Maidar) and Rudra Chakrin . The adulation of these two deified apocalyptic deities can be discerned in older east Tibetan and Mongolian thangkas. thangkas and in the tsakli (Tibetan Tsak li xylographed paintings)75 display an impressive unconventional aesthetic of the three intermingling mythological-eschatological characters.Tsering Tashi Thingo. By studying the style of the 75 Tsakli pictures are used also as miniature thangka. is unprecedented not only in the uniqueness of artefacts complied with great taste and mastery but also in its extraordinary significance for any research on the history of Buddhist religion and art in Buryatia.and their associated eschatology are concentrated on specific types of sacral architecture and colossal sculptural and pictural representations.Although the eschatological myth of Shambhala was rarely expressed visually. pp. Afterword and acknowledgements The collection of religious items that are now exhibited to the great public. within the Northern Buddhism and particularly in Buryat artistic expression. the Buryat artists understood the recovery of the Shambhala myth in the first third of the 20th century. which are the very source of the necessary consistency to the form that the Buryat artistic aesthetics later achieved. or they are used as ‘consecration cards ’ (see Amy Heller. 28-52) 32 .
History Museum of Buryatia In this painting we have the visual representations of the three humors (Tib. food poisons and naturally grown poisons. These factors create the causes for eighteen new types of malignant diseases that threaten the lives of human beings.3 The Palace of the Healing Buddha.artefacts. 6. meditation and spiritual accomplishment. and the white leaves bad-kan. The root of diagnosis has three trunks: visual observation. Museum of Buryatia The painting illustrates Prajnapatidaksa. nyes-pa gsum). Atlas of Tibetan Medicine. Atlas of Tibetan Medicine. 1 The Tree of Diagnosis. tsakli. Lord of Living Beings. mysterious testament of faith that punctuate the Tibetan spirituality among the Buryats. More than simple artistic treasure. pulse reading and questioning. poison incarnate. believed to be located in the land of Oddiyana. the blue leaves symbolize rlung. and are thus a vivid. 33 . poison incarnate. The detail shows the attendants of the Master of Remedies in the medicinal City of Irresistible Beauty. This painting shows the three different types of poisons: compounded poisons. a member of the retinue of the Healing Buddha first explained the medical teachings. Fig. This painting shows how Tibetan doctors diagnose illness when the three nyes-pa are imbalanced. Fig. The creature in the centre is called Kalakuta or Halahala.2 Kalakuta or Halahaha. History Museum of Buryatia According to prophecies in the Tibetan medical texts the age in which we now live is a time of great disruption in the environment and the five natural elements. the yellow leaves mkhris-pa. detail. illuminations and dedications from the Matvei Nikolaevich Khangalov History Museum of Buryatia Fig. the exquisite Buryat Buddhist artefacts remain even today vectors for acts of piety. he is among the founders of the art therapy. physician of the gods. one is able to shed light on unbiased history of this remote region’s embrace of Tibetan Buddhism and of its artistic legacy.1 Tibetan-styled thangkas.
Garuda is fine example of painting on cotton with applied gold leaf in the Labrang style. Paris. Buryatia. The central figure in this tsakli is the goddess Molha. war-god) and Srog-lha (lit. 19th century The tsakli are miniature paintings which are used in Tibetan Buddhist rituals of divination or initiation rites. They are considered ‘portable icons’ due to their miniatural size and traditionally are housed in gaus (amulet boxes). Her mantra repeated ten thousand times is said to bring about all of one's desires. In the lower part of the paintings is a panel showing the ideal surroundings that enhance sexual pleasure and therefore. visual observation. She is extremely seductive: her red colour and subjugating flower-attributes emphasize her more mundane activity of enchanting men and 34 .4 The Tree of Diagnosis. tormented spirits and the hell realms shown below the palace. Gubila is the name of a fivefold group of deities considered to protect people in every aspect of their lives. and is believed to be particularly successful in bewitching men and women. whose name in Tibetan means ‘woman-goddess’. also known as Kurukulla. detail. animals. History Museum of Buryatia The root of diagnosis includes. She is worshipped by unhappy lovers. Fig. The Goddess Kurukulla is invoked for the controlling activities of subjugating. Atlas of Tibetan Medicine. Fig. 1900). palpation and inquiry. She rides an antelope and her attributes are ‘happiness invoking arrow’ and a ‘divination mirror’. left to right. Red Tara. humans. Atlas of Tibetan Medicine. is according to M. The corners are occupied by Polha (lit. man-god). fertility. country -god).Fig.5 Ritual Preparation of Rejuvenation Elixirs. Gubilha. the god of life). Kurukulla and Vajravarahi.6 A set of four tsakli depicting Garuda. and attracting. Foucher. Yulha (lit. the only female-deity of this group. Dalha (lit. History Museum of Buryatia The theme of this painting deals with the generation of the Lesser Elixir of Rejuvenation through visualizations of the light-ray emanations from the celestial palace of medicine depicted in the centre. magnetizing. The monk seated to the left of the palace is instructed to visualize himself as a meditational deity as he gathers the rejuvenation elixirs from the realms of gods. antigods. 'the heart of Tara' (Etude sur l'Iconographie bouddhique de l' Inde.
the goddess of music and eloquence according to Vajrayana tradition.30). Geser acts also as a protective deity who patronises soldiers. Guardi is depicted in this thangka astride his horse Chitu (lit. the four Queens of the Seasons. Four manifestations of Vajravarahi encircle the main image. respectively his adopted son Guanping and his minister Zhoutsang.Painting on cotton 18th. the makara-faced dakini Makaravaktra on the frontispiece and the lion-faced red dakini Simhavaktra with a kartrika and a snare in her hands in the upper extremity. Fig.so much so that Geser took a totally distinctive Chinese appearance. 1996. avowed the First Dalai Lama Gendun Drup (1391–1474) who in one of his visionary experiences. who uprooted ten evils in ten countries of the world” (Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov. Palden Lhamo (Skt.7 Guandi . through the bewitching power of sexual desire and love (Skt. In the 18 th century the cult of Geser in Buryatia was intermingled with that of the Chinese god Guandi . Shri Devi).19th century The thangka reproduced here depicts Magzor Gyalmo.Geser. Wrathful in appearance with one face and two hands. ministers and kings. 9 Vaishravana also known as ‘Vaishravana and the Eight Horsemen’ Painting on cotton. 18th century 35 . Lhamo La-tso. Although the deities are rendered in a Chinese style. Fig. vashikarana). According to the epic he defeated his enemies and achieved much glory and fame. postulated that she would protect the reincarnation lineage of the Dalai Lamas. The goddess is intimately consociated with the Gelug Tibetan order. Vajravarahi. 8 Lhamo . late 18th century Geser the son of the celestial ruler was sent to his father to Ling to become its king. they are placed within a distinctive Buryat setting. Buryatia. Fig. The Mongolian version of the epic refers to Gesar as “the master of ten directions. Buryatia. Worshipped by the Buryats mainly as a god of war. p. the ‘Daimond Sow’ is worshipped as a protectress of hidden teachings of Vajrayana Buddhism. Painting on cotton.the protector of the Manchus .women. she holds a kapala (skull-cup) in her left hand and a kartika (ritual knife) with her right hand. since as female guardian of the sacred lake. cattle and grants well-being. she rides atop a yellow mule inside a bone and skeleton palace surrounded by a host of fierce retinue figures: two-animal faced dakinis. red hare) and is accompanied by two characters.
Fig. exemplary of the 18th century Sino-Tibetan paintings. 10 Śākyamuni Buddha . Separately. The fine and compound polychrome painting is complete with a precious setting characterized by the liberal use of gold for the ornamentation of Buddha’s clothes. standing in the Pratyalidha attitude. 36 . Ashvapatis). the triangular regulation of water and the use of ground mica added to blue pigment in order to create a lustrous visual effect. the linear shapes of the cumulus clouds. considering the unusual subdued turquoise and blue palette and the use of naive aesthetic vocabulary. was extremely illustrious in Buryatia.early 19th century This particular thangka presents an interesting amalgamation of Sino-Tibetan and Buryat styles. the mossy hills. protectors of the eight directions. The cult of Vaishravana. Seven of the eight horsemen (Skt. (Tib. At the upper part of the thangka resides the blue-faced ferocious Vighnantaka in his two arm form. The deity Vaishravana Riding a Lion has a retinue of eight armour clad horseman.Painting on cotton. face forward but one always has the head turned away. carrying the Tarjanipasa in his left hand and Vajra in his right hand. Rnam-thos sras) the leader of the Yaksha race and worldly Guardian of the North. late 18th. are distinctive elements of originality essentially rendered in most Buryat paintings. since it is to the north of Mongolia and Tibet that the Buryat steppes and mountains are located.This composition demonstrates a clearly indigenous Buryat style. The spacious composition and the stylistic execution of elements such as the upturned lotus petals of Vaishravana’s throne can be ascribed to Mongolia and East Tibet.
Fig.i 37 .
ii 38 .Fig.
iv 40 .Fig.
v 41 .Fig.
vi 42 .Fig.
vii 43 .Fig.
Fig.viii 44 .
Fig.ix 45 .
x 46 .Fig.
Buddhism and Northernland. Orientations. Dharamsala. The necklace of Gzi. A note on Tibetan Theocracy. 1989 Gennady Bashkuev.Pandita Khambo . Bibliography Anya Bernstein. 1974 Gerd-Wolfgang Essen – Tsering Tashi Thingo. De Jong. Buddhism and Nordland. philosopher. 1995 48 . Doctor of Philosophy. Visual Dharma. Buryatia. A Cultural History of Tibet. Berichte uber das Leben des Dipamkarasrijnana. Berkley and London. 1900 Bolsokhoeva Natalya Danilova. May 2010 A. V Religion and Politics.D. LTD. Iroltuev . A set of thirteen century tsakali. 1996. November. 1989 David Paul Jackson. J. Ulan-Ude. Some reflections on Buddhist art collecting and collectors in Russia in the 18th century-early 20th century. 2010 Chogyam Trungpa Rinpoche. Religious Bodies Politic: Rituals of Sovereignty in Buryat Buddhism.VII. Buddhistische Kunst Tibets. Russia. Bonn: Ph. Systematischer Bestandskatalog. p. Die Gotter des Himalaya. 1997 Albert Grunwedel. New York University. Buryatia: Tradition and Culture. A History of Tibetan Painting.I.Lama. The Buddhist Art of Tibet. Shambhala. Thesis for the Rheinischen Friendricyh-Wilhelms Universitat. 1995 Chogyal Namkhai Norbu. The Great Tibetan Painters and their Traditions. Prestel-Verlag.362 Eimer Helmut. Department of Anthropology.Andreyev. Mythologie du Buddhism en Tibet et Mongolie sur la collection lamaique du Prince Ukhtomsky. 2010 Amy Heller. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. Ch. Soyol Publishers.W. Narthang Publications. Eine Untersuchung der Quellen. Munchen. Leipzig. founder of the Ashagat Mamba Datsang and Emchi.
Tibetan Paintings Rediscovered. p. Newsletter. Buddhist Paintings in Buryatia. VII.-B. St Petersburg. Buddhist Paintings in Buryatia. Tibetan Religious Art. December 2001 Skrynnikova Т. D. 2003 Stephen Batchelor. Early Sino-Tibetan Art. I. Issue 14. 2 Loden Sherab Dagyab. Art and Archeology of the Xiongu: new discoveries in Russia. 1996 Sergey Minyaev. The Trials of Dandaron. Visualisation. Novosibirsk. Institute of the history of material culture. Rizolli. 7 Ts. 1977 49 (2nd volume). New York 1998 Lubos Belka. 1996. Orchid Press Publishing Limited.. I. The world of Buryat traditional culture. Brno. The Revival of Tibetan Buddhism in Inner Asia: A Comparative Perspective. Article.Galdanova. II. 1983 Heather Stoddard. Tricycle. and the Myth’s Resurrection in the Twentieth Century in Buryatia. Avedon’s The Buddha’s Art of Healing. G. 1996. research paper supported by the Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange grant. Archiv orientalni. Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Wiesbaden. p. Sacral and vital in Mongolian culture. 2002 Lubos Belka. Gerasimova. Asian and African Studies. vol. Circle of Inner Asian art. Russian Academy of Sciences. The Myth of Shambhala: Visions. II. Buddhist Himalaya: A Journal of Nagarjuna Institute of Exact Methods. Quarterly Journal of Asian and African Studies. The origins of the Geometric Style in Hsiung-nu art. Nauka Publishing. no. Otto Harrassowitz. Russia. Buddhist Perseverance in Russia. Ulan-Ude. 1992. 11. 2009 John F. Badmazhapov. 1 Serghey Miniaev. Czech Republic. Lamaism in Buriatia. 2006 Ts. VII. vol. p. Badmazhapov. .-B. no. Praha. Corrected by Barbara Hazard.
The Semantics of the image of the White Elders in the traditional culture of the Mongolian people. Professor Emeritus. Bonn Vol. Kolarz. Ovchinnikov. Brock University. Fic. Spink. Tibetan Paintings Rediscovered. 1973. M. The nature of shamanism: substance and function of religious metaphor. no.M. Book review: Tibetsky buddhismus v Burjatsku. V. Rizolli. Central Asiatic Journal. 49. 2004. Cagan Ubugunov. Shambalyn-sereg-lamaistskaya svyaschennaya voina (Shambalyn sereg – a holy war of Lamaists). Religion in the Soviet Union. New York 1998 and Deborah Ashencaen and Gennady Leonov. New Material on East Mongolian Shamanism. The Art of Buryatia. Buddhist Icons from Southern Siberia. a restored version of the Atlas of Tibetan Medicine. Ulan-Ude.. John F. L. Library catalogue of Russian and Ukrainian Theses . Macmillan Press. 1961 The presented works are extracted from the recent exquisite catalogue.Mouton.N. 4. 2003 Walther Heissig. 1996 50 . Avedon’s The Buddha’s Art of Healing. translation Lubos Belka Victor M. by Lubos Belka Journal of Global Buddhism. Zhukovskaya. 1988 Nemanova Eleanor Allekovna. 1995 Michael Ripinsky-Naxon. Volume 39. Nauka i religiya 15/12. State University of New York Press. 1993 N. Asian Folklore Studies. 1990 W.
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