This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
CRITICAL DESIGN ISSUES FOR SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR AES CAYUGA, LLC
Anthony C. Favale, P.E. William J. Gretta, P.E. W. Scott Hinton, PhD, P.E. Foster Wheeler Energy Corp. Perryville Corporate Park Clinton, NJ 08809-4000 John A. Cooper AES Cayuga, LLC, Lansing, NY
INTRODUCTION Unit 1 at AES Cayuga, LLC (formerly Milliken Station of NYSEG) is a nominal 160 MWe coal fired steam generator, which was put into service in 1955. Both units at Cayuga were retrofit with wet scrubbers, low NOx burners, new ID fans, new mills and a control upgrade during the mid 90’s. This upgrade was completed in part with a DOE grant. The steam generators burn a 2.4% sulfur Eastern Bituminous coal (HHV = 12,500 Btu/hr) and produce 1800 psig/ 1005°F superheated steam at a rate of 1,200,000 lb/hr with 460 psig reheated steam at a rate of 1,080,000 lb/hr. The unit is corner fired and has two vertical shaft regenerative air heaters. As part of a regional emissions reduction plan, AES decided to retrofit Unit 1 with an SCR. The project goals were 90% NOx reduction, with less than 2 ppmvd ammonia slip, and a catalyst life of 24,000 operating hours. The SCR was designed for low load operation using Haldor Topsoe catalyst and an economizer bypass to achieve a 50% load reduction with the SCR in service.
For these facilities.GENERAL SCR DESIGN Performance Requirements The selection of the performance requirements for the SCR system controls the general SCR design. SO2 conversion. It is no secret that low NOx burners increase unburned carbon in the ash rendering it not just unsaleable. etc. the maximum ammonia slip that is specified for a system will govern to a great degree the general catalyst/reactor design for an installation. The regulatory environment will influence this decision greatly. catalyst volume and design. and pressure drop. removal rates greater than roughly 90% become very difficult. but costly to landfill. For coal-fired facilities. A number of factors influence the decision as to the appropriate ammonia slip level. Many installations hold the deNOx rate constant over the life of the installation and allow the slip to vary – thus initial slip values will be very low while the catalyst is fresh. NOx Reduction Required NOx reduction is typically the first parameter set when considering an SCR system. and temperature are all very common. De-tuning the burners lowers the unburned carbon restoring the sale and cash flow back to the operators. where maldistributions in flow. If an absolute maximum NOx emission rate is required. but in coal-fired facilities the balance of plant operational issues are usually the controlling factors in specifying the ammonia slip. Catalyst volume is very sensitive to the specified maximum ammonia slip. Theoretical NOx removal rates of nearly 100% are possible. excess activity is present in the SCR catalyst during most of the initial guaranteed performance period. is a principal consideration. dictating reactor size. then over-compliance may be of little value. The potential concentration of ammonia on fly ash will also influence -2- . the formation of ammonium bisulfate (ABS). Four primary performance requirements will control the bulk of the SCR system design. then the scheme of maximizing deNOx would be of value. NOx reduction. Both technical and economic limitations control the practical maximum NOx reduction that can be achieved for a particular facility. This guaranteed NOx reduction represents the end-of-life performance after catalyst deactivation has taken place. If NOx credits can be obtained by over-compliance. NOx. but in the practical application of the technology. NOx removals greater than 90% are rarely the basis of design over the entire load range. and auxiliary requirements such as fan capacity. or over-compliance on one unit can offset emissions on other facilities. which results in air preheater fouling. while the deNOx level is varied (maximized) within that slip limit. Ammonia Slip Along with the deNOx efficiency. ammonia storage capacity. since this is the driving force in the decision to install the technology. The required NOx reduction for Cayuga was set at 90%. This detuning improves the lower furnace stoichiometry decreasing the risk of waterwall wastage which will reduce maintenance cost and possible forced outage. ammonia slip. Another utilization of the “over-compliance” capability is to “de-tune” the low NOx burners to improve overall unit performance and to reduce maintenance costs. Thus. These four primary performance requirements are. Alternately the ammonia slip may be set at some predetermined limit. This also improves the boiler efficiency and unit heat rate resulting in a more marketable and competitive unit.
Many facilities selling ash will seek to limit the amount of ammonia adsorbed on the ash to prevent problems associated with the handling. with the actual NH3/NOx ratio being the most frequently specified parameter. Additional catalyst volume can only compensate for maldistributions to a degree. This finding was easily confirmed because a sister unit of nearly identical design. or as acceptable ammonia slip is decreased. Because a direct measurement of the NH3/NOx distribution entering the reactor is quite difficult to make and detailed tuning can be difficult. transport. presumably due to fine sulfate particulate being released at or near the water dew point. Uniform distributions of flow and temperature are also required to meet certain criteria. This represents a balance between system cost (associated with increased catalyst volumes). dry). Since maldistributions will have a direct effect on catalyst performance. and adverse balance-of-plant impacts related to high slip values. the need for smooth flue gas distributions becomes more important. Flue Gas Distribution The required flue gas distributions entering the SCR reactor will be governed by the catalyst volume that is present and by the specified deNOx and ammonia slip levels. In addition. the slip level for Cayuga was set at a maximum of 2 ppm for the guaranteed conditions. including fuel (dictating ash characteristics). provided a comparison. Flow and temperature distributions are typically secondary in importance to the distribution in NH3/NOx ratio. AES Cayuga is equipped with a wet scrubber for SO2 removal. NH3/NOx distributions are frequently inferred by reactor exit NOx and ammonia slip distributions to avoid the difficulties associated with measuring this parameter at the reactor entrance. The installation of the SCR did not appear to adversely affect this plume or the operation of the scrubber. Eastern Bituminous coals typically produce ashes that have a high affinity for ammonia. The trend since the early SCRs were installed in this country has been to lower maximum slip from the original levels of approximately 5 ppm. and fly ash handling (wet vs. catalyst -3- . disposal issues may also influence the maximum ammonia slip that is acceptable. and end-use of the ash. As deNOx levels are increased. but severe flow maldistributions at the reactor entrance or exit are often indicative of poor flow distributions at the ammonia injection grid. This higher SO3 concentration results in ABS formation that is nearly directly proportional to the amount of ammonia slip present. tuning capabilities may be inadequate to compensate for severe flow maldistributions. In keeping with the industry trend. The typical maximum ammonia slip required for Eastern Bituminous coal-fired facilities is 2 ppm on average for the industry at present. most facilities seek to smooth all of the distributions as much as possible. Eastern Bituminous coals may dictate the need for a relatively lower ammonia slip level due to the higher SO3 content of the flue gas. this unit had produced a bluish plume.the selected ammonia slip level. For facilities that ultimately do not sell their ash. In addition. which will create NH3/NOx maldistributions if the ammonia injection grid is not carefully tuned. to mitigate fouling and ash salability problems. The most important of the flue gas distributions is the distribution of ammonia and NOx entering the reactor. type of air preheater and its operation. Balance of plant issues related to ammonia slip will be greatly influenced by the particular characteristics of the operating unit. but without SCR. Historically. No ESP performance or opacity problems were noted. location and type of particulate control.
exacerbating air preheater fouling and corrosion problems and adding to corrosion problems on other down-stream equipment. Dev. the increase in SO3 concentration due to the catalyst will be inversely proportional to flow rate. Table 1 . with increasing temperature resulting in increased SO2 oxidation rates – this effect may be exponential over certain temperature ranges. This is an undesirable side reaction and is a major factor in catalyst design.suppliers will require that certain distributions be within a specified deviation limit.Reactor Inlet Distribution Specifications for Cayuga Parameter Maximum Allowable Maldistribution Flow Maldistribution 15% Std. For a given SO2 concentration and temperature. When Eastern Bituminous coals are fired. Thus. as well as add to the total acid loading on the unit. since an excess of SO3 may not normally be present to fully react with the ammonia slip. Since SO2 conversion is dependent on catalyst volume. The increased SO3 may also add to fine particulate releases due to the formation of an acid mist (although this is an unusual occurrence). SO2 conversion is not strongly affected by time/deactivation. the production rate of SO3 will be nearly constant in terms of actual mass of SO3 created. the SO2 conversion across the catalyst may influence the amount of ABS formed. regardless of the catalyst’s SO2 conversion rate. The guaranteed SO2 conversion for Cayuga is a maximum of 1% at the guaranteed conditions. most Eastern Bituminous coal-fired facilities have held SO2 conversion rates to less than 1%. Temperature Average ± 20 oF SO2 Conversion All SCR catalysts will convert/oxidize some of the SO2 present in the flue gas to SO3. The distribution specifications for the AES Cayuga installation follow in Table 1. there is typically a sufficient amount of SO3 available to react with all of the ammonia slip. which strikes a balance between catalyst volume/cost and adverse impacts associated with the increased SO3 in the flue gas. Historically. as mentioned. High rates of SO2 oxidation are undesirable because they increase the SO3 loading on the unit. Dev. -4- . Thus on a ppm basis. For instance. resulting in an increase in catalyst volume of 50%. such that catalyst design must achieve a balance between deNOx activity and SO2 oxidation. The SO2 conversion is a relatively strong function of temperature. such that it will remain fairly constant for a given set of conditions as long as catalyst volume is not changed. However. the additional SO3 produced by the SCR catalyst will increase the temperature at which ABS begins to deposit. will typically result in a 50% increase in SO2 conversion (assuming that the catalyst design remains unchanged). the installation of a third bed of catalyst. Alternately. Thus lowering the amount of SO3 may not directly affect the quantity of ABS formed. NH3/NOx Ratio 5% Std. additions of catalyst over the facility life will result in increased SO2 conversion. for facilities firing fuels that are very low in sulfur. The conversion of SO2 to SO3 will limit the specific deNOx activity achievable for a catalyst. lowering SO2 conversion rates will typically result in increased catalyst volume.
These pressure drops could be handled through minor ID fan upgrades representing an inexpensive option compared to a full fan retrofit.c. Most coal-fired installations are opting for catalyst lives on the order of 2-4 years (represented as total operating hours). with three years (24. This contributes to increased cost from an initial capital standpoint. When this limitation is very stringent. However for retrofit facilities. usually set by the system purchaser. As with other design parameters. (with initial catalyst charge). extremely short catalyst lives will result in operational drawbacks due to frequent outages necessary for catalyst replacement. and unnecessarily exposes additional catalyst to a deactivating environment. For facilities operating only seasonally. fan or motor modifications can be enacted which marginally boost fan capacity at a minor cost as compared to a full retrofit. and improvements in electrical switchgear. the fuel selection will also have an impact and can be used to adjust catalyst life (discussed in more detail in following sections). -5- . The life is a function of the initial catalyst volume and the rate of deactivation of the catalyst.7” w. Thus for a particular installation. This added catalyst is unneeded in the early operational period of the installation.75” w.000 hrs. Alternately.c. catalyst “life” is determined by the point at which ammonia slip reaches its allowable maximum for the design deNOx and other operating conditions. especially greenfield installations. and cabling. This is because reasonable SCR system pressure drops can be accommodated rather easily in the initial fan and ductwork design. as well as increased costs associated with making a large number of individual catalyst purchases. Extremely long specified catalyst lives are not beneficial because of the need to install excess catalyst to meet the life guarantees. pressure drop may play a secondary role in catalyst design considerations. which would have required a larger fan motor replacement. This limitation was necessary to achieve an overall SCR system pressure drop of less than 5. For a particular catalyst design.Pressure Drop The final SCR design parameter to be considered is pressure drop. In some cases. The catalyst specification for AES Cayuga limited the catalyst pressure drop to less than 1. End-of-life is a performance determination based on the point at which the catalyst can no longer achieve both its deNOx and ammonia slip performance requirements. pressure drop may take a preeminent role in SCR system design and catalyst selection. This occurs in facilities that would require a stepwise upgrade in fans when a certain pressure drop threshold is reached (such as the requirement to convert to a balanced draft unit. then pressure drop can become one of the governing factors in catalyst and SCR system design.) being the most common guarantee period. this marginal boost in capacity generates a stringent pressure drop limitation for SCR design. or the requirement for a full fan/motor retrofit). In these cases. the design pressure drop must strike a balance between facility costs (associated with fan retrofits and energy costs associated with increased pressure drop) and catalyst/SCR costs (associated with an increased catalyst cross-section and/or pitch leading to higher catalyst volumes and physical reactor installation costs). thus the importance of pressure drop will vary from unit to unit. Since life is also controlled by deactivation rates. Only with significant aging is the additional catalyst actually required to meet the performance guarantees. catalyst life can be extended simply by increasing the catalyst volume. This limitation represented the point at which a major fan retrofit would be required. Catalyst Life and Management Catalyst life (typically designated as the guaranteed life prior to a catalyst upgrade) is a specified parameter. transformers. Many times.
also included a calendar year maximum guarantee duration. the required guaranteed catalyst life was set at 24. -6- . representing the end of the initial life guarantee period.this operational life guarantee may result in a much greater life guarantee on a calendar year basis. The guarantee for the Cayuga facility. Assuming seasonal operation for this facility. will generally involve the addition of a catalyst bed. The timing of these upgrades will dictate the long-term performance of the SCR.000 hrs.000 hours. Most SCR reactors associated with coal-fired facilities will have one or two spare catalyst layers. The arrangement of the catalyst layers is shown in Figure 4. For the Cayuga facility. In practice. thereafter. as with most facilities. rotating through each catalyst layer.000 hour guarantee period. thus the initial management plan serves only as a general guide for expected future upgrades. The plan calls for a catalyst addition at the end of the initial 24. testing and performance data will be used to identify the exact time when catalyst upgrades are actually required.” which represents a best estimate of when catalyst upgrades will be needed during the future life of the facility. which are unused at the initial start-up of the facility. there is expected to be approximately six (6) calendar years before a catalyst upgrade/addition is needed. Subsequent upgrades will either add catalyst if another spare layer is available or will replace the oldest catalyst layer in the reactor. Once a reactor has been completely filled with catalyst. The catalyst management plan for Cayuga is shown in Figure 1. The long-term maintenance of catalyst and the resulting potential deNOx activity will be dictated initially by the “catalyst management plan. with catalyst layer replacements following roughly every 20. the first catalyst upgrade. upgrades will typically consist of layer replacements. thus the reactor performance can be enhanced by accelerating catalyst upgrades. Thus.000-30.
coal has a number of trace and primary constituents that can adversely impact catalyst life. Chemical poisoning is often irreversible.Catalyst Management Plan for AES Cayuga Catalyst Deactivation Associated with Fuels A number of deactivation mechanisms for SCR catalysts are known to occur as a result of fuel constituents. Chemical poisoning occurs by the reaction of a poison with an active catalytic site resulting in a chemical or pseudochemical bond. Two general types of deactivation are known to occur. chemical deactivation or poisoning and physical deactivation via masking or fouling. as well as range broadly within a particular coal type. Physical deactivation occurs by the masking or fouling of the catalyst surface or internal pores. or by other mechanisms that deposit a layer of material on the catalyst surface.AES Cayuga Catalyst Management Plan 120% Install Spare Layer 110% Replace Layer 2 100% R elative A ctiv it y. This may occur due to fouling by fine particulate. % Replace Layer 1 90% 80% 70% 60% 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 50000 55000 60000 65000 70000 75000 80000 85000 90000 Operating Hours Figure 1 . In particular. preventing diffusion of the gas constituents to the active sites. which renders the site inactive for the SCR reaction. These constituents and poisoning mechanisms differ greatly between different coal types. -7- .
A histogram showing various operating conditions with time weighting is especially helpful in establishing average conditions for the selection of operating parameters for the SCR design.The fuel analysis for AES Cayuga was relatively straightforward.042 lb/MMBTU Ammonia Consumption 210 lb/hr (anhydrous) Catalyst Pressure Drop <1. There is some tendency to design the SCR system for the absolute worst-case conditions. although the unit may only reach those conditions rarely. These coals were both Eastern Bituminous having an average sulfur level of approximately 2% and ash levels on the order of 8%.542. Although this approach will insure deNOx can be attained within specified slip for any boiler operating condition. and higher than optimal costs. flow rate. which typically represent the unit’s high load and low load conditions. The selection of design conditions for Cayuga were based upon these premises. with only two principal coals used for design purposes. gas constituents) represented the controlling case for the SCR design and are shown in Table 2. and both are well within the range of experience of the catalyst suppliers.Design Criteria for Cayuga (MCR Conditions) Design Parameter Value Gas Flow Rate 1. Design conditions should be based on historical operating data. The determination of the exact operating conditions for facility design is very important in both meeting the required NOx removal for the facility in the long term. it usually results in SCR system overdesign. and in minimizing the economic impacts. the high load operating conditions will govern the overall SCR design.130 lb/hr Temperature 627°F Inlet NOx 0.75” wc (initial charge) DeNOx Efficiency 90% SO2 Conversion <1% Ammonia Slip <2 ppmvw -8- . The full load (100% MCR) average operating conditions (temperature. High load operating conditions are most often used in designing the SCR system. SPECIFIC SCR DESIGN ISSUES FOR AES CAYUGA Selection of Design Boiler Operating Conditions The design of any SCR facility is based on some set of boiler operating conditions. Table 2 . In most cases. which demonstrate the actual parameters of operation at real unit operating states.42 lb/MMBTU Outlet NOx 0. No excessive chemical or physical poisoning is expected for these fuels. depending on the regulatory environment and the appropriate NOx emissions averaging period.
Once the flues exited the alley. the flues required a 90-degree turn and abrupt dimensional change from wide and short to tall and narrow. The minimum load requirement and the catalyst minimum operating temperature (governed by the coal sulfur content) required that an economizer bypass be installed (see Figure 3). resulting in a space that was so limited that each side of the twin flues had to be separated into three smaller flues to negotiate through the existing structural steel trusses. All of this equipment was installed prior to the flue installations. The SCR was designed to operate during the ozone season and to be bypassed during the rest of the year. -9- . which was further constrained by the access to the boiler exit. A construction plan was developed to use a monorail system. Sufficient access under and through the reactor support steel was needed to allow a train car to enter the turbine building. These too needed to be installed inside the boiler building. The bypass flues had to be integrated with the boiler exit flues. their configuration was changed again to enter the reactor hood. As shown in Figure 2. the installation of an SCR at Cayuga was challenging. The reactor was located just outside the alleyway. there were limited possibilities for the location of the reactor. which was used to trolley the dampers and flues into the alley from on top of the reactor structure. The rear boiler house wall was 12 feet from the precipitator building.Site Layout As with most retrofit projects. This required installation of isolation dampers. creating an alley which provided the only access for the SCR supply and return flues. To utilize this access.
10 - .Figure 2 – Overall SCR system layout Boiler / Turbine Building ESP Building Alley .
These modules are then loaded individually into the reactor. Economizer Bypass for Low Load Operation One of the major objectives of the Cayuga DeNOx system was to be able to operate the SCR at reduced loads. SO2 conversion. and pressure drop. These monoliths are then arranged in baskets or modules. and life requirements. the principal variations in the catalyst offerings were cost. Additional materials may be added such as tungsten and molybdenum to help promote the deNOx reaction or limit SO2 conversion. ammonia slip. downstream of the SCR diverter damper. Assuming that an offering met the deNOx. As the temperature approaches the minimum permissive temperature for catalyst operation. acting as the substrate. the bypass flues were routed from between the primary superheater sections of the boiler down to the SCR inlet flue.11 - . The flow crosssectional area is critical when sizing economizer bypass flues. This results in a relatively small window of safe operation for the catalyst so an economizer bypass system was incorporated. which are enclosed in metal frames. and pressure drop. “flapper” control dampers were installed. These dampers are operated via the DCS in accordance with the measured temperature at the catalyst inlet. and giving the best performance in terms of a balance between cost. at lower loads (below 50% MCR) these dampers will be full-open and cannot provide adequate . SO2 conversion. The high-dust application required that the catalyst have a large open area with sufficient channel size (pitch) to allow particulate matter to pass through the catalyst without fouling. • an elevation in the primary superheater that would provide sufficient flue gas temperature for proper control of the gas temperature entering the SCR at low loads. However. with vanadium pentoxide acting as the principal active catalytic component. The catalyst composition is principally titanium dioxide.Catalyst Design A number of catalyst suppliers were solicited for their offerings to meet the design criteria. As shown in Figure 3. At higher loads these dampers can operate independently to heat the main flue gas stream entering the catalyst since only a small amount of gas will be needed to maintain the minimum operating temperature. formed into monoliths. The Haldor Topsoe catalyst consists of undulating “plates” of ceramic/composite material. Two basic criteria were used in locating the primary superheater take-off point for the economizer bypass flue: • a location where a flue of the required cross-sectional area could be physically located (without problems associated with internal or external boiler interferences). Haldor Topsoe was selected as the catalyst supplier. Near the connection point of the bypass ducts to the boiler. In addition. having met all required design guarantees. the catalyst must withstand the abrasive environment so that long-term attrition does not impact life guarantees. The economizer exit temperature at MCR was specified at 627°F and the catalyst minimum operating temperature was specified as 608°F. the bypass dampers are opened incrementally to allow hotter gas in the primary superheater to heat the main economizer exit stream. The goal of the economizer bypass system was to allow the SCR to operate down to 50% MCR for extended periods of time.
temperature stratifications at the catalyst inlet would exist at reduced loads since the temperature differences between the economizer exit gas and bypass gas are large. Without some type of mixing system. Damper Design for Seasonal Operation One of the requirements of being located in the OTAG zone requires the ability operate the SCR on a seasonal basis. these temperature deviations would create performance problems (localized ABS formations. By directing the ammonia into the mixer. the AIG is located directly upstream of the first mixer. AIG and Static Mixer Design Because of the need for an economizer bypass system. the first stage is used help mix the gas side-to-side. a Sulzer static mixing system was employed. O2 . This then creates a homogeneous mixture of ammonia. Because of the benefit from the mixing. the second stage is used to mix the gas top-to-bottom. Because of this concern. the ammonia distribution is benefited by the turbulence mixing that takes place downstream. SO2 oxidations). This ability allows the damper to be used to slowly heat the catalyst during SCR . Therefore a control damper at the economizer exit was installed as shown in Figure 3. The operation of the economizer bypass has been flawless and is one of the major successes in the project. the static mixer was employed to address other homogeneity issues. temperature and particulate loading at the catalyst. The AIG is designed to direct the ammonia/air mixture directly into the “cells” of the mixer. The mixer was used to improve the homogeneity of all of these constituents as well as the ammonia distribution.12 - .heating. In the non-ozone season the gas is to be directed from the economizer to the air heater. diverter dampers was employed (see Figure 3). This indicates that adequate flue gas heating is achieved without operating the economizer exit control dampers. The mixer consists of two “stages”. Operation of the unit below 50% MCR is going to be tested and likely can be accomplished. The diverter damper for this application utilizes considerably less seal air than a equivalently-sized double-louver system would. Space limitations were the primary reason for selecting the diverter damper as compared to a double louver design. This damper works in conjunction with the bypass flapper dampers via the DCS. As shown in Figure 3. NOx and particulate loading. The objective for operating the SCR in the ozone season is to be able to divert the gas from the economizer to the SCR and back to the air heater. In addition to the temperature mixing however. See Figure 4. Preliminary unit operation has shown that at 50% MCR the economizer bypass dampers are not full-open. It is quite common to have constituent differences in a flow stream such as O2. The mixers are designed with bent plates that are used to redirect the gases and create small and large-scale turbulence. The diverter damper utilizes an electric actuator and can be opened or closed in small increments. NOx. the diverter is less susceptible to flyash erosion as compared to double louver dampers. This turbulence promotes mixing of multiple constituents and creates a homogeneous downstream mixture. less injection points are utilized as compared to zone-type AIG systems. In addition. In order to provide a relatively simple flue arrangement for the seasonal operation objective.
This leakage allows the heated dilution air to flow through the reactor. The SCR outlet damper is a single louver shut-off type and is allowed to leak. The catalyst manufacturer specified a maximum humidity level of 60% RH.startup. This heated air flows through the (out of service) AIG and into the reactor. During the non-ozone season. The damper manufacturer specified that heated seal air was to be used for damper sealing during normal boiler operating conditions. To achieve this. hot secondary air was utilized. the AIG dilution air system is utilized and the air is heated via an electric heater. . In order to minimize additional heating equipment for the seal air requirements such as electric heaters or steam heat exchangers.13 - . it is necessary to keep the humidity levels low in the reactor in order to prevent condensation on the catalyst.
14 - .Figure 3 – Economizer bypass flue and damper arrangements Economizer Bypass Flues Economizer Bypass Flapper Damper AIG Boiler Economizer Outlet Control Dampers Air Preheater Diverter Damper To ESP SCR Outlet Dampers .
15 - .Figure 4 – SCR flue and reactor internals Mixers Turning Vanes Flow Rectifier Future Catalyst Initial Catalyst Charge .
Flow Distribution As discussed previously. The distribution of the tracer gas was used to infer the distribution of ammonia. taking into account the differences between the actual flyash. in conjunction with the static mixers. SCR bypass flues. A 1/12th scale flow model was used to determine the optimum arrangement of flow control devices needed to meet the flow. The following procedures were used to simulate and optimize these objectives: 1. The flow model study. In addition. The turning vane designs. The model included simulations of the SCR inlet/outlet flues.Flow Modeling A critical path activity in the execution of the SCR project was the flow model study. Flow Distribution Cold flow simulation utilizing ambient air is measured in the model at the point of interest. catalyst layers and air preheaters. 3. The simulations for temperature mixing at 50% MCR . economizer bypass flues. A mass transfer to heat transfer correlation was made to infer the temperature distribution at the catalyst. As shown in Table 1. 5. performed under direction of the catalyst manufacturer. Temperature Distribution A tracer gas (CH4) was uniformly injected into the economizer bypass flues and the CH4 concentration field was measured at the catalyst inlet. Ammonia Distribution A tracer gas (CH4) was uniformly injected into the two AIG pipes and the CH4 concentration field was measured at the catalyst inlet. AIG. Temperature and Ammonia Distribution The mixers were found to be very beneficial in providing both uniform temperature and ammonia distribution into the catalyst. flues and flow control devices were to be optimized to minimize system pressure drop and ash dropout.16 - . Pressure Drop Model pressures were measured and then corrected to full-scale flow and temperature conditions. static mixers were employed to aid in thermal mixing as well as distributing ammonia at the catalyst. were then optimized to produce acceptable flow distribution into the catalyst. Turning vanes were installed in the inlet flues to provide uniform flow distribution at the AIG and catalyst. the primary objectives of the modeling were to meet flow and temperature distribution at the catalyst inlet. The results gave general indications of where ash dropout could occur in the full-scale system. Ash Dropout Model dust particles were injected into the model. 2. temperature and ammonia distribution within the SCR. extended from the exit of the economizer to the air preheaters. model scale and temperature/flow conditions. 4. Standard pitot static tubes were used to measure velocity distribution in the transport flues and a Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA) system was used to measure the velocity field and flow angles at the catalyst inlet. static mixers.
Ash Dropout Initial ash dropout testing showed two areas where accumulations were noted. System pressure drop measurements in the full-scale system have indicated very good agreement between both predicted and modeled values. .and ammonia concentration distribution at the catalyst were well within the specified criteria from the catalyst supplier. Fortunately.17 - . The areas of deposits were mitigated by installing sloping floors and reducing the cross-sectional area of the associated flue sections. Overall the model study proved to be a critical step in the project execution. System Pressure Drop Overall system pressure drop was measured and reported throughout the modeling process. after flow control devices are optimized. Typically ash dropout testing is performed near the end of the modeling process. These changes had only a minimal impact on system pressure drop and were incorporated into the full-scale flue design. Initial results on key system performance criteria indicate that the recommendations set forth from the modeling results have proven very effective. these tests were requested to be made early in the modeling process and the flue changes were made before final flow distributions were optimized and completed. Predicted pressure drop and modeled pressure drop measurements agreed fairly well and it was important to make sure that there was not an excessive increase in losses due to flow control devices modifications and/or ash deposition mitigation.
In addition. Some valve packing needed to be replaced when the anhydrous ammonia was first introduced into the system and a differential pressure switch on one of the tanks had to be replaced. This indicates that the ammonia injection grid and static mixer system is working well and generating a smooth distribution of ammonia at the inlet to the catalyst. The primary performance goals for NOx reduction.2 ppmv. The system logic was implemented by plant personnel and operated on automatic and load-follow mode within a few days. as expected for a new unit. Outlet NOx distributions were also very good. SO2 Conversion At the time of publication. The initial checkout had uncovered some minor wiring problems. ammonia slip. NOx reduction of 95% was achieved within the first few days of operation. Operation at reduced loads (down to 50% MCR) was easily accomplished with the economizer bypass system. the AIG did not require flow adjustment. implying that the ammonia and NOx distributions entering the reactor were also smooth. Prediction of future slip values based upon initial slip values is difficult.START-UP and INITIAL OPERATION at CAYUGA Start-up and Initial Performance The SCR start-up was accomplished quickly with only minor interruptions. while attaining 90% deNOx. at about 7 ppmv absolute deviation from average. and the fact that these distribution were better than expected from the flow modeling results. These results were considered excellent considering the difficult design requirements of the facility. The plant is now selling the ash instead of paying to have it landfilled. Ammonia Slip The initial ammonia slip measurements for AES Cayuga showed very low levels of ammonia slip at less than 0. a detailed analysis of the available SO2 conversion data was not available. The ammonia in ash was measured at approximately 18 ppm allowing the sale of the ash without concern. Since there were mixers in the SCR system. with the capability to run at even lower loads. LESSONS LEARNED The requirement for low temperature operation has forced all the catalyst vendors to re-evaluate their approach in calculating their minimum operating temperature. NOx Distributions and DeNOx Efficiency The initial inlet NOx distribution measurements for Cayuga were well within the design criteria. the SCR operation was flawless. but the very low initial values are encouraging. and indicate that sufficient activity is likely present to meet life guarantees. the distribution of ammonia slip was very smooth. Load was limited due to other problems at the site. It wasn’t long before the operators realized the enhanced unit performance and profitability of trading ammonia flow through over compliance for unit heat rate improvement. but when full load was achieved. pressure drop and turn down were all exceeded. In general there are no major .18 - . which were repaired on site.
Without this activity. due to the relatively low SCR economizer exit gas temperature. CONCLUSIONS The installation of the SCR at Cayuga has proved very successful. This was compounded by the fact that the model study was conducted in Europe. industry in meeting stringent NOx control levels on difficult applications.differences between catalyst types when considering minimum operating temperature. . resulting in costly visits and difficulty in monitoring changes and progress. The challenging nature of this project and its ultimate success has demonstrated the maturity of the U. minimum operating temperature proved to be a major evaluation factor when selecting the catalyst supplier. the economizer bypass has functioned extremely well allowing the unit and the SCR to operate unhindered through a wide load range. the results would have surely been less impressive.19 - . The flow model proved to be a very high value tool in the determination of the final design arrangement. However. Unfortunately. The overall arrangement. in particular. The effects of late completion of this work can ripple through the entire project impeding the delivery of critical components.S. with the project easily meeting its primary goal of reducing the level of NOx emitted by the facility by greater than 90%. In this particular project. The importance of performing the flow model as early in the project cannot be overstressed. deliverables on the modeling results were late and impacts on the other steps of the project were impacted. The SCR apparatus is robust to exceed the guaranteed performance and allow the operators to improve the overall unit heat rate and reduce boiler maintenance through the detuning of the low NOx burners. each vendor can have different margins when providing these temperatures. The operator’s apprehension toward the SCR in the beginning soon dissipated with the quickness and ease of operation and the added bonus of improved boiler performance.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.