The Food and Culture Around the World Handbook
Helen C. Brittin
Professor Emeritus Texas Tech University, Lubbock

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Editor in Chief: Vernon Anthony Acquisitions Editor: William Lawrensen Editorial Assistant: Lara Dimmick Director of Marketing: David Gesell Senior Marketing Coordinator: Alicia Wozniak Campaign Marketing Manager: Leigh Ann Sims Curriculum Marketing Manager: Thomas Hayward Marketing Assistant: Les Roberts Senior Managing Editor: Alexandrina Benedicto Wolf Project Manager: Wanda Rockwell Senior Operations Supervisor: Pat Tonneman Creative Director: Jayne Conte Cover Art: iStockphoto Full-Service Project Management: Integra Software Services, Ltd. Composition: Integra Software Services, Ltd. Cover Printer/Binder: Courier Companies,Inc. Text Font: 9.5/11 Garamond Credits and acknowledgments borrowed from other sources and reproduced, with permission, in this textbook appear on appropriate page within text.

Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. This publication is protected by Copyright, and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. To obtain permission(s) to use material from this work, please submit a written request to Pearson Education, Inc., Permissions Department, 1 Lake Street, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, 07458. Many of the designations by manufacturers and seller to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book, and the publisher was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial caps or all caps. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Brittin, Helen C. The Food and culture around the world handbook/Helen C. Brittin. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN-13: 978-0-13-507481-7 (alk. paper) ISBN-10: 0-13-507481-9 (alk. paper) 1. Diet––Handbooks, manuals, etc. 2. Food habits––Handbooks, manuals, etc. 3. Cookery––Handbooks, manuals, etc. I. Title. TX353.B6985 2011 394.1––dc22 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

ISBN 10: 0-13-507481-9 ISBN 13: 978-0-13-507481-7

PREFACE
Culture, a pattern or design for living, allows individuals in social groups to live together in relative harmony through shared values, beliefs, and practices. The variety of social groups in the world and diversity of the environmental contexts in which they live lead to great intergroup variation in values, beliefs, and practices that arise in an attempt to meet the basic needs of existence, including food and nutrition. Similarly, individuals have many different life experiences that contribute to intragroup variation in the degree of adherence to norms in their culture. Members of a society often have different interpretations of the same situation because of factors such as age, income, education level, and religion. Food and nutrition professionals, as well as persons from all walks of life, need quick access to information to interact effectively with individuals from different cultural groups. This is especially important now in the United States because recent population changes have resulted in an increasingly culturally diverse society. This pocket guide is a resource containing basic cultural and geographic information about cultural groups throughout the world. It is intended to provide a snapshot of the cultural diversity that exists and that we must understand to fulfill our dual roles as citizens and providers of competent education and care, including food service. The author encourages the reader to use the book as an introduction to the diversity of factors that affect values, beliefs, and practices related to food and nutrition. The reader can use the book as an initial stepping stone to multicultural competence in providing food and nutrition education and care to a culturally diverse population and to gain a better understanding of ones self. The purpose of this guide is to help focus attention on the potential variations a culturally diverse client or student may, or may not, exhibit. One needs to be aware of the cultural factors such as availability of food, income, and religion which might influence a person’s food practices and preferences in order to address them in nutrition assessment, education, and care. The facts must not be converted into stereotypes by the user. Use this guide to start increasing your awareness and understanding of potential similarities and differences. Then build on this information with an individualized cultural assessment. This book is also about food of countries throughout the world. Included is information on influences on food, usual foods listed in food groups, seasonings, typical dishes, national dish if there is one, special occasion foods, beverages, meals and service, and street food and snacks. This information is included for each country if it is available. The information on food is designed to be used with the information on culture in this book. The book is designed to be a convenient, brief reader and reference on food and culture of all the countries of the world. As of mid-2009, there are 195 nations in the world. The book profiles the culture and food of the 195 countries, in alphabetical order. Certain regions and territories that are not independent nations can be found in the entry for the governing nation. The book will be useful to people who are already interested in food and it may spark an interest in food of people throughout the world to others who read it.

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THE AUTHOR
Helen C. Brittin, PhD, RD, LD, FADA, CFCS, Professor Emeritus of Food and Nutrition at Texas Tech University, created the course on cultural aspects of food at Texas Tech University and taught thousands of students in the course. She is a Registered Dietitian, Licensed Dietitian, Fellow of the American Dietetic Association, and is Certified in Family and Consumer Sciences. An active researcher, she has more than 100 presentations and publications, including a classic textbook. Her research is on meat, sensory evaluation, wine, iron in food, and cultural aspects of food. Active in teaching, research, and service, she has served as President of the Texas Dietetic Association and received university, state, and national awards including the Texas Dietetic Association 2000 Distinguished Dietitian Award. She was recognized by Florida State University with a Centennial Award in 2005. In addition to degrees from Florida State University and Texas Tech University, she has taken graduate courses in cultural aspects of food at New York University and Washington State University. She also did a Mini Development Leave at the University of California, Davis. Dr. Brittin has served as a Professor at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, and Middle East Technical University in Ankara, Turkey. She has served as the International Federation for Home Economics Research Committee chairperson and was instrumental in increasing research presentations at IFHE World Congresses. She has traveled to numerous countries throughout the world in her research, teaching, and service. Dr. Brittin’s avid and longtime interest in people and their food has culminated in this book.

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vii .ACKNOWLEDGMENT The following sources were especially helpful in the preparation of this manuscript and deserve special recognition for their contributions. NY: World Almanac Books. Chicago. 2009. Pleasantville. Inc. Time Almanac 2009. 2009. The World Almanac and Book of Facts 2009. These sources are cited for demographic. economic. IL: Encyclopedia Britannica. and geographical data..

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Burkina Faso . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Austria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Australia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Antigua and Barbuda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .49 Canada . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Armenia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .30 Bhutan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 B Bahamas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 Barbados .6 Angola . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Algeria . . . . . .1 Albania . . . . . .44 Burma (see Myanmar) .21 Bangladesh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40 Bulgaria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 Belize . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 Burundi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24 Belarus . . . .47 Cameroon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 ix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 Benin . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Argentina . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .45 C Cambodia . . . . . . . . .33 Bosnia and Herzegovina . . . . .16 Azerbaijan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 Bahrain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 Brazil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Bolivia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 Botswana . . . . . . . .5 Andorra . . . . .38 Brunei . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26 Belgium . . .CONTENTS Countries A Afghanistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 Djibouti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Germany . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Gambia. . . . .70 Croatia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Cuba . . . . . . .106 Georgia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .94 Ethiopia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .The . . . .99 France . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Finland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Ecuador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .52 Central African Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .82 Dominican Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .86 Egypt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .83 E East Timor (see Timor-Leste) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Chad . . . . . . .95 F Fiji . . . . . . . .73 Cyprus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .68 Côte D’Ivoire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 Czech Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57 China .112 Greece . . . . . . . . . .91 Eritrea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 Dominica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .59 Colombia . . .114 . . . .55 Chile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 D Denmark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Ghana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 El Salvador . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 G Gabon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .93 Estonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .x Contents Cape Verde . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Congo Republic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Comoros . . . . . . . .67 Costa Rica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .89 Equatorial Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Congo (formerly Zaire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 I Iceland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Iraq . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Honduras . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Kosovo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Ireland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 Latvia . . . . . . . . . . . . . .155 K Kazakhstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Guinea-Bissau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .178 Liberia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .147 Ivory Coast (see Côte D’Ivoire) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .136 Iran . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Hungary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Guatemala . .Contents xi Grenada . . . . . . . .158 Kenya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 L Laos .150 J Jamaica . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .182 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .151 Japan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .144 Italy . . . . . .161 Korea. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .159 Kiribati . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .174 Lebanon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . South . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . North . . . . . .163 Korea. .167 Kuwait . . . . . . .142 Israel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Kyrgyzstan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .123 H Haiti . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 Lesotho . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Guinea . . .179 Libya . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .180 Liechtenstein . . . . . . . . . .152 Jordan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Guyana . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .207 Mongolia . . . . . . . . . . . . .234 P Pakistan . .196 Marshall Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .183 Luxembourg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .199 Mauritius . . . . . . . . . . . . . .227 Niger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .225 Nicaragua . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .205 Monaco . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .201 Micronesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241 Paraguay . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .191 Maldives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .210 Morocco . .236 Palau . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .193 Mali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .204 Moldova . .243 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xii Contents Lithuania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .200 Mexico . . . .218 Nauru . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .230 Norway . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 Panama . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .219 Nepal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .211 Mozambique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .214 Myanmar (formerly Burma) . . . . .231 O Oman .221 Netherlands . . . . . . . . . . . .228 Nigeria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .215 N Namibia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Montenegro .188 Malawi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .239 Papua New Guinea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .190 Malaysia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .187 Madagascar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .185 M Macedonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .223 New Zealand . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197 Mauritania . . . . . . . . . . . .194 Malta .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .296 Swaziland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Philippines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .303 T Taiwan . . . . . . . . . . . . .272 Serbia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Slovenia . . . .282 Solomon Islands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .284 Somalia . . . . . . .255 Russia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .297 Sweden . . . . . . . . . . . . .267 São Tomé and Príncipe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .276 Sierra Leone . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .266 San Marino . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .259 S Saint Kitts and Nevis .253 R Romania . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 Sudan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .269 Saudi Arabia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .264 Samoa (formerly Western Samoa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .294 Suriname . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .263 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .287 Spain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .270 Senegal . . . . .250 Q Qatar . . . . . .257 Rwanda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .301 Syria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .246 Poland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Contents xiii Peru . . . . . . . . . . . .248 Portugal . . . .307 Tanzania . .299 Switzerland . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .305 Tajikistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .279 Slovakia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .262 Saint Lucia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .289 Sri Lanka . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .286 South Africa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .308 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .274 Seychelles . . . . . . .277 Singapore . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . .310 Timor-Leste (East Timor) .356 Zimbabwe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .343 Uzbekistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .317 Tunisia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .323 Tuvalu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .320 Turkmenistan . . . .314 Tonga . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .319 Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .348 Venezuela . . . . . . .326 Ukraine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .315 Trinidad and Tobago . . . . . . . .353 Y Yemen . . . . . . . . . . .355 Z Zaire (see Congo) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .356 Zambia . . . . . . .357 Bibliography . . . . 366 . . . . . .350 Vietnam . . . . . . . . . . .347 Vatican City . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327 United Arab Emirates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .344 V Vanuatu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .329 United Kingdom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .324 U Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .352 W Western Samoa (see Samoa) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 360 Regional Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xiv Contents Thailand . . . . . .354 Yugoslavia (see Serbia and Montenegro) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .331 United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .312 Togo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .336 Uruguay . . . . . . . .

aged 15-49. divided by the total population aged 15-49. Life expectancy is at birth for persons born in 2008. living with HIV in 2007. Agriculture livestock is listed in order of decreasing numbers of animals in 2007. not the (smaller) percent able to read and write to carry out effectively activities in the community. HIV rate is the estimated number of adults. figures are based on purchasing power parity calculations. Percentage of urban population is for mid-2005. xv . Census Bureau.DEFINITIONS Literacy rates and population figures are supplied by the International Data Base. Literacy rates given generally measure the percent of population of adults ages 15 or over able to read and write simple statements on everyday life. figures are 2007 estimates. GDP. U. gross domestic product. which involve use of international dollar price weights applied to quantities of goods and services produced. National population and health figures are mid-2008 estimates.S.

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S. copper. 1 . grapes. 1998. chickens. soap. believed to be financed by bin Laden. the Taliban. Iran. it is mostly mountainous or desert.-led coalition invaded Afghanistan and overthrew the Taliban government. Soviet troops were in Afghanistan from 1978 until 1988. gained control in 1996.S.S.000 Labor force in agriculture 80% Urban 22.-led coalition and NATO peacekeeping force were in Afghanistan to combat remnants of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda. with a dry climate and extreme temperatures. and Tajikistan. and a U. In 2007 a record poppy crop accounted for almost a third of the country’s GDP and 93% of the world’s opium. coal. furniture. 131 Literacy rate 28. On Aug. 20. In late 2001 a U. The U. rice. terrorist attack on New York’s World Trade Center towers and the Pentagon. Uzbekistan. 7.9% Infant mortality rate per 1.S. bordering Pakistan. Approximately the size of Texas.S. 1998. operating from across the border in Pakistan. fruits. Turkmenistan. camels. increased their activities such as bombing and kidnapping in 2007–2008. poverty.S. In 2008 international donors pledged increased aid for reconstruction and to combat drugs.4 female Per capita GDP $1. and U. when an UN-mediated agreement provided for Soviet withdrawal and a neutral Afghan state. goats. In 1973 it became a republic. Afghan rebels achieved power in 1992. cattle Natural resources natural gas.5% Arable land 12% Agriculture wheat.000 live births 154.1% Life expectancy 44 male. mi. salt. sheep. gemstones (especially lapis lazuli).A AFGHANISTAN Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Geography Afghanistan is in southern Asia. and the UN demanded the Taliban hand over for trial Osama bin Laden. opium poppy. Major Languages Dari (Afghan Persian) Pashto (all are official) Six additional local languages Ethnic Groups Pashtun Tajik Hazara Uzbek Other 42% 27% 9% 9% 13% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Shi’a Muslim Other 80% 19% 1% Population density per sq. sheltered by the Taliban. embassies in Kenya and Tanzania on Aug. shoes History Afghanistan occupied a favored invasion route from antiquity until the 18th century when a unified kingdom was established. 2001.7 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 8. Since 2004 violence has increased. 11. U. cruise missiles struck a terrorist training complex in Afghanistan. Bin Laden was also the primary suspect for the Sept. fish Industries textiles. a wealthy Islamic radical believed to be involved in the bombing of the U. Islamic suicide bombers and Taliban insurgents. air strikes intensified. nuts. In 2004 a new constitution was ratified. oil. 44. and violence. an insurgent Islamic radical faction.

chicken. who do not consume pork or alcohol. and raises livestock. potatoes. Vegetables Potatoes. . saffron. and is served with sharbat-e-rihan (sherbet with basil seeds). Bread and cereals Wheat. and relatives. basil seeds. game. melons.g. rosewater-flavored syrup. rice dishes. qymaq (clotted cream traditionally made from water buffalo milk). traditional for the New Year festival on the first day of spring. neighbors. fat from fat-tailed sheep (dumba). the basic boiled white long-grain rice. Most of the people are Muslims. Sweets Sugar. Fats and oils Oil. and the British with their Indian troops in the 19th century brought other influences. The unusual abrayshum (silk) kebab. rice. Breads.. Tea houses (chaikhana) These provide tea from a samovar and often meals and accommodation for travelers. noodles. Fruit Grapes. Halva (confection of grain or vegetables. Milk-based puddings (e. and topping with qymaq (clotted cream). rivers provide some fish. adding bicarbonate of soda so that the tea becomes red. Dishes Pastry and noodle dishes. leeks. named after its sandal-like shape. usually accompanied by meat or vegetable stews (korma) or burani (vegetables with yogurt). often flavored with cardamom and served with sugared almonds (noql). Special occasion tea Afghan tea (qymaq chai). water buffalo. the Moghul Babur. Main foods are bread. are nan (leavened and baked in a tandoor. Afghan melons and grapes are famous. deep-fried batter soaked in syrup. Baklava (pastry of layers of thin filo dough. Shola-e-zard (saffron. trout). Elephant ear–shaped pastry (goash-e-feel). corn. syrup. firni. Yogurt is used extensively in cooking and is strained to make creamy chaka. spinach. goat.g. Fruit. and nuts. split peas. sesame seeds. almonds. Afghanistan grows wheat. fruit. Legumes Split peas. fish Lamb and mutton. made with green tea. adding milk resulting in a purple pink tea. dairy products. pastry. Sweets are luxuries. Meat.. lamb boiled with fat from fat-tailed sheep. black and green. Lamb kebabs. Seasonings Cardamom. cheese (panir) such as white cheese. made with ground meat. lamb.and rosewater-flavored sweet rice dish). beef. kebabs. usually from wheat flour. fruit. raisins. or lola. Shami. Dopyasa. fat from fat-tailed sheep is grilled with kebabs to provide more juiciness and flavor. the hot specialty of Jalalabad. Pilaf. which is sometimes dried and made into balls which harden (quroot). usually chunks of meat on a skewer roasted or grilled.2 The Food and Culture around the World – Afghanistan Influences on food Afghanistan was a crossroads on the ancient Silk Road that linked East and West and played an important role in the exchange of foods and knowledge. egg prepared to form threads that are rolled up to look like kebabs and sprinkled with syrup and ground pistachios. it is given to the poor. Genghis Khan. and fried in oil. Nuts and seeds Pistachios. rice. bread. fenugreek seeds. Chalau. nuts. Chappli kebab (sandal kebab). for mourning and thanksgiving. made with rice or corn flour). or clay oven) and chapati (unleavened flat circles cooked on a griddle). rice. and soaked in syrup). served with fish during winter. fish (e. poultry. Beverages Tea (chai). pine nuts. Jalebi. long-grain rice cooked first in oil and then with water so that grains remain separate and usually with lamb or vegetables. Sweet rice dishes such as shola (short-grain sticky rice cooked with other ingredients until soft and thick). camel. eggs. Dairy products Yogurt (mast). Special occasion sweets Dried fruit and nut compote (haft mewa). fenugreek seeds. and tea. walnuts. The cuisine reflects Afghanistan’s diverse ethnic groups and its neighbors. and sesame seeds). The invading armies of Alexander the Great. Boiled or steamed short-grain sticky rice (bata) served with stew or vegetables. the Persian Nader Shah.

The Food and Culture around the World – Albania

3

Meals and service Nan (bread) with qymaq (clotted cream) is often eaten for breakfast. Bread is eaten with tea and at all meals and is used to scoop food. Street food and snacks Available from street vendors (tahang wala) for snacks or lunch: fried pastries such as boulanee (stuffed with leek) and sambosa (stuffed with egg, cheese, meat, vegetable, or mashed potato); and pakora (batter-fried vegetables, fish, or cheese). Nuts. White cheese with raisins (kismish panir), a spring snack.

ALBANIA
Republic of Albania
Geography Albania is in southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, Montenegro, Kosovo, Macedonia, and Greece. It is mostly (70%) mountainous, with a western coastal plain where most people live.
Major Languages Albanian (official) Greek Ethnic Groups Albanian Greek Other 95% 3% 2% Major Religions Muslim (Sunni 51%) Albanian Orthodox Roman Catholic 70% 20% 10%

Population density per sq. mi. 342.2 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 75.1 male; 80.7 female Per capita GDP $6,300 Labor force in agriculture 58%

Urban 44.8% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 19.3 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 14.0% Arable land 20%

Agriculture alfalfa, wheat, corn, potatoes, vegetables, fruits, sugar beets, chickens, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs Natural resources oil, natural gas, coal, bauxite, chromite, copper, iron ore, nickel, timber, hydropower, fish Industries food processing, textiles and clothing, lumber History Ancient Illyria was conquered by Romans, then by Slavs, and by Turks in the 15th century. Independent Albania was proclaimed in 1912; a republic was formed in 1920. Albania was invaded by Italy in 1939. It was allied with the USSR from 1944 to 1960 and then with China until 1978. Some liberalization began, including measures in 1990 providing for freedom to travel abroad. In 1992 the first noncommunist president since World War II was elected. The collapse of fraudulent investment schemes in 1997 led to armed rebellion and anarchy; the UN authorized a force to restore order. In 1999 Albania was an outpost for NATO troops in Kosovo and took in Kosovo refugees, its fellow ethnic Albanians. In 2008 Albania signed protocols for NATO membership. Neighboring Kosovo, a province of Serbia with more than 90% Albanian population, declared independence. Influences on food Albania is one of the smaller Balkan countries. Influences include its conquerors, the Romans, Slavs, and Turks, religion, neighboring countries, and other foreign rule. Until the Turkish occupation in the 15th century, Albanians were Christians, Eastern Orthodox in the south and Roman Catholic in the north. By the 19th century Islam became the predominant religion. Unlike Christians, Muslims do not eat pork. Albanian cookery evolved as a result of Islamization and the influence of Turkish food practices, except in the traditionally Orthodox south, where food remained Greco-Mediterranean, and the coastal zone, where Italian influence is strong. Food traditions are strong in the older generation and in the villages populated by Albanians in the former Yugoslavia (in Kosovo, Montenegro, and in Tetovo, Macedonia), whose isolation from Albania has

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The Food and Culture around the World – Albania

strengthened tradition. Traditional food habits are weakening due to women’s emancipation and the breakdown of the extended family. Turkish influence is reflected in mezze, rice, pilaf, and Turkish coffee and sweets; Greek in feta cheese; and Italian in tomato sauce. Albania’s land produces grain, vegetables, fruit, sugar beets, and livestock; its seacoast provides fish. Staple foods are bread (served at most meals), pasta, cheese, and yogurt. Bread and cereals Wheat, corn, rice; wheat bread including the standard dark, heavy, and slightly sour loaf, leavened bread, and flat breads such as pita (thin circle with hollow center, a pocket) and lavash (a large crisp bread), cornmeal bread, rice dishes, wheat flour pastry, turnovers, pasta, and dumplings, wheat kernels (bulgur). Meat, poultry, fish Lamb and mutton, chicken, goat, beef, pork, fish, eggs. Dairy products Milk (cow, sheep, goat), cream, yogurt (kos), cheese (usually from goat or sheep milk, e.g., white cheese similar to feta and a hard, tangy ewe’s milk cheese similar to cheddar called kashkaval). Fats and oils Legumes Olive oil, butter, sesame oil, vegetable oils, rendered lamb fat. Chickpeas, fava beans.

Vegetables Potatoes, olives, cabbage, eggplant, onions, tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, mushrooms; pickles. Fruit Grapes, lemons, apricots, cherries, figs, dates, melons, pomegranates, pears, plums; preserves. Nuts and seeds Walnuts, almonds, hazelnuts, peanuts, pine nuts, pistachios, poppy seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame seeds. Nuts, especially walnuts, are used in many savory and sweet dishes. Seasonings lemon juice. Onions, mint, parsley, dill, garlic, pepper, anise, cardamom, cinnamon, oregano,

National appetizers Kanelloni alla toskana (pancakes stuffed with minced veal and with a gratin finish), a regular restaurant antipasto (appetizer). Byrne me djathë, a small triangular pastry filled with white cheese and eggs. Dishes Rice pilaf (rice sautéed in butter or oil in which onions have been browned, then steamed or simmered with water or broth). Kofta (meatballs, fried or skewered and grilled). Shish kebabs (lamb pieces skewered and grilled). Dumplings filled with meat. Baked pasta, lamb or goat, and tomatoes. Baked macaroni, ground meat, cheese, tomato, and sauce. Pastitsio (béchamel sauce). Grape or cabbage leaves stuffed with rice or meat (dolma). Moussaka (baked minced lamb, eggplant, onions, and tomato sauce), a Balkan specialty. Tabouli, salad of onions, parsley, mint, bulgur, and fresh vegetables. Sweets Honey, sugar, syrup. Fresh fruit. Fruit compote. Baklava (filo dough layered with nut filling, baked, soaked in flavored syrup, often cut in diamond shape). Halvah (sweet paste made with grain and crushed sesame seeds). Beverages Coffee, tea, fruit juice, yogurt drinks, beer, wine, brandy, anise-flavored aperitifs including ouzo and the Turkish specialty raki (alcoholic beverages are prohibited for Muslims but are consumed in the Balkans), orme (beverage made from fermented cabbage), Turkish-style coffee (strong, thick, sweet, often with cardamom). Meals The poorest people eat cornmeal bread, cheese, and yogurt, with lamb or mutton when affordable. For wealthier people, three meals a day with a midafternoon snack are typical. Breakfast: bread with cheese, olives, or jam and coffee or tea. Main meal (usually at midday): mezze with ouzo or raki, perhaps soup and/or pilaf, meat dish with salad of raw vegetables, yogurt or cheese, and fruit. Mezze (appetizers) Salads such as liptao (feta cheese with bell pepper, deli meats, sardines, and hardboiled egg) and tarator (soupy salad of yogurt, cucumbers, garlic, and olive oil), pickles, fish and seafood, omelets, spit-roasted lamb or entrails, and baked variety meats; usually with raki, ouzo, or orme. Midafternoon snack Turkish-style coffee or tea and pastries, nuts, or fresh fruit.

The Food and Culture around the World – Algeria

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ALGERIA
People’s Democratic Republic of Algeria
Geography Algeria is in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea and extending into the Sahara Desert. More than three times the size of Texas, Algeria is mostly desert. The Sahara region comprises 85% of the land, with major mineral resources, and almost completely uninhabited. Fertile plains 50 to 100 miles wide, with a moderate climate and adequate rain, are along the coast. Mountains run east to west and enclose a dry plateau.
Major Languages Arabic (official) French Berber Tamazight (national) Population density per sq. mi. 36.7 Literacy rate 75.4% Life expectancy 72.1 male; 75.5 female Per capita GDP $6,500 Labor force in agriculture 14% Ethnic Groups Algerian Arab Berber Bedouin Arab 59% 26% 15% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Other 99% 1%

Urban 63.3% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 28.8 HIV rate 0.1% Unemployement rate 12.3% Arable land 3%

Agriculture wheat, potatoes, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, chickens, sheep, goats, cattle, pigs Natural resources oil, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, uranium, lead, zinc, fish Industries oil, gas, light industries, mining, petrochemical, electrical, food processing History Earliest known inhabitants were ancestors of Berbers, followed by Phoenicians, Romans, Vandals, and Arabs. Turkey ruled the land from 1518 to 1830. France ruled here from 1830 to 1962 when independence came and 1 million Europeans left. Algeria was socialist from 1963 to 1965 and then a military coup overthrew the government. The country entered a major recession after world oil prices plummeted in the 1980s. Fundamentalist Islamic forces gained power in 1991, and a bloody civil war ensued to 1999. Algeria remains in essence a military dictatorship. Bombings by radical Islamists and Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb occurred from 2006 to 2008. Influences on food Influences are from the Romans, Arabs, Turks, Spain, Italy, and especially France. France controlled Algeria for more than 130 years, leaving influences including French bread (the baguette, a long, thin, crusty loaf) and desserts such as éclairs, both now common in cities, and vineyards and winemaking. Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia occupy the northwest corner of Africa known in Arabic as Maghreb (the west). They have similar cuisine and have influenced France by exporting foods such as couscous, merguez sausage (made from beef to comply with Islamic dietary law and spiced with red hot chili peppers), and Arab-style pastries. Also, some restaurants in Paris and other cities serve Algerian food. North African cuisine has much in common with Arabic food of the Middle East, but it has distinctions due in part to Berber, Bedouin, and French influences. In Algeria, Arab cuisine predominates although nomads consume Bedouin food: mainly dairy products (milk, clarified butter, and yogurt) from camels, sheep, and goats, thin unleavened wheat bread, boiled mutton on rice, small game, locusts, dates, and coffee. Much of Algeria is desert, which limits its cuisine compared to that of its neighbors on either side, Tunisia and Morocco. Algeria has small numbers of nomads and settlements at some oases, but most inhabitants live on the fertile coastal strip, the Tell, between the Mediterranean on the north and the plateau at the beginning of the Atlas Mountains on the south. Pork or alcohol consumption is prohibited for Muslims.

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The Food and Culture around the World – Andorra

Bread and cereals Wheat, barley, oats; kesra (round Arab bread baked in clay ovens in the countryside), French bread in the cities, couscous (made from crushed grain, usually semolina wheat, mixed with water to make a dough that is pressed into tiny pellets and dried). Meat, poultry, fish Lamb and mutton, beef, chicken, eggs, goat, pork, fish; merguez sausage. Dairy products Yogurt, cheese, cream. Fats and oils Olive oil, butter, vegetable oil, sheep’s tail fat, rendered lamb fat. Legumes Chick peas (garbanzos), fava (broad) beans, black beans, navy beans, red beans, lentils, peanuts. Vegetables Potatoes, olives, eggplant, tomatoes, cucumbers, okra, green beans, greens, green peppers, carrots. Fruit Grapes, citrus fruits especially lemons, dates, figs, apricots, melon, pomegranate, plums, prunes, raisins. Nuts and seeds Almonds, cashews, hazelnuts, pine nuts, pistachios, walnuts, poppy seeds, sesame seeds. Seasonings Salt, black pepper, lemon juice, vinegar, onions, garlic, herbs (mint, parsley, basil, coriander, marjoram), cinnamon, chilie pepper, cumin, cloves, ginger, saffron, nutmeg, allspice, harisa (chili pepper and garlic paste), orange blossom water, rosewater. Food is highly seasoned. Dishes Steamed couscous topped with stewed meat or chicken, vegetables, and spicy hot sauce, the usual main dish. Lamb, usually grilled or stewed. Tagine (meat, poultry, fish, vegetable, or fruit stew). Sferia (simmered chicken, chickpeas, onions, and cinnamon, topped with egg yolk-lemon juice sauce and parsley), served with cheese croquettes flavored with orange blossom water and cinnamon. Lahm lhalou (braised lamb with cinnamon, almonds, sugar, orange blossom water, and prunes), often served before or after chicken couscous. Main festive dish Mechoui, a whole spit-roasted lamb basted with butter and spices. City dwellers often cut a lamb into halves or quarters and roast them over charcoal-filled braziers. Sweets Honey, sugar. Fresh fruit and nuts. Couscous with dates and cinnamon. Pastries: baklava, éclairs. Makroud el louse (cookie made of ground almonds, grated lemon peel, sugar, eggs, and orange blossom water). Beverages Tea with sugar and mint, coffee, fruit juice, yogurt drinks, wine. Mezze Small bits (e.g., olives, vegetables, cheese, small kebabs) eaten as snacks while drinking and talking.

ANDORRA
Principality of Andorra
Geography Andorra is in southwestern Europe in the Pyrenees Mountains on the French-Spanish border. Most of the land is high mountains with narrow valleys.
Major Languages Catalan (official) French Castilian Portuguese Ethnic Groups Spanish Andorran Portuguese French Other 43% 33% 11% 7% 6% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other Christian None Other 89% 4% 5% 2%

The Food and Culture around the World – Angola
Population density per sq. mi. 457.3 Literacy rate 100% Life expectancy 80.3 male; 86.1 female Per capita GDP $38,800, Labor force in agriculture 0.3% Urban 90.3 Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 3.7 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate NA Arable land 2%

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Agriculture tobacco, hay, potatoes, grapes, rye, wheat, barley, oats, vegetables, sheep, cattle, goats Natural resources hydropower, mineral water, timber, iron ore, lead Industries tourism, cattle, timber, banking, tobacco, furniture History Charlemagne recovered the region from the Muslims in 803. Andorra was a co-principality, with joint sovereignty by France and the bishop of Urgel, from 1278 to 1993. Ending a feudal system in place for 715 years, Andorrans adopted a parliamentary government in 1993. The traditional economy was based on sheep-raising. Tourism has been important since the 1950s and is the economic mainstay, especially skiing. In 2007 no snow until mid-March reduced the number of visitors. Andorra is a free port and an active trade center. Influences on food Spain, France, and Portugal are the main influences on food practices in Andorra. Bread and cereals Rye, wheat, barley, oats, corn; breads, pastas, porridge, rice dishes. Meat, poultry, fish Lamb, beef and veal, goat, pork, chicken, fish, eggs; dried salt cod. Dairy products Milk, cream, cheese (cow, sheep, goat). Fats and oils Butter, olive oil, lard, vegetable oil. Legumes Chickpeas, fava beans, kidney beans, lentils, white beans. Vegetables Potatoes, tomatoes, cabbage, cucumber, green beans, lettuce, mushrooms, olives, peas, peppers. Fruit Grapes, apples, bananas, grapefruit, lemons, pears, oranges, raisins. Nuts and seeds Almonds, hazelnuts, walnuts. Seasonings Onion, garlic, black pepper, parsley, pimento, lemon juice, capers, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, oregano, rosemary, saffron, sage, vanilla, chocolate. Sweets Honey, sugar. Beverages Coffee, wine.

ANGOLA
Republic of Angola
Geography Angola is in southern Africa, bordering the Atlantic Ocean for more than 1,000 miles (1,609 km). Most of the land is a plateau, elevation 3,000 to 5,000 feet, rising from a narrow coastal strip. The land is mostly desert or savanna. There is a temperate highland area and a tropical rainforest.
Major Languages Portuguese (official) Bantu Other African languages Ethnic Groups Ovimbundu Kimbundu Bakongo Other 37% 25% 13% 25% Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Roman Catholic Protestant 47% 38% 15%

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The Food and Culture around the World – Angola
Population density per sq. mi. 26 Literacy rate 67.4% Life expectancy 37 male; 38.9 female Per capita GDP $5,600 Labor force in agriculture 85% Urban 54% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 182.3 HIV rate 2.1% Unemployment rate 70% Arable land 3%

Agriculture pigs, sheep

cassava, corn, sweet potatoes, bananas, sugarcane, coffee, chickens, cattle, goats, oil, diamonds, iron ore, fish, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite,

Natural resources uranium

Industries oil, mining, cement, metal products, fish and food processing History Bantu-speaking tribes penetrated the region during the first millennium CE and dominated it by 1500. Portuguese came in 1583 and, with the Bakongo kingdom in the north, developed the slave trade. Major colonization began in the 20th century when 400,000 Portuguese immigrated. A guerrilla war from 1961 to 1975 ended when Portugal granted independence. A 30-year civil war between rebel groups and the government lasted until 2002. Angola changed from a socialist state to a democracy in 1992. The second largest producer of crude oil in Africa south of the Sahara, Angola in 2007 became the 12th full member of OPEC and, already China’s chief supplier of crude oil, began negotiations with Russia. Influences on food Bantu herders and the Portuguese influenced Angola’s food. Angola was settled about 1,500 years ago by Bantu herders from the north who lived mainly on dairy products, grain pastes, and wild green vegetables. The Portuguese came in the early 16th century and established foods stops on routes to the Spice Islands. Portuguese trade and colonization influenced Angola’s cuisine. The Portuguese brought pigs, chickens, salt cod, olives, coffee, tea, and wine. From America they introduced corn, tomatoes, potatoes, sweet potatoes, chilies, sweet peppers, and cassava; Brazilian influence is strong. From the east via Mozambique, another Portuguese colony, they brought oranges, lemons, spices, rice, beans, and probably bananas, sugar, and tropical fruits. Portuguese influence remains; examples include the use of fish and salt cod, Portuguese bread, goat, and sweet dishes containing eggs. Goober, peanut’s nickname, comes from the Angolan word for the legume, nguba. Bread and cereals porridge (funge). Corn, wheat, rice, grain pastes; Portuguese-style bread, rolls, cassava-flour

Meat, poultry, fish Chicken, eggs, beef, goat, pork, lamb, mutton, fish, salt cod, prawns, shrimp, clams. Blood of a slaughtered animal is used as an ingredient or in a sauce or dressing. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Milk (cow, goat), cream, cheese. Palm oil, olive oil, sesame oil, butter, pork fat, lard.

Peanuts, beans, cowpeas.

Vegetables Cassava, sweet potatoes, green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, potatoes, okra, pumpkin, onions, chilies, sweet peppers, olives. Fruit Bananas, coconut, oranges, lemons, limes, pineapple, papaya, strawberries. Salt, garlic, chilies, cloves, cinnamon, coriander, saffron. Nuts and seeds Sesame seeds, caraway seeds. Seasonings Dishes Esparrega dos de bacalao (salt cod, cassava leaves, sweet peppers, guinea pepper, and palm or sesame oil). A soup of cuttlefish with limes, ground sesame, olive oil, and tabil (a spice mixture usually of coriander, caraway seeds, garlic, and red peppers). Rice simmered with clams. Shrimp fritters. Prawns browned with onions in butter and olive oil, simmered in coconut milk, tomatoes, chopped red chilies, black pepper, and ginger; wine added; poured over pounded coconut meat, parsley, and lettuce; and served with rice. Goat meat stewed with garlic, chilies, and

The Food and Culture around the World – Antigua And Barbuda

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cloves. Assola de mais (cooked dried beans mixed with fresh corn fried in pork fat). Hot pot (simmered meat and chicken pieces, sweet and white potatoes, carrots, cabbage, beans). Fried or grilled pork served with yellow rice (rice browned in olive oil and cooked with saffron in stock made of pig blood). Possible national dish Muamba chicken (cut-up chicken cooked with palm oil, garlic, onion, hot red peppers, okra, pumpkin, and sweet potato leaves). Sweets Sugarcane, brown sugar, sugar, puddings, candies, sweet dishes containing eggs such as yellow coconut pudding (made with sugar, water, grated coconut, egg yolks, cloves, cinnamon). Beverages Coffee, tea, wine (port, Madeira).

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA
Geography These two islands lie in the eastern Caribbean Sea. Antigua, the larger island, is hilly and well wooded. Barbuda is flat, with a large lagoon in the west. The pleasant climate fosters tourism.
Major Languages English (official) Local dialects Ethnic Groups Black Mixed White Other 91% 4% 2% 3% Major Religions Anglican Seventh-Day Adventist Pentecostal Moravian Roman Catholic Other 26% 12% 11% 11% 10% 30%

Population density per sq. mi. 494.6 Literacy rate 85.8% Life expectancy 72.3 male; 76.3 female Per capita GDP $18,300 Labor force in agriculture 7%

Urban 30.7% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 17.5 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 8.4% Arable land 18%

Agriculture cotton, tropical fruits, vegetables, chickens, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs Natural resource fish Industries tourism, construction, light manufacturing History Columbus landed on Antigua in 1493. The British colonized Antigua in 1632 and Barbuda in 1678. They imported African slaves to grow tobacco and sugarcane; the slaves were emancipated in 1834. Antigua and Barbuda gained independence in 1981. The land was hit hard by a hurricane in 1995. Since 1995 about 3,000 refugees fleeing volcanic eruptions on Montserrat have settled in Antigua. Crime in 2007–2008 impacted tourism. Influences on food The indigenous peoples, Carib and Arawak Indians, mostly disappeared following the Spanish conquest. The traces of information about their food practices indicate they ate fish, seafood, and one-pot soups or stews. Spain and Britain influenced the food customs. For example, the Spanish brought cattle, pigs, and rice, and British influence reflects in salt fish gundy (spread), biscuits, and tea. Slaves from Africa and indentured laborers, especially from India, also influenced food on these islands. As examples, African influence includes the use of okra, and Asian Indian influence includes the use of spices in dishes such as pepper pot. Bread and cereals Corn, rice, wheat; fried cornmeal breads, rice dishes, wheat flour breads, cassava bread (grated, squeezed, and dried cassava, fried on a griddle), biscuits or bread made with cassava and wheat flour.

aged cheese. Boiled or fried akee or plantains. and sometimes coconut milk and bits of salt meat or cod). annatto seeds. vegetables. Papaya and mango jam (made with papaya. Cucumber salad. coconut oil. black pepper. Stuffed crab. olive oil. Beverages Coffee often with milk. sweetened fruit juice poured over crushed ice. hypoglycins). pineapple. chilies. plantains. garlic. evaporated). fish and seafood (salt cod. Rice cooked with peas or beans. beer. annatto. cream. chili peppers. crabs). coffee with milk. cashew nuts. cocoa. Patagonia. Fruit Papaya. seasonings. melons. tomatoes. Meals Breakfast: coffee with milk and bread. limes. milk. Lunch: rice and beans or starchy vegetable and salt cod. milk. fish Chicken. molasses. mango. soft drinks. onions. oranges. pork. and dessert when available. sweet potatoes. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. avocados. malanga). Major Languages Spanish (official) Italian English German French Ethnic Groups White (mostly Spanish and Italian descent) Other (mostly Mestizo. in the south. Dinner: like lunch plus meat. The land is a plain rising from the Atlantic Ocean to the Andes peaks. pumpkin. allspice (pimento). akee (looks similar to a peach but has segmented sections with shiny black seeds partly surrounded by a fleshy seed coat. green leaves (cassava. Aconcagua (22. guavas. Seasonings Salt. condensed. iced tea with lime. is fertile land used for agriculture and grazing. goat. sweet peppers. baked bananas flambéed with rum. arid steppes. cucumbers. Legumes Kidney beans. Codfish cakes. cornmeal pudding. black-eyed peas. cashew apples. the only edible part. Snacks Fresh fruit. coconut. fresh fruit. breadfruit. cinnamon. other parts contain toxins. Boiled rice. cocoa. eggs. Cornmeal and okra cake. Nuts and seeds Almonds. rum. vegetable oil. toxic in large amounts. The north is swampy. fruit juices. Vegetables Cassava. coconut. sugar. yams. tea. lobster. ARGENTINA Argentine Republic Geography Argentina occupies most of southern South America and is its second largest country in area and in population. Dishes Callaloo (soup of green leaves cooked with okra. beef. bananas. is cool. lard. sugar. snapper. and Amerindian) 97% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholicism (official) Roman Catholic 92% 2% Protestant Jewish 2% Other 4% . chickpeas (garbanzo beans). Fried cassava or plantain chips. the Pampas. pigeon peas. Cassava contains hydrocyanic acid. Pepper pot (a meat stew containing boiled juice of cassava and highly seasoned with pepper). onion. lamb. and lime juice). soursops (have a cotton-like consistency). The central region. okra.10 The Food and Culture around the World – Argentina Meat. it supports most of the population. the acid must be leached out and the tuber cooked before it can be eaten safely. Fats and oils Butter. rum. red beans. malanga (taro-like plant with corms and green leaves). squash.834 ft) is the highest peak in the Western Hemisphere. poultry. Sweets Sugarcane. mangoes. Ceviche (raw fish marinated in lime juice with olive oil and spices).

tomatoes. pumpkin seeds. turkey. lemons. the mixture wrapped in corn husks and steamed like tamales is humitas en chala. squash cut into strips and dried (Chichocade zapallo). hominy. Influences on food The rolling grassland on each side of the River Plata in central Argentina and Uruguay is the world’s richest agricultural terrain.The Food and Culture around the World – Argentina Population density per sq. sausage.300 Labor force in agriculture 1% Urban 91. chicken. red chili peppers. cattle. Legumes Soybeans. German. In 2007 the first woman was directly elected president. He was succeeded by his wife Isabel. sunflower seeds. pasta (spaghetti). sunflower seeds. parsley. milk. Germans. cornmeal bread. German influence is evident in the charcuterie industry of Buenos Aires. Beef usually grilled . wheat bread. Latin America’s second largest country. squash. olives. pimentos. garlic. and chili or pimentos). Argentina won independence in 1816. eggs. Dairy products Milk. consumer durables. Vegetables Pumpkin. but inflation increased at a faster rate. Argentina repaid its debt to the International Monetary Fund in 2006. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Mutton. manganese. onions. was once supplemented by the guanaco (llama).3 Literacy rate 97. Now Argentina leads the world in beef consumption per capita. a winter staple. iron ore. and Italians. peanuts. oregano. The economy grew. Chicken and turkeys are esteemed. olive oil. Condiment Chimichurri (corn oil. wheat. and the rugged Patagonia with many sheep. fish Industries food processing. fish and seafood. with an economic crisis in 2001.000 live births 11. uranium. Fried corncakes (humitas) made from a coarse purée of unripe corn kernels. the meat of Patagonia. It was the home of nomadic Indians and was untilled and unexploited before the Spanish conquest. horses. zinc. lamb and mutton. mi. wheat. Seasonings Chili.6% Life expectancy 73. cinnamon. black pepper. corn oil. Bread and cereals Corn. Most Indians were killed by the late 19th century. and Spanish immigration spurred modernization. and died 10 months later. Military control and fighting occurred from 1976 to 1983 when democratic rule returned. goats. After 1880 Italian. a traditional sauce for grilled and roasted meats. chemicals History Nomadic Indians roamed the Pampas when Spaniards arrived in 1515. black pepper. corn. Argentina’s food reflects influences of the Indians. goat. grits. reelected president. onions. oil. Meat. cheese. chickens. 79. soybeans. Spanish. poultry. the first woman head of state in the Western Hemisphere. and cheese. 38. beans. peaches. fish Beef. Boiled corn hominy served with cabbage and sausage.1 male. sheep. Beef is the foundation of the diet. parsley. General Juan Perón was president from 1946 to 1955. garlic. pastries. spinach. strawberries.5% Unemployment rate 12. salt. cream. oregano. Political problems and a recession followed. and jerky was eaten. Fats and oils Butter. onions. pork. eggs.8 HIV rate 0. vinegar. raisins. textiles. Argentina. The Atlantic shore provides abundant fish and seafood. After strong economic growth in 2004–2005. pigs Natural resources lead. vehicles. Cattle were important for hides. includes the Pampas with agriculture and cattle. the Andes Mountains whose foothills support vineyards. The Spanish brought cattle.1% Arable land 10% 11 Agriculture alfalfa. and their influence is also reflected in sweet milk confections.8 female Per capita GDP $13. grapes. grapes.and sheep-grazing. tin. salt. Dishes Boiled corn grits porridge. The economy has been rebounding. Italians brought pasta. sugarcane. Fruit Lemons. cabbage. quince.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. pizza. exiled from 1955 to 1973. carrots. copper.

5% Life expectancy 68. 76.2% Urban 64. electric motors. it is a land of rugged mountains and extinct volcanoes. Street food and snacks Empanada (spicy meat/vegetable turnover). corn. Armenia declared its independence in 1990 and became an - . The smallest of the former Soviet republics. and poached in broth or baked. sugar.7 Literacy rate 99. Byzantium. most famous. tomatoes. whole hardboiled eggs. sheep.5 female Per capita GDP $4. cattle. Persians again. ravioli) and sauce. Ancient Armenia extended into parts of the present Turkey and Iran. molybdenum. chickens. Sweets Sugarcane.9 HIV rate 0.12 The Food and Culture around the World – Armenia or roasted (asado) on the open fire. chicken. goats Natural resources gold.4% Arable land 17% Agriculture potatoes. often served in the afternoon.000 live births 20. vegetables. National dish Matambre (“hunger killer”). yerba maté (tea made from leaves of holly family plant). Maté with small snacks. Beverages Coffee. wine. machine tools and machines.1% Unemployment rate 7. flank or rib steak rolled around spinach. and sausages. ARMENIA Republic of Armenia Geography Armenia is in southwestern Asia. Empanada. where Noah’s ark landed after the flood. milk. Major Languages Armenian (official) Yezidi Russian Ethnic Groups Armenian Russian Yezidi (Kurd) 98% 2% 1% Major Religions Armenian Orthodox Other Christian Other 95% 4% 1% Population density per sq. a common street food. In 1988 an earthquake killed approximately 55. Boiled or baked pasta (spaghetti. Carbonada criolla (stew of beef chunks. sausage. lasagna. Mongols. squash. a crescent-shaped pastry turnover filled with spiced chopped meat and vegetables. zinc. grilled sweetbreads.900 Labor force in agriculture 45. Georgia. tied with a string. and peaches cooked in a pumpkin shell). Turks. and Russia. Islam. in the southern Caucasus. beer. and. bauxite. cooked con cuero (with the hide on) it is juicier. pumpkin. Stews made from tougher cuts of meat and vegetables such as pumpkin and corn or fruit. puchero (boiled dinner of calf’s head. tripe. Locro (soup/stew of meat with wheat or corn and squash). wheat. and beef with green corn). 270. a Sunday favorite in many homes. a restaurant specializing in grilled beef or a grill to hold meat over a bed of coals. fish Industries diamond processing.000 people and ruined several cities and towns. Armenia lost its independence to Rome in the 2nd century BCE and was later conquered successively by Persia. grapes.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. tea. Offal dishes: tongue cooked with almond sauce. cream cakes. and onions. Grilled steaks. quince pie.8 male. mi. tires. soft fudge or a sauce on bread or pudding (dulce de leche). bordering Turkey. served hot or cold as an appetizer. carrots. pigs. soft drinks. Restaurant/grill Parrilla. Armenia became a Soviet republic in 1921. copper. Meat trimmings cooked and served as cold cuts (fiambres). knitwear History Tradition holds that Armenia was settled by a descendant of Noah in the Lake Van region. and Azerbaijan.

Shashlyk (grilled lamb kebabs). although Armenian cuisine has been influenced by neighboring Greeks. cucumbers. bread of different flours (wheat. lavash (thin crisp bread). Rice plov (pilaf). sheep. apple. garlic. pork. Dairy products (Cow. quince. lemon juice. kashkaval). flatbread (round. such as Lenten foods. pumpkin seeds. . tomatoes. and other Arabs. Armenians are world-acclaimed vintners and frequently consume wine and brandy made from various fruits. or stuffed with fruits such as prunes. lamb. marinated with red peppers. potato. corn) combined for different flavors. bozbash (made from fatty breast of lamb plus fruit and vegetables). pistachios. Yogurt and cheese are served at most meals and are used in cooking. with specialty shops. tahn (diluted yogurt with mint). red peppers. lemons. Turks. sesame seeds. and lemon. corn. pickles. and feta cheese). Armenians traveled around the Caucasus more than the other nationalities and were the main commercial traders. Influences on food Armenians became Christians at the beginning of the 4th century and since then have maintained their church and related food customs. and lemons. rice. basil. egg. Fruits are common and are eaten fresh and used in soups and stews. Nuts and seeds Pine nuts. feta cheese. Fats and oils Olive oil. some topped with sesame seeds). delicatessens. squash. wine. Spice use is moderate. yogurt with onion or garlic and herbs. Sweets Honey. Economic growth has increased in recent years. Luhjuman (pizza made with lamb. quinces. Beverages Coffee. or apricots and baked. An unusual soup. walnuts. fenugreek. Vegetables Potatoes. pomegranates. Main foods Bread. Armenian khalva (toasted walnut halves with boiled milk and sugar coating). cheese. fish Chicken. Bulgur (cracked wheat) steamed and served like rice. poultry. Seasonings Onions. used in cooking). Conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh. Many Armenians emigrated to the United States and have been successful in the food industry. Kofta (meatballs made from a smooth paste of a meat and spicy ingredients. Cheese is often flavored with herbs or spices. restaurants. yogurt and cucumber. pastries. apricots. Trout poached. cooked by various methods). apples. damsons (small oval plums). Syrians. eggplant. fish (Lake Sevan is famous for trout). Fruit. Armenia is noted for apricots. lamb fat (kyurdyuk from fat-tailed sheep. Bread and cereals Wheat. chickpeas. beef. In 2007 the first section of pipeline that provides Iranian natural gas to Armenia was inaugurated. an Azerbaijan enclave with a majority population of ethnic Armenians. and bakeries. brandy. Legumes Lentils. raisins. Keshkeg (lamb or chicken stew containing whole-wheat kernels). shoushin bozbash (meat. Dishes Salads of cucumbers. mint. sausage. vegetables.or rosewater-flavored desserts and pastries such as paklava. eggs. continues between mostly Christian Armenia and mostly Muslim neighboring Azerbaijan. Meat. onions. eggplant. lamb. butter including from sheep. Fruit Grapes. Herbs are used in salads and cheeses. and mint). Over the centuries Armenians have kept their culture intact and influenced others. There is a general liking for sweet and sour. or baklava (thin layers of dough with nuts and syrup). damsons. olives. rosemary. goat) Yogurt (mahdzoon). About a fifth of the population left the country beginning in 1993 because of an energy crisis. beans. cheese (blue cheese. prunes. yogurt. peppers. garlic. cabbage. tomatoes. goat. rice dishes. allspice. rosewater. sugar. The favorite soup. okra. Honey. Persians. tea.The Food and Culture around the World – Armenia 13 independent state when the USSR disbanded in 1991. Usual soups: tomato. cumin. anise-flavored aperitif raki.

goats Natural resources bauxite. wombats. In 1901 the Commonwealth was proclaimed. Australian troops fought in U. Australia with the island state Tasmania off the southeastern coast is approximately the size of the United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. In 2008 withdrawal of combat troops in Iraq began and the economy remained strong. sausages. cotton. coal. pigs. mining. they remain economically disadvantaged. basturma/pastourma (a pungent spiced meat with fenugreek).000 live births 4. but there are several preserves in the Northern Territory.000 part aborigines are mostly detribalized.8 HIV rate 0.4% Life expectancy 79. koalas. beverage. 7. lavash.14 The Food and Culture around the World – Australia Dinner Mezze (appetizers) with raki. steel History The first inhabitants. Territory of Ashmore and Cartier Islands.000 years ago from Southeast Asia. is between the South Pacific Ocean and the Indian Ocean. grapes. dolma (stuffed grape leaves). Most of the cities and population are along the coast. fruit. natural gas. 84 female Per capita GDP $36. Major Languages English (official) Chinese Italian Other Ethnic Groups White Asian Aboriginal and other 92% 7% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Anglican Other Christian Other None 26% 21% 21% 17% 15% Population density per sq. Sydney hosted the 2000 Summer Olympics.S.000 aborigines and 150. Cocos Islands. eggplant. followed by soup. Australia’s agriculture. including kangaroos. diamonds. Christmas Island. and wheat. gold.2 male. toasted pumpkin seeds or pistachios. boeregs (pastries of thin layers of dough with savory filling of meat or cheese). Britain claimed the entire continent by 1830. wool. dessert. cattle. other minerals. Coral Sea Islands. The mezze tradition (snacks with drinking) is important. sugarcane. iron ore. . soldiers.2% Unemployment rate 4. food processing.1 Literacy rate 93. vegetables. The western half of Australia is a desert plateau. chickens. Australian Antarctic Territory.300 Labor force in agriculture 3. Australia has many plant and animal species not found elsewhere. the aborigines. industrial and transportation equipment. barley. Mountain ranges run along the east coast. migrated here at least 40. chemicals. In 2007 a decade of conservative government ended. Tasmanian devils. copper. and government officials) began to arrive. the island continent. Australian External Territories Norfolk Island. In 1788 settlers (mostly convicts. bread. and barking and frilled lizards. The 50.-led military operations in Afghanistan (2001) and Iraq (2003). wool. In 1770 Captain James Cook explored the east coast when a variety of tribes inhabited the continent. Mezze Cheese.6% Urban 88. mi.3% Arable land 6% Agriculture wheat. chickpea dip. platypuses. The northeast has heavy rainfall.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. The Great Barrier Reef lies along the northeast coast. oil. AUSTRALIA Commonwealth of Australia Geography Australia. dingoes. Australia is the leading producer of wool and a leading exporter of meat. fish Industries mining. sheep. Heard Island and McDonald Islands. and industrialization are developed. beef. salad often with main course.

Bread and cereals Wheat. beef is favored. ANZAC biscuits (oatmeal cookies for Australian and New Zealand Army Corps during the world wars). strawberries. goat. The traditional British Sunday dinner (roast beef) and diet (meat and potatoes) gave way to the casual barbecue and a more distinctly Australian diet with Asian influence. ketchup. Butter. pears. pork. and more immigrants from Asia and Europe. fish Beef. soy sauce. Meat is the mainstay of the diet. barley. wattle seeds. plantains. Beans. kangaroo). vegetable oil. cakes. pies. witchetty grubs. Carpetbagger steak (grilled or sautéed oyster-stuffed steak). tomato sauce. porridge. and biscuits than on meat and vegetable dishes. Fruit Grapes. cucumbers. eggs. rosemary. oats. and technological change such as refrigerators resulted in more ice cream and chilled dishes. lard. jams. guavas. bacon. and physical labor demanded substantial meals of meat stews. sausage. Boiled lamb and cabbage. custards. Nuts and seeds Macadamia nuts (native to Australia). and wild plants such as yams. Vegetables Potatoes. The first white settlers (mostly convicts) arrived in 1788 from Britain and lived on imported food. salt pork. cabbage. canola oil. lizards. meat was eaten three times a day. crayfish. Colonial goose (boned leg of mutton with sage-and-onion stuffing). Specialties Roasted witchetty grubs. Thrift and economy were important. many people immigrated voluntarily and accepted indigenous food such as kangaroo. pepper. During the first half of the 20th century the population became more urban with less reliance on native game and fruits. puddings. olives. Australian meat production and consumption were among the highest in the world. seafood (oysters. currants. or boiled. bananas. Shepherd’s pie (ground lamb topped with mashed potatoes). Fried barramundi (a tropical perch) fillets with eggoatmeal-macadamia nut batter. sometimes stir-fried. fish. sage. damper. pistachios. Hamburgers topped with fried eggs and beet slices. Roast beef. game (emu. beets. ginger. . Early in the 20th century women excelled at baking. emu. crabs. Fried steak and eggs. Seasonings garlic. Vegetables including tomatoes were grown in home gardens. wombat. shrimp. cheese. pastry on meat pies and sweet pies. Stewed fruit. After World War II great change occurred. tea. poultry. sugar. mint. The diet of meat. scones. tomatoes. rock lobster. After Britain gained control of the entire continent in 1830. rice. and the halves of the cutout placed on the cream to resemble butterfly wings).The Food and Culture around the World – Austria 15 Influences on food The aborigines were hunter-gatherers and subsisted on foods called bush tucker. filled with whipped cream. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Milk. apples. bread. carrots. and tea resulted from the abundance of meat and reflected convict rations: flour. and sugar. increased travel bringing more contact with Asian and European cultures. coconut. Meatloaf. including more restaurants and eating out. wombat. blackberries. biscuits (cookies). Kangaroo tail soup. cream puffs. soybeans. Salt. meat. Dishes Crab soup. Meat. corn. fish. lamb and mutton. including kangaroo. peas. peas. sponge). Roast lamb with rosemary and mint. onions. wattle seed. Salads of mixed vegetables and fruits. mangoes. prawns). and quandong (a peach-like fruit). onions. cream. snakes. duck. chicken. puddings. Vegetables usually boiled. Sweets Sugarcane. in the ashes. Meat stew. Damper (soda bread). and cookbooks usually contained more pages on pies. During the 19th century meat was cooked on sticks over an open fire and damper (bread made with baking soda and tartaric acid because yeast was difficult to obtain) was cooked in ashes. oranges. scones. Lamingtons (cookies with chocolate icing and coconut). cakes (fruit. Grilled prawns. tastes shifted from mutton to lamb. Foods were cooked over a fire. Sweet specialties Butterfly cake (cupcake with center cut out.

zinc. chemicals. vehicles and parts. beer. By 1300 the House of Hapsburg gained control of the land and many other parts of Europe. corn. The eastern provinces and Vienna lie in the Danube River basin. fish Industries construction. In 2007 important reforms including the first national monthly minimum wage was introduced. In the late 1990s and to 2006.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Fast-food snacks Individual steak or sausage pies (eaten with tomato sauce or ketchup). Nazi Germany invaded Austria in 1938. Australia is known for its beers and wines. sheep. lumber and paper.4 female Per capita GDP $38. By 1918 Austria was a small country. chickens. wine. 82.400 Labor force in agriculture and forestry 3% Urban 66. coal. magnesite. giving autonomy to Hungary. mi. machinery. Beverages Tea. lignite. timber. metals. grapes. Austria joined the European Union in 1995. Independence was restored in 1955. with foods such as speckknödel (dumplings with bauernspeck. hydropower. cured and smoked bacon). food. with the Alps in the west and south. The Congress of Vienna. the Austrian version of Italian gnocchi . potatoes. confirmed Austrian control of a large empire in southeastern Europe. Influences on food Austria’s neighbor to the south. a prominent Tyrol specialty. wine. Meals Three meals a day plus an afternoon break for tea or beer is typical. in 1815. influenced cuisine of Tyrol. Outdoor barbecues are popular. pigs. Major Languages German (official) Turkish Serbian Croatian (official in Burgenland) Ethnic Groups Austrian Former Yugoslav (including Serbian.2% Arable land 17% Agriculture sugar beets.8 Literacy rate 98% Life expectancy 76. with present-day borders. Forests and woodlands cover about 40% of the land. the southern part of Austria. fish and chips. copper. tourism History Around 15 BCE Rome conquered Celtic tribes in Austrian land.5 HIV rate 0. and nockerln. 257. claimed by Australia and New Zealand. iron ore.16 The Food and Culture around the World – Austria National dessert Pavlova (meringue cake filled with strawberries and topped with whipped cream). Croatian) Turk Other 91% 4% 2% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Muslim Other None 74% 5% 4% 5% 12% Population density per sq. The economy grew at the fastest rate in eight years. The dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy was established in 1867. AUSTRIA Republic of Austria Geography Austria is in south central Europe. Italy. the Russian ballerina who visited both in 1926. cattle.000 live births 4. In 788 CE Charlemagne incorporated the land into his empire. goats Natural resources oil. antimony.5 male. World War I started in 1914 with the assassination of the Hapsburg heir and destroyed the empire. wheat. It is mostly mountainous. far-right parties gained against the Social Democratic Party.2% Unemployment rate 7. and named after Anna Pavlova.

split pea. green peppers. green salad. Vegetables Potatoes. Legumes Beans. ham. raspberry jam filling. especially in Vienna. jam. vinegar. bacon. dumplings. and boiled briefly. apples. cucumbers. Substantial main dishes: wiener schnitzel (thin slices of veal. . mustard. Meals Austrians tend to have three meals a day plus a second breakfast (gabelfrühstük) and a tea meal (jause). bordering on former Yugoslavia. split peas. caraway seeds. chocolate. Layer cakes. layered thin dough similar to filo. Beverages Coffee. and caraway). tea. Lard is used for frying veal cutlets. or pork. fish especially trout. where the cake is still served. Prominent are foods made with flour (melhspeisen): savory or sweet dishes of dumplings. Fats and oils Butter. white and dark breads. wine. horseradish. potato. sour cream. goat. fish Pork. and dusted with powdered sugar). and finely chopped onion). pepper. Specialty sweets Strudel. rolls. sugar. lettuce. Potatoes are prominent. Regional foods Some differences in foods among Austria’s nine provinces are notable. sauerkraut (brined. carrots. eggs. lemons. Seasonings Salt. Meat. cinnamon. beets. especially apple strudel (paper-thin sheets of dough rolled around cinnamon-spiced apple pieces and baked). served with whipped cream (as is strudel and many sweets). mustard. milk. and lattice top). Styria. in a tall ring shape. poppy seeds. fermented cabbage). Fruit Grapes. has hearty food and interesting soups. vanilla. or applesauce. it turns blue and curls) with melted butter and new potatoes. It also has nudeln. pepper. lamb. radishes. noodles. hot chocolate. Vegetable dishes: potato salad (boiled potatoes mixed with vinegar. pancakes. Snacks Coffee and cakes are enjoyed in establishments called konditorei. Nuts and seeds Almonds. milk. Carinthia in the south has the highest mountains and lakes to provide freshwater fish. Turkish influence is apparent in the pastry for strudel. veal and beef. and sauerkraut with bacon. main dish with vegetable. beef. floured. Usual accompaniments to boiled beef: pickles. cabbage. sausage. Sachertorte was first produced in 1832 by Franz Sacher. pickles. chicken. boiled beef (especially sliced boiled beef with pan-browned whole potatoes and parsley). cleaned quickly. or mushrooms. pastry. from Linz (torte of nut pastry. rye. raspberries. pancakes. Viennese steaks (tender beef steak pan fried in butter in which onion slices were browned). Sweets Sugar. Bread and cereals Corn. grated horseradish in vinegar. olive oil. cheese. wheat. mushrooms. croissants. A typical main meal: soup. a small folded noodle square with many different fillings. potato. and dessert. winter vegetables simmered in water or baked and prepared with butter or cream. Green salad. and strudel. beer. dipped in egg. chef to Prince von Metternich. Linzertorte. parsley.The Food and Culture around the World – Austria 17 (small dumplings) that accompany many dishes. Kugelhopf (delicate yeast cake with raisins. such as stoss-suppe (sour cream. of which kasnudeln (with cheese) is the best known. salt. A specialty dish Blue trout (brook trout taken out of the water and killed by a blow on the head. cream. yeast pies and cakes. Dishes Soups: beef broth with vegetables. dipped in bread crumbs. lard. and fried). especially Sachertorte (a rich chocolate sponge layer cake filled with apricot jam and iced with bittersweet chocolate). lentils. Sacher’s descendants for many years operated the Sacher Hotel in Vienna. onions. apricots. cloves. Dairy products Milk. vegetable oil. oil. raisins. poultry. cakes. buns. and fried chicken (prepared like wiener schnitzel). tomatoes.

Since 1988 Azerbaijan and Armenia have been fighting over the Azerbaijan enclave of Nagorno-Karabakh. goats.18 The Food and Culture around the World – Azerbaijan AZERBAIJAN Republic of Azerbaijan Geography Azerbaijan is in southwestern Asia.100-mile pipeline through Turkey and Georgia began in 2002. fish (sturgeon. iron ore. In December 2001 the alphabet was officially changed from Latin to Cyrillic. rice. providing an outlet for Azerbaijan’s vast oil reserves from the Caspian Sea and transforming the economy. natural gas. goat. Influences on food Azerbaijan is the largest and most populous of the three Caucasus countries. with Western investment in its oil resources.2% Unemployment rate 1. cotton. The other southern neighbor. At the southeastern extremity of the Caucasus Mountains.700 Labor force in agriculture 41% Urban 51. potatoes.2 male. rice dishes (plov). Construction of a 1.4% Life expectancy 62. bauxite. poultry. and vegetables including eggplant) and liking of the sweet and sour taste combination. cement History Azerbaijan was home to Scythian tribes and was part of the Roman Empire. Persians. Mongols. pork.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Meat. now includes much of the larger Azerbaijan of former times.000 live births 56.4% Arable land 21% Agriculture wheat. fruit especially grapes. caviar). cattle. steel. Neighbors and invaders (Romans. It was overrun by Turks in the 11th century and conquered by Russia in 1806 and 1813. 246 Literacy rate 99. it is mountainous. and Turks) have influenced Azerbaijan’s cuisine. Rice and fruit have grown here since ancient times and are important foods. it joined the USSR in 1922. Azerbaijan’s coast on the Caspian Sea provides fish. fish Chicken. The climate is arid except in the southeast. chickens. Bread and cereals Wheat. natural gas. pasta. yogurt. Major Languages Azerbaijani (official) Lezgi Russian Ethnic Groups Azeri Dagestani (Lezgian) Russian Armenian Other 91% 2% 2% 2% 3% Major Religions Shi’a Muslim Sunni Muslim Russian Orthodox Armenian Orthodox Other 53% 34% 3% 2% 8% Population density per sq. Economic growth continued in 2007. the majority of whose inhabitants are Armenian Christians who want to secede and join Armenia. iron ore. pigs Natural resources oil. bread. After the Russian revolution in 1917 it declared its independence. The pipeline opened in 2005. lamb. lamb. Azerbaijan has undergone rapid privatization. . eggs.4 HIV rate 0. bordering the western shore of the Caspian Sea. oil-field equipment. sheep. beef. Azerbaijan shares a common cuisine with its Caucasus neighbors in main foods (grain. nonferrous metals. vegetables. with Georgia on the northwest and Armenia on the west and south. Taken by the Soviet army in 1920. mi. Azerbaijan became independent when the USSR disbanded in 1991. Azerbaijan differs from these neighbors in religion and related food practices and in mezze practice. rice. Mezze (snacks with drinking) is not typical in Azerbaijan as it is in Georgia and Armenia. fish Industries oil. 71 female Per capita GDP $7. dumplings. Most Azerbaijani are Muslims. not Christians as in Georgia and Armenia. grapes. Iran. for whom consumption of pork or alcohol is forbidden. Turks dominated the country from the 11th century to the early 19th century. Arabs. and Russia controlled it for most of the 19th and 20th centuries.

dill. pomegranate. chestnuts (a specialty: roasted. perhaps flavored with sumac. herbs (coriander. raisins. lemons. Kavourma. plov. sesame seeds. halvah (varied sweet confections. lentils. Accompaniments: pomegranate seeds or syrup and walnuts for fish. meat dish. tomatoes. often sweetmeats of fruit and nuts). damsons. sumac. Dishes Fresh vegetables and herbs. saffron (the national spice). Kebabs (shashlik). Seasonings Juice of unripe grapes. watercress. and often with saffron and dill or mint. barberries. and dessert with tea. perhaps fresh fruit lightly fried. grilled on a skewer. and fruit such as prunes. Kazmag (a special plov with a golden brown crisp crust made by lining the bottom of a casserole with a thin layer of egg dough. and baking). A plov may contain fish or eggs and toppings including orange peel. or yogurt with chickpeas. and almonds. or korma (braised or stewed meat slices with juice of unripe grapes or lemon juice). olive oil. apricots. sugar. Fats and oils Butter. cucumbers. and sometimes meat balls). yogurt. Vegetables Potatoes. and dried fruit. sometimes stuffed with sour plums. raisins. nuts. tarragon. clarified butter. prunes.The Food and Culture around the World – Azerbaijan 19 Dairy products Milk. Fruit Grapes. Soups: dumpling (dyushbara). Nuts and seeds Almonds. Pre-dessert. Plov. pre-dessert. oranges. . lamb fat. dried apricots. or prunes. adding rice and liquid. or pilaf (rice cooked first in oil so the grains remain separate and then simmered with liquid). Fresh fruit such as peaches lightly fried. Desserts: jams. lamb chunks. radishes. eggplant. Bozbash (the famous soup/stew made with fatty breast of lamb. cheese. Meal A main meal traditionally includes foods served in the following order: fresh vegetables and herbs. plums. shelled. soup. a thick sauce of grape juice. poultry. tarragon. rice. Beverage Strong black tea. quinces. and cooked in milk). walnuts. Sweets Honey. and vegetables. or chestnuts. quince. sherbets. dried. Fish prepared with coriander. Legume Chickpeas. lemon juice. prunes. walnuts. Fruits is consumed fresh. cakes. pomegranate syrup or plum sauce for kebabs. and game. beans. fruits. Meat balls. peaches. pasta. the prize of Azerbaijan cuisine and the centerpiece of the meal. mint). chestnuts. spring onions. and as juice.

aragonite. 79. Other influences include the Atlantic Ocean. banking. oil trans shipment. coconut oil or cream. vegetables. It is a chain of about 700 islands (29 inhabited) and over 2. and rice. wheat flour breads.000 Labor force in agriculture 5%. The Spanish explored and colonized the area and influenced food customs. goats. eggs. citrus fruits. biscuits. Major Languages English (official) Creole (among Haitian immigrants) Ethnic Groups Black White Asian and Hispanic 85% 12% 3% Major Religions Baptist Anglican Roman Catholic Other Christian Other 35% 15% 14% 15% 21% Population density per sq. Bread and cereals Corn. such as the use of salt fish. sheep. 20 . Traces remaining about their food practices indicate they ate a wide range of fish and seafood and one-pot soups or stews. sea turtle. Legumes Red beans.000 islets. wheat. The islands became a British colony in 1783 and independent in 1973. cement. in tourism 50% Urban 83.1 Literacy rate 95. fish Chicken. Along with tourism. goat. black-eyed peas. Fats and oils Lard. condensed. and tourism. British rule of The Bahamas for 200 years influenced food customs. lived here in 1492 when Columbus first arrived in the New World. rice dishes. timber. Hurricanes regularly cause serious damage. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. In 2007 the newly elected president announced privatization of Bahamasair. international banking and investment management have become major industries.000 live births 23. pigs.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. crabs). British settlement began in 1647. the money-losing government-owned airline. pigs. they brought cattle. pinto beans. soybeans. salt. butter.B BAHAMAS The Commonwealth of The Bahamas Geography The Bahamas is in the Atlantic Ocean. for example. cream. There is a big income gap between the urban middle class and poor farmers. lamb. rice. mi. cheese. Influences on food The indigenous Arawak Indians mostly disappeared after the Spanish conquest. and pasta. 69. vegetable oil. Slaves from Africa brought their use of foods such as okra and black-eyed peas. fried cornmeal breads. olive oil. fish and seafood (dried salt cod. the first inhabitants. chickpeas (garbanzo beans). east of Florida. poultry. beef. Meat. salt pork. cassava bread.0 female Per capita GDP $25.6% Life expectancy 62. cattle Natural resources salt.2% Arable land 1% Agriculture sugarcane. which provides fish and seafood. fish Industries tourism. pork. kidney beans. rum History Arawak Indians. evaporated). chickens. the neighboring United States.5 male.7 HIV rate 3% Unemployment rate 10.

called cassarep. fruit. cassava. Pepper pot (stew of meat and boiled juice of cassava. humid climate with little rain. Ceviche (raw fish marinated in lime juice with olive oil and spices). salt. goats. It has a hot. vegetables (including tomatoes. poultry. onions. vegetables. tomatoes. Hot chili sauces. malanga. fish. Dried salt cod fritters. Escabeche (fried. fresh fruit. breadfruit. cashew apples. natural gas.5 female Per capita GDP $32. milk. Rice cooked with peas or beans. allspice (pimento). By the 1970s oil reserves were depleted and international banking . soft drinks. rum. Curried meat. callaloo). annatto. cinnamon. grating. other 58% 24% 9% 9% Population density per sq. or plantains. poultry. cattle Natural resources oil. fruits. chickens. A causeway connects it to Saudi Arabia. Simmered or fried akee.6 Literacy rate 88. sweetened fruit juice poured over crushed ice. Seasonings Chilies. highly seasoned with pepper). garlic. coconut. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Boiled rice.The Food and Culture around the World – Bahrain 21 Vegetables Cassava. pies. 77. annatto seeds. Major Languages Arabic (official) English Farsi Urdu Ethnic Groups Bahraini Arab Indo-Pakistani Iranian Other 62% 15% 13% 10% Major Religions Islam (official) Shi’a Muslim Sunni Muslim Christian Hindu. Fruit Citrus fruits. Dishes Cassava bread (made by pressing. aluminum smelting. Beverages Coffee often with milk. coffee with milk. Pearls.000 live births 15. papaya. yams. It was a British protectorate from 1861 to 1971. plantains. squash. sweet potatoes. mangoes. or poultry). cocoa. lime juice. malanga. Sweets Sugarcane.6 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 16–18% Arable land 3% Agriculture dates. cilantro. chili peppers. Black-eyed pea fritters. black pepper. Callaloo (soup of green leaves cooked with okra). onions). soursop (has a cotton-like consistency). tea. cashew nuts. cucumbers. green leaves (taro. pineapple. shrimp. sheep. beer. marinated fish. and vegetables were economic mainstays until oil was discovered in 1932. ice cream. akee (a mild apple-sized fruit). Islamic and offshore banking History Bahrain was an important trade center by the third millennium BCE. okra. seafood. pearls Industries oil processing and refining.100 Labor force in agriculture 1% Urban 88. cornmeal pudding. onions. iron pelletization. iced tea. 2. or fish. fertilizers.4 male.797. when it gained independence. bananas. Snacks Fresh fruit. and frying cassava in flat loaves). Savory pies. sugar.8% Life expectancy 72. or fish in a pilaf. Lunch: rice and beans or starchy vegetable and salt cod. rum. and milk when available. mi.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. It was ruled by Persia in the 4th century CE and then by Arabs until 1541. cakes. Meals Breakfast: coffee with milk and bread. coconut. drying. molasses. sweet peppers. BAHRAIN Kingdom of Bahrain Geography Bahrain is in the Middle East. Salt cod gundy (spread). It is an archipelago of sand and rock islands in the Persian Gulf off the eastern coast of Saudi Arabia. avocados. Dinner: like lunch plus meat. Rice cooked with meat.

tea. many centuries of Arab rule. coriander. Sweets Date molasses (dibis). vegetable oils. Ground chickpeas or fava beans formed into small balls and fried. labneh (fresh cheese made from draining yogurt). pistachios. lemons. and fresh coriander. Baklava (pastry made of filo dough layers with nuts and soaked in honey or flavored syrup). melons. Britain. Dates are consumed in large quantities. brandy. . mangoes. and a little water. Meat. red beans. Seasonings Baharat (a spice mix of black pepper. mint. is usually consumed black and very sweet. lentils. watermelon. figs. beef. and rice spiced with baharat. salt. poultry. Possible national dish Khouzi (baked whole lamb stuffed with chicken. beer. sesame seeds. chicken. Since 1996 Shiites have clashed with the Sunni-led government. nutmeg. Dishes Boiled rice. ghee (clarified butter). spinach. silver pomfret). saffron. especially during the fresh date season and Ramadan. onions. olives. Fats and oils Sesame seed oil and paste (tahini). Foul (simmered fava beans) topped with tomato. flatbread. Lamb cooked on skewers as pieces or ground (kebab mashwi). and tahini. and onions). The first female judge was appointed in 2006. loomi (dried Omani limes). Beverages Coffee. Dairy products Yogurt (laban). rice. Expatriates comprise a substantial proportion of the population (38%). a Ramadan specialty. sugar. cardamom. Vegetables Tomatoes. fruit drinks. fava (broad) beans. Loomi is used in meat dishes and sweet tea. Coffee. bananas. Many sweet dishes contain dates and date molasses. orange flower water. Tea. resulting in the availability of a wide variety of foods. Tharid (casserole of layered flatbread with meat stew). parsley. hazelnuts. Food presentation and meal format in Bahrain are similar to those in Lebanon and Syria. served on rice and garnished with almonds and ghee. Honey is consumed in large quantities. eggplant. Religion also influences cuisine in this mostly Muslim country. goat. Lamb. eggs. cumin. the Horn of Africa to the west. honey. Legumes Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). and paprika). In 2007 the first woman delivered a speech at the Arab League summit conference. yogurt drinks. feta cheese. mint. the month of fasting. coriander. The food in Bahrain is basically Arabian food. Influences on food Bahrain’s food has been influenced by Persia. lemon juice. olive oil. cracked wheat. Small stuffed pancakes (ataif). Vegetables cooked with tomatoes. cream. shrimp. rosewater. garlic. eggs. accompaniments for meat dishes and snacks. garlic. Bahrain’s extensive coastline provides fish and shrimp. wine. couscous. peanuts. cardamom. available from shawarma stalls. Yogurt and labneh are the main ones and used in various dishes. fish Wheat. Street food and snacks Freshly roasted chicken and doner kebab (vertical spit-roasted lamb pieces) sliced and served in flatbread or roll with tomato. Bread and cereals rice dishes. and vegetables). held in conservative Saudi Arabia. saffron. olive oil. lemon juice. the main drink. oranges. and Iran and India to the east. fresh herbs. cassia. is strongly associated with the renowned Arabian hospitality and is prepared from well-roasted. rolls. as it is for neighboring Saudi Arabia. Fruit Dates. green onions. Hummus (simmered puréed chickpeas). The government bought control of the oil industry in 1975. cucumbers. milk. fish (grouper. pine nuts. sautéed onions. the second drink. Democratization began in 1999 when Sheik Hamad ibnal-Khalifah succeeded his father after a four-decade rule.22 The Food and Culture around the World – Bahrain thrived. Fresh salt pickles. finely ground beans and usually flavored with cardamom. onion. Nuts and seeds Almonds. parsley. limes. filo pastry. for example. and surrounding cultures: Ottoman to the north. Machbous (shrimp cooked with rice. In 2002 women were first allowed to vote and seek office. Muslims do not eat pork. butter. Bahrain was a Western airbase during the Persian Gulf War in 1991 and Iraq War in 2003. cloves. pancakes.

chemical fertilizer. Bangladesh also suffered from increased inflation and high food prices. potatoes. wheat. Associated with India during the 1970s. Geography is dominated by great rivers that flow into the Bay of Bengal and by the alluvial delta they created. chapati (flat. sugar History The historic region Bengal was a kingdom about 1000 BCE.The Food and Culture around the World – Bangladesh 23 BANGLADESH People’s Republic of Bangladesh Geography Bangladesh (formerly East Pakistan) is in South Asia. jute. mi. rice dishes. wheat. the main crop. millet. The area has been largely Muslim for nine centuries. circular. and most east Bengalis converted to Islam. Rice and fish are the staple foods. Rice is higher status than bread. coal Industries cotton textiles. In 1971 Bangladesh proclaimed its independence.1 male. A substantial proportion of the population is Hindu. timber. barley. newsprint. Major Languages Bangla. Bangladesh has been influenced by India and Britain. garments. In 1576 it became part of the Mogul Empire.300 Labor force in agriculture 63% Urban 25. Militant Islamist bombing in 2005 caused deaths and injuries.969. Influences on food Before 1947 a part of the Bengal province of India. Sometimes famines occur in this densely populated country with many poor people.000 live births 57. chickens. caching (luchi stuffed as with green peas). For example. sorghum. The rivers and seacoast provide fish and seafood. and a cyclone. Jute’s decline as a world commodity worsened the destitution here.8 Literacy rate 53. bordering the Bay of Bengal. and almost surrounded by India. 2. sugarcane. natural gas. floods. sheep Natural resources fish. cattle. or Bengali (official) English Ethnic Groups Bengali Other 98% 2% Major Religions Islam (official) Muslim (mostly Sunni) Hindu Other 83% 16% 1% Population density per sq. which also influences food practices. Escalating political violence led to a state of emergency for most of 2007–2008. It is mostly a low plain with a tropical monsoon climate and frequent floods and monsoons. Bread and cereals Rice. goats. Recent storms and floods have killed thousands. tea. Bangladesh became an Islamic Republic in 1988 and adopted a parliamentary system of government in 1991. In 2008. whole wheat flour bread cooked on an ungreased griddle). The rivers sometimes flood during the monsoon season. which supports rice. but by the 10th century CE Hindus predominated.3% Arable land 55% Agriculture rice. .3 female Per capita GDP $1. tea. 63. Bangladesh has a subtropical climate with much rainfall. in the ensuing civil war 1 million died and 10 million fled to India.5% Life expectancy 63. when Britain withdrew and East Bengal became part of Pakistan. corn. In the 12th century Muslim invaders conquered it. Muslims do not eat pork and Hindus do not eat beef. In 1974 Pakistan recognized Bangladesh’s independence. also influencing food practices. jute. so bread is not served with it. tobacco.5 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 4. cement. British India ruled here from 1757 to 1947. dosa (lentil and rice pancakes). which was controlled by Britain from the 18th century to 1947. Buddhists ruled it for centuries. In 1996 it signed a treaty with India on the use of water from the Ganges River. light engineering. luchi (fried bread like northern India pooris).7% Infant mortality rate per 1.

black pepper. cumin. poultry. Legumes Beans. rosewater. ginger. saffron. crabs). then soaked in rose-flavored syrup). Vegetables Potatoes. each containing a sugared cardamom seed or other candy. pistachios. Fish and seafood coated with masala (either red one with hot chilies or yellow one with turmeric) and fried in mustard oil. water added. cucumbers. and perhaps ground almonds. cinnamon. some chilies. World-famous confections are produced. Dried dates are popular. used in curries). often served over rice and with chutney. cream. and mutton. yogurt. Ghee (clarified butter). lentils. and simmered. Condiment Chutney (spicy fruit or vegetable preserves). Barfi (shredded coconut. peas. a sweet contrast to highly seasoned seafood dishes and curries. tamarind (sour pulp of bean pod). dipped in sugar syrup. or a combination of legumes (beans. fish Fish and seafood (shrimp. cardamom. Dal is split pulse. BARBADOS Geography Barbados is an island between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Daily diet Many poor peasants eat rice. chili peppers. and cloves. sugar. lassi (diluted yogurt). chili pepper. poultry. onions. Ladikanee (made from dough of flour and sugar mixed with other ingredients and shaped into balls. chicken. lentils. green peas. Major Language English (official) Ethnic Groups Black White Mixed and Asian 90% 4% 6% Major Religions Anglican Other Protestant Other None 28% 43% 12% 17% . Beverages Tea. or vegetable pieces cooked in spicy sauce). mint. and a handful of leafy greens (shak) or boiled potato. covered. lamb. cumin seeds. mustard oil.24 The Food and Culture around the World – Barbados Meat. mustard seeds. Boiled potatoes. Sweets Sugarcane. Curry (meat. garlic. eggplant. eggs. green leafy vegetables. a shad and full of small bones. it is 21 miles long (34 km) and 14 miles wide (23 km). cooked with milk and sugar). layered with rice and mint. goat. turmeric. or lentils). A special potato and rice dish (potato pieces browned in ghee with saffron. Carrot or coconut pudding. mangoes. giant sea perch and one of the best fish in the Indo-Pacific. peas. carrots. Persons who are better off also eat more complex dishes and sweets. Farthest east of the West Indies. walnuts. a popular and British-inspired confection created for Lady Canning’s birthday shortly after 1858 when Lord Canning became the first viceroy of India. pine nuts. dates. Seasonings Onion. Urban workers living in slums often eat rice and dal. fish. and unmolded to serve). masala (spice mixture often of chilies. cardamom seeds. one or two onions. deep fried in ghee. and flavored with rosewater). Dairy products Fats and oils Milk (cow. water buffalo). Fish include hilsa. cheese. A professional sweet-maker (moira) is esteemed. beef. Dishes Boiled or steamed rice. circled by fine beaches and narrow coastal plains. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Fruit Coconut. and bekti. coriander. Roshgulla (fresh cheese formed into a walnut-sized round ball. jackfruit pulp (resembles breadfruit).

wheat flour. Cornmeal coo-coo (flat cake made by stirring cornmeal into simmered okra slices). Fruit Coconut. cornmeal cake (made with cornmeal. goats Natural resources oil. oranges. akee. cotton. cream. Crab and greens soup made with coconut milk. raisins. bananas.300 Labor force in agriculture 10% Urban 38. and coconut in banana-leaf envelopes). coconut-milk sherbet. cassava. and rum). ate fish. Green turtle and sea urchin dishes. snapper). coconuts. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. natural gas Industries tourism.1% Arable land 37% 25 Agriculture sugarcane. lard. biscuits. raisins. light manufacturing. Fats and oils Butter.7% Life expectancy 71. avocados. poultry. and they launched an open-bid round for offshore exploration. goat. okra. mi. soursop. Vegetables Sweet potatoes.000 live births 11. cashew apples. British control for more than three centuries influenced food customs. pork. cashew nuts. lobster. yams. pigs. Special occasion dish Conkies (cornmeal. malanga). and tea. . black pepper. chocolate mousse. squash. malanga. chilies. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Meat.1 HIV rate 1. Influences on food Arawak Indians. and by the 1640s they switched to sugarcane. allspice. aged cheese.The Food and Culture around the World – Barbados Population density per sq. fish. and stews such as callaloo. plantains. pigeon peas. salt cod. The same foods are used today on this tropical island. cattle. green sea turtle eggs also called sea urchins. Legumes Kidney beans. sugar. Baked whole red snapper. condensed. chickens. thought to be the original inhabitants. crabs. papaya. molasses. coconut custard pie. Barbados became independent in 1966. sugar.694. Roast pig. eggs. British traditions remain. hot pepper sauce. black-eyed peas. Seasonings Salt. raisins. African slaves were brought to work on the plantations until slavery was abolished in 1834.2 male. examples include salt cod.2% Unemployment rate 8. frogs. limes. vegetable oil. rum. cherries.4 Literacy rate 99.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. red beans. breadfruit. pineapple (George Washington’s favorite fruit when he visited Barbados in 1751). fried cornmeal cakes. Dishes Callaloo (malanga leaves cooked with okra). annatto. fish Chicken. rice. vegetables. chickpeas. mangoes. rum fruitcake. 75. It is one of the better developed Caribbean nations. onions. chowders. garlic. Specialty dishes Fried flying fish.2 female Per capita GDP $19. seafood. In 2007 officials announced that Barbados would import natural gas by pipeline from Trinidad and Tobago. sweet peppers. cassava bread (made from grated cassava fried in a flat loaf). It is thought to have been inhabited by Arawak Indians but was uninhabited when English ships came in 1605. cinnamon. mango mousse. Codfish fritters. lamb. They grew tobacco and cotton. tomatoes. fish and seafood (flying fish. sweet potatoes. sheep. cassava coconut biscuits or bread (made using wheat flour. unrefined sugar. cassava. Black African slaves also influenced foodways such as in using okra. chopped meat. passion fruit. evaporated). Bread and cereals Corn. chilies. Pepper pot (a meat stew containing boiled juice of cassava and peppercorns). In 1627 it became a British colony and British settlers came. component assembly History Barbados was probably named by Portuguese sailors in reference to bearded fig trees. Sweets Sugarcane. Lobster salad. coconut oil. green leaves (cassava. 1. annatto seeds. and grated coconut). beef. using foods available from the sea and local greens. green sea turtles. wheat. cocoa.

000 live births 6. especially with children. mi. Following the partition of Poland. 120. potatoes. Also in 1996 a constitution was enacted that gave the president vast new powers. The Polish-Soviet War of 1918 to 1921 was fought to decide Belarus’s fate: west Belarus went to Poland and the larger eastern part became Belarussian SSR and was joined to the USSR in 1922. limestone. In 2007 Belarus resolved disputes with Russia on natural gas prices and petroleum. peat marshes. In medieval times it was subject to Lithuanians and Poles. tea.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. 1772 to 1795. sweetened fruit juice poured over shaved ice. forcing many to evacuate.900 Labor force in agriculture 14% Urban 72. sugar beets. Dinner: like lunch but with more meat. cattle. tractors. 76. rivers. It proclaimed independence in 1918 but was occupied by the Red Army. were Roman Catholic. Beginning in 1503 it was a war prize between Russia and Poland. oil. After increasing political turmoil in the 1990s. Influences on food With Russia on the east and Poland on the west. The peasants belonged to the Russian Orthodox Church.26 The Food and Culture around the World – Belarus Beverages Coffee with milk. Ukrainian. other grain. tea with coconut biscuits or bread. Major Languages Belarusian (both Russian official) Ethnic Groups Belarusian Russian Polish. planter’s punch (lime juice.7% Life expectancy 64. fruit. in 1996 Belarus signed a pact with Russia linking their political and economic systems. and milk added when available. and lakes.6 male. chickens. swamps. Lunch: rice and beans with meat. Meals Breakfast: bread and coffee with milk. cocoa. natural gas. sand. planter’s punch with plantain chips. clay. goats.8 Literacy rate 99. the petty gentry were mostly Unitarian. mostly of Polish or Lithuanian origin. It is a large landlocked country consisting mostly of hilly lowland with forests. vegetables. flax. marl. and the nobility. iced tea usually with lime. and water or ice). vegetables. Much of the area was contaminated from the Chernobyl accident in 1986. milk. beer. Belarus became part of the Russian empire. sheep Natural resources forests. Kiev dominated it from the 9th to the 12th century. Overrun by German troops in 1941 and regained by Soviet troops in 1944. Snacks Sugarcane. chalk. BELARUS Republic of Belarus Geography Belarus is in Eastern Europe between Poland and Russia.2% Arable land 27% Agriculture corn. In 1939 the Soviet Union took west Belarus and incorporated it into Belarussian SSR. other 81% 11% 8% Major Religions Eastern Orthodox Roman Catholic Other 80% 13% 7% Population density per sq.4 female Per capita GDP $10. fish Industries machine tools. Belarus became independent in 1991 when the Soviet Union disbanded. pigs. rum (was first made in Barbados).5 HIV rate 0. trucks. peat. motorcycles History In the 5th century east Slavic tribes colonized Belarus. gravel. rum. soft drinks. Belarus has undergone continuous social and religious upheavals. earth movers. granite. fruit juices. Snacking is frequent. The cooking of the upper class resembled that of Poland and .2% Unemployment rate 1. sugar or syrup. if affordable.

raisins. especially Easter. when special cakes and decorated hard-boiled eggs are made. bread usually dark rye. Drachona. cabbage (shchi). cakes. poppy seeds. the savory is slightly sour from soaking the oatmeal overnight and is served hot with potatoes. barley. barley. pancake made with rye flour and buckwheat. rhubarb. whereas the cuisine of the small town merchants and artisans was influenced by Jewish cooking after the 17th-century influx of Jews. Boiled potatoes. beer. sugar. beets. none 75% 25% . Milk. sausages. damp climate influences what foods are grown. It is mostly flat. main dish. carrots. The cold. fruit. paprika. pickling. buttermilk. soup. wheat. buttermilk. sour cream). Milk. cheese. fish Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Chicken. with lunch the largest. and dairy products are prominent in the diet. cherries.g. Fruit Apples. vanilla. poultry. pastry. and they eat special foods on holidays. Pastry stuffed with meat or cabbage and fried or baked. mainly potatoes. Beverages Meals Three hearty meals a day. mushrooms. Usual foods are bread. cream. caraway seeds. or with pancakes. split peas. or fruit. Kasha (cooked porridge from buckwheat. Fried potatoes. France. ham. cooked fruits as in berry pudding (kisel). vegetable oil. hazelnuts. coffee. rye bread. Seasonings Vinegar. cheese. cabbage. or beer. vodka. garlic. milk. Mealy potatoes are preferred. lard. Foods are often preserved by drying. or millet). mustard. with hills and forests in the southeast. cloves. and kasha. flaxseed oil. Dumplings (kletski) from flour or potatoes. lentils. Nuts and seeds Almonds. navy beans. Belarus dishes unusual elsewhere Zhur (oat soup). rye. Cucumbers in sour cream. Dairy foods are eaten daily. bacon. apricots. cauliflower. and buttermilk. oranges. can be savory or sweet with honey and fruit. peaches. and boiled. Kidney beans. Sweets Honey. pickled herring. walnuts.The Food and Culture around the World – Belgium 27 Germany. served with sour cream and jam. Major Languages Dutch (Flemish) (all French are German official) Ethnic Groups Flemish Walloon (French) Other 58% 31% 11% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant. onions. parsnips. plums. cucumbers. and oats. Most people are Eastern Orthodox: the observant do not eat animal products on fast days. pork. fish. strawberries. beef. barley. cinnamon. millet. Dishes Soups from beets (borscht). stuffed with meat. or fish (ukha). Snacking is rare. Potatoes. sour cream. tea. jam. buckwheat. Other. lamb. ginger. BELGIUM Kingdom of Belgium Geography Belgium is in Western Europe bordering the North Sea. eggs. Bread and cereals Rye. Germany. and Luxembourg. Major commercial rivers trisect the country. goat. turnips. horseradish. the Netherlands. sour cream. usually with chopped green onions and dill added). oats.. Mokanka (blended curd cheese. dill. Lakes and rivers provide fish. tea. pancakes. Butter. served as appetizer. Meat. porridge. Muslim. The peasants maintained the Slavic tradition of their ancestors. dumplings. Vegetables Potatoes. blackberries. with milk. are usual. or fermenting (e.

pecans. metals. fish Industries engineering and metal products. eggs. hazelnuts. silica. wheat. chips are eaten with mayonnaise. In Brussels some streets have food names. “to crumble”). apples. lard. tarragon. potatoes. and milk soup). or fish fried then marinated. cherries. shallots. Nuts Almonds. Burgundy controlled it in the 15th century. Dairy products Milk. ginger. lamb. pigs. pork. and personality profile: the more numerous and richer Flemish are go-getters. biscuits. vegetable oil. 890 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 75. birth rate. After 1815 Belgium became part of the Netherlands. pea and bean soup. textiles. served in restaurants and at roadside stalls.7% Arable land 27% Agriculture sugar beets. carbonates. In 2000 Brussels became the “capital” of the European Union. hills. raisins. 82. Rue au Beurre (Butter Street). walnuts. hop shoots. transportation equipment. rice. tobacco. Bread and cereals Wheat. charcuterie. juniper berries. Fats and oils Butter. margarine. onions. wheat. Fruit Pears. fish Chicken. sweet breads. fruit. Belgium waffles and chocolates are famous throughout the world. glass. cattle. chickens. cinnamon. vermicelli. motor vehicle assembly. sand. prunes. yeast breads (whole wheat.300 Labor force in agriculture 2% Urban 97. chervil. beef. The north has flat land and coastline providing fish and seafood. fish. In 2003 gay marriages and euthanasia were legalized.9 male. and forests providing pork and game. Historical dishes Charlemagne’s grandmother’s soup (potage liégeois). where heads of government meet. processed food and beverages. followed by Austria. Germany violated Belgium neutrality in both world wars. game (rabbit. crayfish. rye. In 1830 it became an independent constitutional monarchy. vegetables. lemons. chestnuts. probably Celts. endive (chicory). poultry.2% Unemployment rate 6. tomatoes. sesame seeds. the south has pastures. During wars after the French Revolution. Meat. It was part of Charlemagne’s empire in the 8th century. oysters). Anguilles au vert (eels simmered with herbs in butter and white wine. Soupe Tchantches (vegetables. France occupied and then annexed it.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. fowl. Legumes Split peas. goat. whereas French is the language of the Walloons in the south. Truleye (from truler. almond macaroons.000 live births 4. Spanish influence includes meat.4 female Per capita GDP $35. garlic. nutmeg. The economy was strong in 2007.5 HIV rate 0. goats Natural resources construction materials. mi. rye). asparagus. chocolate. seafood (eel. sheep. The division is not only for language and geography but also for pattern of employment. scientific instruments. wild boar. waffles. sausages. oranges. deer). wealth. sorrel. lemon. Carbonade (beef and onions braised in beer). Vegetables Potatoes. rice saffron torte. . chemicals. cream. cheese. parsley. vanilla. oil History First inhabited by the Belgae. shrimp. National dishes Moules et frites (mussels with chips). grapes. mussels. Influences on food In the 1830s Belgium took its present form: the Flemish (Dutch) part in the north and Walloon (French-speaking) part in the south plus bilingual capital Brussels in the center. Brussels sprouts. ham. bay leaf). and Seville oranges at Mardi Gras. whereas the Walloons generally are more pleasure loving and gastronomically inclined. saffron. Spain ruled it from 1555 to 1713. onions. Seasonings Herbs (celery. Chips or pommes frites (fried potatoes). kidney beans. cold soup with crumbled gingerbread. Language difference has been a perennial source of controversy: Dutch is the language of the Flemings of northern Belgium. for example.28 The Food and Culture around the World – Belgium Population density per sq. the area was conquered by Julius Caesar in about 50 BCE and by the Franks in the 5th century CE. cabbage.

biscuits. fresh fruit. Influences on food Belize’s Caribbean coastline provides fish and seafood. bananas. construction History The Mayan civilization spread to this area between 1500 BCE and 300 CE and flourished until about 1200. and the broth thickened with egg yolks and cream). the Caribbean Sea.1% Unemployment rate 11. oranges. The Maya influence was strong when the Spanish . hot chocolate. hard-boiled egg. honey.The Food and Culture around the World – Belize 29 thickened with egg yolk. Speculoos (Christmas spice cookies baked in decorative molds). rabbit). wine.900 Labor force in agriculture 22. Belgium is renowned for beers. Major Languages English (official) Spanish Creole Mayan dialects Population density per sq. deer.4 male. in 1840. or caramelized sugar. whipped cream. and grated nutmeg. goats Natural resources timber. Much of the land is heavily forested.000 live births 23. and seasoned with lemon juice). Southern specialties In this land of châteaux and fortresses: smoked raw ham. 34. The civilization was advanced and the population was dense. Swamps along the coast give way to hills and mountains in the interior. Shrimp and cheese fritters.3% Life expectancy 66. British Honduras. Cream of endive soup. Beverages Beer. chickens. melted butter. coffee.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. Cramique (fruit bread). 70.1 female Per capita GDP $7.5% Ethnic Groups Mestizo Creole Maya Other 49% 25% 11% 15% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other None 50% 27% 14% 9% Urban 50. it achieved independence in 1981. tarts (baked two-crust pastry with sweet or savory filling). charcuterie. cacao. tourism. mi. Both Spain and Britain claimed the area until Britain defeated Spain in 1798 and made it a British colony. whipped cream. vegetables. hydropower Industries garment production.0% Arable land 3% Agriculture sugarcane. Waterzool (fish or chicken with herbs simmered in liquid including white wine. Northern specialties Asperges op zijn vlaams (asparagus the Flemish way). The tropical climate allows growing sugarcane and fruits. simmered asparagus served with potatoes. Creamed oysters and shrimp. and herbs poached in broth).2 Literacy rate 70. bordering Mexico.6 HIV rate 2. Hochepot (meats. It has become a center for drug trafficking between Colombia and the United States. Croquettes de crevettes (deep-fried shrimp croquettes). and waffles. Waffles (gaufres) with butter and sugar. Belgium chocolates. boiled or braised ham. fish. Café liégeois (mocha ice cream topped with coffee-flavored syrup and whipped cream). pigs. more British settlements were established during the next 150 years. In 1973 it changed its name to Belize. Sweets Sugar. Simmered hop vine shoots. food processing. BELIZE Geography Belize is in Central America. A national dessert Dame blanche (ice cream. Shipwrecked English seamen began a settlement in 1638. Crayfish (écrevisses) simmered in white wine and cream sauce. and Guatemala. In 2007 Hurricane Dean caused extensive damage. Britain’s last colony on the American mainland. Tomatoes crevettes (hollowed-out tomatoes filled with shrimp and topped with mayonnaise). pâtés. sheep. and chocolate sauce). cattle. sweet breads. game (wild boar. Craquelin (sugar loaf). Columbus sailed along the coast in 1502. tea.

Fried plantains. turtle. praline-like candy (nogada). Soups/stews of meat. meat. conch. pork. Exotic meat from forests. or fish. roselle fruit. BENIN Republic of Benin Geography Benin is in western Africa. tortillas. black beans. and northern highlands. cold tropical fruit drinks (refrescas). chayote (green pear-shaped gourd). Meals Corn and beans are eaten at every meal by the poor. wheat flour rolls and cakes. eaten as solid food or in drinks. British rule for almost two centuries had some influence on food customs. wrapped in corn husks or banana leaves. lime juice. rice. Staple foods Corn. diluted to make a beverage or used in other ways) and atole (thickened corn gruel. sea turtle eggs. In wealthier areas dinner also includes soup. cakes and fritters flavored with coconut or rum. rice puddings. rice is also common. cocoa. wheat. pigs. vegetable oils. Snacks Sugarcane. Fats and oils Lard. shortening. cilantro. Seasonings Chilies. fresh fruit. such as gibnut (small deerlike rodent). Seeds Squash seeds. garnish such as salad or fried vegetable. coconut. orange-red coloring achiote/annatto. cream. squash. cloves. ices made with fruit syrups. Sweets Sugarcane. shrimp. fish Chicken. tomatoes. Caribbean island foodways from native Caribspeaking Indians and from Africans and Asians imported to work influence food customs on Belize’s Caribbean coast. Vegetables Avocados. Legumes Red beans. beets. potatoes. beer. Meat. who eat special fare on religious holidays (Christmas. guavas. coconut milk. The climate is tropical. eggs. cassava. cabbage. onions. sweetened baked plantains. coconut breads on the Caribbean coast. beets. or can be used as an ingredient). beef. Dense vegetation covers most of the land: a coastal strip. Rice and beans (frijoles con arroz) dishes such as gallo pinto (red beans and rice fried with onions). or fish with plantains. now there are posole (semi-fermented corn dough. Bread and cereals Corn. ices made with fruit syrups. honey. where the staple is corn. bananas. ice cream. lettuce. and new foods such as rice. white beans. mangoes. and tamales. poultry. vanilla. hot chocolate. Easter. cheese. Fruit Oranges. which can have additions of chili or beans. Also. plantains. beans. or cassava and coconut milk. The Spanish brought cattle. fish. pumpkin. custards. carrots. Dishes Cornmeal and meat dishes such as tamales (spicy meat mixture with cornmeal dough. chickpeas. breadfruit. pineapple. yams. poultry. and Lent) and Sundays. butter. apples. ice creams. rice. goat. poultry. corn tortillas and atole. a swampy forested plateau. Most people are Christians. sweet peppers. pumpkin seeds. Pickled vegetables such as cabbage. beans.30 The Food and Culture around the World – Benin conquest occurred and it endures in the highlands. rum. and steamed). sugar. bordering the Gulf of Guinea and west of Nigeria. gruels. Salads such as avocado with lime juice (guacamole). and carrots. lamb. . Dairy products Milk (evaporated). spiny lobster. Specialties Spiny lobster soup and conch soup or fritters on the Caribbean coast. rice is often fried with onions before boiling in water or is cooked with coconut milk. kidney beans. Beverages Coffee. garlic. grapes. and perhaps dessert. cinnamon. chilies.

pumpkin. corn. bitterleaf. whey. onion. akee apples. sweet potatoes. dried baobab leaves. and onions. with fish near the coast. lamb. seasoned with palm oil. and some animals. Influences on food This hot. the predominant cooking fat. goats. and incorporated it into French West Africa in 1904. watermelon seeds (egusi.8 female Per capita GDP $1. thyme. limes. bell peppers. the first time an African had been given a patent for a new drug. Bread and cereals Corn. French influence is strong. humid. Palm oil. sorghum. Nuts and seeds Cashews. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. turmeric. Meat. In the 18th century the expanded kingdom became known as Dahomey. mango seeds. pigs Natural resources fish. dough balls. shea oil. chili pepper. Nuts and seeds thicken and flavor sauces. Daily fare is mostly starchy vegetables with legumes and greens. France dominated the area by the late 19th century. a rich cultural life flourished. porridge. sesame seeds. sheep. oil. 59. buttermilk. watermelon. nutmeg.5% Life expectancy 57. pineapple. . corn. or Fon. and rainy country has a coastline that provides fish and land that supports raising cassava. rice dishes. fish (fresh. pork. hot red chili peppers. taro. cotton. tomatoes. Chicken is a favorite and prestigious food. ginger. chickens. limestone. sour milk. rice. stock cubes. onions. papaya. Vegetables Cassava.500 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 40% Infant mortality rate per 1. okra. By the late 1980s its economy nearly collapsed. watermelon. Legumes Beans. cement History The Kingdom of Abomey was established in the area in 1625 by the Dahomey. potatoes. rabbit. baobab. goat. curds. red chili peppers. sticky. Fats and oils Palm oil. and arose to power in wars with neighboring tribes in the 17th century. tomatoes. Native African foods include black-eyed peas. eggplant. coconut. yams. poultry. hot red chilies. yams. peanuts. Thick. locusts. beans. mi. timber Industries textiles. Insects Termites (often called white ants). green leaves. guavas. Fruit Coconut.2% Unemployment rate 6. beef. eggs. or dried). game. In 2007 a Benin scientist was granted a patent for his new treatment for a strain of sickle-cell anemia. melokhia. pumpkin. cheese. 199. Dahomey gained independence in 1960 and was renamed Benin in 1975. marble. coconut oil. tomato.4 male.8 Literacy rate 40. bananas. locust beans (carob). Privatization and austerity measures were implemented. cattle. construction materials. mangoes. millet. corn. Seasonings Salt. cucumbers. biscuits. tomato. lemons. yams. a popular ingredient). food processing. garlic. corn flour paste. black-eyed peas. peanuts (groundnuts). spicy dishes are enjoyed. gives dishes a red hue.000 live births 66. plantains. and okra. Dairy products Milk. fish Chicken.2 HIV rate 1. kola nuts.8% Arable land 24% Agriculture cassava. smoked. annexed it in 1893. and potato during the 15th and 16th centuries greatly influenced food customs. guinea fowl.The Food and Culture around the World – Benin Major Languages French (official) Fon Yoruba Tribal languages Ethnic Groups Fon Adja Yoruba Bariba Other 39% 15% 12% 9% 25% Major Religions Christian Muslim Voodoo Other 43% 24% 17% 16% 31 Population density per sq. salted.

Monpa. turmeric. paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or boiled corn flour. and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand.1% Unemployment rate 3. bordering India and Tibet. fried with onions.000 live births 51. spices.9 HIV rate 0. alcoholic beverages. cattle. food grains. Adalu (mashed vegetables). kanya (peanut candy). coconut biscuits. calcium carbonate Industries cement. Rice boiled in coconut milk. In 2008 Bhutan changed from an absolute monarchy to a multiparty democracy. 66. Sauces: peanut (ground and pounded). and enacted land reform. and fréjon (black-eyed peas. Fearing China after it invaded Tibet. Aboriginal Bhutanese. Jollof rice (boiled rice with meats. pepper. or coconut. gypsum. okra. sheep Natural resources timber. goats. fried dough balls. Arable land 2% Agriculture corn. processed fruits.6 Literacy rate 55. Bhutan strengthened ties with India. are believed to have migrated from Tibet. dairy products. fertile valleys in the center.1%. fried foods (fish. sugar. A 1910 treaty let Britain guide external affairs while Bhutan was internally self-governing. mi. chicken. Upon independence India assumed Britain’s rule in 1949. pigs. British influence grew in the 19th century. Street food and snacks Grilled spicy kebabs. formed into bite-size scoops to eat stew.3 female Per capita GDP $5. Until the 1960s Bhutan was isolated from the rest of the world. beer. Bhutan has taken steps toward modernization. sugar. It abolished slavery and the caste system. bananas baked with honey. basted and served with coconut sauce. hydropower. A Buddhist monarchy was established in 1907. chickens. and garlic. red zinger (herbal tea made from flower pods of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa).200 Labor force in agriculture 63% Urban 31% Infant mortality rate per 1. or beef. . In 2004 Bhutan became the first nation to ban tobacco sale and public smoking. sweet porridge. plantain chips. It is composed of high mountains in the north. Roast chicken with onion. steamed rice balls. potatoes. wood products.6% Life expectancy 64. chicken and peanut. Chicken or fish marinated in lemon juice. served with many dishes including the chicken and fish ones listed here. including building roads and hospitals and establishing a system of secular education.32 The Food and Culture around the World – Bhutan Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. grilled. and simmered with the marinade. 37. and root vegetables. sweet dough). emancipated women. Major Languages Dzongkha (a Tibetan dialect) (official) Tibetan and Nepalese dialects Ethnic Groups Bhote Nepalese Indigenous tribes 50% 35% 15% Major Religions Mahayana Buddhism (official) Buddhist 75% Hindu 25% Population density per sq. and thick forests and plains in the south. Stews: fish and meat. or peanuts with bits of fish. vegetables. calcium carbide. tourism History Civilization in the region dates back to at least 2000 BCE. rice. palaver sauce (green leaves). with new roads and other connections. and tomato or palm oil). bean balls.8 male. BHUTAN Kingdom of Bhutan Geography Bhutan is in southern Asia in the eastern Himalayan Mountains. Sweets Honey. horses. and sometimes carob or chocolate). Beverages Coffee. citrus. Tibet gained control in the 16th century CE. coconut milk. Fufu.

other animal fats. chicken. onions. cardamom. plains. Lake Titicaca is the world’s highest commercially navigable lake (12. Steamed meat-filled dumplings (mono). lamb and mutton. is drunk throughout the day. There are also cows and crosses between a yak and a cow. Meat.The Food and Culture around the World – Bolivia 33 Influences on food Bhutan’s high eastern Himalaya Mountains. Bread and cereals Rice. Little information about food practices in Bhutan is available. Fruit Citrus. spiced syrup. It is one of two landlocked countries in South America. milk or cream. It is considered better to take the life of one large animal than of numerous small ones. fertile valleys. Dishes using offal because all parts of the animal are used. corn. Tsampa (toasted flour of any grain) is a main staple at high altitudes. Boeja (butter) tea. Other influences include neighbors Tibet (home of Bhutan’s original inhabitants) and India. other grains. fenugreek. and lowlands in the east. other root vegetables. Dairy products Milk. Shay kampo (dried meat) can be dried in thick strips and is tender to eat whether cooked or not. dates. Noodle dishes. for those who have to eat meat for survival it is permitted. BOLIVIA Republic of Bolivia Geography Bolivia is In western central South America. Yak and mutton are eaten. but Buddhists abstain from fish. 3. Examples include noodle dishes from Tibet and China. 3. yogurt. however. Food in the mountains and north resembles that in Tibet.658 m) between high Andes Mountains in the west and semitropical forests. fat. made by churning brewed tea. and salt. Meat. dumplings. cream. In Hinduism. Dishes Steamed or fried breads. garlic. pickles. British control for a century and a half also exerted some influence. or poultry. ghee (clarified butter). Nomads depend on dairy and meat products. coriander. and forests and plains influence its foods. Legume Split peas. the cow is sacred and not to be killed or eaten. and halva from India. and turmeric). dung. poultry. Religions Buddhism and Hinduism also influence food practices. Dairy foods are important. yak. ghee. varied confections.812 m). and split pea pancakes from India and Nepal. bread. goat. ghee. Bolivia has a great high central plateau (12. cinnamon. cayenne. Curry dishes. raisins. Pickled vegetables. butter. and cheese dry easily in the cold dry atmosphere in the high altitudes.910 ft. pork. cheese. 3. Major Languages Spanish Quechua Aymara (all are official) Ethnic Groups Quecha Mestizo Aymara White 30% 30% 25% 15% Major Religions Roman Catholicism (official) Roman Catholic Protestant (Evangelical Methodist) 95% 5% . Sweets Halva. Split pea pancakes. Products of a living cow are pure and purifying: milk. eggs. Buddhists abstain from taking life of another so they eat grains and vegetables when plentiful and hardly any meat. cumin. pork. curry spices (usually black pepper. curry. usually made from grain. ginger.506 ft. Beverage Tea.630 m). The dri (female yak) is used just for milk and milk products. and fruit. food in the area bordering India resembles that in northern India. In high-altitude areas people eat a lot of fat. Seasonings Salt. Fats and oils Butter. noodles. and also nearby countries China and Nepal. A lot of tea is drunk. fish Beef. pancakes. cinnamon.000 ft. Vegetables Potatoes. La Paz is the world’s highest capital city (11.

Cuz and rabbit are popular. beef. bread. It lost parts of its land to neighboring countries in wars from 1879 to 1935. sweet potato. and corn. Bolivia’s cooking has much in common with other Andean countries such as Peru and Ecuador: fondness of chilies. Legumes Soybeans. lard. kidney beans. and Spanish influence. yacón (white root similar to a mild carrot). Llama is used for transport but not for meat or milk.0% in urban areas Arable land 3% Agriculture sugarcane. In 2005 Evo Morales was elected president. peanuts. quinoa. Government instability occurred during much of the 20th century. and olives. the barrenness of the country. goats Natural resources tin. onions. cassava. Aymara Indians inhabited this land in the 13th century when conquered by the Incas. the Spanish brought cattle. and coconut. cattle. The government tried to eradicate the crop. Fats and oils Butter.3% Life expectancy 63.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. Coca bush is the staple in the high mountains. cotton. iron. tomatoes. It has green leaves similar to spinach and seeds in large sorghum-like clusters. Bolivia’s cuisine reflects the Indian culture. hydropower Industries mining. especially the frost-resistant white and purple varieties used to make chuño. The Indian culture was overlaid by the Inca. provide freshwater fish. 69. tobacco. fresh and aged cheeses. Stews are eaten frequently. corn. potatoes. cuz (guinea pig). Bolivia has large gas reserves and considerable oil but has remained one of the poorest South American counties. chickens. clothing History An advanced Tiwanaku culture existed in the Bolivian highlands in the 7th to 11th centuries. smelting. rice. this interior land is high in the Altiplano that stretches east from Lake Titicaca and swoops down to a moist jungle. timber.1 Literacy rate 90. rice. yams. independence fighter. these are also used to make alcoholic beverages. its leaves counteract altitude sickness. Quinoa flour has high quality protein due to a high concentration of essential amino acids. Bolivia is named for Simon Bolivar. although many poor farmers dependent on it resisted. followed by the Spanish.1 HIV rate 0. Dairy products Milk (cow. coffee. pumpkin. food and beverages. carrots. evaporated milk. squash. oil. pork. hominy. they are red and contain carotene) to color food.3 female Per capita GDP $4. olive oil. llamas and alpacas. natural gas. rice. fish. goat. Spain ruled from the 1530s until 1825. antimony. In the 1990s Bolivia was a big producer of coca. gold. Potato is the staple crop of the Altiplano.000 live births 49. fish Chickens. lead. For example. oil. silver. which are processed into flour and used in breads. the freeze-dried potato that provides food for the whole year. 22. and frequent use of annatto (seeds of pods from a tree native to tropical America. Many varieties of potatoes grow here. Titicaca and Poopù. The two great lakes.000 Labor force in agriculture 40% Urban 64.34 The Food and Culture around the World – Bolivia Population density per sq. green peppers. zinc.9 male. The jungle supplies tropical produce: cassava. sweet potatoes. coca. . sheep. Staple foods Potato. He nationalized the hydrocarbon sector in 2006 and increased government income from natural gas and mineral resources in 2007 as tension increased between the Indian-dominated western highlands and the resource-rich eastern lowlands. eggs. Influences on food Once part of the Inca Empire. quinoa. quinoa provides a cereal staple. reliance on stews and substantial vegetable dishes. olives. chilies. South America’s first Indian president. goat). tungsten. soybeans. mi. At high altitudes in the Andes around Lake Titicaca. Bread and cereals Corn. rabbit. lamb and mutton. Vegetables Potatoes. poultry. Bolivia has neither coast for fish and seafood nor grassland for large meat animals. when Spanish forces were finally defeated. from which cocaine is obtained. pigs. Unrest concerning the use of Bolivia’s gas and oil continues. Lake Titicaca also provides giant frogs. handicrafts. frogs. plantains.2% Unemployment rate 8. pigs. Meat.

limes. bananas. vegetables. Cornmealcoated chicken in tomato sauce. zinc. mining. Austria-Hungary controlled it from 1878 to 1918. mi. fish Industries steel. flat farmland in Herzegovina in the south. cobalt. cattle. wood furniture. Dishes Boiled potatoes. domestic appliances History Bosnia was ruled by Croatian kings to 958 CE and by Hungary from 1000 to 1200. and from 1391 it disintegrated. chromite. Fried fish. and sheep. The small outlet on the Adriatic Sea supplies fish. It has hills. lead. textiles. its Serb population objected. later took control of Herzegovina. Major Languages Bosnian (official) Croatian Serbian Ethnic Groups Bosniak Serb Croat Other 48% 37% 14% 1% Major Religions Muslim Orthodox Roman Catholic Other 40% 31% 15% 14% Population density per sq. vehicle assembly.1% Unemployment rate 31. this mostly mountainous land with woods and fertile plains supports extensive agriculture. Seasonings Chilies. and forests in Bosnia in the north.3 HIV rate <0.1% Arable land 20% Agriculture corn. chichi (distilled corn liquor). and conflict ensued among Serbs. and a narrow coast. Beverages Coffee often with milk. or vegetable filling. cinnamon. onions. annatto. potatoes. garlic. large-scale agriculture is practiced.7 male. iron ore. In 1996 a NATO peacekeeping force was installed there. and Muslims.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. The Turks conquered the area in 1463. Nuts and seeds Cashews. manganese. squash seeds. Bosnia and Herzegovina became an independent nation in 1992. guavas.000 live births 9. with wheat and corn the chief cereals. Substantial vegetable dishes such as chine (freeze-dried potato) sauced with hot chilies or cheese or in a stew (chupe). fruits. a dish in which rabbit is stretched to make it more tender. In 1946 Bosnia and Herzegovina became a republic of communist Yugoslavia. 82. citrus juices. copper. pigs. ground cornmeal dough wrapped around a meat. Modern. brandy with orange juice (a specialty cold drink). and Serbia signed a peace agreement in 1995. allspice.5 Literacy rate 96. honey. sheep. coal. It organized at 1200. A UN tribunal began bringing charges against suspected war criminals. mountains. In 2008 the parliament started reforms of the police force. chickens.The Food and Culture around the World – Bosnia and Herzegovina 35 Fruit Coconut. pigs. Beef stew made with carrots. Conejo estirado. BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA Geography This country is in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. raisins. Sweets Sugarcane. Influences on food Formerly part of Yugoslavia. sugar. A specialty Fried legs from Lake Titicaca giant frogs. wheat. 232. Humitas. hominy. tank and aircraft assembly. oranges. and chuño. Leaders of Bosnia. bordering the Adriatic Sea. pumpkin seeds. bauxite. Croats. fish. Croatia. apples. goats. During the four centuries . leading to convictions of Bosnian Serb leaders in 2001 and 2006. when it became part of Yugoslavia.7% Life expectancy 74. beehives Natural resources coal. lemons.000 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 45.2 female Per capita GDP $7. There are numerous orchards and extensive raising of cattle. tobacco products.

Sweets Honey. filo). lemon juice. Fats and oils Butter. cherries. often very sweet. lentils. wine. wheat. Dairy products Yogurt. onion. Although Islam prohibits alcohol consumption. Fruit compote. Fruit juices. cardamom. By the early 20th century many of these dishes had disappeared from menus. Snacks Fresh fruit. milk. olives) eaten while drinking and gossiping. grapes. casserole of meat and vegetables or a fish dish. cream. lemons. sesame seeds. Frequent snacking is typical. sugar. with the main meal at midday. fish. butter. Dinner: leftovers or soup. rice. peaches. cinnamon. Breakfast: bread with honey or preserves and tea or coffee. olives. mint. moussaka (minced lamb. rosewater. Restaurant meal A tradition is to serve small amounts of six or more complementary dishes on a plate. pepper. whereas Christians may. Meals Three meals a day. slatko (fruits simmered in thick syrup). The favorite pastime is the evening gathering (akˇamluk) where men have friendly conversation along with s native brandy and mezze dishes. Vegetables Potatoes. green pepper. pies. green peppers. bread (usually leavened loaves made from wheat flour). baˇc arˇikski (high street platter) might contain a skewer of lamb pieces. green pepper. Now most people in this country are Muslims or Orthodox Christians. pistachios. and flavored with cardamom). sour cream. fava beans. Dolma (cabbage or grape leaves stuffed with ground meat. Pork is very popular (except with Muslims). onions. tea. available at most cafés and bakeries. japrak in Herzegovina). Kebabs (lamb pieces grilled or roasted on skewers). eggplant. eggplant. pasta. wine. . apricots. Beverages Coffee (strong. Seasonings Dill. cheese. grape leaves. Fresh fruit. pastry (especially paper-thin dough. white beans. s Mezze Small bites of foods (e. Baklava (a pastry made with filo dough layered with a walnut. tomatoes. parsley. For example. then soaked in a syrup flavored with honey. goat. A Balkan specialty. Sweet yeast bread rolled with a walnut. garlic. lamb. and tomato). onions. is typical. Nearly 200 dishes were served at the end of the 19th century in Sarajevo eating houses. A Balkan specialty. berries. Dishes Kofta (fried meatballs). walnuts. pears. and syrups flavor many foods.g. and often cut into diamond shapes). Bosnian Muslims never gave up drinking wine and plum brandy.36 The Food and Culture around the World – Bosnia and Herzegovina of Turkish occupation most of the Slavs in this land adopted the Muslim faith. Muslims do not consume pork. Bread and cereals Corn. and egg filling. oregano. cabbage. Meat. ice cream. brandy. cucumbers. Fruit Plums. Plum is the main fruit. poppy seeds. bread and cheese. rendered lamb fat. black beans. dumplings. Lunch: soup. vegetable oils. eggs. cream. Legumes Chickpeas. and stuffed grape or cabbage leaves (sarma in Bosnia. and a few tablespoons of yogurt garnish are added. a few fried tiny meatballs. for example. cheese especially feta (salty white cheese) and kasheval (hard tangy ewe’s milk cheese sometimes called the cheddar of the Balkans). poultry. fish Chicken. especially lemon juice. Restaurant food tradition The tradition of good restaurant food dates back to the second half of the 15th century (about 1462) when the first inn with a cook was recorded. the juices from the various saucepans are mixed together and poured over the food. olive oil. or pistachio filling. and fruit compote or pastry. and tomato sauce baked in a dish lined with eggplant slices). pork.. a sˆ s stuffed onion. pastries. and tomato. Religion influences food practices. almond. apples. pocket bread. or orange blossom water. Nuts and seeds Almonds. beef. buttermilk. plum brandy (ˇljivovica). wheat kernels.

ostrich). Cattle raising and mining have contributed to the economy. corn. German. chickens. Fats and oils Fat of fat-tailed sheep. millet.9% Life expectancy 51. subsistence farming. pulses. dried fish. In the east is rolling plains. sheep. The diet of rural people was that of their East African ancestors except that corn (from the New World and planted by European settlers) was used in porridge. and insects were and are eaten. pumpkin. fish oil. Insects Locusts. plains. iron ore. Meat. Bread and cereals Sorghum. goat. silver. goats. potash History Inhabited by Bushmen. nickel.000 live births 44 HIV rate 23. fish Industries diamonds (world’s leading producer.3 male. wheat. copper. fish. French. . the region became the British protectorate of Bechuanaland in 1886. porridge. Dairy products Milk. venison. by value). Botswana’s neighbor to the south is South Africa. copper. They founded the Cape Malay cuisine that is prominent in the region. beans. and mining. cream. lamb and mutton. In the north are salt lakes. sunflowers. melon. vegetable oil. biltong (salted meat strips dried and smoked). doughnuts. as Botswana. 8. including the Dutch. Major Languages English (official) Setswana (Tswana) (national) Ethnic Groups Tswana (Setswana) Kalanga Basarwa Other 79% 11% 3% 7% Major Religions Christian Badimo Other None 72% 6% 1% 21% Population density per sq. assisted by international doctors. game (antelope. Muslim slaves and laborers imported from Malaysia and India to South Africa have also influenced local fare. supporting nomads and wildlife.9% Unemployment rate >20% Arable land 1% Agriculture roots and tubers. bread. Botswana’s cuisine has been influenced by European settlers of the region. butter. cookies. ant larvae. which is closely tied to South Africa. beef. greens. Most of the population is indigenously African. and especially the British because Botswana was a British protectorate for 80 years.The Food and Culture around the World – Botswana 37 BOTSWANA Republic of Botswana Geography Botswana is in southern Africa.2 Literacy rate 82. Cattle were wealth and seldom eaten. mi. Dairy products. where livestock graze. Botswana started a program that provided free antiviral drugs. swamps. soda ash. French Huguenots founded the wine industry. coal. salt. boerewors (sausages from mixed meats often game). It gained independence in 1966. poultry.400 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 57. fish Chicken. Influences on food This land of desert. pork. and farmland. In 2001 Botswana had the highest rate of HIV infection in the world. and farmland supports nomadic Bushmen and wildlife. salt. eggs. soda ash. pigs Natural resources diamonds. caterpillars. sorghum.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. In 2002. The Dutch and Germans brought an appreciation for jams and preserves (konfyt) and baked goods. The Malays were expert fishermen with experience in preserving fish. rice dishes. millet. nickel. termites (white ants). In 2007 controversy continued over the eviction of Bushmen from the Middle Kalahari Game Reserve and the transfer of sales and distribution of Botswana’s diamonds from London to Gaborone. potash. corn. The Kalahari Desert occupies the southwest. then by Bantus. pastry. 49 female Per capita GDP $16. cattle. livestock. rice.

cattle. pigs.2% Infant mortality rate per 1.100 Labor force in agriculture 20% Ethnic Groups White Mixed white and black Black Other 54% 39% 6% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other None 74% 15% 4% 7% Urban 84.38 The Food and Culture around the World – Brazil Legumes Beans. tangerines. cocoa. walnuts. Koeksister (deep-fried braided spiced doughnuts). wheat. Sweets Honey. Grated raw fruit or vegetables with vinegar or lemon juice and chilies. timber. apricots.6% Unemployment rate 8. grapes. raisins. Fruit leathers (planked fruit). The south central region is farmland with almost half of the population. corn. chickens. bananas. gold. goats Natural resources bauxite. rice. uranium. cassava. fish Industries textiles. The Brazilian Highlands are in the south. iron ore. peanuts. ginger. coconuts. in 1500. 75. potatoes. horses. chili pepper. either skewered and barbecued or simmered in marinade). Fruit preserves and jams. potatoes. sometimes sour (ting). tin. lentils. mi. pumpkin. garlic. apples. Grape-stuffed chicken or suckling pig. wine. aircraft. sugarcane. turmeric. bay leaf. green leaves. Sosaties (curried. soybeans. The northeast is semiarid scrubland. lemons. 60. cloves. Frikkadels (braised meat patties). Beverages Tea.2 male. often with melon or pumpkin. manganese. Portuguese navigator Pedro Alvares Cabral. quinces. motor vehicles and parts History The land was thinly settled by various Indian tribes when the first European arrived. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. tomatoes. During the next centuries Portuguese colonists . cucumbers. Nuts and seeds Almonds. dates.3 HIV rate 0. tin. Fried or roasted insects. oil. Dried fruit. and baked).000 live births 23. coconut. A narrow coastal belt includes most of the major cities. iron ore. Cornmeal porridge. oranges. Spicy fruit or vegetable relishes (chutney). sunflower seeds. Bobotie (meatloaf with curry. sometimes served for special occasions. lemon juice. Seasonings Vinegar. papayas. grapefruit. topped with a custard mixture of milk and eggs. steel. chemicals. Simmered beans or lentils. Pastries such as tarts made with raisins. coconut. Atjar (unripe fruit or vegetables preserved in oil with spices).1 Literacy rate 90. Major Languages Portuguese (official) Spanish English Minor Amerindian languages Population density per sq. onions. cotton. Soetkoekies (spice cookies flavored with sweet wine). lumber.6% Arable land 7% Agriculture coffee (leading grower). sugar. curry powder. BRAZIL Federative Republic of Brazil Geography Brazil occupies the east half of South America and is the continent’s largest country.5 female Per capita GDP $8. nickel. carrots. platinum. sweet potatoes. Dishes Bredie (spicy mutton stew including various vegetables). tomatoes. cement. The entire country has a tropical or semitropical climate. shoes. or custard. cauliflower. dry beans. The heavily wooded Amazon basin in the north comprises half of Brazil. phosphates.5% Life expectancy 68. hydropower. cinnamon. sheep. Fruit Melons. marinated mutton.

Sun-dried beef is carne sêca or charque (jerky). The Portuguese arrived in the16th century and first settled in the northeast. his son Pedro proclaimed Brazil’s independence in 1822. avocados. There they established sugarcane plantations and brought slaves from West Africa. Slavery was abolished in 1888. cowpeas (black-eyed peas). wheat. and some dishes: vatapá (a seafood stew with peanuts. and melegueta peppers). olives. potatoes. green vegetables. onion. Africans brought the use of palm oil (dendê oil in Brazil) with its characteristic orange color. Beef cattle are raised in the south. Climate. Europeans. Its rivers (15. The south of Brazil was developed later than the northeast and north coast. In 2007 biofuel from sugarcane passed hydroelectricity as Brazil’s second largest energy source (after petroleum). restaurants are churrascarias. chicken. rice dishes. and agricultural output soared. Meat. cashew apples. the grill is called churrasco. rather than black slaves. collards). cocoa. and raising livestock. and reflects African influence. lemons. near Uruguay. mustard. melegueta pepper. a preliminary preparation of lightly cooking chopped onion and garlic in olive oil. steamed cornmeal. guavas. geography. and basic cooking methods including refogado (soffritto). A new civil code guaranteeing equality for women was enacted in 2001. okra. Brazil’s vast land and grassland support growing coffee. Minas Gerais. To flee Napoleon’s army. coconut. wine. Brazil reported huge new offshore oil and natural gas finds in 2007–2008. although income was poorly distributed. almonds. and cowboys are gauchos. and vegetables).814 miles of navigable rivers. pumpkin. dried shrimp. greens (kale. and Bahia. beans and other legumes. Legumes Soybeans. pork. including the Amazon) and Atlantic coastline (4. and slaves from Africa have influenced the diet. cassava. Coffee was the cash crop. Fresh meat is important. rice. black-eyed peas (cowpeas). onions. onions. beef. olives. poultry. The Portuguese contributed dried salt cod. cassava. plantains. limes. grains. sweet desserts based on sugar and eggs. grapes. is famous for best cooks and best food. fish Chickens. With vast natural resources and a huge labor force. linguiça (garlic pork sausage). Brazil’s cuisine is very different from that of other South American countries due to Portuguese and African influences. cheese. Bahia province. lard. and cashew nuts). coconut. they contributed cheese-making and preserved meats. more than 3. eggs. Italians. influenced the cuisine. porridge. Brazil is among the world’s energy giants. Bahian cooking features fish and shrimp. goat. Vegetables Cassava. European immigrants. lemon juice. palm oil. dried meat. Influences on food Brazil is the largest and most populous Portuguese-speaking country in the world and the largest country in Latin America. palm oil. Germans. rice. tropical fruits. vegetables such as okra and plantains. coconut milk. fish. and others came to the industrialized area around São Paulo and to the mines. apples. sausage. Fats and oils Dendê oil. tomatoes. and spicy hot pepper). bananas.603 miles) provide fish and seafood. the region between Rio de Janeiro. butter. lamb and mutton. Bread and cereals Corn. smoked meat. pineapple. sugarcane. mainly Guinea. Economic crisis began in 1999. By the 1990s it had one of the world’s largest economies. shrimp. Fruit Oranges. beans (black beans are preferred). starting around São Paulo in the 1830s. for example the dish cuzcuz paulista (molded. The cuisine became more cosmopolitan and more Portuguese. São Paulo.The Food and Culture around the World – Brazil 39 came. caruru (okra. Most Brazilians are Roman Catholic and celebrate Easter and Carnival with traditional holiday fare. peanuts. . peanuts. papaya. and after tough economic reform the economy improved in 2004. After his return to Portugal. mangoes. and malho de nagô (dried shrimp. native foods and customs. Dairy products Milk. Main foods Cassava (manioc). olive oil. bringing large numbers of African slaves. As in Argentina. dried shrimp. cassava meal. which are plentiful. garlic. rice.5 million before slave trade ceased in 1853. Brazil became the leading industrial power of Latin America by the 1970s. but preserved meat is more important in the dry northeast region. the king of Portugal moved the seat of government to Brazil in 1808.

sliced orange. sugar. eaten all over Brazil. cocoa. coconut milk. cassava. main meal at midday. fruit juice. peanuts. and sweet cuzcuz (tapioca. Cookies. its seeds. grated coconut. and afternoon coffee or maté are typical. garlic. Fritters of dried shrimp and cod. originated in Rio. Egg custards such as Quindim. Feijão (beans in Portuguese). and cassava meal sprinkled over both. Beverages Coffee (often served already sweetened). ginger. Cupcakes. served with a sauce of shrimp. rum. Avocado cream (blended ripe avocado mixed with lime juice and confectioners sugar. put in mold. and ginger. salt. popular in restaurants and reminiscent of quince paste and cheese in Portugal. light supper. aromatic and pungent. to sprinkle over most dishes. are often used. Fios de ovos (egg threads). cachaça (sugarcane brandy). which has coconut and is the most popular. and water mixed with boiling water. Much of the land is covered with tropical rainforest. guaranã (soft drink made with seeds of native guaranã. Puddings: tapioca (processed cassava). red chili.40 The Food and Culture around the World – Brunei Nuts and seeds Cashews. Romeu e Julieta (guava paste with fresh cheese). coconut. Grilled fresh meat. which contains caffeine). Efó (fresh and dried shrimp cooked with greens such as mustard). Melegueta pepper is a small. Dishes of the northern region Xinxim de galinha (chicken cooked with dried shrimp. boiled beans. bordering the South China Sea and Malaysia. often eaten as an accompaniment or mixed with boiling water. and western hilly lowlands. eastern mountains. Confections of fruits and Brazil nuts. sugar. and chilled overnight). Dishes Rice or cornmeal porridge (pirão). hot. and plantains. Major Languages Malay (official) English Chinese Ethnic Groups Malay Chinese Other indigenous Other 66% 11% 4% 19% Major Religions Islam (official) Muslim Buddhist Christian Indigenous beliefs and other 67% 13% 10% 10% . National dish Feijoada completa (black beans cooked with smoked meats and sausages and served with rice. Seasonings Melegueta pepper (malagueta in Brazil). Whole fish or abara (cowpeas and shrimp spiced with pepper and dendê oil) wrapped in banana leaves and cooked on a brazier. coffee. Snacks Acarajé (bean or cowpea fritters). Typically the pepper is minced and added to dendê oil. fresh or boiled greens. to make a hot sauce. and maté. Lightly toasted cassava meal (farinha). always available on the table. and chilled). Acarajé (fritters of dried ground beans or cowpeas mixed with dried shrimp and fried in dendê oil). Brazil nuts. Brunei has a narrow coastal plain. yerba maté (a tea made from dried leaves of an evergreen shrub indigenous to Latin America). For the poorer people the standard meal is black beans. BRUNEI State of Brunei Darussalam Geography Brunei is In Southeast Asia. fruit juice. Farofa (cassava meal toasted in butter). Fish stew with coconut milk. rice. beans or cowpeas. pumpkin. Coconut or coconut milk is used in many dishes. Sweets Sugarcane. melegueta pepper. Brazil nuts grow in very tall trees in the jungle of the Amazon basin. Meals Light breakfast. on the north coast of the island of Borneo. coconut. Diet in southern Brazil Grilled meats. swamps. and a hot sauce mixed with lemon or lime juice). in a gourd or wooden bowl. beer. peanuts. batidas (punch of cachaça and citrus fruit). rump roast (picanba). and dendê oil). often with dried shrimp.

macadamia nuts. Much of the country’s oil wealth has been squandered by members of the royal family. allspice. prawn/shrimp pastes (blacang).8 female Per capita GDP $51. and 11% are Chinese (Straits Chinese. In 2007. in an attempt to diversity the economy. bananas. turmeric. eggplant.The Food and Culture around the World – Brunei Population density per sq. but it has retained the use of pork. rice dishes. sweet potatoes. Vegetables Cassava (taro). It values hotness and sourness.000 Labor force in agriculture 2. cinnamon. mangoes. daikon (white radish). shrimp paste. Rice is the staple food. fish Industries oil. Fried rice. greens. fish sauce. cattle Natural resources oil. and grilled). During the 13th to 15th century it came under Hindu influence. oranges. Brunei shares geography and foodways with Malaysia. glutinous rice in sweets. In the early 15th century widespread conversion to Islam occurred and Brunei became an independent sultanate. often marinated with soy sauce and flavorings. limes. beef. whereas Chinese (and Christians) do. sheep. fish Chicken. breadfruit. squash.3% Arable land 2% 41 Agriculture vegetables. buffalo. soy sauce. Two thirds of Brunei’s population are Malays and are Muslim. Brunei became independent in 1984. aromatic roots and leaves. papaya. goats. durian. mealy tuber. chickens. peanuts. cumin. gelatin (used in sweets). Bread and cereals Rice.9% Life expectancy 73. lemon grass. poultry. Chinese influence is strong due to mass movement of labor during the colonial period. chicken. coconut. tamarind. or fish/seafood on thin bamboo skewers. Nuts Litchis. Powerful from the 16th to the 19th century. water chestnuts. eggs. vegetable oil. Influences on food Brunei is on the north coast of the island Borneo.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Muslims do not eat pork or pork products such as lard. dried anchovy. Brunei with two Japanese companies built a methanol plant.9% Urban 73. water buffalo. Dairy products Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. garlic.4 Literacy rate 94. Boiled rice. coconut milk. Meat. It fell into decay and became a British protectorate in 1888. laos (of ginger root family). Brunei has two main cuisines. coconut milk and cream. associated with Chinese immigrants who settled in the area from the 15th century to World War II. lard. now water buffalo meat or beef. Malay and Chinese. fish and seafood. Rendang (“dry beef curry. Fried noodles (kway teow). 77. cubed and simmered with spices and other seasonings in coconut . used to thicken dishes). Dishes Coconut milk is often used as a cooking medium. oil refining. pepper. lemons. Seafood is the secondary staple. An example is nonya (Chinese Straits) cooking. a melting pot of tribes. pineapples. Fruit Pineapple. and aromatic roots and leaves as in Malaysian cooking. Satay (small strips of meat. bananas. melons. pigs. pork. Exploitation of the rich Seria oil field made the sultanate and sultan rich. lime and lemon juice. noodles. lamb. tamarind. seaweed.3 male. it ruled the northern part of Borneo and adjacent islands. mi. Islam has been dominant since the 15th century. coriander. goat. as well as immigrant elites from East and South Asia. with roots in South China). traders. It uses chilies. shrimp paste.7 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 4. ti plant. European traders and British control from 1888 to 1984 left some influence. rice. winged beans. Legumes Soybeans and soybean products such as soy sauce. mung beans. timber. ginger root. fish sauce. palm oil. and adventurers. construction History Brunei traded with China during the 6th century. arrowroot (bland. cassava. 187. green beans. wheat. including the Sulu Islands and the Philippines. and noodles from Chinese tradition. Seasonings Chilies. yams. liquefied natural gas. lard. onions.” formerly venison. natural gas. Fats and oils Coconut oil.000 live births 12. then a British dependency in 1905.

sunflower seeds.7% Arable land 30% Agriculture wheat. onion. kuey lapis (has many different colored layers of gelatin).2 male. pigs. Cooked greens. Bulgaria joined NATO in 2004 and the EU in 2007. and prices. fruit. goats Natural resources bauxite. wheat. The Ottomans ruled from 1396 for 500 years.5% Urban 70. . Immature coconut. Desserts mostly based on thick brown palm sugar syrup. Meals In many homes rice is cooked for all three meals. wine. Beverages Tea. zinc. kava (alcoholic drink made from pepper plant). and spices. sugar. mi. Starchy vegetables (e. gelatin. and coconut). coconut juice. lead. Bulgars. and all with hot sauce of chilies. fruit juice.7 female Per capita GDP $11. Communists took power with Soviet aid in 1946. satay (the favorite snack: goat meat for Muslims. fish Industries utilities. with coconut milk. for example. spicy side dishes or chilies and other spices fried together and used in a dish such as prawn sambal). Gulai (curry or anything cooked in coconut milk and retaining its sauce). Lamb shoulder braised in coconut milk with onion. cassava) boiled and pounded into a paste. Sambal (hot. Bulgaria sided with the Central Powers in World War I and with Germany in World War II. tobacco History Thracians lived here in about 3500 BCE. At the decline of the Empire. Achar (pickle). Plains in the north and south cover two thirds of the land.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. Turkic Bulgars arrived in the 7th century. Chinese roast pork. timber. and glutinous rice..3% Life expectancy 69. sugar beets. fermented coconut sap. and Avars invaded. merged with the Slavs. sheep. The economy deteriorated during the 1990s. garlic. BULGARIA Republic of Bulgaria Geography Bulgaria is in southeastern Europe in the eastern part of the Balkan Peninsula. mountains east to west across the center cover one third. coal. served with sauce of braising liquid and coconut cream and with pineapple slices simmered in the sauce. and peanuts). Foreign investment in Bulgaria increased in 2007 but wages stayed low. Rempah (spice mixture. food. Street food is sold by street vendors and in market stalls and night stores.000 live births 18. sugar. garlic. The Danube River flows along the northern border. barley. 76. laos. became Christians by the 9th century. especially for energy and food. Baked rice rolls in banana leaves. bordering the Black Sea. Goths. increased.42 The Food and Culture around the World – Bulgaria milk). Naga sari (pudding of mung beans. Sweets Palm sugar. Street food Fried noodles. corn. Slavs settled here in the 6th century.300 Labor force in agriculture 8.2 Literacy rate 98. Huns.g. Major Language Bulgarian (official) Turkish Roma Ethnic Groups Bulgarian Turk Roma (Gypsy) Other 84% 9% 5% 2% Major Religions Bulgarian Orthodox Sunni Muslim Other 83% 12% 5% Population density per sq. chickens. and established empires in the 10th and 12th centuries. They were incorporated into the Roman Empire. beverages. A new constitution proclaiming a republic took effect in 1991. grated coconut. often fried before use). pork for Chinese. chicken for both. 170.5 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 10. cattle. vegetables. copper. tobacco.

sunflower seeds. cucumbers. Ghivetch (meat and vegetable stew with ciubritsa. Mountain forests provide game. poultry. cumin. In the south. From the 4th century onward Proto-Bulgars used crushed red rock or red clay mixed with red wine as a curative. raisins. Cooking method Frying was rarely used in old Bulgaria. citrus. is a recent method used only for about the last century. small green hot peppers. and onions cooked slowly for a long time so that it thickens and has a distinct flavor. Bread and cereals Wheat. currants. red chilies. a small stew-enrichment sauce of fried onions and flour. butter. or winter fruit. and fresh fruits. partridge. garlic. barley. Summer is the time for salads. eggplant. onions. rice. plums. almonds. grapes. black pepper. potatoes. or lamb kebabs (not marinated). peaches. rivers. chestnuts. melons. creamy white goat cheese similar to feta. water buffalo. cheese (sirene. cereals and temperate fruits are grown and livestock are raised.The Food and Culture around the World – Bulgaria 43 Influences on food Much of Bulgaria’s land is arable and the remainder is high mountains. chilies. and kashkaval. watermelons. Fats and oils Sunflower oil. or essence. Two thirds of the milk output. Turkey. cherries. vegetables. On the Danube plain. Bulgaria is famous for its attar of roses (rose oil) perfume. quail. cold yogurt drinks. rose oil. young animal flesh is combined with spring vegetables. is used in stews and. and Central Europe. made as early as the 7th century it is still made in the highlands and rural areas and stored for winter sealed with a layer of butter. vegetables. Since red chilies were brought in during the 16th century. in a dip (also called ciubritsa) for bread. Seasonings Salt. whereas many Christians do. eggs. Muslims do not eat pork. A national feature is redcolored food and drinks. Along the Black Sea and lowlands. peas. Meat stews often contain fruits such as quince. mostly cow’s. Walnuts are grown and used in many dishes. rolls. Zapruzhka. pork. fenugreek. green beans. vinegar. nuts. Cooking is in harmony with the season. broad beans. Roasted chicken or pork. apricots. rosewater. and syrup. tomatoes. unsweetened compotes. Lard or butter is sometimes used in stews and pastries. mixed with salt and ground red pepper. Meat. olives. ciubritsa (similar to tarragon). corn. prunes. green onions. the other of shredded cabbage for cooking). Many people eat fish (riba) only in month names containing the letter “r” and with no milk or yogurt in the meal. Most of the highlands are forested. rice dishes. one of Bulgaria’s most popular seasonings. anise. beef. Ciubritsa. which determines ingredients: meat of older animals is cooked with pulses. parsley. and peanuts are grown. probably because few utensils that could withstand high heat were available. rice and lentils are grown. Most modern fried dishes are adopted from Greece. sausage (kebabcha). lamb. Red is considered healthy and invigorating: red apples are preferred to other colors. . with summer pastures for sheep above the forests. fish. Bulgarian stew is always red with chilies. Legumes Lentils. uncooked soups. used in jellies. The 500-year Turkish rule was a strong influence on Bulgarian cuisine. A large quantity of dairy foods is produced and consumed. rosewater. sauerkraut (two barrels are made each summer: one of whole cabbages for leaves for stuffing or salad. olive oil. peanuts. Vegetables Cabbage. dill. strawberries. Fruit Apples. made from ewe’s milk and similar to cheddar). Dishes Bulgarian stew (yahniya). wild boar. deer. figs. is sold as yogurt. sometimes served heated and with a spice dip). Nuts and seeds Walnuts. quinces. green garlic. wheat flour yeast bread (often a large round loaf. Dairy products Milk. A main characteristic of present-day cooking is widespread use of sunflower oil rather than animal fat. lard. and streams provide fish. fish Chicken. pheasant. pears. Thick sheep’s yogurt (katuk) is most preferred. red chilies. winter vegetables. chili powder. yogurt. rabbit. perhaps meat. although little fish is consumed. sausages. mild red and green peppers. Grilled meat (pastermá). and a crusty topping made by adding beaten eggs and yogurt just before the dish comes out of the oven). figs. onions. goat. The Black Sea. spinach.

Upper Volta was established as a separate territory in 1947. sesame. goats. and flooding in recent years. It is arid and hot. salt. In the 11th to 13th centuries. Salad dressing (chopped walnuts. soap. and tomatoes and chilies appear in many dishes. other 40% 60% Major Religions Muslim Indigenous beliefs Christian (mainly Roman Catholic) 50% 40% 10% Population density per sq. Banitsa (flaky cheese roll of paper-thin pastry with cheese filling). beverages. peanuts. phosphates.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. Burkina Faso is arid and hot.5 female Per capita GDP $1. French control came by 1896.000 live births 86 HIV rate 1. chickens. cucumbers. Kurban (meat stock soup with peppers and tomatoes). tarator. gold. coffee. garlic. Many people are Muslim and do not eat pork. BURKINA FASO Geography Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) is In West Africa. in the Turkish tradition. A large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment. vinegar. and Gurunsi peoples originally inhabited the area. Burkina Faso remains one of the world’s poorest countries. Lobi.g. foods brought from the New World (including corn. and then steamed with a mixture of rice. and ovens are uncommon. fish Industries cotton. millet. green peppers. chilies. Spread of eggplant. It gained independence in 1960 and was renamed Burkina Faso in 1984. pigs Natural resources manganese. olive oil. Baked carp stuffed with walnuts. Shopska salata (tomatoes. Bobo. baguette bread is common in towns. limestone. Uncooked tomato or yogurt soups (e. In rural areas. Beverages Yogurt drinks. like most countries of Sub-Saharan Africa immediately south of the Sahara.44 The Food and Culture around the World – Burkina Faso Spit roasted whole lamb. France. as in West Africa. . parsley. was a former French colony. rose jelly. sheep. south of the Sahara. gold History The Bobo. Influences on food Burkina Faso. and religion. and pepper. 54. Despite years of foreign aid. corn. meat may be grilled on open fires. ham. cotton. cigarettes. and raisins. garlic. and deep fried. tea. red wine. cold cucumber and yogurt soup with walnuts). Major Languages French (official) Sudanic languages Ethnic Groups Mossi Fulani. Mande. cattle. agricultural processing. unsweetened compotes.7 male..4 Literacy rate 28. West Africa. and sweet red pepper decorating the top). Food customs are influenced by North Africa. lint. olives. This landlocked country consists of extensive savannas. After independence the country was ruled by the military until 1991. The Niger River provides fish. 144. vinegar. served with no dressing but with heated round bread and a dish of mixed spices (ciubritsa). and cheese). salt. the traditional wood-burning hearth of three stones on which a pot sits is still used. tomatoes. the Mossi people entered the region and ruled until defeated by the Mali and Songhai empires. shea nuts. Roasted ears of corn. Ciorba (soup served Turkish style with lemon juice). The country has suffered a meningitis epidemic. when a new constitution instituted a multiparty system. For examples: chicken and guinea fowl are popular. Peppers stuffed with sirene cheese.6% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 18% Agriculture sorghum. low cotton prices.7% Life expectancy 50. textiles. with desert in the north. and sweet potatoes). Bird of paradise bread (round yeast loaf with cheese. marble. mi. coated with bread crumbs. currants. Quail browned in butter with garlic and onions. plum brandy (slivova). Lobi. Sweets Sugar. fresh fruit. a French influence. and oil). pumice.300 Labor force in agriculture 90% Urban 18. tomatoes.

877. Sauces of combinations of meat and fish. shawerma. kola nuts.8 HIV rate 2. Street food is important. Corn porridge. Fruit Dates. mi. wheat. fish. raisins. grilled sweet corn. eggs. Meat cooked with okra. rice. sesame seeds.6% Urban 9. The southernmost source of the White Nile and Lake Tanganyika are in Burundi. cheese. honey. curds. sweet pastries.000 live births 60. and dried okra powder. Chicken dishes.6 Literacy rate 59. dried fish. whey. corn. watermelon seeds. yams. peanut candy. Festive occasion dishes Millet and cassava mush served with two sauces (minced meat. camel. Nuts. onions.6 female Per capita GDP $400 Labor force in agriculture 93. greens. cane rat). Fats and oils Shea oil and butter (from the seeds of the African shea tree). tomatoes. Meat. Red meat is a luxury. mango seeds. beans. Dishes Mush of millet grains boiled with cassava. Major Languages Kirundi French Swahili (both official) Ethnic Groups Hutu (Bantu) Tutsi (Hamitic) Other 85% 14% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Indigenous beliefs Muslim Protestant 62% 23% 10% 5% Population density per sq. goat. rice dishes.3% Life expectancy 50. Seasonings Chilies. millet. tomatoes. Stuffed camel stomach (resembles haggis). beef. pork. and diced meat and tomatoes) usually combined before serving. couscous (tiny balls of millet dough steamed and served like rice). Nuts and seeds Shea nuts. poultry. lentils. Atik (dried cassava porridge with smoked fish. okra. lamb and mutton. and peanuts are often used to thicken sauces. noodles. BURMA (SEE MYANMAR) BURUNDI Republic of Burundi Geography Burundi is in central Africa. cowpeas. plantains. Meat and fish are often dried. mangoes.9 male. sweet potatoes. game (antelope. sour milk. Boiled rice served with a thin stew of beef and tomatoes. cassava. palm oil. Beverages Ginger beer. bean fritters. and other vegetables). 52. with grassy highlands and mountains. seeds. peanut oil.0% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 36% . fried sweetened dough balls. coconut. greens. Legumes Peanuts. coffee. Dairy products Milk. guinea fowl. fish Chicken. sweet pastries. watermelon. Street food Kabobs. baguette bread. rock rabbit. and tomatoes). Sweets Sugar. It is a high plateau divided by deep valleys. pigeons. Maan nezim nzedo (stew of fish. Stews of cassava leaves with dried fish and palm oil or with okra. served with couscous or rice. onions. tomatoes. buttermilk. chilies. Meatball and peanut sauce served with boiled millet or rice. wild grains. porridge.The Food and Culture around the World – Burundi 45 Bread and cereals Sorghum.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Vegetables Okra. Jollof rice (rice with tomato paste or palm oil so is always red).

Ethnic conflict occurred during the following decades. cassava. curds. vanadium. Legumes are eaten daily. peppers. construction. Most warring groups signed a draft peace treaty in 2000. sweet potatoes.46 The Food and Culture around the World – Burundi Agriculture bananas. Nuts and seeds Cashews. Boiled and mashed beans. and fritters. okra. use of curry).. Burundi became independent in 1962. crickets. game is plentiful and antelope are farmed. and introduced spices. although animals are protected. corn. Milk products are important in the diet. plantains (green bananas). ants. potatoes. tomatoes. Influences on food Burundi food customs resemble those of East African countries Kenya and Tanzania. who were conquered in the 16th century by the Tutsi (Watusi). lentils. Seasonings Peppers. probably from Ethiopia. uranium. sorghum. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). Violence occurred in 2007 and UN calls for negotiation were turned down. red kidney beans. assembly of imported components. Fish cooked with coconut milk. Arabs. and gathered greens. cloves. cattle. and eggplant. coffee. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. black pepper. sheep. peppers. and plantains. curry powder. pigs Natural resources nickel. Fats and oils Butter. hydropower. tomatoes. eggplant. The diet contains little meat. In 2005 the peaceful transfer of power to a democratically elected leader took place. tea. goats. A large amount of starchy vegetables and green leaves is eaten. In the mountains. often served with stew of leftover cooked meat. rare earth oxides. pork. rice. and tilapia and catfish are farmed. food processing History The region was first inhabited by the pygmy Twa. The lakes supply fish. poultry. beer (often home brewed from corn or millet). lentils. pancakes. fish. cotton. lamb. and the Masai and related people lived on milk products and blood of cattle. fish Industries light consumer goods. tomatoes. coconut. chickens. cassava. in spite of abundant game and the tradition of breeding cattle. cowpeas. yams. The earliest foreign traders. sesame seeds. palm oil. millet. goat kabob. German control began in 1899. Fried insects are snacks. then by Bantu Hutus. corn. stew. worms (madora). In 2007 a UN Integrated Office in Burundi replaced the UN Security Council peacekeeping force authorized in 2004 for Burundi. salted and dried seafood from the coast. bananas. onions. copper. Dairy products Milk. Street food and snacks Mandazi (doughnut or fritter). cobalt. Sweets Honey. established colonies along the coast of East Africa from about 700 CE. public works. Plantain soup. caterpillars (harati). peanut oil. tea. grilled corn cobs. fish Chicken. porridge. corn. platinum. Beverages Coffee. Insects Locusts. Dishes The common staple food. Fruit Bananas. onions. goat. papaya. flatbread. Green leaves cooked with peanut paste.g. dried baobab leaves. mashed to a thick pulp). coconut milk. Others lived on mostly grains. followed by Belgium rule in 1916. traded slaves and ivory. clarified butter. plantain custard. rice and coconut pancakes. cheeses (adaptations of European ones). Bread and cereals Corn. Curried chicken served with irio (boiled beans. . Green bananas boiled in banana leaves and mashed. beef. game. peat. ugali (thick porridge of cornmeal or millet). grasshoppers. pumpkin seeds. pumpkin. and green leaves or other vegetables. green leaves. British encouragement of Asians to settle in East Africa affected food customs (e. onions. and potatoes or cassava. Germans and Belgium controlled this land but left little influence on food customs. not food. Meat. Cattle were regarded as wealth. eggs.

with a level central plain along the Mekong River and hills and mountains in the southeast. fishing. Cambodia’s geography and climate allow the production of rice. garments. chickens. Laos.8 female Per capita GDP $1.800 Labor force in agriculture 75% Urban 19.3% Life expectancy 59. manganese. textiles History Early kingdoms dating from the 1st century CE led to the great Khmer empire of the 9th to 13th century. mi. potatoes. Conflicts with Vietnam and with the communist Khmer Rouge occurred from the 1960s to the mid-1990s. A new constitution reestablishing a monarchy took effect in 1993. rubber. rubber. cattle.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. Cambodia’s offshore oil is predicted to be large and to contribute significant revenue by 2011. During the last half of the 20th century bloodshed and turmoil were prominent.8% Arable land 20% Agriculture crocodiles rice. wood and wood products. buffalo. rice milling. In 2001 the first bridge over the Mekong River opened.6 HIV rate 0. corn. Theravada Buddhism. 47 . The area became a French protectorate in 1863. Cambodian cuisine reflects northern Indian. influences food customs. phosphates. 63. Major Languages Khmer (official) French English Ethnic Groups Khmer Vietnamese Other 90% 5% 5% Major Religions Buddhism (official) Buddhist Other 95% 5% Population density per sq. on the Indochina Peninsula. fish Natural resources Industries tourism. The predominant religion.000 live births 56. The party in opposition to Khmer Rouge. oil and gas. cashews. cement. It emphasizes a person’s efforts to reach spiritual perfection. bordering the Gulf of Thailand.6 male. encompassing present-day Thailand. and southern Vietnam. gem mining. corn. French bread. cassava. as well as French influence in foods such as haricots (green beans). Cambodia. iron ore. It is mostly (76%) forested. pastry. retained power in the 2008 elections. Malaysian. Independence came in 1953. pigs. gems. Influences on food During the first half of the 20th century the cuisine of the royal palace and of the aristocracy had great visual appeal.8% Unemployment rate 1. timber. The United States provided military and economic aid.C CAMBODIA Kingdom of Cambodia Geography Cambodia is in Southeast Asia. and Chinese influences. vegetables. this river flows through Cambodia for about 300 miles and is its most important river. and the faithful contribute food to support monks. cassava. 209 Literacy rate 76. The support of monks and temples is critical to one’s progress through reincarnation. in power from 1993. and coffee.

poultry. beer. oranges. lemons. fruit. fish and require weeks for preparation: prahoc (a dry paste with fish chunks) and pha-âk (fish preserved in brine with rice incorporated). fruit. mint. or tempeh). and each person takes a portion of rice and places any additional foods on it. sesame seeds. durian. rice wine or whiskey for special occasions. as in the paste kroeung. Vegetables Cassava. margarine. Kutiev (rice vermicelli soup). eggplant. boiled. A typical meal is rice accompanied by soup (samla) and when possible a dish of each: chhâ (sauté of meat. pumpkin seeds. potatoes. Fruit Coconut. or fried rice. sugar. Nuts and seeds Cashew nuts. National favorites Amok (steamed leaf-wrapped fish in coconut milk). or fingers are used. cooked in hollow sections of bamboo in a fire for an hour. Two special fermented fish products in Cambodia start with cleaned. buffalo. fish (mostly freshwater). Seasoning is delicate and aromatic. Spoons. wheat. are usual. shredded coconut. and steamed). Rice. jicama. or fish and spicy hot dressing. rice vermicelli is the base of many dishes. Stir-fried vegetables. chickpeas. water chestnuts. fruit and bean drinks. Dishes Steamed. lentils. fresh coriander. Legumes Soybeans and products (soy milk. cucumbers. or fish). All foods are served at the same time. lime juice. whipping cream (used in pastries). noodles. Rice is the main food. poultry. fish sauce. turmeric. collards. jasmine). and then the bamboo peeled away). corn. beverages. Bread and cereals Rice (both long grain and glutinous). Ansam chrouk (rice cake stuffed with green beans and pork meat or fat. coconut milk. butter. chilies. garlic. Beverages Tea (often blended with flowers such as rose. poultry. White corn is grown and eaten. and chion (fried meat. mangoes. cabbage. lotus seeds. adding protein to the diet. Snacks Fruit. and/or meats wrapped in banana or edible leaves and steamed. and dusk. tamarind. beef. ginger. made fresh by grinding herbs and spices such as galangal. Meals and service Two meals a day. bitter melon. tapé (a fermented glutinous rice preparation. green beans. peanut oil. fried bananas rolled in coconut. Dairy products Condensed milk (used in coffee). tomatoes. aing (grilled meat. Fresh salads. chopsticks. limes. hot soup (broth). soy milk. or vermicelli). fried coconut. coffee. garlic. not whole. peanuts. plantains. fish sauce (tuk trey) is eaten. sweet and faintly alcoholic). at about 11 a. poultry. rice vermicelli. kaffir lime leaves. . almonds. Lemon grass is a favorite herb. also called soupe Chinoise. Shredded raw vegetables and unripe fruits topped with meat. bananas. a festive dish with many variations. or fish). pork. As throughout Southeast Asia.m. lemon grass. tapioca (processed from cassava or taro). shallots. fermented fish products. poultry. carrots.48 The Food and Culture around the World – Cambodia vegetables. and livestock. Meat. vegetables. bacon. crocodile. Banh choc (rice noodle and fish soup). pastry. wrapped in a banana leaf. pumpkin. fish Chicken. shallots. mung beans. and turmeric. Grilled and fried dishes with freshwater fish the main ingredient. rice dishes. The Gulf of Thailand and many lakes and rivers supply fish. papaya. vegetables. Sour taste is liked. French bread. lemon grass. tamarind. Seasonings Fish sauce. soybean curd. Sweets Sugarcane. vegetable oil. and flavorings. melon. fermented fish paste and sauce. cashew nuts. Fried noodles topped with meats and vegetables. radishes. Fats and oils Coconut cream. lard. sweet glutinous black rice. Kralan (glutinous rice with coconut cream.

fish Chicken. and greens. rice. legumes. Fish is abundant and often used with meat in stews. The diet is mostly starchy vegetables. Meat. sugarcane. mashed bananas and flour “bread. iron ore. rainy lowland and interior plateau that grow cocoa. In recent decades economic problems have produced unrest. French Cameroon became independent in 1960. Some consider Cameroon’s cooks the best in central Africa. prawns. light consumer goods.3% Infant mortality rate per 1.1 female Per capita GDP $2. chili pepper. food processing. The Portuguese. hydropower. the other part joined Cameroon. It comprises a low coastal plain with rainforests in the south and along the coast. Influences on food This tropical country has coastline that provides fish and prawns. Slave trade by Europeans to America followed. plantains. peanuts.” grain pastes. poultry. beef.100 Labor force in agriculture 70% Urban 54. corn. prestigious food. forested mountains in the west. chickens. railways.6 HIV rate 5.1% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 13% Agriculture cassava. lumber History Bantu speakers were among the first settlers. in power since 1962. coffee. and northern grassland that supports livestock.5 male. agriculture. goats. goat. cotton. Germans. bananas. and petroleum production have been developed. Starchy roots in the south and grains in the more arid north are staple foods. Germany controlled the area from 1884 to 1916. Chicken is a popular. coffee. or dried). textiles. rabbit. and bananas. bauxite. . Portuguese sailors reached Cameroon in the 15th century. 54. salted. The country’s name comes from the Portuguese word for prawns. fish (fresh. pork. France and Britain then divided the region. timber.000 live births 64. aluminum production. tomato. In 2007 the president of China visited and signed agreements including an interest-free loan for development projects in Cameroon. sheep. led to riots in 2008. pigs Natural resources oil. oilseed. followed by Muslim Fulani in the 18th and 19th centuries. cocoa.The Food and Culture around the World – Cameroon 49 CAMEROON Republic of Cameroon Geography Cameroon is in central Africa on the west coast.9 Literacy rate 67. grains. cattle. eggs. lamb. game. smoked. and potato during the 15th and 16th centuries had major influence. Part of British Cameroon joined Nigeria in 1961. an interior plateau. fish Industries oil production and refining. Bread and cereals Corn. and British have influenced food customs. Starchy food is regarded as real food and sauces and stews as accompaniments. sorghum. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava.9% Life expectancy 52. rubber. Mucilaginous texture is liked. mi. millet. watermelon. and okra. camarões. Rising food and fuel costs and discontent with the government of the president. French. rice dishes. as in okra. and grasslands in the north with marshes around Lake Chad. Native African foods include black-eyed peas. 101. Roads. Major Languages English (both French official) 24 major African languages Highlanders Equatorial Bantu Kirdi Fulani Ethnic Groups 31% 19% 11% 10% Northwest Bantu Eastern Nigritic Other African Other 8% 7% 13% 1% Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Christian Sunni Muslim 40% 40% 20% Population density per sq.

fried fish. chilies. used liberally on most food. Fruit Bananas. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). and herbs) with roast chicken. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn). watermelon seeds (egusi). beans. black-eyed peas (cowpeas). onions. kola nuts. mangoes. Stews of root vegetables. It includes coastline. mi. coconut oil. Aloco (plantain cooked in palm oil with onions and chili). fish. chicken. 9. okra. sour milk. Dairy products Milk. or eggplant). pumpkin.1 HIV rate 0. potatoes.g.. bitter leaf). green leaves (cassava. mountains. beer. honey. These season most foods. Climate is mostly temperate. red beans. papaya. sweet potatoes. with bits of fish. deep-fried dough balls. cucumbers. lemons. Vegetables Cassava. Sauce of pounded leaves (e. Fats and oils Palm oil. Canada stretches from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific Ocean and from the North Pole to the United States. shea oil. onions. cheese.5 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 78. whey. or beef. CANADA Geography The Western Hemisphere’s largest country in land size. curds.400 Labor force in agriculture 2% Urban 80.1% Arable land 5% . bitter leaf). plantain chips. Moin moin (steamed paste of black-eyed peas. balls of steamed rice or blackeyed peas. Rice boiled in coconut milk.4% Unemployment rate 6. yams. hot peppers. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. pineapple. guavas. tomatoes. Nuts and seeds Cashews. of which chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. peanut oil. sugar. Seasonings Salt. plains. coconut. peanut candy. and rivers. akee apples. red chili peppers. baobab. and onions). okra. palm oil. in 10 provinces and 3 territories. and herbs with beef. Ntomba nam (peanut sauce with peppers. red chili pepper.1 Infant mortality rate per 1. locust beans (carob). Sweets Sugarcane. or mixtures and potatoes. chicken. gives a red hue. or peanuts. dates.000 live births 5. 83. mango seeds. Dishes Boiled or fried foods.8 female Per capita GDP $38. baobab seeds. tomatoes. watermelon. eggplant. A specialty Cameroon prawns grilled on wooden skewers served with spicy peanut sauce. Major Languages English French (both official) Ethnic Groups British-Canadian French-Canadian Other European Asian Mixed and other 28% 23% 15% 6% 28% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other None Unspecified 43% 23% 6% 16% 12% Population density per sq. bell peppers. sesame seeds. cocoa. plantains. forests. bananas baked with coconut.7 male. Palm oil. onions.50 The Food and Culture around the World – Canada Insects Termites (often called white ants). formed into bite-size scoops to eat stew. buttermilk. Peanut stew (peanuts. with cold winters and hot summers. locusts. Beverages Coffee.

tourtière (a hot spiced pork pie). and Asia have influenced Canadian cuisine. France. lentils. wildlife. French settlers founded Quebec City in 1608. cattle. was fought mainly in Upper Canada. between Great Britain and the United States. Upper and Lower Canada united into one Canada in 1839. Canada supported U. oats. cheese. smoked pork hock or ham bone. Mexico. spring lamb chops. and farmland. Quebec The French-speaking province has French influence as in cretons (a pork pâté). and civil law. New Brunswick. Major railroads CPR and CNR and their hotels had some of the finest dining: Canadian bacon. vegetables. and Prince Edward Island) French and British traditions continue in French dishes such as Acadian potato dumplings and Scottish dishes such as oatmeal bread sweetened with molasses. In 2008 Canada extended the mandate for its force in Afghanistan through 2011. wood and paper products. timber. hot blueberry pie. and the rest of New France in 1763. tobacco. Montreal in 1642. nickel. zinc. Indigenous foods. A severe acute respiratory (SARS) outbreak in Toronto in 2003 caused considerable loss of lives and revenue. The War of 1812. Eastern Canada is also home of Canadian maple syrup. . goats Natural resources iron ore. and coffee served in silver tureens. oil. food and fish products. soybeans. During the American Revolution many loyalists moved to Canada. silver. Large rugged cold areas contrast with the Niagara peninsula and Okanagan Valley (in British Columbia) that are warm enough to grow fruit. Nova Scotia. corn. chemicals. and the United States took effect in 1994. molybdenum. In 2007 the economy performed well. barley. In 2005 Parliament approved same-sex marriages. and immigrants from Great Britain. In 2006. is larger than the United States but has a tenth the population. coal. was established from part of the Northwest Territories. oilseed. diamonds.The Food and Culture around the World – Canada 51 Agriculture wheat. counterterrorism operations in Afghanistan in 2001 and 2006 but not in Iraq in 2003. dollar. made of dried yellow split peas. after 12 years of Liberal Party rule. The North American Free Trade Agreement between Canada. religion. Influences on food Canada. Quebec in 1759. Canada is rich in natural resources including fish and seafood. and gravy). East Canada. In 2001 Newfoundland was renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. Conservatives took control of the government. fruits. and seasonings. hydropower Industries transportation equipment. gold. In 1998 the government apologized to native people for 150 years of mistreatment and pledged to set up a “healing fund.S. potatoes. with the Canadian dollar reaching above the value of the U. Frenchman Jacques Cartier reached the Gulf of St. sheep. natural gas. seafood dominates the diet with potatoes a mainstay. dry peas. Britain acquired Acadia (now Nova Scotia) in 1717. Lawrence in 1534. and home baking continues to thrive. Newfoundland has traditional dishes such as fish and brewis (hard bread in water to make broth seasoned with salt pork). fish. cheddar cheese. minerals. the Atlantic Provinces In Newfoundland. lake fish. northern Europe.” In 1999 a homeland for the Inuit. it kept its Commonwealth membership. lead. Fur traders and explorers led Canadians westward to the Pacific. and Prince Edward Island. game. Montreal is famous for street and snack foods such as poutine (a combination of French fries. Quebec produces much of the world’s supply of maple syrup. Native Americans. chickens. the second largest nation in the world in area. pigs. oil. and Québécois pea soup. In the Maritimes (Nova Scotia. natural gas History Vikings are believed to have reached Canada centuries before Englishman John Cabot saw Newfoundland in 1497. Nunavut (“Our Land”). In 1982 Canada severed its last formal legislative link with Britain by gaining the right to amend its constitution. Upper and Lower Canada (later called Ontario and Quebec) and the Maritimes had legislative assemblies in the 18th century. New Brunswick. This diverse land provides a varied diet. grilled Calgary sirloins. The prime minister announced plans to bolster Canadian sovereignty over the Arctic. copper. potash. The Dominion of Canada was formed in 1867 and was proclaimed a self-governing Dominion within the British Empire in 1931.S. and the colony New France in 1663. the French retained their rights to their own language.

Legumes Soybeans. and wheat and other grains including wild rice. game birds. cinnamon buns. ginger. caraway seed. goat. Cuisine is influenced by European immigrants including Scandinavians and especially by immigrants from the Ukraine in Manitoba. or salmon. British. Saskatchewan. cider. Oka also called Trappist monk cheese. asparagus. the next western provinces. a province of lakes and fruits and berries. rapeseed. and Taiwan (Powers and Stewart. Corn and bean soup. especially in Vancouver because the immigration pattern changed greatly during the last part of the 20th century with a major influx from Asia. fish Chicken. lamb chops. barley. porridge.52 The Food and Culture around the World – Cape Verde Ontario Further west is Ontario. pork. rhubarb). Grilled beef steak. Specialties from the plentiful fruits include Dutch apple pie and ice wine (a dessert wine similar to German eiswein (Aspler. camas bulbs. including the Indian wind-dried salmon known as jerky. poutine (French fries. Dishes Clam or fish chowder. Street food and snacks Fish and chips. game meat (venison). Meat. scones. lettuce. Bread and cereals Wheat. pudding. corn. grapes. salt pork. Canadian bacon. British Columbia This province borders the Pacific Ocean and features salmon. beef. ice wine (a dessert wine). Fish and chips (fried fish and French fries). bread. safflower oil. The Prairie Provinces Manitoba. butter. as in sausages. Seasonings Salt. cheese (cheddar. beans. . lamb. Lobster and corn boil. beer. wine. onions. cherries. onions. Dairy products Milk. birthplace of the Canadian cheddar cheese industry. coffee. oatmeal. off the west tip of Africa. 1995). blueberry. Now grapes are grown and wines are produced. and Ingersoll. carrots. tomatoes. strawberries. Split-pea soup. canola oil. Indian. They have fish in rivers and lakes. rice. cranberries. celery. linseed. Planked salmon. rabbit. rhubarb. Beef pot roast or stew. dried yellow split peas. mustard seed. where pierogi (sweet or savory filled pie) seems to be the national dish. biscuits. French types). corn oil. maple syrup. Fruit Apples. Toronto. China. beef now instead of buffalo as in the early years. mushrooms. Cities include Ottawa (the capital). fish (salmon. West Canada. Vegetables Potatoes. and German influence. cream. particularly Hong Kong. pie (apple. sausages. Seeds Canary seed. and Alberta. cheese. bananas. and wild berries. wild rice. 1995)). lentils. The cuisine shows Indian influence. blueberries. and gravy). It consists of 15 volcanic islands with stark landscape and with vegetation mostly in interior valleys. Meat pie. Sweets Sugar. black pepper. peas. and Asian influences are prominent. French bread. cod). Beverages Tea. cake. and shoofly pie (molasses dessert). as in corn and bean soup and the specialty moose muzzle. Fats and oils Vegetable oil. rapeseed oil. salt pork. dried fruit and meat pie. are red meat country and the breadbasket of Canada. poultry. seafood (lobster). Native foods include greens. salmon jerky. pears. chicken or rabbit pot pie. cinnamon. bacon. molasses. green beans. oranges. bacon. CAPE VERDE Republic of Cape Verde Geography Cape Verde is in the Atlantic Ocean.

coconut. Remittances from Cape Verdean emigrants. oranges. Goat stew with garlic. curds. The country enjoyed political stability and a tourism boom in 2007. 74. basalt rock. black-eyed peas. okra. lemons. and palm oil. Influences on food Cape Verde cuisine reflects Portuguese and West African influences. salt mining. West Africans brought a tradition of dairy products. tomatoes. baobab seeds. salt cod. chilies. fruits. sesame oil. Meat. goats. Bread and cereals bread. pumpkin. lemons. limestone. Salt. Seasonings ginger. and coriander. powdered sesame. coffee. mi. papaya. pineapple. chilies. Vegetables Sweet potatoes.1% Arable land 11% Agriculture sugarcane. rice. The first Portuguese colonists arrived in 1462. Fruit Bananas. cheese. baobab. coffee. Fish simmered with limes. fish processing. pork. grain pastes. sweet peppers. fish Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Corn. cassava. chickens. Salt cod with cassava leaves. green leafy vegetables. saffron. Boiled dried beans mixed with fresh corn fried in pork fat. onions. The Portuguese introduced the domesticated pig.8% Life expectancy 68 male. chickens. lettuce.The Food and Culture around the World – Cape Verde Major Languages Portuguese (official) Crioulo (PortugueseWest African blend) Ethnic Groups Creole (mulatto) African (mostly Fulani. cloves. shoes and garments. goat. parsley. coriander. garlic. tomatoes. peanuts. cream. eggs. black pepper. poultry. From the east via Mozambique (another Portuguese colony). olive oil. and Europeanstyle bread. Cape Verde became independent in 1975. pigs. and cassava. mangoes. olives. Balanta) Other 71% 28% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic (infused with indigenous beliefs) Protestant and other 88% 12% 53 Population density per sq.2 Literacy rate 83. wheat. sesame seeds. along with money from the European Development Fund and others. potatoes. many spices. potatoes. and cloves. and using blood as in sauces. cinnamon.5 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 21. limes. starchy root vegetables. kaolin. Palm oil. corn. rice dishes. porridge. garlic. Prawns . the Portuguese brought corn. peanuts.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. bananas. Milk. They brought a liking for goat and for sweet dishes especially ones made with eggs. greens. cattle. sheep Natural resources salt. grain pastes. provide much of the income. they brought oranges. pulses. olives. sweet potatoes. chili peppers. ship repair History The Portuguese discovered these uninhabited islands in 1456 or 1460. sweet potatoes. From the Americas. seafood. whey. African slaves were soon brought. chilies. fish. sweet peppers. Nuts and seeds Cashews.200 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 57. Beans.000 live births 42. beans. sugarcane. lard. sweet peppers. olive oil. fish Industries food and beverages. Dishes Frejon (bean purée with coconut milk). and probably sugar and various tropical fruits. guavas. onions. lamb and mutton. tea. Most Cape Verdeans descend from both groups. beef. 274.8 female Per capita GDP $3. Portuguese-style Chicken. especially Brazil. Using blood from a slaughtered animal in yellow rice may reflect medieval Portuguese practice. butter. legumes.

000 feet. cattle. In 2003 rebels led by a former army chief ousted the president and installed the army chief as president. uranium. pigs. the capital. other 33% 27% 13% 10% 17% Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Protestant Roman Catholic Sunni Muslim 35% 25% 25% 15% Population density per sq. brewing.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. wine (palm. Beverages Coffee. and lettuce. Prawns grilled on skewers and basted with a sauce of oiI. corn.6% Life expectancy 44.000 refugees from fighting in the northern region were living in Chad in mid-2008. onion. chickens. and bananas and produces livestock. bay leaves. cotton. textiles. garlic. some 56. Sweets Sugarcane. Tropical rainforest is in the south. logging. gold. tobacco. Marinated. In 2007 fighting between dissident groups and the army forced thousands of civilians to flee. Chicken cut up and cooked with palm oil. CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC Geography This landlocked central African country is mostly plateau. pumpkin. baked bananas with coconut. puréed papaya and egg custard. millet. Independence was attained in 1960. only) Arable land 3% Agriculture timber. covered with well-watered savanna. Starchy roots and grains are staple . In 2007 violence against health care workers led all aid agencies in the north to suspend operations. port). Goat pot roast (sliced kid layered with bacon. onions. and ginger. and sweet potato leaves. he was reelected in 2006. cloves.3 female Per capita GDP $700 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 38. mi.1 male. cassava. then simmered in coconut milk with tomatoes. yams. goats. beer.000 live births 82. sugar. Rivers drain to the Congo. 18. parsley.3% Unemployment rate 23% (Bangui. black pepper. coffee. fish Industries gold and diamond mining. garlic. garlic.54 The Food and Culture around the World – Central African Republic sautéed with chopped onions in olive oil and butter. and red chili powder. Madeira. dry wine poured on top and covered and simmered until meat is almost tender. when the region was named Ubangi-Shari. fried pork. corn. peanuts. Major Languages French (official) Sangho (national) Tribal languages Ethnic Groups Baya Banda Mandjia Sara Mboum. yams.1 HIV rate 6. oil. timber. hot red peppers. okra.5 Literacy rate 48. sheep Natural resources diamonds. millet. Desert is in the east. salt. and cut potatoes added and covered and simmered until tender). Yellow rice (rice browned in olive and then simmered with saffron and broth). bicycle and motorcycle assembly History For centuries Bantu tribes migrated through this region before the French gained control in the late 19th century. wine added and the mixture poured over pounded coconut meat. chopped red chilies. and served with boiled rice. 44. coconut pudding. Influences on food This tropical country has rivers that provide fish and land that grows coffee. bananas. hydropower. footwear. and crushed peppers. lemon juice. average elevation 2. cassava.

and potato had major influence. cucumbers. onions. black-eyed peas (cowpeas). locust beans (carob). and chicken. guinea fowl. sugar. gives a red hue.g.The Food and Culture around the World – Chad 55 foods. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). curds. peanuts. dates. watermelon. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn). mangoes. cheese. corn. Fish is often used with meat in stews. buttermilk. Roast chicken with peanut sauce. corn. pumpkin. hot peppers. coconut. coconut oil. beef. or dried). Meat is a luxury. bitterleaf). red chili peppers. starchy vegetables. Rice boiled in coconut milk. chili pepper. salted. yams. Bread and cereals Millet.. peanut candy. French bread. eggs. spicy food is liked. fried cornmeal/plantain cakes. prestigious food. . beef. fish. pineapple. and sometimes carob or chocolate). baobab seeds. red chili peppers. CHAD Republic of Chad Geography Chad is in central North Africa. Insects Termites (often called white ants). sesame seeds. Koussi. guavas. fried fish. with bits of fish. rice. palm oil. lemons. or beef. balls of steamed rice. Meat.204 feet. an interior country. baobab. bell peppers. The French have influenced food customs (e. whey. fried sweet dough. Moin moin (steamed ground paste of black-eyed peas. papaya. an extinct volcano in northwestern Chad. cassava. lamb and mutton. and onions). Dairy products Milk. chicken. goat. locusts. red beans. fish (fresh. Chicken is a popular. wheat. Dishes Boiled or fried food. coconut milk. eggplant. Native African foods include black-eyed peas. shea oil. black-eyed pea fritters. pork. Snacks are common and available at street stalls in urban areas. rabbit. Vegetables Cassava. legumes. Frejon (black-eyed pea or bean purée. Starchy food is considered real food and sauces and stews accompaniments. and perhaps potatoes. chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. beer. tomatoes. Gari (cassava meal). and okra. fried bean balls. or mixtures of them. wooded savanna with rivers in the south. sweet potatoes. tomato. sticky. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. or eggplant). French bread). has a northern desert that is part of the Sahara. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. potatoes. The highest peak in the Sahara is Mt. Plantain fried in palm oil with onions and chili. mango seeds. kola nuts. Nuts and seeds Cashews. fish Chicken. Beverages Coffee. and Lake Chad along the western border. used liberally on most food. Fats and oils Palm oil. Peanut sauce or stew (ground and pounded peanuts. watermelon. plantain chips. Chad. and greens. Seasonings Salt. bananas baked with sugar or coconut. Sweets Honey. Fruit Bananas. formed into balls or bite-size scoops to eat stew. Palm oil. green leaves (taro. rice dishes. taro. deep-fried sweet dough balls. beans. game. smoked. chilies. okra. watermelon seeds (egusi). peanut oil. plantains. akee apples. poultry. onions. fried yams. Stews of root vegetables or okra. The diet of most people is grain. Thick. tomatoes. sorghum. 11. sour milk. Sauce of pounded leaves. thyme. dried baobab leaves.

a New World influence. and chilies and tomatoes appear in many dishes. cotton textiles. In mid-2008. Herders. guineafowl. UN camps in Chad also held 56. chickens. meatpacking. The oven is uncommon. pork. sodium carbonate. a French influence.8 Literacy rate 25. as in West Africa. peanut oil. goat. A peace accord to stop cross border fighting was signed in 2008. sheep.4 male. greens. cotton. Meat and fish are often dried. whey. onions. In 2003 oil began flowing through a pipeline connecting Chad oil fields with the Cameroon coast. kaolin.000 live births 100. bananas. Many people are Muslim and do not eat pork. rice dishes. In country areas the traditional wood-burning hearth. although pigs are raised and pork is eaten by many other people. and an UN-European peacekeeping force was established to protect the camps. Rivers and Lake Chad provide fish. potatoes. construction materials History Paleolithic and Neolithic cultures existed here before the Sahara Desert formed. fish (perch. eggs. camels. chilies. cassava. France. cheese. Legumes are important. okra. For examples: meat and fish are combined in sauces. cane rat). . plantains. live in the northern part of the region. baguette bread is common in towns.4 HIV rate 3. Chad gained independence in 1960. chicken. Influences on food Chad. curds. 20. Kingdoms and Arab slave traders dominated the region until France took control in 1900. pigeons. wild grain. fish Industries oil. palm oil. uranium. 48.56 The Food and Culture around the World – Chad Major Languages Arabic (both French official) 120+ languages and dialects Ethnic Groups Sara Arab Mayo-Kebbi Kanem-Bomou Other 28% 12% 12% 9% 39% Major Religions Sunni Muslim Catholic Protestant Animist Other 53% 20% 14% 7% 6% Population density per sq. such as the Fula. millet. some is eaten as well as game. made of three stones on which a pot sits. corn. fish Beef.7% Life expectancy 46. cigarettes. buttermilk. mangoes. cattle. peas. foods brought from the New World. rock rabbit. rice. baguette bread. pigs Natural resources oil. is a former French colony and sparsely populated. cassava. beans. sour milk. Food practices are influenced by North Africa. Dates. Meat. yams. Vegetables Potatoes. poultry. tomatoes. millet. sweet potatoes. Although red meat is a luxury. like most other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa immediately south of the Sahara. In 2007 Chad continued to be affected by conflict across its border in the Darfur region of Sudan.000 refugees from the Central African Republic.000 Sudanese refugees from Darfur were in camps in eastern Chad.5 female Per capita GDP $1. game (antelope.5% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 7% Agriculture sorghum. camel. Peanuts (groundnuts). Bread and cereals Sorghum. gum arabic. natron. goats. lamb. soap. Shea oil and butter (from the seeds of the African shea tree). West Africa. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Fruit Milk. mi. Meat may be grilled on open fires. Independence was followed by decades of civil war and intervention by France and Libya. brewing. tilapia). is still used. rice. porridge. lentils. coconut.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. wheat. couscous (tiny balls of millet dough steamed and served like rice). and religion. peanuts.700 Labor force in agriculture 80% (subsistence) Urban 25. In 2008 an estimated 233. raisins.

served with couscous or rice. Independence . and diced meat and tomatoes) mixed before serving. sheep. Festive occasion dishes Millet grains and cassava mush served with two sauces (minced meat. In the north is the Atacama Desert. sesame seeds. bean fritters. wheat. Stuffed camel stomach (similar to haggis). CHILE Republic of Chile Geography Chile is on the west coast of southern South America. Beverages Beer. goats Natural resources copper. peanut candy. greens. Dishes Steamed or boiled rice or other grain. Street food is important. is the world’s southernmost city and a sheep-raising center. grilled sweet corn. sweet pastries. timber.900 Labor force in agriculture 13. The center is a thickly populated valley with the agricultural area. Major Languages Spanish (official) Mapudungun German English Ethnic Groups White and White-Amerindian Amerindian Other 95% 4% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other None 70% 15% 7% 8% Population density per sq. Fish. foodstuffs. 56. sweet pastries. and dried okra powder. watermeon seeds. wood and wood products. Stew of cassava leaves with dried fish and palm oil or with okra. mi.9 male. Sweets Honey. other minerals. Araucanian Indians lived in southern Chile and resisted the Spanish until the late 18th century.6% Urban 87. and tomato stew. asparagus. Punta Arenas. cement. garlic. often with meat and peanut sauce. fish Industries copper (world’s largest producer and exporter). onions. beans. Nuts and seeds thicken sauces/stews. shea nuts.5% Life expectancy 73. It is a narrow long strip between the Andes Mountains. nitrates. steel. molybdenum. iron ore. tomatoes. Jollof rice (rice with tomato or palm oil).9 Literacy rate 96. peaches. tomatoes.6 female Per capita GDP $13. Corn porridge. apples. pigs.The Food and Culture around the World – Chile 57 Nuts and seeds Kola nuts. Street food Kabobs. In the south are forests and grazing lands. dried fish. bordering the Pacific Ocean. corn. the driest place on earth. cattle. fish processing. iron. Rice served with a thin stew of beef and tomatoes. hydropower.000 live births 7. 80. deep-fried sweet dough balls. textiles History Incas ruled in northern Chile before the Spanish conquest. Boiled millet and cassava mush. grapes.8% Arable land 3% Agriculture sugar beets. onions. and other vegetables. Seasonings Chilies. pears.9 HIV rate 0. baked bananas. on a mainland peninsula. precious metals.3% Unemployment rate 7. Red meat and okra stew. chickens. Chicken and peanut stew with sweet potatoes and tomatoes. transportation equipment. coffee. which cover a third of Chile and has some of the world’s highest peaks. garlic. okra. 1536 to 1540. and the Pacific Ocean. oats.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. Cassava porridge with smoked fish. shawerma. sugar.

wheat flour bread. Fats and oils Lard. bananas. and perhaps chili is a popular cooking medium called color. Dishes Porotos Granados (simmered cranberry beans. the largest island on the archipelago of the same name at the southern tip of South America. and spices). raisins. beef. In 2007 the economy was strong. Nuts and seeds Cashew nuts. carrots. Influences on food Influence of Inca and other native Indians remains in the use of corn. cheese. pears. In 1970 a Marxist was elected president. red hot chilies. squash. onions. cilantro. Chile and the United States signed a free-trade accord in 2003. tomatoes. abalone. or vegetable filling). part of Antarctic territory. cassava. grapes. limes. and some pork dishes are popular. and chilies). Mussels. peppers. and copper. water. Humitas (purée of fresh corn with onions. goat. sweet potatoes. and oysters cooked in stews such as chupe de mariscos (with bread crumbs and cheese) or steamed in stone-lined pits. salt. and chili peppers. plantains. corn. and tomatoes. onions. peaches. fish. reached its highest level in 40 years. This long. deeply indented coastline. pepper). especially in the south. vegetables. parsley. South America’s southernmost point. mussels. vinegar. The long. Pastel del choclo (beef topped with ground fresh corn sprinkled with sugar). onions. olive oil. gaining mineral-rich northern land. garlic. and potato soup. tomatoes. pork. Pigs are farmed. clams. oysters (staples of the Indian diet). sausage. Repression continued through the 1980s. As a result. evaporated milk. asparagus. and part of Tierra del Fuego. Dairy products Milk. Cold seafood salad of . salt). butter. or sweet. fish including congrio (a cusk eel). Legumes Cranberry beans (porotos). tomato. or cornmeal dough wrapped around savory or sweet meat. the largest export. paprika. Seasonings Salt. squash. The strawberry’s ancestor was brought from Chile to France in 1714. chili peppers (ají). fish Chicken. Raw giant sea urchins served with parsley sauce. Vegetables Potatoes. Part of the island is in Argentina. The south has forests with climate and terrain unsuitable for agriculture. vegetable oil. Little food is produced in the high desert of the northern third of the country. scallops. potato bread. Tierra del Fuego has majestic mountains and high winds. Easter Island. Escabeche de gallina (cold pickled chicken made by browning chicken pieces in olive oil and simmering with wine. scallops. paprika. edible crops. Bread and cereals Wheat. and olives. Chili is a general term for a wide range of fruits of the genus Capsicum (but not including the larger. lamb and mutton. lemons. vinegar. beans. apples. carrots. Cancho a la chilena (casserole of pork. Spanish influence includes the use of the pig (and lard). rice. cattle. pumpkin. onions. provides abundant seafood. Possessions: Cape Horn. sheep are raised here. chili peppers. Later in the 19th century Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia. mild-tasting pimiento. strawberries. peanuts. kidney beans. oranges. seafood such as giant sea urchins (erizos). potatoes. and fresh corn). Lard or oil with garlic. garlic. naming it Land of Fire because of many Indian bonfires. Magellan visited it in 1520. abalone.58 The Food and Culture around the World – ChilI was attained in the period 1810 to 1818. an irritant alkaloid found mainly in the interior tissue to which the seeds adhere. pumpkin seeds. eggs. Meat. vinegar. Another Socialist president took office in 2006. and stone fruits are grown. thin country has extremely varied climate and geography. the first Marxist head of state in Latin America. Fruit Grapes. Chilean hot sauce (olive oil. poultry. Chilies are hot because they contain capsaicin. pastry. foods vary throughout the country. In wide fertile valleys in temperate to subtropical zones in the middle of the country. Political and financial chaos and then a military junta followed. as Chile’s first woman president. and turnovers. in the South Pacific. and the giant goose-necked barnacle picoroco (a delicacy found only on this coast). squash (chayote). olives. Fish. A Socialist president took office in 2000. cilantro.

corn. pisco sour (wine mixed with lemon juice. Hong Kong and Macao are in the south.2% in urban areas Labor force in agriculture 43% Arable land 15% Agriculture rice. barley. potatoes.300 Unemployment rate 4. uranium. tungsten. oilseed. silkworm cocoons. or beans. meat or seafood stew. chili. pudding. Poorer people often eat a single meal of soup or stew with a side dish of potatoes. sheep. iron ore. tobacco.4 Urban 40. zinc. Baked or fried pastry turnovers filled with chopped abalone or beef. potatoes. tea. including the Himalayas in the southwest. rapeseed. Lamb and vegetable stew. melons. and white wine stew). Beverages Coffee. and beans layered with seaweed).1% Per capita GDP $5.) Population density per sq. Specialties Picoroco cooked in a curanto (an elaborate clambake with shellfish. sunflower seeds. 369. onions. peas. fish . chickens. Major Languages Standard Chinese (Mandarin) (official) Yue (Cantonese) Wu (Shanghainese) Other languages and dialects Ethnic Groups Han Chinese Other 92% 8% Major Religions Atheist (official) 8% None 39% Chinese folk-religionist 29% Christian (mostly Protestant) 10% Buddhist 8% Traditional beliefs 4% Muslim 2% (Statistical data do not include Hong Kong or macao.The Food and Culture around the World – China 59 simmered shrimp and crab with corn and rice. pig. plantains. garlic. sandwiches.4 male.2 female HIV rate 0. Chupe de loco (clam or abalone chowder with beans). The Gobi Desert is in the north. and cilantro). It is slightly larger in area than the United States. oil. sugar.2 Life expectancy 71. pigs. dessert. magnetite. or pastry. Meals Breakfast: bread and coffee.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. sugarcane. peanuts. molybdenum. beer. goats. rice. Lunch: appetizer. raisins. eaten with potato bread. and onions. potato patties. tea. CHINA People’s Republic of China Geography China occupies most of the habitable mainland of East Asia and borders the East China Sea and the South China Sea. aluminum. 75. custard. wheat. fruits. water buffalo. vinegar.4% Literacy rate 93. millet. fruit juice. north. Tea in the late afternoon with fruit.000 live births 21. Tibet is in the southwest. sugar. Eastern China is one of the world’s best-watered and fertile agricultural lands. and southwest. olives. Pebre (a sauce of onions. only a tenth is cultivated. lead. side dish of beans. Congrio (cusk eel. vanadium. Mountains are in the west. brown sugar. ducks. sausages. with three great river systems providing water for vast farmlands. tin. olives. mi. soybeans. fruit. garlic. cotton. corn. and egg whites). sweet potatoes. wine. other vegetables. Sweets Honey. antimony. manganese. potatoes. cattle Natural resources coal. Braised ham with chili sauce. used on cold meat. mercury. or greens. Most of the land is mountains or desert. natural gas. Dinner: seafood salad or stew. hydro power potential.

000 people. Xingjian Uygur. The Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) became part of World War II. and oil demand have increased rapidly. textiles and apparel. or arrested. The People’s Republic of China was proclaimed in 1949.” In 1971 the UN General Assembly ousted the Taiwan government and recognized the People’s Republic in its place. 1644–1911) did not alter the culture. dollar at an annual rate of about 5%. In 1978 the United States formally recognized the People’s Republic of China as the sole legal government of China. China and Japan were in conflict from 1894 to 1945. The Kuomintang government moved to Taiwan in 1949. the Blue River (Yangtze) separates these parts. Portugal claimed it in 1849 and China accepted this claim in an 1887 treaty. fertilizers History Remains of humanlike creatures who lived several hundred thousand years ago have been found in China. Its economy continued its recent dramatic rise in 2007 and 2008. 1271–1368. Foreign rule (Mongols.000 years. the Chinese government guaranteed Macao it would not interfere with its capitalist system for 50 years. Hong Kong is in southeast China and includes Hong Kong Island. An earthquake in Sichuan province destroyed more than 6. China and the USSR signed a 30-year treaty of “friendship. killed more than 68. and in 2008 nearly 53. Influences on food Climate and geography influence the cereal eaten (the necessary food) and the secondary foods. It became industrialized during Japanese rule (1931–1945) and took in millions of Chinese settlers in the 20th century. Tibet SPECIAL ADMINISTRATIVE REGIONS: Hong Kong. exports. who ruled China from 1644 to 1911.000 babies were sickened by contaminated milk powder. and the New Territories. Inner Mongolia. In the 1990s China had one of the world’s fastest growing economies. In 2007 the world’s largest casino opened in Macao. and other areas. Taiwan. in 2007 a toymaker recalled Chinese-made toys containing leadtainted paint. where rice is grown.900 schools. In 1989 in Beijing students and workers marched in Tiananmen Square for political reform and were crushed. injured. Macao is a small enclave of a peninsula and two small islands in Southeast China near Hong Kong. Hong Kong is a major trade and banking center. Macao Hong Kong became a Special Administrative Region when Great Britain returned it to China in 1997 after a 99-year lease (it had been a British dependency since 1842). A general difference is between northern China. China agreed that Hong Kong would keep its capitalist system for 50 years.S. Kowloon Peninsula. coal. China enacted economic reforms in the 1980s. Japan gave up all seized land. aluminum. Manchuria It is the northeastern region of China. and the Chinese currency continued to appreciate against the U. steel. with diplomatic relations between the two nations established in 1979. expanding China to the south and west and developing a culturally advanced society. AUTONOMOUS REGIONS: Guangxi Zhuang. and mutual assistance. China became a republic in 1912. In Beijing rice . iron. in 1895 China ceded Korea. Starchy foods are cereals (preferably) and tubers. since then its industries. Ningxia Hui. a wheat area. and made as many as 5 million people homeless. oil.60 The Food and Culture around the World – China Industries mining and ore processing. Defeated. Stone Cutters Island. From about 5000 BCE Neolithic settlements were along the Huang (Yellow) River. machine building. alliance. with thousands left dead. Dynasties ruled China for the next 3. and Manchu in the Ch’ing Dynasty. By 1500 to 1000 BCE bronze metallurgy and pictographic writing was used in the Shang Dynasty in northern China. Macao became a Special Administrative Region when Portugal returned it to China in 1999. eating for pleasure ones).” A meal usually consists of a starchy food (the necessary one) and one or more animal or vegetable items (the secondary. cement. including the regional specialties. under Mao Zedong. armaments. home of the Manchu. In 2008 China hosted the Summer Olympics. Chinese dietary practice involves “eating to live” and “eating for pleasure. chemicals. China came under communist domination in 1949–1950. a mainland area. On the downside. It was established as a Portuguese trading center in 1557. and southern China.

although in professional cooking food is roasted in big drum-shaped vertical ovens. butter. not served raw. rapeseed. apples. in which pork is excluded. tea. peanut oil. 1994). tofu (soybean curd). and fruit. this involves frying small pieces of food over intense heat. chilies and peppers. shrimp. meat and vegetable dishes (usually the same number as the number of people at the table). pears. peanuts. potatoes. taro. Fats and oils Bacon fat. lotus roots. and flavor of food and uses minimum cooking time and fuel and only one knife to cut food and one utensil to cook in (a wok). steaming. All foods (except fruit) are cooked or prepared (such as pickled or preserved). wheat flour noodles. meat. Seasonings Soy sauce. Dumplings (steamed bread). and deep-fat frying. Beverages Tea (green and black). eggs. cauliflower. rice flour noodles. especially edible foodstuffs. Szechwan peppers. fresh ginger. or vegetables. corn oil. Rice and bread are steamed. cantaloupe. tea cup (no handles). Food preparation Throughout China kitchen and dining area are separate. bananas. fish Duck. asparagus. and small bones of fish. onions. it is then cut in the kitchen. Calcium sources are soy milk. meat and vegetable dishes are placed on the table (often round) and people serve themselves. chicken. were sent annually to the emperor from the provinces to represent them. Stir-frying (chao) is typical for vegetables. eggplant. pork. stewing. In the rare instances when food is cooked whole. wonton wrappers. Many Chinese are lactose intolerant. and spoon plus bamboo chopsticks. Stewed pork. rice wine. beer. beef. Rice and tea are at each diner’s place. millet. In areas lacking natural resources cereals are supplemented or replaced with tubers: taro in the subtropics and potatoes or sweet potatoes in cold areas. fish. People from poor rural areas of the north and center usually eat corn or millet foods. Food is usually cut into small pieces before cooking. Bread and cereals Rice. water buffalo). Natural products from each region. goat. lamb and mutton. Battered and fried meat. carrots. water chestnuts. hot chili peppers. barley. bean sprouts. cabbage. then reassembling and seasoning before serving. Legumes Soybeans. Dairy products are rarely consumed. walnuts. This method retains color. tofu. soup broth. soy sauce. citrus. egg rolls. eggs. chestnuts. Dishes Steamed rice. cooking in them increases the iron content of food significantly (Zhou and Brittin. oysters. or fish with sweet and sour sauce. soup bowl. sesame oil. steamed bread. mushrooms. rice dishes. sunflower seeds. cashews. Deep-fried meatballs. Cookware Woks of iron or steel are used for stir-frying. From early days Chinese cooking was a skilled profession. and pancakes. tofu. honey. poultry. Soups. lychee (has grapelike pulp and flavor). spinach. beef. glutinous rice cakes. Meat. pork. sesame seed. saqima (pea-sized balls of fried dough bound with honey into a flat loaf). soup follows. ginkgo nuts. usually each ingredient separately. for Buddhists or other persons who do not take the lives of living creatures. soy milk. meat. fish. vinegar. poultry.The Food and Culture around the World – China 61 and wheat are eaten equally. green onions. tomatoes. soybean oil. soup. chicken. and a vegetarian cuisine. A typical main meal: steamed rice. beef. In addition are a Muslim cuisine. poultry. corn. or rice. Now four great cooking styles are recognized (below). soy milk. mung beans. syrup. fish. . Stir-fried vegetables. lard. texture. Sweets Sugarcane. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. Roasting/baking is not done in homes. chicken. sugar. and cooked rice. which do not have ovens. rice bowl. Fruit Watermelon. Dairy products Milk (cow. green beans. Meals and service A place setting: porcelain small plate. cucumbers. Nuts and seeds Almonds. bean pastes. glutinous (sticky) rice cakes. wheat. fish. or tofu. Noodle dishes such as chao mien (boiled noodles stir-fried with meat and vegetables). water buffalo. garlic.

vinegar. The eastern range is mostly high tableland. chicken with walnuts and hot peppers. onions. radishes. oats. and film skimmed from boiled milk and then dried. tidbits that can be eaten at any time. Some meat is dried. and momo (meat-filled dumplings). Regional cooking styles and specialties Northern style. barley is the chief grain. gruel of toasted barley flour and water. Vegetables include turnips. leeks. In the area north of Beijing mutton with garlic and vinegar is eaten. omelets. and pork. butter. sour milk. has unique food customs due to its isolated location in the Himalayan Mountains. and sometimes tea to make flattened balls eaten with tea or soup. butter. the most densely populated part of the country. custards. Central and western style. milk or cream. or fish. and salt. jellies. COLOMBIA Republic of Colombia Geography Colombia is at the northwestern corner of South America. Three parallel Andes mountain ranges run from to north to south. dim sum (dumplings of minced meat or vegetables wrapped in dough and steamed). whole-roasted pigs. and vegetables. Dairy products are important: milk (yak. buckwheat pancakes. is drunk throughout the day. made by churning brewed tea. In this land of high altitude and cold climate. Beijing specialties include mung bean milk (douzhi) and Peking duck with its crackling skin accompanied by raw green onions and thin pancakes. poultry. wheat. and potatoes. Southeastern (or coastal) style. 2000. and lacquered meats hanging in restaurant front windows. fish balls. cow. 1999). Momo and offal dishes are popular. seafood. concentrated around Sichuan. cauliflower. fish. Yak and mutton are commonly eaten but most Tibetans who are Buddhist do not eat pork. found in Canton. Specialties include Szechwan duck (fiery hot from Szechwan peppers and deep fried after steaming). are drained by the Orinoco River and Amazon River systems. centered in Beijing. sugar. is served on special occasions. Wine. include savory or sweet dishes. fermented bean paste. bouillons. Major Language Spanish (official) Ethnic Groups Mestizo White Mulatto Black Mixed black-Amerindian Other 58% 20% 14% 4% 3% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other 90% 10% . The main food is tsampa.62 The Food and Culture around the World – Colombia Street food and snacks Xioaochi (“small foods”). carrots. and they provide food to some other people. a high plateau and valley. corn. milk solids preserved from butter making. and sesame oil and purée. Southern style. Specialties include vegetarian buns. uses hot chili and Sichuan peppers. and cakes (Newman. rice. milk or cream. or soybeans. Tibet A province in southwest China. and yak/cow cross). usually mixed with tea made with yak butter. Flour is also mixed with butter. A traditional Tibetan kitchen is simple. Newman. Other breads and cereals are popped grain (yet). millet. and soy sauce. Many Cantonese eat dim sum and tea in restaurants for breakfast or lunch. egg roll. The eastern plains. 2000a). sparsely settled by isolated Indian tribes. Butter tea (boeja). uses delicate flavor of ginger and wine plus sweet and sour tastes combined. garlic. made from barley or buckwheat. oyster omelet. and fuel is wood or animal dung (Ang. uses complex. steamed or fried bread from wheat flour. beets. bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean. thick soups. dominant in Shanghai. Tsampa is also made from buckwheat. Specialties include rice porridge (zhou). uses garlic. cabbage. green vegetables. Nomads get much of their food (dairy products and meat) from their herds. rich flavors.

Nuts and seeds Brazil nuts. rodents such as paca. Ajiaco de pollo (chicken stew with potatoes and corn plus sometimes cream and capers). lard. chemicals. and potatoes are universal throughout Colombia. pumpkin. after killings including 11 provincial legislators who had been held since 2002. much of it to combat the drug trade. rabbits. beef. yellow-fleshed potatoes (papas criollas) are typical Andean fare. Staples Rice. Independence was won by 1819. pineapple. onions. peanuts.2 Literacy rate 93. Fats and oils Butter. In 2008. cranberry. black-eyed peas. nickel. horses. rice dishes. olives. cilantro. pumpkin seeds. Firm. Since 2000. pancakes. Vegetables Plantains. tomatoes. natural gas. seafood including shrimp. cassava (yucca). kidney). Cattle are raised on the eastern plains. . carrots.6% Life expectancy 68.5 female Per capita GDP $6. iron ore. The jungle yields sources of protein including ants and wild peccary (musk hog. Rural and urban violence (including that related to drug trafficking) has occurred since the mid-20th century. papaya. Piquant (hot) food and cilantro are liked. hydropower. and capers. oil. peace was reestablished between the two groups.700 Labor force in agriculture 22. monkey. food processing. ants. garlic. pigs Natural resources oil. Dishes Potatoes fried. Fruit Bananas. Grilled small cornmeal patties (arepas). bananas.000 live births 19. cassava flour “bread. emeralds. or in casseroles or dishes such as papas chorreadas (“poured-upon potatoes. goat. and potatoes in the highlands. tobacco. guavas. Dairy products Milk. tropical fruits. cinnamon.” boiled potatoes covered by a sauce of tomatoes or cheese).The Food and Culture around the World – Colombia Population density per sq. clothing and footwear. beans. and in some sweet dishes combining Spanish methods and local fruits. pork. lamb and mutton. cashews. cattle.7% Urban 73.8% Arable land 2% 63 Agriculture sugarcane. Colombia produces an estimated 90% of the cocaine reaching the United States. raisins. curd cheese. Many leftist rebels and right-wing paramilitary groups have funded their activities through narcotics trafficking and kidnappings. copper. peccary. corn bread.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. beef. 76. gold. mi. corn. The Caribbean and Pacific coasts provide seafood. Cassava and plantains are staples of the coasts. cocoa beans. avocados. Legumes Beans (black. and wide rivers flowing into the Caribbean provide freshwater fish.6% Unemployment rate 11. goats. coffee. annatto (a native tropical American tree whose red seeds are used to flavor oil or fat and are ground and used for color and flavor). Spanish influence remains in the use of foods such as rice. fish. and fish on the Caribbean coast. beverages. fish Industries textiles.” Meat. cut flowers. rice. and an army freed a presidential candidate and 14 other hostages from captivity by a leftist group. Influences on food Mountain ranges separate the areas of Colombia yielding distinctive regional cuisines: coconuts. looks something like a small wild pig). coconut oil. limes. Venezuela and Ecuador withdrew in 1829–1830 and Panama in 1903. sheep. cream. eggs. Seasonings Chili peppers. imported from Spain by early settlers. showing Indian influences. olive oil. cheese. the United States has provided more than $5 billion to Colombia. beans. chickens. corn. fritters. cheese. cream. fish Chicken. Different altitudes allow fruits along with cassava on the coasts and coffee. 112. boiled. coal. and highland dishes of the capital Bogotá. coconut.5 HIV rate 0. cement History By the 1530s Spain conquered native Indians in this region and then ruled it and neighboring areas as New Granada for 300 years. plantains. corn. other tropical fruits. Bread and cereals Rice.7 male. poultry. potatoes.

avocado batidas (made with ripe avocado. sugar. potatoes. toasted ants.000 live births 68. It consists of three islands (Grande Comore. copra. COMOROS Union of the Comoros Geography Comoros is in the Indian Ocean between Mozambique and Madagascar. Indonesia. perfume essence. Official Languages Arabic French Comorian (Swahili-Arabic blend) Ethnic Groups Comorian (mix of Bantu. mi.100 Labor force in agriculture 80% Urban 27. Snacks Sweetened and dried fruit leathers and pastes. Fried fish or seafood. batidas (tropical fruit juice drink. Avocado soup. Spicy hot chili pepper sauce. Elections for national and island assemblies were held in 2004. and Arabia before Europeans came.6 HIV rate <0. or cassava).7 male. hard-boiled egg.64 The Food and Culture around the World – Comoros Fresh corn kernel deep-fried fritters. . cocoa. Coconut in soups and stews of rabbits or rodents. Empanadas (savory turnovers). perfume distillation History These islands were frequently visited by travelers from Africa. Sweets Sugarcane. sweet potatoes. Anjouan and Moheli seceded from the Comoros in 1997. The islands became a French overseas territory in 1947. Instability and coup attempts followed for decades. fresh fruit juice. Beef tenderized by chopping into small pieces or twice cooking (braise in beer and spices and then roast). plantains. ylang-ylang.1% Life expectancy 60. sugar.1% Unemployment rate 13. Muslim sultans controlled the islands until the French gained them in the period from 1841 to 1909. cassava. with an active volcano on Grande Comore. a dish made from big-bottomed ants. fruits boiled in light syrup. and chili). beer. Each of the islands elected its own president in 2002 and 2007.5 female Per capita GDP $1. candy. Pan de yucca (a light bread of the highlands made from cassava flour and curd cheese). A referendum in 2001 renamed the country the Union of the Comoros and granted the three islands partial autonomy. cassava. coconut pudding. served as a side to most dishes. sheep Natural resources fish Industries fishing.3% Arable land 36% Agriculture coconuts. Bogotá chicken stew (chicken. Anjouan. rice pudding with raisins and cinnamon (arroz de leche). goats. and cream). wine. cloves. Arroz con coco (rice pilaf with coconut and raisins). sweet potatoes. plantains. Madagascar.4 Literacy rate 75. vanilla. Malay. Cassava soup and stew such as bollito misto (chicken. and Malagasy) Other Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Other 98% 2% 97% 3% Population density per sq. cattle. attempts to determine a new constitutional relationship are ongoing. cake. or sauce such as aji de huevo (sauce of avocado. and lime). and Moheli) of volcanic origin. 65. tourism. Hallacas (spicy meat and corn dough wrapped in plantain leaves and steamed). Arab. salad. bananas. Hormiga culona. tea. Comore declared independence in 1975. Beverages Coffee. and cilantro). sometimes made with alcoholic beverages). ice cream. milk. chickens. 873. Sancocho de pescado (stew of fish or seafood). Sancocho (boiled beef and potatoes. Cassava or plantains sliced and fried for a picada (chip). stuffed.9% Infant mortality rate per 1.

2 male. cigarettes. Seasonings Vanilla. onions. chickens. cement . ginger. bananas. mi. ginger. savannas in the south. plantains. Achards (spicy and sweet pickled vegetables). CONGO (FORMERLY ZAIRE) Democratic Republic of the Congo Geography Congo is in central Africa with a short strip of land bordering the Atlantic Ocean. root crops.1 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate NA Arable land 3% Agriculture cassava. tea. rubber. fish. majority Bantu Four largest tribes: Mongo. timber. 55. tea. Fruit Coconut. and grasslands in the north. quinine. chickpeas. Legumes Cowpeas. Breakfast Soupy rice is often eaten for breakfast. pigs. Meat. Vegetables Cassava. oil. fruits. fish Industries mining. Most people are Muslims. Lake Tanganyika is along the eastern border. tin.The Food and Culture around the World – Congo 65 Influences on food Influences from Africa. whose religious beliefs forbid consumption of pork or alcohol. eggs. footwear.8 female Per capita GDP $300 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 32. Major Languages French (official) Lingala Kingwana (a Swahili dialect) Kikongo Tshiluba Ethnic Groups 200+ groups. Arabia. beef. garlic. accompanies savory dishes. or fish. Vanilla-flavored pudding. game. Baked or fried bananas. Stew of meat. Madagascar. Rougaille (sauce of chilies. Kongo (all Bantu).1% Infant mortality rate per 1. Indonesia. cloves. gold. and tomatoes. poultry. Coconut pudding. chicken. Dishes Rice boiled. Bread and cereals Rice. coffee. Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) 45% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Kimbanguist Muslim Other 50% 20% 10% 10% 10% Population density per sq. fish Goat. lemons. bananas. The vast central region is a low-lying plateau covered by rainforest. processed food and beverages. peanuts. chicken. tomatoes. tomato. One fourth the size of the United States. zinc. diamonds. Beverages Fruit juice. cattle Natural resources cobalt. onion. hydropower. coal. corn. textiles. Surrounding it are mountains in the east and west. coffee. Cassava boiled and mashed or fried. 76 Literacy rate 67. manganese. copper. baguette (French) bread. and Islam are reflected in the food customs in Comoros. uranium. or in pilaf. it includes most of the Congo River basin. rice dishes. lemon. Fats and oils Coconut oil and cream. or a mixture of them. satay (paste of chili. France. and ginger). Sweets Sugar. lentils. lamb and mutton. steamed. goats.2% Life expectancy 55.000 live births 83. and garlic). sheep. sugarcane. silver. mineral processing. palm oil. wheat. chilies. Luba.

Insects Termites (often called white ants). locusts. shea nuts. or beef. coconut. eggs. King Leopold II of Belgium began exploitation in 1876 and claimed the area as the Congo Free State in 1884–1885. sorghum. The tropical Congo River Basin. watermelon seeds (egusi). sweet potatoes. mango seeds. rice dishes. Belgian control from 1885 for 75 years left some influence. A notable dish. cheese. corn. onions. porridge. guinea fowl. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. papaya. Dairy products Milk. mangoes. the colony became known as the Belgian Congo. curds. In 2005 the legislature approved a new constitution. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). black-eyed peas (cowpeas). rabbit. daily fare also includes bananas. or peanuts. Sauces of ground peanuts or boiled and pounded green leaves. and plateau produce coffee. with bits of fish. cassava meal. and okra. legumes. fish (fresh. Stews of root vegetables. Nuts and seeds Palm kernels. It became independent in 1960 as the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Economic decline and government corruption occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. chicken. bell peppers. These season most foods. sugarcane. and livestock. grain pastes. okra. Bread and cereals Corn. Meat. bananas. and porcupine. Exploitation of native laborers on rubber plantations led to granting a colonial charter in 1908. Native African foods include black-eyed peas. soso (rich chicken stew). game meat such as antelope. cassava. gives food a red color. baobab. Vegetables Cassava. and tomatoes). rice. Fats and oils Palm oil. locust beans (carob). Plantain fried in palm oil with onions and chilies. buttermilk. millet. salted. The country’s name was changed to the Republic of Zaire in 1971 and was restored to the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1997. Fruit Bananas. Gari (roasted and ground cassava). followed by Bantus from the east and Nilotic tribes from the north. lamb and mutton. potatoes. grasslands. and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. and green leaves. lemons. whey. kola nuts. cassava. the predominant fat. Strife between militia groups and the new president occurred from 2006 to 2008. The president was assassinated in 2001. monkey. National dish Moambé (a spicy peanut sauce with palm oil) served with meat or chicken and rice. eggplant. pumpkin. In 2003 a new government was installed. or dried). poultry. green leaves (taro. sesame seeds. A peace deal with militia groups was signed in 2008. tomatoes. formed into balls or bite-size scoops to eat stew. violence and civil war ensued. pineapple. peanut oil. chilies. shea oil. Omelet of eggs. rice. . yams. fish Chicken. okra. cashews. hot peppers. pork. When Portuguese explorers came in the 15th century. and potato during the 15th and 16th centuries greatly influenced food customs. tomato. sour milk. savannas. Regional instability and the attraction of Congo’s mineral wealth led to interventions by various African countries. taro. dates. Nuts and seeds thicken and flavor sauces and stews. Violence occurred near the borders with neighbors Rwanda and Uganda. red beans. onions. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn). Rice boiled in coconut milk. In 1994 refugees fleeing massive ethnic bloodshed in Rwanda inundated Congo. onions. and red peppers. smoked. guavas. plantains. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. corn. pumpkin. and onions). plantain and flour bread. palm oil. chili pepper. Palm oil. Cassava and plantains are dietary staples. watermelon. Moin moin (steamed ground paste of black-eyed peas. watermelon. peanuts. corn. akee apples. coconut oil. tea. beef. red chili peppers. red chili peppers. cucumbers. bitter leaf). Seasonings Salt. the large Bantu Bakongo kingdom ruled much of this land. onions. goat. mountains. Influences on food The Congo River and Lake Tanganyika provide fish. Gari foto (scrambled eggs.66 The Food and Culture around the World – Congo History The earliest inhabitants may have been the pygmies.

rice. sugar. palm wine. Snacks are common and available at urban street stalls. vegetables. doughnuts. peanuts. daily fare also includes bananas. Oil accounts for about 65% of the country’s GDP and 90% of export revenue. Much of it is covered by thick forest. lead.8% Life expectancy 52. rice. coffee.3 HIV rate 3. In 1990 Marxism was renounced and in 1991 the country’s name was changed back to Republic of the Congo.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. zinc. goats. CONGO REPUBLIC Republic of the Congo Geography This country is in west central Africa. sheep. peanuts. sugar. sugarcane. New World foods such as cassava.5% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 1% Agriculture cassava. coconut biscuits. Kikongo most widespread Ethnic Groups Kongo Sangha Teke M’Bochi Other 48% 20% 17% 12% 3% Major Religions Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) Animist Muslim 50% 48% 2% Population density per sq.700 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 60. and the Congo River Basin with its flood plains and savanna. corn. beer. phosphates. bordering the Atlantic Ocean and straddling the equator. The tropical coastal plain. mi. corn. oil palm fruit.000) were vaccinated against polio. brewing. Major Languages French (official) Lingala Monokutuba Many local languages and dialects. legumes. Beverages Coffee. palm oil History In the 15th century the Loango Kingdom and the Anzico Kingdom of the Batekes flourished here. a central plateau. Cassava and plantains are the dietary staples. plantain chips. copper.000 insecticide-treated anti-malaria mosquito nets for delivery along the southwestern coast. Children (400. He claimed victory in the presidential election in 2002. fried bean balls. Influences on food The Atlantic coastline and Congo River provide fish. and a special train carried 300. sweet porridge. and potato introduced in Africa . By 1885 France controlled the region. pumpkin. chickens. 55. rice. It contains a coastal plain and fertile valley.000 live births 81. devastating the capital Brazzaville in 1997. balls of steamed rice. fried dough balls. corn. uranium. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. natural gas. corn. magnesium. chili pepper. baked bananas with sugar.The Food and Culture around the World – Congo Republic 67 Sweets Sugarcane. cocoa. central plateau. During the 1990s factional fighting occurred. peanuts. tea. hydropower. A severe cholera outbreak in 2007 was blamed on poor hygiene. cement. cocoa. Political instability including ethnic and regional conflicts has been a problem since gaining independence. honey. potash. honey.5 female Per capita GDP $3. the Middle Congo.6 Literacy rate 86. a former Marxist dictator took control of the city. male. peanut candy. pigs Natural resources oil. France remained a dominant trade partner. vegetables. The country was renamed People’s Republic of the Congo in 1970. 29. tomato. or coconut. sugarcane. and livestock. timber. fertile valley. Republic of the Congo gained independence in 1960. lumber. fried fish.5. and green leaves. The government and rebels agreed to a cease-fire in 2003. gold. and Congo River Basin with its flood plains and savannah produce cassava. cocoa. cattle. fish Industries oil extraction.

watermelon seeds (egusi). red chili pepper. beer. palm oil. Also. grain pastes. salted. or coconut. beef. Nuts and seeds thicken and flavor sauces. cheese. shea nuts. seafood. bitter leaf). onions. Major Languages Spanish (official) English Ethnic Groups White and mestizo Black Amerindian Chinese and other 94% 3% 1% 2% Major Religions Roman Catholicism (official) Roman Catholic Protestant (mostly Evangelical) Other 76% 16% 8% . bread made from mashed plantains and flour. and onions). Roast chicken with peanut sauce. coconut oil. sour milk. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs (coupé-coupé). red beans. game. okra. whey. French control from 1885 for 75 years was an influence. locust beans (carob). yams. Gari (roasted and ground cassava). or bean balls. mango seeds. fish Chicken. mangoes. Sweets Sugarcane. dough balls. pumpkin. coconut. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn). cucumbers. onions. dates. Rice boiled in coconut milk. Dairy products Milk. and a narrow strip by the Pacific Ocean. in Central America between Nicaragua and Panama. the predominant fat. coffee. Nuts and seeds Palm kernels. French bread. kola nuts. and tomatoes). plantain chips. baobab. or peanuts. Meat. gives food a red color. Moin moin (steamed ground paste of black-eyed peas. with bits of fish. smoked. fried fish. lamb or mutton. a high interior plateau (4. Palm oil. eggplant. Gari foto (scrambled eggs. pork. green leaves (cassava. yams. Beverages Cocoa. Chicken is popular. or dried). locusts. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). honey. and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. peanut oil. eggs. cassava meal. guinea fowl. sweet potatoes. Insects Termites (often called white ants). rabbit. Vegetables Cassava. bell peppers. formed into balls or bite-size scoops to eat stew. sorghum. onions. goat. shea oil. Plantain fried in palm oil with onions and chilies. Stews of root vegetables. Seasonings Salt. or peanuts. peanut candy. honey. Snacks are common and available at street stalls in urban areas. contains tropical lowlands by the Caribbean Sea. black-eyed peas. These season most foods. Sauces of ground peanuts or boiled and pounded green leaves. Fruit Bananas. rice dishes. sesame seeds. pineapple. red chili peppers.68 The Food and Culture around the World – Costa Rica during the 16th and later centuries has influenced food here. corn. COSTA RICA Republic of Costa Rica Geography Costa Rica. millet. cashews. curds. buttermilk. chilies. hot peppers. potatoes. akee apples. fried dough balls. chicken. sugar. lemons. Bread and cereals Rice. Fats and oils Palm oil. plantains. black-eyed peas (cowpeas). fish (fresh. okra. or beef. poultry. watermelon. tomatoes. wheat.000 ft) with temperate climate. bananas baked with sugar. balls of steamed rice. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. guavas. papaya.

mi. white). wheat. cheese. vegetable oils. chickpeas. mangoes. and pork. Rice pancakes. fish Industries microprocessors. sugar (white. Seasonings Onions. there has been little violent conflict. oregano. fertilizer. papaya.8 male. breadfruit. Dishes Tamales (corn dough stuffed with spiced chicken or pork. coconut. ornamental plants. brown). beef. beginning a history of democracy.4% Unemployment rate 6. cattle. It has a relatively high standard of living. The country suffered severe hurricane damage in 1996. rice. Since the civil war. . the Spanish. wheat flour bread and rolls. squash seeds. 80. red. goats. fruit ices.1 female Per capita GDP $10. Boiled rice and beans combinations (frijoles con arroz). vanilla. pork.6% Arable land 4% 69 Agriculture sugarcane. plastics History Guaymi Indians lived here when Spaniards arrived in 1502. cilantro. custard. oranges. Milk is not usually drunk as a beverage. Costa Rica’s president was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1987. In 2007 it established diplomatic relations with China and broke formal ties with Taiwan.or rum-flavored cakes and fritters. plantains.9% Life expectancy 74. Economic growth remained strong. Caribbean island foodways from native Carib-speaking Indians and laborers imported from Africa and Asia influenced food customs on Costa Rica’s Caribbean coast. and increasing tourism. chili peppers. melons. rice. Influences on food Influences are from the Guaymi Indians who lived here when the Spanish arrived. Atole (thickened corn gruel) that can have additions of chili. poultry. Posole (semi-fermented corn dough. garlic. squash seeds. fish. and the Caribbean islands. lamb and mutton. Bread and cereals Corn. coffee. baked bananas.The Food and Culture around the World – Costa Rica Population density per sq. Fruit Bananas. The Spanish brought new foods including rice. cream. bananas. cinnamon. Legumes Beans (black. pineapple. Independence came in 1821. sweet peppers. beef. widespread land ownership. fish Chicken. nogada (praline-like candy). In 1890 Costa Rica held the reputedly first free and honest election in Central America. rice dishes. pineapples.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. Meat. diluted to make a beverage). Fried plantains or breadfruit. kidney. Fats and oils Lard.300 Labor force in agriculture 14% Urban 61. or beans. goat.000 live births 9 HIV rate 0. sheep Natural resources hydropower. coconut. 1948–1949. chayote squash (green pearshaped gourd). construction materials. chickens. 214. ice cream. and cassava in coconut milk. pimento. medical equipment. textiles and clothing. shortening. roselle fruit (used to make sorrel drinks and jams/jellies). pigs. grapes. Costa Rica was elected to serve on the UN Security Council in 2008–2009. corn. achiote/annatto. tortillas (thin circles of corn bread). sour cream. eggs. passion fruit. thyme. potatoes. Sweets Sugarcane. wrapped in leaves or corn husks. food processing. These are eaten at most meals. plantains. Soups and stews of beef or seafood. Avocado salad. chili. avocados. Staple foods Corn.5 Literacy rate 95. cassava. honey. onions. Vegetables Potatoes. rice pudding. Nuts and seeds Palm tree nuts. melons. Costa Rica seceded from the Central American Federation in 1838. butter. and steamed). rice. beans. beans. tomatoes. pumpkin. Dairy products Milk (evaporated).

Thick. A French protectorate from 1842. oil refining. corn. and fish. In 2002 the country began to divide politically into north and south. copper. It includes a coastal strip. wheat. 55. meat. and salad. French bread. sorghum. 164. peanuts. and perhaps avocado. greens. porridge. lasting nearly five years. chili pepper.9% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 10% Agriculture yams. wood products. cobalt. black-eyed peas. fertilizer History In the 15th century this region had numerous settlements and attracted French and Portuguese merchants in search of ivory and slaves. sheep. a rice and black bean dish. It changed its name to Côte d’Ivoire in 1985. cocoa beans. . tomato. Economical meal: Casado (combination of rice and beans) with meat. rice. fried plantains. iron ore. Forests cover the western half of the country. diamonds. The Atlantic Ocean and rivers provide fish. as Ivory Coast. corn. chocolate. tortillas or bread. civil war began. rice. truck and bus assembly. sticky. Influences on food The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. cassava.4 Literacy rate 48. bordering the Atlantic Ocean.000 live births 69. and okra. fish Industries foodstuffs.70 The Food and Culture around the World – Côte D’ivoire Beverages Coffee. gold. chickens. rum. The land in this tropical country produces food crops and grass for animal herds and game. manganese. beer.8 HIV rate 3. or fish. A UN peacekeeping force was here from 2004. beverages. sparse inland plain. dough balls. millet. A French protectorate for over a century. cattle. spicy food is liked. Meals Traditional breakfast: Gallo pinto. coffee. Typical dinner in wealthier areas: soup. mi. In 2007 measures were taken to unify the country. In the 1990s fighting began between rebels and the government.4 female Per capita GDP $1. fried plantains. CÔTE D’IVOIRE Republic of Côte d’Ivoire Geography This country is on the south coast of West Africa. bananas.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. bauxite. goats. Major Languages French (official) 60 native dialects (Dioula most widely spoken) Ethnic Groups Akan Mandes Voltaiques (Gur) Krous Other 42% 27% 18% 11% 2% Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Muslim Roman Catholic Other Christian Other 37% 28% 17% 15% 3% Population density per sq. sometimes with sour cream or fried eggs. rice dishes. natural gas. pigs Natural resources oil. and potato greatly influenced food customs. it gained independence in 1960. textiles. tropical fruit drinks (refrescas). this country retains a French influence.700 Labor force in agriculture 68% Urban 46. poultry. Daily fare is mostly grains and starchy vegetables with legumes. and low mountains in the northwest. Bread and cereals Corn. Native African foods include watermelon. oil palm fruit. and pickled vegetables plus sometimes appetizers and dessert.7% Life expectancy 54 male.

Nuts and seeds Palm kernels. Gari (roasted cassava meal). the predominant cooking fat. watermelon seeds (egusi). and fréjon (bean or black-eyed pea purée. Baked chicken with tomato. rabbit. goat. curds. sugar. tomatoes. melokhia (crain crain). sweet potatoes. kanya (peanut candy). Snacking is common. Major Languages Croatian (official) Serbian Ethnic Groups Croat Serb Other 90% 5% 5% Major Religions Roman Catholic Orthodox None Other 88% 4% 5% 3% . various meats. Egg topped with ground chilies and baked on mashed yam. cocoa. Hibiscus sabdariffa). fried fish. bordering the Adriatic Sea.” cocoa. okra. and sometimes carob or cocoa). Chicken is a popular. fried dough balls. Jollof rice (boiled rice with palm oil or tomato. cashews. It is a former Yugoslav republic. bitter leaf. plantains. formed into bite-size scoops or balls to eat stew. bell peppers. pork. fried bean balls. fried with onions. game. black-eyed peas (a variety of cowpeas). lemons. cucumbers. or beef. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. mangoes. cheese. Chicken or fish marinated in lemon or lime juice. guinea fowl. onion. fish (fresh. peanuts (groundnuts). and served with boiled rice. Croatia has fertile agricultural plains in the east and low mountains along the Adriatic coast. salted. Dairy products Milk. beef. baobab. and peanut sauce. limes. whey. is red. coconut oil. mango seeds. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or boiled corn flour). pineapple. grilled. eggplant. tomatoes. sesame seeds. akee apples. baked bananas with honey. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. guavas. hot red chili peppers. chicken and peanut. CROATIA Republic of Croatia Geography Croatia is in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. Palm oil. red chili peppers. Meals and service Two meals a day served family style is typical. prestigious food. kola nuts.The Food and Culture around the World – Croatia 71 Meat. papaya. locusts. chicken. plantain chips. onions. green leaves. palaver sauce (green leaves). Seasonings Salt. Adalu (mashed vegetables). coconut milk. shea oil. locust beans (carob). buttermilk. Beverages Coffee. taro. simmered with the marinade. eggs. peanut oil. or coconut. Sauces: peanut (ground and pounded peanuts). onions. okra. Legumes Beans. Fruit Bananas. Fats and oils Palm oil. and spices). coconut. sour milk. potatoes. watermelon. Vegetables Yams. Stews: fish and meat. Nuts and seeds thicken and flavor sauces. Sweets Honey. poultry. and root vegetables. sweet porridge. okra. lamb and mutton. Insects Termites (often called white ants). sugar. or peanuts with bits of fish. dried baobab leaves. “African nutmeg. pumpkin. cassava. fish Chicken. or dried). thyme. beer. red zinger (herbal tea made from flower pods of roselle. smoked.

mica. dumplings. Fish dishes. cardamom. Dumplings filled with meat or fruit. walnuts. Fighting between ethnic Serbs and Croats occurred. Most Croatians are Roman Catholic and frequently consume pork and fish. and bread. Fruit Apples. Croatia declared independence from Yugoslavia In 1991. black beans. south Slavic people. fish Chicken. Vegetables Potatoes.7% Urban 56. lentils. vegetable oils. apricots. margarine. East Slavonia. poultry. In 2007 Croatia began trials of several suspected war criminals from its wars in the 1990s. Nuts and seeds Almonds.500 Labor force in agriculture 2. In 925 they established a kingdom. white beans. lemons. pork. and livestock. Legumes are important. ham. cheese. eggs. goat. eggplant. Seasonings Garlic.2 Literacy rate 98. It joined other Yugoslav areas to form the Kingdom of Serbs. 79. pistachios. fish. Croatia was settled in the 7th century by the Croats. iron ore. mint. and veal. goat). oregano. sheep. Pies and turnovers filled with meat. . returned to Croatian control in 1998. tomatoes. natural asphalt. clays.000 live births 6. sour cream. salt. sugar beets. plums. sauerkraut. gypsum. poppy seeds. fish Industries chemicals. cheese. which flourished in the 11th century. turnovers. cool weather fruits and vegetables such as apples and cabbage. Central Europe influenced the cuisine of Croatia and other north Balkan countries. parsley. machine tools. coal. Influences include Latin and Roman Catholic. grapes. silica. lamb. lemon juice. Legumes Chickpeas. electronics History Once the Roman province Pannonia. and the last Serb-held enclave. fava beans. and pasta. sheep. calcium. pears. In 1848–1849 the area became the Austrian crown land of Croatia and Slavonia. Meat and vegetable casseroles. A state from 1941 to 1945 and a republic from 1946. producing grains. Dishes Soups such as lentil soup. barley.3 female Per capita GDP $15. Influences on food Croatia’s fertile plains support agriculture. Popular foods include pork. chickens. Kashkaval (hard tangy ewe’s milk cheese) is called the cheddar of the Balkans. cabbage. Boiled or baked stuffed vegetables such as cabbage stuffed with seasoned meat or rice. pepper. pigs. dairy foods. olive oil. plastics. and Austrian. onions. The Adriatic Sea coastline provides fish. Slavic. lamb.5 male. sugar beets. Fats and oils Butter. corn. rice dishes. and joined Hungary in 1102. mi.72 The Food and Culture around the World – Croatia Population density per sq. mushrooms. goats Natural resources oil. Meat. wheat flour in pies. cherries. buttermilk. fabricated metal. as well as special fare at Christmas and Easter. cinnamon.7% Life expectancy 71. bread (usually leavened wheat loaves). Dairy products Milk (cow. sunflower seeds. rice. The economy and tourism continue to grow. hydropower. dill. paprika. peaches. barley. berries. Croats. Pork or veal stew with paprika. cream. olives. filo dough (paper-thin pastry). a peace accord was signed in 1995. eggs. as well as that of northern neighbors Slovenia and Hungary. cattle.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. which in 1939 united with Primorje country to form Croatia County. They converted to Christianity between the 7th and 9th centuries. porridge. whipped cream. The Croats separated from the Slavs and retained autonomy under Hungary.1% Unemployment rate 9. cucumbers. bacon. Croatia and Slavonia became Savska County.5 HIV rate <0. sunflower seed. beef and veal. 206. and Slovenes in 1918.5% Arable land 26% Agriculture corn. When Yugoslavia was reorganized in 1929. Bread and cereals Wheat. bauxite. wheat. Fruit juice is popular.

1% Unemployment rate 1. A Balkan specialty. Small meat balls (kofta). with the main meal at midday. beans. A Balkan specialty. construction. goats Natural resources cobalt.500 Labor force in agriculture 20% Urban 75. sheep. cream. Sweets Honey. buttermilk. or dried fruit. rice. tobacco. butter. plantains. oil. Special occasion foods The Easter meal often includes lamb or ham and pogaca (bread topped with painted hard-boiled eggs). Beverages Coffee (strong.9 HIV rate 0. silica. fruit compote. The north coast is steep and rocky. and tomato sauce). the United States declared war on . Major Language Spanish (official) Ethnic Groups White Mulatto and mestizo Black 65% 25% 10% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant None Other including Santeria 47% 5% 22% 26% Population density per sq. copper. From the 18th century a sugar plantation economy developed. tea. They died from diseases brought by sailors and settlers. and frequent snacking is typical. slatko (fruits simmered in thick syrup). the south coast is low and marshy. The coastline is approximately 2. iron ore. Spain established settlements here by 1511 and frequented Havana’s excellent harbor. tomatoes. chromium. pigs. salt. Except for British occupation of Havana (1762–1763). fruit juice.8% Life expectancy 75 male. wine.000 live births 5.or fruit-filled dumplings and strudels. timber. The Christmas Eve meal features cod. pickles. chemicals. Spain controlled Cuba until 1898. African slaves were brought until slavery was abolished in 1886 to work the sugarcane plantations. Cuba’s name is derived from the Indian Cubanacan. oil. 79. plum brandy (sljivovica). 266.9 Literacy rate 99. Sugar remains the chief product and export. potica (sweet yeast bread rolled in a walnut. cattle.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. eggplant. nuts. and plum brandy are evening snacks in cafes and coffeehouses. A Christmas dish is stuffed cabbage and sauerkraut. onions. fish Industries sugar. salads. CUBA Republic of Cuba Geography Cuba is 90 miles (145 km) south of Florida in the Caribbean Sea.9% Arable land 28% Agriculture sugarcane/raw sugar. Meals Three meals a day. coffee. citrus. A northern Balkan treat. nickel History Arawak Indians lived here when Columbus came in 1492. coffee. Street foods and snacks Pastries and ice cream are sold by vendors in urban areas throughout the day. chickens. mi.6 female Per capita GDP $4. potatoes. tobacco. nickel. when. after the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana harbor. baklava (filo dough layered with nut filling that is then soaked in flavored syrup). sweet).The Food and Culture around the World – Cuba 73 vegetables. It is the largest and westernmost island of the West Indies. sugar. wine. cheese. moussaka (baked minced lamb.500 miles. fruit preserves. Low hills and fertile valleys cover more than half of the country. and egg filling).

beef. banks. Bread and cereals Rice. and other foreign investments began to dominate the economy. Fidel Castro led guerrilla fighting and took power in 1959. Akee simmered. okra. Some 700. garlic. Spicy soups. In the largest island. sanctions limited Cuban exiles’ visits and remittances. president John F. guavas. Simmered rice. This tropical island has abundant fish. papaya. greens (taro. poke weed. Fruit Citrus. coconut. fruits. coconut oil and cream. One-pot dishes: callaloo (green leaves of several plants plus garlic. seafood. fish Chicken. fried cornmeal cakes. onion. evaporated). Roast pork.S. passion fruit. salt beef.74 The Food and Culture around the World – Cuba Spain and defeated it in the Spanish-American War. the citrus juice denatures the protein. salt pork. and olives. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. In 2007 presidents of Cuba and Venezuela signed agreements for development projects (e. capers. . and seafood. Vegetables Tomatoes. and the Caribbean islands are not synonymous. In 2006 Fidel Castro yielded power to his brother Raul. made by simmering annatto seeds in vegetable oil. corn. After three years of U. kidney beans. In 1952 Batista established a dictatorship. pepper pot (stew of various vegetables and bits of pork or beef. Cuba gained independence in 1902. sausage. dependent on aid from other communist countries. the chain of islands between Florida and Trinidad. Nuts and seeds Almonds. sweet potatoes. lamb. olives. large frogs. black pepper. cinnamon. Cuban bread (crisp roll made from wheat flour). cassava. malanga (a mild tuber). Moros y Cristianos (Moors and Christians: black beans and rice cooked together). aged cheeses. chilies. olive oil.g. Grilled beefsteak. ham. rice dishes. Hurricanes in 2008 devastated the sugar crop. Ceviche (raw fish marinated in lemon or lime juice with olive oil and spices. squash. Legumes Black beans (the specialty). ethanol plants). Dishes Simmered black beans. usually some other vegetables and coconut milk. chickpeas (garbanzo beans). cocoa. The Spanish brought new foods such as rice. salt cod. and perhaps salt pork. In 1962 the USSR brought nuclear missiles to Cuba. mangoes. cashew nuts. after a warning from U. potatoes. Escabeche (a fish fried then sauced or marinated to be sweet and sour). pork. pork.000 Cubans emigrated. saffron. eggs. fish and seafood (snapper. mostly to the United States. beef. raisins. sweet peppers. lobster.S. Slaves from Africa and indentured laborers brought other influences. an effect similar to cooking). Fats and oils Lard. allspice (pimento). occupation. coriander. is used to give a red-orange color and mild flavor to meat. leaving only traces of their foodways. or fried. and vegetables. rum. onions. goat. yams. salt cod. baked. coconut cream. and Venezuela’s state oil company announced that it would explore for offshore oil in Cuban waters. Kennedy they were removed. plantains. and chowders (hearty soups often containing seafood). Meat. cumin. annatto (achiote) seeds.S. Cuba. The economy. Seasonings Salt. pineapple. the indigenous Arawak almost disappeared following the Spanish conquest. Chili sauces. the edible part is the fleshy seed coat surrounding three black poisonous seeds). Dried salt cod fritters. Spanish control for almost four centuries left strong influence on food customs. callaloo.. land crabs). sea turtle. but the two terms are often used interchangeably. Influences on food West Indies. annatto (achiote) seeds. condensed. and companies were nationalized.S. cassava bread (a fried flat loaf made of grated cassava). highly seasoned with crushed peppercorns). Foo-foo (balls of mashed cassava or plantains). In 2004 new U. wheat. poultry. butter. red beans. poultry. lands. nightshade). Sweeping economic and social changes began. vegetable oil. avocados. cashew apples. aided by tourism. gradually improved during the 1990s. They ate a wide variety of fish and seafood. The collapse of the communist bloc in the late 1980s shook Cuba’s economy. herbs. or crab). In 2002 the United States began using its naval base on a leased site at Guantánamo Bay to detain prisoners captured in Afghanistan. akee (fruit of a West Indian tree. bananas. iguana. U. Annatto oil. lard.

and onions or with lime juice. spices.000 live births 6. olives. Practically a national dish Picadillo (spiced boiled beef seasoned with sauce of tomato and chili pepper). citrus.7 female Per capita GDP $23.The Food and Culture around the World – Cyprus 75 Ropa vieja (spicy beef strips).5% Urban 69.7% Life expectancy 75. Lunch: rice and beans with meat if affordable. cement and gypsum. Baked red snapper with capers. was ruled by the Ottoman Empire from 1571 to 1878.2 Literacy rate 97. mi.8 HIV rate NA Unemployment NA Arable land 11% Agriculture potatoes. cumin. fish Industries tourism. grapes. gypsum. Specialty Black bean soup (simmered dried black beans blended with chicken stock to a coarse purée. Meals Breakfast: coffee with milk. pyrites. CYPRUS Republic of Cyprus Geography The third largest island in the Mediterranean Sea. Brazo gitano (cassava pastry filled with corned beef). textiles. chopped ham or sausage. 222. daiquiri (lime juice. Snacking is common among children. pigs. Cyprus lies off the southern coast of Turkey. sweetened fruit juice over shaved ice. and chili). and made it a British colony in 1925. chickens. and black pepper. and simmered to heat throughout). salt. mustard. mango or papaya ambrosia. Langosta criolla (lobster Creole: lobster tail briefly fried and then cooked a few minutes in white wine. beer. cereal. Dinner: soup. herbs. Major Languages Greek (both Turkish official) English Ethnic Groups Greek Turkish Other 77% 18% 5% Major Religions Greek Orthodox Muslim Other 78% 18% 4% Population density per sq. milk when available. The Greek population sought union . fresh fruit. Snacks Fresh fruit. poultry. sugar. rum.735 Labor force in agriculture 8. ice cream. Fried meat. rum. named after the Cuban town where it was invented in 1896). milk. annexed it in World War I. flan (custard). Cuba libre (rum and cola with lemon slice). Sweets Sugarcane. or topped with fried eggs. clay. and ketchup. and ice.8 male. rice and beans with meat. pastries. rice pudding. cattle Natural resources copper. chopped tomato. garlic.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. served with side dishes of rice and chopped raw onion. molasses. soft drinks. and perhaps egg. vegetables. bread. olives. sweet green peppers. timber. and fruit. sugar. barley. coquimol (coconut cream sauce). when a large Turkish colony settled on it. onions. It has a wide fertile central plain between two mountain ranges running east and west. goats. vinegar. 80. bread. the site of early Phoenician and Greek colonies. mixed with chopped onion and garlic cooked in annatto oil. tomatoes. asbestos. vegetables. garnished with olives and raisins and served with boiled rice or fried plantains. earth pigment. food and beverage processing. light chemicals. and perhaps dessert. sheep. raw and unrefined sugar. marble. or fish. Britain took control in 1878. metal products History Cyprus. coffee with milk. shaken and strained. Beverages Coffee often mixed with milk (café con leche).

mint. Cyprus became Independent in 1960. The National Guard. gliko (fruit preserve in syrup). Influences on food Influences on Cyprus’s cuisine include Greece. In 1975 Turkish Cypriots voted to form a separate Turkish Cypriot state. and cinnamon. fruit. Fruit Grapes. Legumes Chickpeas. Vegetables. Conflict has continued and the UN peacekeeping mission has remained in place to the present. Nuts and seeds Almonds. cardamom. EU membership stimulated the economy on both sides. onions. often including greens). Arab dishes: hummus (chickpea dip). Dishes Boiled chickpeas or lentils with coriander and cumin. Rice pilav. pies. Boiled greens. wheat kernels. beef. crushed coriander seeds. and the Greek Orthodox and Islam religions. led by Greek army officers. leavened and flat breads such as pita (thin. wheat. olives. citrus especially lemons. Greek Orthodox faithful often eat plain boiled pulses during Lent and special dishes for Easter. or dolmas: vegetables stuffed with a meat mixture or rice. and trachanas (or tarhana: cracked wheat boiled with milk. cucumber. verjuice (juice of unripe lemons). raisins. Turkey. lentils. fish and seafood. currants. rice. called koupes (cups). Omelet containing sautéed greens. and tourism revenues increased. Greek Cypriot dishes: egg-and-lemon sauces added to chicken and fish soups and casseroles. Afelia (casserole of pork. rosewater. Swiss chard. sweet-and-savory Easter cheese pies (flaounes). tomato.or cheese-filled pastry. Seasonings Garlic. mallow shoots. Tavas (cubed beef or lamb. yogurt. goat. tomatoes. the Turkish minority opposed. seized the government in 1974. the state is not recognized internationally. dates. Cyprus’s first communist president was elected in 2008. onions. Cyprus became a full member of the European Union (EU) in 2004. nut oil. rage). melons. Greeks had been expelled from the Turkish-controlled area and were replaced by Turks. walnuts. pies. clarified butter (ghee). fig and apricot compote. anise. potatoes. allspice. black-eyed peas. round. fenugreek seeds. rolled in thick bread crumbs. and breads such as elioti (made with olives and olive oil). Turkey. filo dough (paper-thin sheets of pastry). In 2003 Turkish Cyprus opened its border with Greek Cyprus for the first time since partition. eggs. sesame oil. Sweets Honey. sesame seeds. nutmeg. Byzantine cookery. and cinnamon). the surrounding Mediterranean Sea. some from Turkey. Fried meats. and then made into a porridge-like soup). oregano. other spices. sugar. and violence broke out in 1955–1956. stored until winter. cucumbers. figs. baklava (crisp syrup. Islam forbids consumption of pork or alcohol.76 The Food and Culture around the World – Cyprus with Greece. yellow split peas. kibbeh (cracked wheat around a stuffing of a fried mixture of spicy minced meat. Labor-intensive and intricate dishes: koubes (koupepia. Turkish Cypriot cuisine resembles Turkish cuisine. Grilled meats. Lebanon. cow). Meat. Turkey invaded. and some obstacles to pedestrian crossing were removed by both the Turkish Cypriots and the Cypriot government. a white cheese). Kabobs. grilled and fried fish. lamb. sun dried. especially sheftalia (a spicy sausage made of pork or lamb wrapped in caul. greens (grape leaves. rice dishes. Cyprus’s cuisine resembles that of Greece. cheese (especially feta. Greek Cypriot cuisine resembles Greek cuisine. pepper. In 2004 Turkish Cypriots approved a reunification plan but Greek Cypriots rejected it. eggplant. the fat membrane around the intestines). celery. In 1983 Turkish-Cypriot leaders declared independence for Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. butter. and Syria. pistachios. loukoumades (or jalebi: deep-fried batter soaked in syrup). Vegetables Potatoes. fish Chicken. cumin. Dairy products Milk (goat. and wheat bread are eaten frequently. taro leaves. Bread and cereals Barley. cinnamon. also used in dips and soups. In 2007 Cypriots from both sides routinely crossed the border to shop and work. pork. and spices are used generously. poultry. apricots. orange blossom water. tomatoes. green peppers. buttermilk. vegetable oil. Fats and oils Olive oil. pomegranates. and parsley). syrup. cherries. pulses. olives. saffron. corn oil. nearby Arab countries. sheep. red wine. cream. parsley. Filo dough layered with spinach and feta filling and baked. Fried meat. with hollow center) and lavash (a larger crisp bread). pine nuts. and lemon juice and olive oil dressing. hazelnuts. Salad of greens. covered and roasted slowly). Dishes reminiscent of ancient Greece: louvana (yellow split-pea purée). coriander.or honey-soaked .

Beverages Tea often sweetened and with mint. machinery and equipment. fish roe dip. In 1968 Soviet troops invaded Czechoslovakia.1% Arable land 39% Agriculture wheat. with two main rivers. stuffed grape leaves. hummus with pita bread. or Turkish delight: candy made from syrup and corn flour with citrus. The western part of Czechoslovakia was formerly Bohemia and became the Czech Republic. armaments History Slavic tribes settled in this region probably about the 5th century. in 1993 it split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia. or leftovers. graphite. goats. raki. Snacks Fruits. Main meal (usually at midday): mezze (appetizers such as cheese. or rosewater. made protectorates of Bohemia and Moravia. glass. CZECH REPUBLIC Geography This country is in east central Europe.1 female Per capita GDP $24. soup.The Food and Culture around the World – Czech Republic 77 pastry made with filo dough layered with a nut filling). raki). leaders signed an agreement allowing construction of a radar station southeast of Prague as part of a U. lamb kebabs) with ouzo. sugar beets. 342. missile-defense system in Eastern Europe. Bohemia and Hungary became part of Austria-Hungary. Havel was elected president. The Republic of Czechoslovakia was born in 1918 through the union of Bohemia and Moravia with Slovakia. and fruit. Major Languages Czech (official) Slovak Ethnic Groups Czech Moravian Slovak Other 90% 4% 2% 4% Major Religions Roman Catholic 27% Protestant 2% Unaffiliated 59% Other 12% Population density per sq. cattle. cut into cubes and rolled in powdered sugar). coffee often sweetened and with cardamom.200 Labor force in agriculture 4. Influences on food The Czech and Slovak Republics were one country. In 1989 large-scale protests resulted in Communist Party leadership resignation. Neighboring countries Poland. mi. motor vehicles. or jam and coffee or tea. meat dish. fish Natural resources coal. kourabiedes (butter cookies). Light supper (in late evening): similar to breakfast. kaolin. pigs.8 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 7. olives.S. Prague was the cultural center of central Europe in the 14th century. with Moravia remaining in the former. the country was renamed the Czech and Slovak Federal Republic.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. potatoes. Czechoslovakia.6 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 73. candy (lokum.S. They became separate countries in 1993. chickens. olives. Havel left office in 2003 after 13 years as president of the Czech Republic. Moravia in the east. timber. coffee or tea. In 1939 Hitler dissolved Czechoslovakia. wine. and supported Slovakia’s independence. clay. The country became a member of NATO in 1999 and of the EU in 2004. Meals Breakfast: bread with cheese. In the 9th century Bohemia and Moravia were part of the Great Moravian Empire. Germany. anise-flavored aperitifs (ouzo. or coffee. In 2008 Czech and U. 80.1% Urban 73.3 male. brandy. and Slovakia have influenced Czech cuisine and have been influenced . fish Industries metallurgy. hops. Bohemia is in the west.000 live births 3. mint. barley. beer. yogurt or cheese. fruit. or wine. Later they became part of the Holy Roman Empire. Austria. for most of the 20th century and share a culinary history. Floods in 1997 and 2002 caused extensive damage. It is a plateau ringed by mountains. In 1948 Czechoslovakia became the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. raki. sheep. Late afternoon/early evening (when friends drop by): sweets and ouzo.

g. root vegetables.jaternice (pork) and jelita (a blood sausage). traditionally served in soup by the bride to her new husband. noodles. Hearty stews: goulash (cubed meat. made with vegetable stock instead of meat stock. Mashed potatoes. paprika. bacon. jam. Mehlspeisen (foods made with flour): some savory and many sweet items (dumplings. cheese. Vegetables Potatoes. horseradish. sausage (klobása) such as. and mushs e rooms) served with noodles. black pepper. pickles. pork. lard. Makovy kolac (poppy seed cake with sultanas). caraway seeds. Cabbage leaves stuffed with seasoned ground meat. dried fruit. raisins. Potato and mushroom soup. Bread and cereals Wheat. or cottage cheese).. grapes. eggs. milk. bread (usually dark and usually served at all meals). and fruit ones. fish Chicken. cinnamon. olive oil. and onions). a sponge with fruit baked in it). and doughs and pastes combined with vegetables. Fruit Apples. Topfenpalatshcinken (thick pancakes with curdled sweet cream). Sweets Sugar. navy beans. for example. sour cream. cucumbers. emphasizing bread. honey. and in soup) and kolaches (round yeast buns filled with poppy seeds. .78 The Food and Culture around the World – Czech Republic by it. capital of the AustroHungarian Empire. apricots. Stewed red or white cabbage with caraway seeds. sultanas (large grapes). carp). and paprika and other spices covered and simmered with a small amount of liquid). Svíˇková na sonetane (beef roast c with sour cream sauce). they include ham. strudel (pastry of thin sheets of dough around a soft filling). Czech cuisine is robust. dumplings (knedliky). cherries. prunes. and dairy products. barley. Poppy seeds are often used in cakes and pastries. hot chocolate. Liptauer cheese (made with cottage cheese. caraway seeds. fish (trout. jam. cold in aspic. The Czech Republic has rich agricultural land. caraway seeds. served in slices with stews. mustard. Beverages Coffee. sour cream. onion. Legumes Kidney beans. Falsche (false) soups. cottage cheese. black pepper. cabbage. soups. Religion influences the food customs. cabbage. butter. yeast buns. Topfenknödel (cottage cheese dumplings). plum jam. lentils. sour cream. lamb. rye. poppy seeds. salt. Czech cuisine was also influenced by Hungary (e. kid. baked with prunes. Dairy products Milk (cow. Nuts and seeds Almonds. dumplings filed with cherries. capers. cheese. bacon. Easter foods: baked ham or roasted kid and mazanec (round loaf of sweet yeast dough with raisins and almonds). vinegar. or apricots. The Czechs are known for pilsner beer. split peas. eel. strudel. Seasonings Onions. mushrooms. wine. skubánky (potato dumplings baked in butter and served with cinnamon ˇ sugar). Bohemia was famous for cookery skills and provided cooks for Vienna. Streuselkuchen (crumb-topped cake). Coffeehouses and sweet treats are a Bohemian tradition. Dumplings range from huge loaf-sized ones. sheep). Christmas foods: carp four ways (breaded and fried. poultry. sauerkraut. meat especially sausage. Meats are often extended by grinding and stewing. Potato dumplings. ham. salt. to which Bohemia belonged. butter. Dishes Párky (steamed or boiled sausage). vegetable oil. Meals Three meals a day with snacks is typical. Meat. other root vegetables. also influencing its food. mustard. Fats and oils Butter. Lungenbraten (roast fillet of beef). fruit. Simmered dumplings. onions. pancakes. yeast buns. duˇené telecí na kminˇ (veal. dumplings. goulash). and honey). cream. yeast pies. beer. Special occasion foods Roast goose stuffed with sauerkraut and served with bread dumplings. or soft cheese and cream. beef and veal. plums. paprika. which tastes bitter and is light in color and body. poppy seeds. to tiny liver dumplings. Bulblanina (bubble cake. special foods for the Christian holidays Christmas and Easter. bacon. tea.

chickens. fish. Fish is the principal export. 79 . sheep Natural resources oil. It has a strong economy. In ancient times Copenhagen was a fishing and trading place named Havn (port). pigs. limestone. In 1993 voters ratified the European Union document. textiles and clothing.2% Unemployment rate 5. The Danish kingdom was a major power until the 17th century. machinery and transportation equipment. By the end of the 8th century CE the area was called Jutland.D DENMARK Kingdom of Denmark Geography Denmark is in northern Europe between the North and Baltic seas. by a rail tunnel and bridge.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. In 2000 they voted not to join the euro currency zone. barley. steel.6 female Per capita GDP $37. Most (84%) of its land is ice capped. Denmark was Christianized in the 10th century. when it lost its land in southern Sweden. no foreign debt. a huge island between the North Atlantic and the Polar Sea. salt. on which Copenhagen stands. was a colony of Denmark that was approved for home rule in 1979. mi. Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat). in the North Atlantic.000 live births 4. potatoes. Fish is the primary export. furniture History From 10. In 1997 the island of Zealand. 80. The Faroe Islands. Denmark was a founding member of NATO (1949). stone. and a budget surplus. The smallest of the Scandinavian countries. for supporting Napoleon. In 1815. Neutral in World War I. Fenen. chalk. it lost Norway to Sweden. are an administrative division of Denmark. It is flat lowland. who raided Western Europe and the British Isles from the 9th to the 11th century.400 Labor force in agriculture 3% Urban 85. nonferrous metals.000 to 1500 BCE the people evolved from a hunting/fishing society into a farming one. food processing. it occupies the Jutland Peninsula and about 500 neighboring islands. chemicals.4 HIV rate 0. In 2007 Denmark removed its troops from Iraq. Its mariners were among Vikings. 100 inhabited. natural gas. was connected to the central island. Major Languages Danish (official) Faroese Greenlandic (Inuit dialect) English (predominant second language) Ethnic Groups Danish Other 92% 8% Major Religions Evangelical Lutheran (official) 95% Other Christian 3% Muslim 2% Population density per sq. construction. sugar beets.0% Arable land 53% Agriculture wheat.1 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 75. cattle. electronics. gravel. sand Industries iron. but it increased its troops in Afghanistan in 2008.8 male. Denmark was occupied by the Nazis from 1940 to 1945 in World War II. 335.

honey. Denmark shares with nearby Netherlands traditions of dairy farming and simplicity of food. Sweets Sugar. served with braised red cabbage with sliced sour apple. Specialties Exported bacon and canned hams. margarine. aquavit (water of life. beer and rye crusts. lard. Fruit Apples. bread (dark rye and white wheat). Crèma Danin. kale. cold fruit soups. Smørrebrød (bread and butter). lemons. bread crumbs. filled with minced pork and veal. parsley. Stuffed cabbage (cabbage head hollowed out.80 The Food and Culture around the World – Denmark Influences on food Denmark’s cuisine has been influenced by its southern neighbor Germany. fish Chicken. rye. salmon. onions. chopped. porridge. poultry. Porridges: rice with butter. Danish Blue. The North Sea and Baltic Sea provide fish and seafood. apricots. especially from pigs and dairy cattle. Meat. fish and seafood (herring. Wheat. sour milk. Roast pork loin stuffed with apples and prunes. and Danish Camembert). Dairy products Milk. pastry. flaky pastry (made from yeast dough containing milk and egg into which butter has been folded) filled with butter creamed with sugar and almonds. Yellow split peas. Danish pastries are eaten at any time. lamb. mellow and sometimes with caraway seeds. . molasses. often with coffee or tea. leeks. oats. Vegetables Potatoes. The Danes had important trade with the Orient in past centuries. a green and rolling land. Rødgrød med fløde (red fruit pudding with cream). sausage. firm and bland. Danish pastries. mustard seeds. apricots. beef and veal. France influenced the food of the wealthier classes. caraway seeds. butter cookies. sour cream. cardamom. mushrooms. hard-cooked eggs. which also influenced their food. Plaice fried in butter and served with sour cream and lemon sauce. and eggs fried in butter). rapeseed oil. onions. Condiment Fish mustard (fiskesennep). or other ingredients. Braised cabbage with caraway seeds. anchovies). Danish pastries (wienerbrød. Danish Swiss. Oatmeal cakes and cold buttermilk soup. green-salted haddock. plaice. buttermilk. eggs. Danish Christmas fruit loaf made from rich yeast dough and candied fruits. prunes. Danish Brie. cheese (many types including Tybo. has foods of the field and pasture. beets. Denmark. Kale boiled. Simmered chicken stuffed with parsley and butter. milk. curry. cherries. Soups: yellow split pea. carrots. rape (of the cabbage family). shrimp. Dishes Smoked Baltic herring with radish slices and chives on buttered rye bread. rice. vinegar. ginger. beer. cabbage (red and green). liver paste. Postej (liver paste of pork or calf’s liver with anchovy). plums. brought by bakers from Vienna). thickened raspberries or strawberries with sweet cream poured in. barley. Fats and oils Legumes Butter. barley simmered in buttermilk. strawberries. Boiled potatoes. semi-soft and slightly acidic. distilled liquor sometimes flavored with caraway). bacon. radishes. cheese. Danbo. soft and rich. chives. rape seeds. pork. cream. cucumbers. oysters. celery. salt pork. Dill. cloves. Bread and cereals cereal soup. Frikadeller (meat patties of ground pork and veal. eels. Beverages Coffee. or sausage) or of white bread and shrimp. green split peas. butter. lima beans. sometimes served with salt pork gravy. Sautéed mushrooms. and served with a cream sauce. horseradish. open sandwiches of rye bread. tea. mustard. oranges. coarsely ground yellow and brown mustard seeds with vinegar and salt. currants. raisins. Danish apple cake made from applesauce layered with buttered bread crumbs and often topped with whipped cream. and various toppings (herring. raspberries. pickled beets or cucumbers. Havarti. and simmered). Nuts and seeds Seasonings Almonds. ham. served with sauce of heavy cream stirred into the drippings.

cooked like a huge pancake on a griddle.S. Midmorning and late afternoon: coffee with pastry. usual bread is flatbread as in Ethiopia.9% Life expectancy 41. when the country gained independence and took the name of its capital city. Afars eat a typical nomadic diet of grain and dairy products. millet (including teff). mi. covered. bordering the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden. 57.1% Unemployment rate 60% Arable land 0. sorghum. agriculture processing History Able from Arabia migrated here in about the third century BCE. camel. In 1967 it was named the French Territory of the Afars and the Issas. The economic mainstay is French aid. it became the French protectorate of French Somaliland in 1888 and a French overseas territory in 1945. cheese. Dinner: herring. In 1976 Afars (ethnically related to Ethiopians) and Issas (related to Somalis) clashed. granite. Neither Muslims nor Christians here eat pork. The climate is hot and dry. Bread and cereals Rice. Lunch: kole board (cold table) of bread. scattered mountains. poultry.S. goat. Djibouti food is similar to that of neighboring Ethiopia. camels Natural resources geothermal areas. oats. tomatoes. fish Beef. and red chili pepper is used as in all the neighboring countries. fruit dessert.The Food and Culture around the World – Djibouti 81 Meals Breakfast: oatmeal porridge with milk and sugar or herring and soup.S. sheep. In the late 20th century Djibouti received refugees from the Ethiopia-Somali war. For example. military presence in Africa. flatbread (usually like injera from Ethiopia. rice dishes. wheat. and various items for making smørrebrød (open-faced sandwiches). gold. Major Languages Arabic French Somali Afar (both official) Ethnic Groups Somali Afar Other 60% 35% 5% Major Religions Muslim (nearly all Sunni) Christian (mostly Orthodox) 94% 6% Population density per sq. beer. DJIBOUTI Republic of Djibouti Geography This small country is on the east coast of Africa. and religion. and Eritrea. Somali. and an interior plateau. Camp Lemonier is the only official U.300 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 86. troops are based here. sheep. Lentils are popular during fasting periods required by the Christian Orthodox church. dry beans. Arab. . goat. lamb and mutton. Other influences include Ethiopian. Somalia. Arabs controlled trade in the region until the 16th century. Somali Issas arrived later. and Somalis avoid chicken and eggs.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. Ethiopians and Somalis immigrated here up to 1977. their descendants are Afars today. potatoes. In 2002 it became a U. meat or fish dish. camel). corn. It is mainly a sandy desert with a low coastal plain. clay. Dairy products Milk (cow. with assistance from Arab countries. cattle.1 Literacy rate 67. soup. Between 1862 and 1900 France gained control of the area through treaties with Somali sultans.000 live births 99.8 female Per capita GDP $2. limes.9 male. Islam was brought in 825 CE. 44. Traditional Somali foods are rice (brees) with meat (hibbib) and chili. military base to combat terrorism.1 HIV rate 3.04% Agriculture lemons. resulting in a large circular loaf). butter. French and U. goats. Influences on food French control for about a century until 1977 left some influence on Djibouti food. barley. fish and seafood. Meat. fish Industries construction.

ginger. Nuts and seeds Almonds. tourism. fenugreek. chickens. red chili peppers.000 Labor force in agriculture 40% Urban 72. Lentil salad. peanuts. cayenne. garlic. citrus. copra. potatoes. when it was ceded to Britain. spiced butter. cayenne. with a ridge running north to south. pigs Natural resources timber. cattle. sesame seeds. mangoes. 249. chickpeas. the economic mainstay. Fruit Lemons. plantains. root crops.82 The Food and Culture around the World – Dominica Fat Butter (usually clarified and flavored with onions. and meat or fish. Sweet Honey. Wat (stew). Britain and France claimed it until 1763. Ful (bean stew). wine (made from honey). Anan geil (millet gruel with camel milk and honey). sheep. It has rich deep topsoil on the leeward side. Major Languages English (official) French patois Ethnic Groups Black Carib Amerindian Mixed Other 87% 3% 9% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other None 61% 28% 5% 6% Population density per sq. and flatbread or rice. often containing beef or lamb.000 live births 14. coriander. Thick spicy stews of lentils.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. hot red pepper spice mixture (allspice. shoes History Caribs inhabited Dominica when Columbus explored it in 1493. In 1979 Hurricane David devastated the island and destroyed the banana plantations.and ginger-flavored vegetable casserole. beer (home-brewed from millet or corn). Dried raw beef mixed with spiced butter. cumin. garlic. mi. lentils. nutmeg. cocoa. was granted selfgovernment in 1967. Seasonings Red hot chili peppers. cardamom (in almost all stews). A typical meal includes a spicy stew. fish Industries soap. Meat-stuffed vegetable. coconuts. In 1983 Dominica participated . It is mountainous. Vegetables Tomatoes.4 female Per capita GDP $9.1 HIV Rate NA Unemployment rate 25% Arable land 7% Agriculture bananas. ginger. sugar. Flatbread crumbled with butter or wat. and gained independence in 1978. It became an English colony in 1805. various other fruits. goats. garlic. furniture. cement blocks. Legumes Beans especially fava beans. ginger. onions. Garlic.4 male. vegetables. onions. red clay on the windward coast. kale. DOMINICA Commonwealth of Dominica Geography Dominica is in the eastern Caribbean Sea. and black pepper). hydropower. coconut oil. split peas. peanuts. Meals and service Usual is one meal in the early evening. with snacking throughout the day. dates. cloves. Food is often served on or picked up with swatches of flatbread. and numerous thermal springs. limes. Vegetarian stew of ground legumes. Beverages Coffee (sometimes with butter). 78. fenugreek seeds. chickpeas.1 Literacy rate 94% Life expectancy 72. Dishes Boiled rice. cardamom. cinnamon. and other spices).

beef. stews. molasses. iced tea usually with lime. seafood. yams. 10. sweet potatoes. plants. and some of the remaining Caribs live on a reservation in Dominica. Influences on food Arawak Indians. sea turtles. cassava. breadfruit. milk. coconut. unrefined sugar. rum. condensed. cassava bread. fried cornmeal cakes. thought to be the original inhabitants. black pepper. evaporated). Legumes Kidney beans. and dried cassava. Fruit Bananas. soft drinks. vegetable oil. passion fruit. coconut. coconut custard pie. Dominica does not have the extremes of wealth and poverty evident in other Caribbean islands. squash. Fried cornmeal and okra cake. fish and seafood (salt cod. rice. Boiled rice. okra. eggs. the highest point in the West Indies. they are excellent fishers. sweet peppers. flying fish. Fried cassava or plantain chips. akee. pork. Fats and oils Butter. Bread and cereals Corn. snapper. mangoes. pigeon peas. Mountains are in center of the country. Beverages Coffee with milk. wheat. Slaves brought from Africa also influenced floodways such as the use of okra. grapefruit. cream. pepper sauce. lard. tea.175 m). and green coconut (liquid and flesh). fish Chicken. ate fish. annatto. and grated coconut). rum fruitcake. this country occupies the eastern two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola. Snacks Fruit. onions. crabs). Seasonings Salt. The same foods are used here today. raisins. fried or grilled fish. British and French claims and British control for more than two centuries influenced food customs. Vegetables Cassava. chickpeas. red beans. avocados. and African slaves. coconut oil. aged cheese. cassava bread (made from grated. Salt cod gundy (spread). rum. Sweets Sugarcane.The Food and Culture around the World – Dominican Republic 83 in the U. cinnamon. pineapple. Dishes Callaloo (green leaves cooked with okra). Carib Indians from further south overcame the Arawaks. tomatoes. sugar. In 2002 economic austerity measures were introduced and massive protests followed.-led invasion of nearby Granada. Nuts and seeds Almonds. allspice. DOMINICAN REPUBLIC Geography Bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. cashew nuts. poultry. papaya. squeezed. large frogs. sharing it with Haiti. fruit juices.417 feet (3. and hot pepper sauce using foods available from the sea and this tropical island. cocoa. soursop. tea with coconut biscuits (cookies) or bread. Carib meal Boiled green bananas topped with egg. malanga (taro-like plant with corms and green leaves). examples include dried salt cod. sweetened fruit juices poured over crushed ice. sea eggs or sea urchins. fruits. the British. annatto seeds. cashew apples. lamb. malanga). Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. guavas. chilies. cassava coconut biscuits or bread (contain wheat flour. Cibao Valley in the north is the major agricultural area. Meat. mangrove-tree oysters. biscuits. with Duarte Peak. cocoa. and tea. goat. . plus ones brought to the region by the Spanish and to Dominica by the French.S. fried on a griddle pancake-style. lobster. Specialty Fried mountain chicken (frog legs). chilies. passion fruit juice punch. Pepper pot (a meat stew containing boiled juice of cassava and pepper). garlic. pomelos. green leaves (cassava. plantains. and sun dried). beer. Rice cooked with peas or beans. In 2007 Dominica and Venezuela began talks about Venezuela building an oil refinery in Dominica. black-eyed peas.

Other influences were from French control for more than a century. ham. A series of dictatorships followed until 1921. sweet peppers. plantains. goat. corn. malanga (a mild tuber). Influences on food The indigenous Arawak and the Carib Indians almost disappeared following the Spanish conquest. is in the Alcazar. poultry.2% Arable land 22% Agriculture sugarcane. the supposed ashes of Columbus lie in its cathedral. coconut oil and cream. Legumes Beans (kidney. The city Santo Domingo. In 1979 and 1998 hurricanes caused extensive damage. bauxite. okra. Spanish control for three centuries left strong influence on food customs. and pastry. yams.1% Unemployment rate 16. land crabs). This tropical island has abundant fish and seafood. fruits. Meat.84 The Food and Culture around the World – Dominican Republic Major Language Spanish (official) Ethnic Groups White Black Mixed 16% 11% 73% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other 95% 5% Population density per sq. textiles. cassava bread (fried flat loaf made of grated cassava). Marines occupied the country from 1916 to 1924. onions. slaves brought from Africa. The eastern two thirds was returned to Spain in 1908 and declared independent in 1821. fire resulting from a fight between rival prison gangs in 2005. iguana. coffee. fried corncakes. mining. pigs.1% Life expectancy 71. poke weed. cattle. rice dishes. large frogs. gold. Fats and oils Lard. Bread and cereals Rice.9 HIV rate 1. fish and seafood (snapper. goats. oranges that he planted on Hispaniola in 1493. cassava. the palace of Columbus’s son Diego. Haitian troops occupied it soon after and until 1844. sugar processing.2 female Per capita GDP $7. bananas. chickpeas (garbanzo beans). tobacco. butter. cement. 509 Literacy rate 89. but the quality of public education and public health remained poor.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. callaloo. The Spanish brought new foods such as rice. beans. when a constitutionally elected government was installed. sausage. nightshade). the palace was restored in 1957. black). olives. cocoa. wheat flour bread. The economy grew from 2004 to 2007. rolls. fish Chicken. beef. greens (taro. chickens. sheep Natural resources nickel. . is the oldest European settlement in the Western Hemisphere. squash. eggs. and torrential rains in 2007 killed hundreds of people. avocados. tobacco History Carib and Arawak Indians inhabited the island of Hispaniola when Columbus landed on it in 1492. potatoes. wheat.S. red. capital of the Dominican Republic. cotton. Floods and mudslides in 2004. vegetable oil. the rest of the island was ceded to France in 1795. rice. silver. corn. They ate a wide variety of fish and seafood. salt cod. okra.000 live births 26. olives. and vegetables. sea turtle. The government invested less in those sectors than in the new subway system for the capital. The oldest kitchen in the Americas.6 male. condensed. pork. fish Industries tourism. mi. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. lard. evaporated). olive oil. Vegetables Potatoes.000 Labor force in agriculture 17% Urban 66. salt pork. The western third of the island was ceded to France in 1697. and citrus. shrimp. tomatoes. founded in 1496. lamb. sweet potatoes. U. cornbread. recreated in Santo Domingo. and indentured laborers. pork. Only traces of information about their foodways remain. 75. Columbus brought the first citrus plants to the New World. aged cheeses. beef.

black pepper. mangoes. Snacking is frequent among children. rum. Beverages Coffee often mixed with milk (café con leche). coriander. and eggs. coated with flour. frio-frio (fruit syrup over crushed ice). sour sop. or fried. cereal. and coated with egg and bread crumbs). Pepper pot (stew of boiled juice of cassava. raisins. Lunch: rice and beans with meat if affordable. chilies. lemons. various vegetables. milk when available. Fried meat. saffron. sweet peppers. . and perhaps egg. and fruit. ice cream. annatto (achiote) seeds (red-orange color and mild flavor). coconut. Fried yam cakes (grated yams mixed with butter. baked. pastry. Roast pork. cocoa. Chili sauces. bread. rum. guavas. Snacks Fresh fruit. called casserep. Dinner: rice and beans with meat. vegetables. Hearty. tamarind. sprinkled with salt and black pepper. beer. milk. grated onion. coffee with milk. a similar effect to cooking). Seasonings Salt. oranges. poultry. spicy seafood soups. and perhaps dessert. cashew nuts. A specialty Sancocho (a pork intestine stew). sugar. and bits of pork or beef. coconut or rice pudding. molasses. limes. and tomatoes. passion fruit. and deep fried). soft drinks. highly seasoned with crushed peppercorns).The Food and Culture around the World – Dominican Republic 85 Fruit Bananas. Mofongo (simmered or fried plantain balls). Deep-fried shrimp and potato cakes (made with mashed potatoes and chopped shrimp mixed with grated cheese and onions. akee. chopped parsley. Pastelitos (meat-filled turnovers). Dishes Callaloo (green leaves of several plants boiled with okra). custard. Meals Breakfast: coffee with milk. papaya. Escabeche (a fish fried then sauced or marinated to be sweet and sour). pineapple. Simmered beans or chickpeas with lard and salt and sometimes with onions. dropped by tablespoons into a thin layer of hot oil and turned to cook on both sides). cashew apples. garlic. black pepper. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Akee simmered. bread. tea. allspice (pimento). Ceviche (raw fish marinated in lemon or lime juice with olive oil and spices. Simmered rice. salt. cinnamon. fresh fruit. Sweets Sugarcane. annatto (achiote) seeds. coconut cream. raw and unrefined sugar. sautéed or baked banana. or fish such as chicharrones de pollo (chicken pieces marinated in lime juice. the citrus juice denatures the protein.

272 m). 79.4 HIV rate 0. plantains. pigs. food processing. temperate highlands between the ranges. tropical eastern lowlands. 86 . 130. 1999. 1998. cocoa. Influences on food The tropical seacoast is where bananas.8 female Per capita GDP $7. Also. timber. Spain was defeated in 1822. chemicals History Tribes in the northern highlands of Ecuador formed the Kingdom of Quito around 1000.000 live births 21. mi. goats Natural resources oil.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. Major Languages Spanish (official) Amerindian languages. revolts and dictatorships followed into the mid-20th century. supplanting cocoa when that crop was ravaged by disease. about 600 miles to the west. In the Galapagos tortoises and iguana were eaten. potatoes.E EAST TIMOR (See TIMOR-LESTE) ECUADOR Republic of Ecuador Geography Ecuador is in northern South America.000 people homeless. and 2004 to cope with the continuing economic crisis. Although the equator is in Ecuador.1% Arable land 6% Agriculture bananas. The region was the northern Inca Empire. The Galapagos Islands. is the home of huge tortoises and other unusual animals. bordering the Pacific Ocean and on the Equator. wood products. Coastal cuisine depends heavily on green plantains and bananas. hydropower Industries oil. conquered by Spain in 1533. sugarcane.6% Life expectancy 73. Two parallel Andes Mountain ranges cross Ecuador north to south. oil palm fruit. are grown. a temperate climate occurs in the mountains where the capital Quito is located. cassava.3% Unemployment 10. The president imposed austerity measures in 1996. chickens. In 1987 an earthquake destroyed much of the main oil pipeline and left 20. and rainy. dividing it into three zones: hot.3 Literacy rate 92. cattle. Border disputes with Peru occurred from 1941 to 1998. Ecuador gained independence in 1830. It was absorbed into the Inca Empire. fish. textiles. a chief export. humid coastal lowlands. when agreement was reached. Ecuador includes the Galapagos Islands. In the 1990s Indians staged protests to demand greater rights. 2002.577 feet (6. Since 1972 the economy has revolved around petroleum exports. especially Quechua Ethnic Groups Mestizo (mixed Indian & white) Amerindian Spanish & others Black 65% 25% 7% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other 95% 5% Population density per sq.200 Labor force in agriculture 8% Urban 63. sheep. In 2008 a new constitution was approved. coffee. rice. The primitive jungle country east of the Andes has specialties including stewed monkey and alligator steak.9 male. Ecuador’s highest peak is 20.

Vegetables Potatoes. Humitas (fresh kernel corn or cornmeal dough wrapped around meat. Meat. its southern neighbor. eggs. guinea pig (cuy). brown sugar. or vegetable filling and steamed). tortillas. annatto seeds. and baked as a soufflè. Major Languages Arabic (official) English French Ethnic Groups Egyptian (Arab. and salt). and of the Spanish. bordering the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. dribbled with brandy or local rum. Sweets Sugarcane. cattle. Dishes Ceviche (raw fish or shellfish marinated in orange juice with olive oil and spices). fish Beef. and cheese. bread and cake made from banana flour and mixtures of banana flour and wheat. coriander. butter. annatto. or with a sauce of ground peanuts and tomatoes. poultry.The Food and Culture around the World – Egypt 87 is more varied than that of the sierra. brown sugar added and banana pieces browned on both sides. Legumes Beans. sugar. chili peppers. who brought rice. chicken. onion. sweet peppers. Boiled potatoes. Bread and cereals Rice. rice dishes. With its northern neighbor Colombia it shares the practice of using annatto (red seeds of a native tropical American tree) for color and as a spice. Banana chips (green bananas or plantains. avocados. and dishes. Banana leaves are used for wrapping as in tamales. Ecuador has a heritage of the Incas. olive oil. Bananas cut crosswise and lengthwise. lamb. Ocupas (made with boiled potatoes). wheat. Nuts and seeds Almonds. fish. corn. Lorco (potato cheese soup) served with avocado slices. The Nile River divides Egypt into two regions: hills and mountains in the east and desert in the west. sweet potatoes. served with peanut-tomato sauce. sliced on a slant to make oval slices. and uses unusual combinations such as pork stuffed with shrimps. Bollos (tamale-like steamed packets of plantain dough-wrapped filling of cooked chicken meat). Most people live in the 550-mile-long Nile Valley. pig. often served as an appetizer or with corn and sweet potato. Fats and oils Lard. and potatoes. Beef flank baked with potatoes. Ecuador shares a common heritage and cuisine with Peru. Egg and shrimp with almond sauce (used on many foods). palm oil. Llapingachos (fried potato and cheese patties). It is nearly 1. Pork stew with sweet peppers and coriander. evaporated milk. fried slowly. cashews. chili peppers. Salsa de aji (fresh chopped chili. Seasonings Cocoa. beans. shrimp. honey. Fruit Bananas. other tropical fruits. cassava (yucca). onions. served with fried eggs in the sierra or with fried bananas on the coast. served at most meals. pumpkin seeds. costa (alcoholic drink traditionally made from yucca plant by women who chew and spit out the pulp to facilitate fermentation). and deep fried). pork. Bananas puréed. Causas (made with mashed potatoes). who depended on corn. cheese. Beverages Coffee. EGYPT Arab Republic of Egypt Geography Egypt occupies the northeast corner of Africa. goat. cocoa. and dusted with powdered sugar. aji (chili pepper). Berber.5 times the size of Texas and mostly desert. peanuts (ground to make sauce and used to give texture and flavor in stew). corn atole (gruel). fish. plantains. mixed with beaten egg. oranges. Dairy products Milk. Bedouin) Other 99% 1% Major Religions Islam (official) 83% Muslim (nearly all Sunni) 90% Coptic Christian 9% Other 1% . olives. pumpkins.

eggs.88 The Food and Culture around the World – Egypt Population density per sq. when defeated by Ottoman Turks. cotton. poultry. gypsum. talc. rice. clarified butter. 2006.500 Labor force in agriculture 32% Urban 42. The ancient Egyptian language survives only in Coptic Christian liturgy. The Suez Canal. Egypt. Fish is generally not eaten with dairy products. rice dishes. corn. a military caste of Caucasian origin. and 2007.6 Literacy rate 72% Life expectancy 69. bread. The cost of living increased 10.000 live births 28. wheat kernels. fish. fertile soil. beans. goat. pigs. Egypt supported the Allied forces in the Persian Gulf War. filo dough pastry. mi. tourism. camel. natural gas. Conflict between Muslim fundamentalists and Christians occurred in the 1980s. Bread and cereals Wheat. camels Natural resources oil. The government took measures to control dissent led by the banned Muslim brotherhood in 2007. 74. . and annual flooding of the Nile. Fats and oils Olive oil. wheat.3 male. linking the Mediterranean and Red seas. fruits. beans. Arabs introduced Islam and the Arabic language. Islamic fundamentalist violence increased in the 1990s. Byzantines. Meat. chemicals. It extended south into Nubia and as far north as Syria. The Mamluks. In the 7th century Islamic influence became dominant in the Middle East. although Britain administered it from 1882. Bombings occurred in 2004.5%. where the Nile River supplies fish. provides irrigation for more than a million acres of land. water buffalo. construction. mainly bread along with onions. beef. nut oil. When the state of Israel was proclaimed in 1948. Influences on food Egyptian foodways have retained continuity since ancient times and are connected with those of the Middle East. bringing with it some changes in the cuisine such as no consumption of pork or alcohol. couscous (wheat meal moistened to form small pellets). Terrorist activity against the economically important tourism industry increased in the late 1990s. The Aswan High Dam. and Arabs. poultry. completed in 1971. phosphates. Egypt was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1517 to 1914. yogurt. along with other Arab nations. pasta. ending with a treaty in 1979. often sprinkled with the spice mixture duqqa.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. pigeons. fish. manganese. Later. A unified kingdom developed about 3200 BCE. lead. A high culture was built on an economic base of serfdom. ruled from 1250 to 1517.3% Arable land 3% Agriculture sugarcane. The everyday bread (eish baladi) is a round flatbread with a pocket in the center. prawns. Egypt and Israel engaged in 30 years of war. goats. butter. chickens. the republic was proclaimed in 1953. 212. 1991. metals History Egyptian history dates back to about 4000 BCE. These introductions mainly affected the upper and middle classes. and olive oil. Dairy products Milk. cement. pork. food processing. cream. was built by a French company (1859–1869) and was controlled by Britain from 1875 to 1956. asbestos. pharmaceuticals. limestone.4 HIV rate NA Unemployment 9. A British influence on the total population is frequent consumption of tea. cheese (white and a gray salty cheese called mish). sheep. lamb and mutton. hydrocarbons. The last native dynasty fell in 341 BCE to the Persians. When the Turks conquered Egypt early in the 16th century they introduced more new dishes. cattle. and it was a British protectorate from 1914 to 1922.5 female Per capita GDP $5. A 1952 uprising forced King Farouk to abdicate. corn. fish. Most people continued the diet from ancient Egypt. iron ore. rice. eggs. corn oil. invaded Israel and was defeated. including those using filo pastry (dough of many paper-thin layers separated by thin films of butter) and many sweet items. fish Chicken. rabbit. semolina (hard wheat pasta-like product). successive rulers were Greeks. barley. Most of the people live in the Nile Valley. Romans. zinc Industries textiles. vegetables.

Main meal (early afternoon): bread. all moistened with broth and seasoned with garlic). peanuts. garlic. Baid mutajjan (fried hard-boiled eggs). salad or olives. cayenne. usually sesame and coriander seeds. almonds. cheese or yogurt. pine nuts. cumin. Most of the land is a fertile volcanic plateau about 2. zucchini. Hamam mahshi (braised or roasted pigeon with crushed wheat-mint stuffing).or cheese-filled pastry). Sweets Sugarcane. salt. eggs. black pepper. Broiled prawns. National dishes Ful medames (boiled beans. syrups. it borders the Pacific Ocean. and simmering. . Mihallabiyya (rice flour pudding with currants and pistachios). cinnamon. mucilaginous when cooked). garlic. Nuts and seeds Almonds. vanilla.The Food and Culture around the World – El Salvador 89 Legumes Broad beans (fava beans). currants. Steamed couscous served with main dish such as lamb and chicken simmered in gravy with onions. dates. and topped with thick cream. coffee (both heavily sweetened). Pickled turnips and beets. salt. apples. olives. herbs. coffee or tea. coriander. baked sweet potato. thin soft bread with mish cheese. Mezze Falafel. pine nuts. tamiya (deep-fried patties of fava beans. chickpeas (garbanzo beans). dill.g. sesame seeds. Beid hamine (hard-boiled eggs). lentils. Special occasion food Kahj. pomegranates. Bread soaked in sugar syrup. spinach. figs. lemon juice. rosewater. okra. and garlic. rice. Lentil soup with garlic and cumin. dessert. raisins. diluted yogurt drinks. eaten for breakfast. Pastries made with filo dough. turnips. Sanbusak (fried meat. Fruit Grapes. covering.. cherries. cumin. beans. baked. honey. Date-filled filo dough pastry. Melokhia soup (chopped melokhia leaves simmered with rabbit or poultry stock. olives. rice or couscous. Rice cooked by first heating in oil in which chopped onions have been browned. Baked fish fillets served with rice. green leaves (e. sweet potatoes. and nuts. eggplant. green peppers. onions. tomatoes. often sprinkled with parsley and served with hard-boiled eggs). a sweet bread with ample butter and nuts. mint. EL SALVADOR Republic of El Salvador Geography El Salvador is the smallest Central American country and the only one without an Atlantic coastline. Biram ruzz (baked chicken and rice casserole). duqqa (spice mixture. carrots. Seasonings Onions. saffron. Food is not served in courses. Beverages Tea. or fish dish. and meat. main meal. rice. a meat. Basboosa (semolina cake topped with lemon syrup and almonds). cayenne). seasoned beans). lemons. Shish kabob (lamb pieces cooked on a skewer). Meals and service Breakfast: Tea or coffee. Bread is used to scoop up foods. and lentils with fried onions and hot tomato sauce). vegetable or legume. or snack. Roasted lamb sometimes stuffed with rice. sugar. Feta (a bowl layered with bread in the bottom. and cumin). beer. Steamed couscous with sugar and peanuts. Baked or simmered vegetables such as eggplant with rice-dill or rice-lamb stuffing. couscous. the south is a hot coastal plain. The mezze tradition of snacks with drinking is practiced. Vegetables Onions. okra. kushari (spaghetti. cucumbers. Rice pudding with rosewater. Okra or zucchini stewed in butter. seasoned with olive oil. lemons.000 feet (607 m) high. melokhia. and currants. then adding water. or soup. pistachio nuts. Mountains with volcanoes are in the north. Bamai (baked okra and ground beef). and pepper). parsley. poultry. Evening meal: like breakfast. Dishes Falafel (small fried broad bean purée patties). and carrots. Stew of lamb. Street food and snacks Fool (boiled. olives. usually fava beans. wine. leftovers. beets. garlic.

corn and beans. shrimp. passion fruit. oilseed. eggs. cinnamon. The Spanish arrived in the area in 1524–1525 and conquered the Pipil Indians by 1539. and of the Central American Federation in 1839. Posole (semifermented corn dough. chayote squash (green pear-shaped gourd). Fats and oils Lard. Dishes Foods are often fried and feature indigenous ingredients such as corn. furniture. coffee. sorghum. lettuce. fish. vegetable oils. wheat. cream. beans. roselle fruit (used to make sorrel drinks and jams/jellies). wheat bread and rolls. rice. tomatoes.000 live births 22. bananas. cattle. and breadfruit.90 The Food and Culture around the World – El Salvador Major Languages Spanish (official) Nahua Ethnic Groups Mestizo Amerindian White and other 88% 9% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant. Bread and cereals Corn. other 83% 17% Population density per sq.8% Unemployment 7. butter. Fruit Pineapple. El Salvador became independent of Spain in 1821. dishes. pigs.5% Life expectancy 68. 883 Literacy rate 85. and fertile land. and drinks. mangoes. Legumes Beans (black. lamb and mutton. A hurricane in 1998 and earthquakes in 2001 left more than a thousand people dead and many homeless.2 HIV rate 0. gruel. oranges. pork. chilies. squash seeds. vanilla. green beans. chickpeas. diluted to . achiote/annatto (orange-red coloring). sweet peppers. rice. rice. pumpkin. goat. cabbage.800 Labor force in agriculture 19% Urban 59. red. beets. coconut. fertilizer. mostly on a plateau. 75. chickens. and remittances from Salvadorans working in the United States were a major source of income in El Salvador. pimento. onions. fish Chicken. goats. Caribbean island foodways from native Carib-speaking Indians and laborers from Africa and Asia have also influenced the food customs of El Salvador. chili peppers. probably migrated to the area in the 11th century. carrots. Atole (corn gruel). other citrus. breadfruit. cotton. potatoes. sour cream. oil. Vegetables Plantains. Staple foods Corn. sheep Natural resources hydropower. papaya. corn tortillas. In 2001 a severe drought destroyed 80% of the crops. Nuts and seeds Palm tree nuts. coconut. of the Mexican empire in 1823. mi. kidney. cheese. and turkey. for example. descendants of the Aztecs.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. chemicals. Dairy products Milk (evaporated). turkey. poultry. oil. shortening.8 female Per capita GDP $5. garlic. supports crops and livestock. The Spanish brought new foods including rice. geothermal power. avocados. In 2007 nearly a third of native Salvadorans lived in the United States.5 male. beans. cassava. A 12-year civil war ended in 1992. Meat. cilantro. tomatoes. rice dishes. corn. light metals History The Pilpil Indians. Milk is not usually drunk as a beverage. pork and lard. The Indian influence continues. Influences on food The Pacific Ocean provides fish and shrimp. rum. beef. sausage. beans. sorghum. beef. white). Since its founding it has experienced political turmoil. sesame seeds.2% Arable land 31% Agriculture sugarcane. fish Industries food processing. grapes. chili. Seasonings Onions. textiles. beverages.

yams. Specialties Pineapple used in unexpected ways such as in stews. Rice often fried before boiling or cooked with coconut milk. Pupusas (thick tortilla filled with cheese.8 HIV rate 3. Pickled vegetables (cabbage. fishing. beer. oil palm fruit. served on Sundays. or breadfruit. two volcanic mountains and a valley. and pickled vegetables plus sometimes appetizers and dessert. and fish. coffee. and fried). poultry. The Fang and Bubi migrated to the area in the 17th century. a pineapple tart. baked bananas. tropical fruit drinks (refrescas). sausage. sold by pupuserias. meat. ice cream. or seafood and plantains or cassava in coconut milk. black beans. or cheese). natural gas. The Portuguese reached the islands in the late 15th century and ceded them . the edges sealed.9 Literacy rate 87% Life expectancy 60. and steamed). fruit ices. turkey. and salad. chickens.The Food and Culture around the World – Equatorial Guinea 91 make a beverage or used in other ways).000 live births 83. rice pudding. sawmilling. Beverages Coffee. fish Industries oil. gold. Meals Corn and beans are eaten at every meal by the poor. and nearby Bioko Island in the Gulf of Guinea. It consists of Rio Muni. ice cream. sweet potatoes. timber. Fried potatoes. sheep. goats.1 female Per capita GDP $12. custard. Salads such as avocado. Street food Pupusas (small thick tortillas filled with beans. bananas. cakes. Tamales (spicy meat-stuffed corn dough. mi. pigs. rice.900 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 38. the mainland coastal plain. Rice is consumed frequently. cocoa. brown). plantains. Special occasion dish Quesadilla (cheese-flavored batter bread). nogada (praline-like candy). natural gas History Pygmies originally inhabited the mainland. chicken. which are pork cracklings. puréed.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. sugar (white. or fried. Soups and stews of meat. Beans simmered with spices (frijoles sancochadas). this country is on the west coast of Africa. or chicarrones. Snacks Candy. fried plantains. wrapped in corn husks or leaves. tortillas or bread. with cheese or meat added if resources permit. rum. rice pudding. Sandwiches of French bread. or fish.4% Unemployment 30% Arable land 5% Agriculture cassava. and pickled vegetables. 56. Sweets Sugarcane. Major Languages Spanish French Fang Bubi (both official) Ethnic Groups Fang Bubi Mdowe Other 86% 7% 4% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other Christian Muslim Other and none 80% 7% 4% 9% Population density per sq. 62. EQUATORIAL GUINEA Republic of Equatorial Guinea Geography Formerly Spanish Guinea. Dinner in wealthier areas typically includes soup. chicken.4 male. cattle Natural resources oil. Roasted meat.or rum-flavored cakes and fritters. often paired with rice (frijoles con arroz). custard. fritters. chocolate. topped with another tortilla. National dish La semita. carrots). coconut. honey. fruit ices.

Nuts and seeds Palm kernels. peanut oil. sour milk. corn. and okra. Fruit Bananas. Snacks are common and available at street stalls in urban areas. cocoa. and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. pumpkin. mainlander Masie became president in 1972. and some livestock. rabbit. His brutal reign bankrupted the nation. balls of steamed rice. Starchy roots and rice are staple foods. onions. sesame seeds. dates. smoked. tomato. millet. okra. Plantain fried in palm oil. whey. onions. curds. corn. lemons.. coconut. fried fish. and meat. black-eyed peas. rice dishes. sugar. cucumbers. An offshore oil boom began in 1997. Native African foods include black-eyed peas. . lamb and mutton. green leaves (e. deep-fried sweet dough balls. mangoes. baked bananas with coconut. Most of its 7. eggs. kola nuts. Fufu (boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn). or mixtures of them. Roast chicken with peanut sauce. Vegetables Cassava. pounded green leaves. Milk. yams. goat. shea nuts. bell peppers. Masie was ousted by a military coup led by Obiang. Portuguese control for nearly three centuries and Spanish control for nearly two centuries left some influence. buttermilk. hot pepper. chicken. yams. Palm oil. oil sales. cocoa. cassava). Insects Termites (often called white ants). Sauce of boiled.92 The Food and Culture around the World – Equatorial Guinea to Spain in 1778. or peanuts. pork. beer. mango seeds. Palm oil. game. fish. black-eyed peas (cowpeas). Independence came in 1968. watermelon. poultry. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. guavas. especially to the United States. Rice boiled in coconut milk. Beverages Coffee. In 2007 the country continued to have one of the highest GDP growth rates in the world. coconut oil. The land and tropical climate allow raising coffee. yams. Disputes between peoples on the islands and mainland erupted. bananas. peanuts. pineapple. palm oil. Egg. chicken. is red. or dried). rice. or beef. cashews. tomatoes. Moin moin (steamed ground paste of black-eyed peas. baobab. who became president and has headed the government since (as of 2008). Also. shea oil. red chili peppers. locusts. potatoes. cocoa. guinea fowl. red beans. Rice. fish and seafood (fresh. and onions). Stews of root vegetables or okra with bits of fish. black beans. Influences on food The Gulf of Guinea provides fish and seafood. estimated at more than 20%. cassava. Sweets Honey. and potato was a major influence. tomatoes. there is French influence from French control of some countries in the region. peanut candy (kanya). Dairy products Fats and oils fat. bread of mashed banana or Meat.000 Europeans emigrated. locust beans (carob). Peanut sauce or stew (ground and pounded peanuts. akee apples. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs (coupé-coupé). cheese. chilies. Nuts and seeds thicken and flavor sauces. plantain chips. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. red chili peppers. Chicken is popular. watermelon. chili pepper. and sometimes starchy vegetables). the predominant cooking Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). salted. have greatly increased.g. wheat. and red pepper omelet. Bread and cereals plantain and flour. Fried yams. Seasonings Salt. sorghum. papaya. formed into balls or scoops to eat stew. sweet potatoes. fish Chicken. watermelon seeds (egusi). beef. plantains. beans. tomatoes. eggplant. onion. including neighboring Cameroon and Gabon.

mi. Italian influence is reflected in pasta. sheep. sisal. clothing and textiles History Part of the Ethiopian kingdom of Aksum until its decline in the 8th century. beef.4% Infant mortality rate per 1.. tobacco. corn. Meat. Eritrea has been independent since 1993. pasta (e. sheep. corn. The Red Sea provides fish. goat.4 male. 63. cotton. cooked rice. It was an Italian colony from 1890 to 1941.5 female Per capita GDP $800 Labor force in agriculture 80% Urban 19. poultry. A border war with Ethiopia (1998–2000) ended with a peace treaty in December 2000. and livestock. olive oil.3 HIV rate 1. Eritrea’s highlands and fertile valleys produce coffee. when it came under British control. clarified butter. Islam forbids consumption of pork or alcohol. Fats and oils Butter. Eritrea came under control of the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century and of Egypt later. .The Food and Culture around the World – Eritrea 93 ERITREA State of Eritrea Geography Eritrea is In East Africa. Other Cushitic languages Ethnic Groups Tigrinya Tigre and Kunama Afar Saho Other 50% 40% 4% 3% 3% Major Religions Muslim (nearly all Sunni) Coptic Christian (Orthodox) Roman Catholic Protestant Other 50% 40% 5% 2% 3% Population density per sq. vegetable oils. spaghetti).6% Life expectancy 59. pizza. fish Lamb and mutton. Ethiopians. in a large circular loaf. potash. wheat. Arabs. Bread and cereals Sorghum. vegetables. camel).5 Literacy rate 58. vegetables. and most recently the northernmost province of Ethiopia. and a mountain range with peaks to 9. salt. Dairy products Milk (cow. and Islam and Orthodox Christianity have influenced Eritrean food customs. Italians.000 feet in the north. goat. covered. it was awarded to Ethiopia in 1952 as part of a federation. Farmers have learned to grow foreign vegetables such as tomatoes. later an Italian colony. chickens. goats. In 2007 Ethiopia and China signed agreements granting mineral exploration rights to China and canceling part of Eritrea’s foreign debt. cheese. cattle. pizza. Annexation as a province in 1962 led to a 31-year struggle for independence. on the southwest coast of the Red Sea. foods include the flatbread injera and the spicy red pepper sauce berbere. declared in 1993. chicken. barley. fish. extremely hot and dry low coastal plains in the south.000 live births 44. After a period of British and UN supervision. lentils. millet. frittata. other minerals. pulses. flatbread injera made from millet and cooked on a griddle. grains.3% Unemployment NA Arable land 5% Agriculture sorghum. Influences on food Formerly a part of Ethiopia. Major Languages Afar Arabic Tigre and Kunama Tigrinya. roots and tubers. As in Ethiopia. Bean and lentil dishes are popular during the fasting periods of the Christian Orthodox Church. 117. and ice cream. fish Industries food processing. beverages.g. eggs. rice. It includes many islands of the Dahlak Archipelago. ices. cooler central highlands with fertile valleys. camels Natural resources gold.

oil.94 The Food and Culture around the World – Estonia Legumes Lentils. sesame seeds. sand. berbere. 78. Fruit Dates. onions. and Russians from the 9th century to 1219. shale. sheep. Flatbread crumbled with spiced butter or wat. tum ‘tumo (lentil stew). or a bean-or pea-purée with vegetable oils. wheat. Danes. ful (bean stew). garlic. and lamb. and black pepper). beer (home-brewed from millet or corn). ESTONIA Republic of Estonia Geography Estonia is in Eastern Europe. Spaghetti and pizza (both with berbere sauce). beef. or fish. fenugreek seeds. garlic.9% Arable land 12% Agriculture barley. peas. garlic. Beverages Meals A typical meal: a spicy vegetable stew often with lamb or beef. pigs. cloves. peas. Frittata (egg omelet with sweet peppers). fenugreek. potatoes. spiced butter (clarified butter with onions. Nuts and seeds Seasonings Red hot chili peppers. onions. textiles History Estonia resisted assaults of Vikings. lentils. electronics.4% Infant mortality rate per 1.8% Life expectancy 67. cayenne. About 40% of the land is forest. nutmeg. and rivers. goats Natural resources fish. ginger. chickpeas. wine (fermented from honey). sugar. mi. cumin. Lentil salad. and beverage. peanuts. sea mud Industries engineering. chicken. cinnamon. vegetables. dolomite. chickens.3% Unemployment 5. and other spices). ice cream.and ginger-flavored vegetable casserole. plantains. red chili peppers. soufflé-like consistencies. peat. clay. fava beans. ginger. coriander. tomatoes.3 female Per capita GDP $21. 78.5 HIV rate 1. beans. It is mainly marshy lowland with numerous lakes. Coffee.000 Labor force in agriculture 11% Urban 69. cattle.4 Literacy rate 99. Dishes Stew (wat): vegetables with ground legumes. vegetables. wood products. and thick spicy stew of whole hard-boiled eggs. Vegetables Potatoes. cayenne. Almonds. berbere (hot red pepper spice mixture: allspice. peanuts. Major Languages Estonian (official) Russian Ethnic Groups Estonian Russian Other 69% 26% 5% Major Religions Unaffiliated Evangelical Lutheran Russian Orthodox Unaffiliated Christian Other 34% 14% 13% 26% 13% Population density per sq. chickpeas. ginger. sweet peppers. All stews are eaten with berbere. phosphorite. In 1346 the Danes sold northern Estonia to the Teutonic . swamps. bordering the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland. cardamom. when the Danes gained control. Bean-and pea-purées with vegetable oils and watlike sauces beaten into them to make airy.000 live births 7. Sweets Honey. limestone. Garlic. ices. It includes some 800 islands.2 male. rice or injera. Swedes.

pancakes. Meatballs (fried large patties of ground pork. Kiluvõi (sprat pâté) made with salted kilu. Vegetables Potatoes. hazelnuts. split peas. sheep). and Sweden. rice. Cabbage stuffed with ground pork. Rhubarb pudding. pepper.000 to 10. that dominated Estonia until early in the 18th century. and salty fish juices. followed by Russia in 1721. dill. Estonia gained independence from Russia in 1918 and was independent until Russia occupied it in 1940 and later incorporated it as the Estonian SSR. Small cake with topping of cottage cheese. ham. veal. fish eggs (caviar). salt. beets. and beef). mustard. flour or potato. cottage cheese. and raisins. Seasonings Sour cream. Influences on food Northernmost of the three Baltic countries. and beef. Apple cake. fish and seafood. cabbage. hard-cooked eggs. lemons. butter. cucumbers. cabbage. Sour taste is liked. dumplings. sour cream. eggs. poppy seeds. dill pickles. Dishes Skaha putra (traditional porridge of barley. beef and veal. fried in a milk-flour-egg batter with a little grated cheese. It regained independence in 1991. Sweden gained control in 1526. rises to mountains near the Great Rift Valley and descends to plains on both west and southeast. Kippers (salted smoked herring) chopped. lard. and apples. 6. Beverages Milk. The next year serfdom was abolished. . sausage. along with Finnish and Hungarian. In 1998 Estonia relaxed citizenship requirements that kept Russian speakers from gaining citizenship. rhubarb. Coasts on the Baltic Sea and Gulf of Finland plus numerous lakes and rivers allow important fishing and shipping industries. walnuts. rye. sometimes stuffed with meat. and Russia. radishes. served with hot boiled potatoes. pickles. wheat. Pancakes with ligonberries. and other rivers. Baked or fried pastry stuffed with meat. who dominated it most of the time since. In 2007 the government accused Russia of a cyber attack against Estonia’s computer network. Herring salad (rossolye): herring. sugar. potatoes. cheese. vegetable oil. wine. raisins. porridge. who reduced the Estonians to serfdom. lamb. ETHIOPIA Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia Geography Ethiopia is in East Africa in the horn of Africa. sour milk. or Baltic sprat (the most typical Estonian fish). chestnuts. The Estonian language. veal. beer. The Blue Nile. salted fish (Baltic herring and sprat. or fruit. Pork cutlet lightly breaded and fried. caraway seeds. Free-market reforms and foreign investments advanced the economy. crosses the plateau. ham or other meat. sugar. Dairy products Milk (cow. oats. vodka flavored with caraway. Legumes Beans. potatoes. currants. Milk soups and sauces. and salt pork). Pastries with poppy seeds. kvass (sour beer from rye or beets). It joined the EU and NATO in 2004. dressed with sour cream and mustard. Boiled dumplings. millet. Potato patties fried in butter. cream. Cookies. bacon. and served with tomato sauce. Fruit Apples. poultry. sauerkraut. Nuts and seeds Almonds. or rice and mushrooms. cottage cheese. Salted fish and bread are staples. oranges. Meat.000 feet. tea. is one of the few surviving languages in the Finno-Ugric group. Influences include neighbors Finland. Bread and cereals Barley. bread. cherries. A high central plateau. beets. Roasted veal stuffed with ground meat and hard-cooked eggs. lentils. tomatoes. German Knights. Denmark. cranberries. hot chocolate. its chief reservoir is Lake Tana. vinegar. coffee sometimes topped with whipped cream. Estonia has culinary traditions closest to those of the Scandinavian countries. Sweets Honey.The Food and Culture around the World – Ethiopia 95 Order. pork. mushrooms. Cabbage or beet soup. goat. potatoes. fish Chicken. pastry. ligonberries. Rye bread soup with apples. Fats and oils Butter. grapes. molasses. a small fish of the herring family).

are Coptic Christians who eat many vegetarian dishes based on kale and pulses because the Ethiopian Orthodox Church restricts animal products on the many fast days. potatoes. beverages. potash. and berbere. the monarchy was abolished in 1975. Selassie was dethroned in 1974. Usual foods include the flatbread injera. then. Greece.96 The Food and Culture around the World – Ethiopia Major Languages Amarigna Tigrigna Oromigna Guaragigna Somaligna English (major foreign language taught in schools) Ethnic Groups Oromo Amara Tigraway Somali Gurage Sidamo Other 32% 30% 6% 6% 5% 4% 17% Major Religions Ethiopian Orthodox Muslim Protestant Traditional beliefs Other 51% 33% 10% 5% 1% Population density per sq. 57. Border conflicts with Eritrea. cattle. coffee. leather. the smallest of all grains and grown nowhere else.5 male. it declined. In 1941 Britain freed Ethiopia. About a third of Ethiopia’s people. The other distinctive crop. Ethiopia. Ethiopia’s diverse climate. isolated by the rise of Islam and weakened by feudal wars. The Ethiopian diet consists largely of grain. cotton. mi. pulses.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. also called false banana. with curtailment of Coptic Church influence. It is the preferred grain for injera. dairy products. pulses. sugarcane. Ethiopia’s last emperor. Tef. Ethiopia maintained independence until Italians invaded in 1936. and religions influence food practices. Coptic Christianity was brought in 341 CE. civets Natural resources gold. Drought in 2002–2003 left severe food shortages.6 HIV rate 2. 190. copper. and famine. cut flowers. Ethnic clashes in 2003–2004 and police firing on protestors in Addis Abba in 2005 left hundreds dead.000 live births 82. and Africa. honey.1% Unemployment 5. hydropower. the biblical land of Cush. beeswax. goats. Influences on food Much of the land is high central plateau. Roman and Byzantine Empires valued Ethiopia’s Red Sea ports. They live in villages. which was incorporated by Ethiopia in 1952 and became independent in 1993. an international tribunal adjudicated the disputed boundary in 2002. sheep. Ancient Ethiopia was a monarchy and at its peak in the 5th century. and more than half the country is grassland. thousands fleeing to Sudan. a wide variety of crops are grown. With a great diversity of climates and elevations. pigs. natural gas. peoples. Egypt and Greece influenced Ethiopian culture. the sour flatbread of the highlands. Ensete root is scraped and the scrapings are fermented and made into flatbread.9 Literacy rate 35. oilseed. platinum. civil wars. grows at lower elevations than tef. and kale. and thousands arrested. a variant became the state religion. A Marxist government controlled the country until 1991. was once under ancient Egyptian rule. established a parliament and judiciary system in 1931. chickens.0% Arable land 10% Agriculture cereals. ensete. metals processing. wesa. In 2003 Ethiopia began relocating 2 million highland farmers to western land with more fertile soil. Haile Selassie. Crop prices collapsed in 2001. The first multiparty general elections were held in 1995. Ethiopian culture was influenced by Egypt. the red hot pepper spice mixture used in many dishes. wat (stew). and they . accounts for almost half the grain acreage. the resettled area has malaria and farmers still cannot support themselves. textiles. chemicals.5 female Per capita GDP $800 Labor force in agriculture 80% Urban 16. are the Amhara and the Tigre. and neighboring Somalia continued in the 1990s. camels. Food shortages due to drought and other reasons resulted in Ethiopia’s appeal for $325 million in emergency aid in 2008. fish Industries food processing. A border war with Eritrea (1998–2000) cost Ethiopia nearly $3 billion.9% Life expectancy 52. the dominant people of the western highlands. cement History Hamitic peoples migrated here from Asia Minor in prehistoric times. kat (qat).

ensete porridge. cinnamon. cloves. Bread and cereals Tef. sorghum. Wesa. mustard. honey (often in the comb). green beans. Yataklete kilkil (simmered potatoes. fish. ensete root. who have highly developed agriculture including plowing with oxen and terracing of fields. came in the 16th century and now dominate the eastern highlands and are found throughout the south. or dry-fried meat dish). or zamamojat (mixture of cheese. Ilbet (broad beans boiled with sunflower seeds. and they even put butter in coffee. beans. tej (honey wine. chili peppers. cayenne. Red meat stew (wat). which does not. garlic. lentils. spiced with red pepper. Meat. garlic. ginger. berbere (red-hot spice mixture of hot red pepper. . garlic. Ethiopian kale (also called Abyssinian cabbage or mustard). corn. dill. Chicken stewed in red pepper sauce. Seasonings Red pepper and cardamom (used in most stews in the highlands). shallots (onion-like but smaller. Yeminser salatta (lentil salad). boiled lentils with chili peppers. They and the Somali avoid chicken and eggs. eggs. and oil and vinegar dressing. relative newcomers from Somalia. peanuts. chickpeas. boiled rice. cabbage. often tough. Bishop’s weed (ajowan). pork. Sweets Sugarcane. served with injera or rice. lamb. Kitfo (diced raw beef mixed with spiced butter). ginger. chicken. oats. and spices). is eaten with a moist accompaniment such as milk. cheese. and ginger). The largest group in Ethiopia. Beverages Coffee (originated in Ethiopia). People in the arid east eat a typical nomad diet of grain (usually millet) and dairy products. cheese. The Gurage are about equally divided among Christians. barley. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Crumbled injera with butter or wat. fish Beef. which includes red pepper. and other spices). green peppers. cottonseed). lamb and mutton. carrots. and beef. ginger. The Gurage believe that without butter food has no taste. with snacks of dried cured meat strips and bread in between. or mead). fenugreek seeds. whey. nutmeg. Vegetables Potatoes. rice. and animists. the Oromo. root vegetables. curds. and black pepper). Meals and service One or two meals a day. broad beans.. garlic. garlic. The Gurage and Sidamo of the southwestern highlands and adjacent lowlands live mostly in individual homesteads and cultivate ensete. butter. with multi-bulbs and more delicate flavor). coriander. are usual. cumin. and green meat stew (alich’a). paprika. sunflower seeds. and tef and scarcely eat vegetables. cardamom. Dairy products Milk. goat. Ahish (meat-stuffed vegetable).g. wheat. Some grow their own corn. niter kebbeh. berbere. Wat (stew/sauce made from ground seeds). Neither they nor Muslims eat pork. Food is often served on and picked up with torn pieces of flatbread. turmeric. Shiro wat (vegetable stew). beef. A typical meal is a spicy stew. Stuffed tripe. or lamb. poultry. a thick spicy stew of whole hard-boiled eggs. caraway. round leavened loaves with spice or honey. buttermilk. millet. yogurt. Fats and oils Butter (usually clarified and flavored with spices). Ye-shimbra asa (fried “fish” of chickpea flour). National dish Wat (stew). Dishes Golo (toasted grain paste). T’ibs (hash. niter kibbeh (clarified butter with onions. The Sidamo. chickpeas. oils (e. and ginger). chicken. Muslims. green peppers. and injera or rice. allspice. often with chicken. produce the famous Ethiopian coffee and are mostly animists. or fish. Chopped spiced greens with buttermilk curds. millet. lentils. flatbreads injera (made from fermented tef batter cooked like a huge pancake on a griddle) and wesa (made from ensete). tella (home-brewed beer). carrots. fenugreek. peanuts.The Food and Culture around the World – Ethiopia 97 avoid eating fruit. Legumes Split peas. basil.

chickens. It consists of 322 islands (106 inhabited).000 years ago people from Southeast Asia began to move south to the West Pacific islands and Australia. noodles. silver History Inhabited since the second millennium BCE. When 98 . Fiji has mountains. The British started large-scale sugarcane cultivation and brought indentured laborers from India. In 2007 a military commander declared himself prime minister. especially for festive occasions.9 HIV rate 0. Asians brought rice. coconuts. and thereafter migrated to islands further east.7% Life expectancy 67. About 30. goats. Europeans brought new food plants. who brought curries. Mainstays of the traditional diet are fish and seafood and starchy vegetables including taro root. In the 1880s large-scale sugarcane cultivation began and contract laborers were brought from India. and some animals. Cultural differences between indigenous Fijians and descendant Indians have resulted in continuing conflicts. Military coups were frequent in recent decades. pigs. sheep Natural resources timber. offshore oil potential. forests. Fiji became independent In 1970 and a republic in 1987. sugar. clothing. Influences on food Fiji is in the Melanesia group of the Pacific Islands. mi.8% Infant mortality rate per 1.500 Labor force in agriculture 70% Urban 50. bananas.1% Arable land 11% Agriculture sugarcane.9 male. It became a British colony in 1874. hydropower Industries tourism. and cassava. the largest. sweet potato. cassava. breadfruit. and stir-frying. gold. Major Languages English (all Fijian are Hindustani official) Ethnic Groups Fijian (predominantly Melanesian with Polynesian) Indian Other 57% 38% 5% Major Religions Protestant (mostly Methodist) Hindu Independent Christian Roman Catholic Muslim Other 35% 33% 11% 8% 7% 6% Population density per sq.000 to 40. especially coconut. when he sailed around the southern tip of South America in 1519 and across the Pacific Ocean. has over half the land area. Magellan was the first European to see these people. 132.F FIJI Republic of the Fiji Islands Geography Fiji is in the western South Pacific Ocean north of New Zealand. wheat bread. including one in 2006. Viti Levu. cattle. Fruits and nuts.1 female Per capita GDP $5. rice. copra. The islanders have great fishing prowess. Pork is a main meat. soybeans. international aid partners withheld aid until Fiji established a plan to return to civilian government. 73.000 live births 11. traditionally cooked in a stone-lined pit over coals. fish. are also important. and large fertile areas. sweet potatoes.1 Literacy rate 93. gold. Fiji was visited by Dutch and British explorers in the 17th and 18th centuries.1% Unemployment rate 14. copper.

chicken. on which are placed wooden platters. or meat dish. kava (mildly alcoholic drink from pepper plant). a pig and foods such as sweet potatoes and breadfruit are added and covered with more leaves.The Food and Culture around the World – Finland 99 coals are hot. fish Chicken. Fats and oils Coconut oil and cream. pigeon peas. taro root. poultry. Usual meal: boiled cassava. and arrowroot). layers of banana leaves or palm fronds are added. beef. vegetable oil. immature coconut. roasted. mangoes. sweet potatoes. It is generally lowland with heavy forests. are typical. lard. coffee. peanuts. Steamed green leaves. and steamed greens or seaweed. limes. bitter melon. daikon. noodles. bread. and other leaf-wrapped puddings of taro. bananas. red chili peppers. Mats and banana and ti leaves are laid to form a “table” surface. or rice. Fish and shellfish stewed. Nuts and seeds Candlenuts (kukui). sweet potato. FINLAND Republic of Finland Geography Finland is In northern Europe between Russia and Sweden. woven baskets. and the food cooks for hours. taro chunks and leaves. curry powder. many lakes and rivers. sesame oil. the pit is sealed with dirt. Boiled or steamed rice. lentils. A feast may be held on the beach at sunset. sometimes water is poured over. crabs. Legumes Soybeans. Coconut milk is the usual cooking medium. spam. plantains. after making daylong preparations. and coconut shell bowls to hold the foods cooked in the pit. taro leaf wrapped around a filling of coconut cream. steamed. greens leaves (taro and sweet potato). pineapple. with the evening meal the largest. salt. pepper. Curry dishes such as mild Indian beef curry (korma). lime or lemon juice. fruit juice.g. squeezed. Vegetables Cassava. tea. Arrowroot thickened dishes (e. seaweed. shellfish. arrowroot. or plantains. pudding). papaya. sweet potatoes. or raw and marinated. Fresh fruit is eaten as snacks. Beverages Coconut juice. Finland has mountains in the north and long. Seasonings Soy sauce (the basic condiment). onions. wheat. pork. Meals Two or three meals daily. cold winters. Kokonda (chunks of white fish marinated in salted lime or lemon juice. ginger. green onions. butter. Meat. Fruit Coconut. coconut milk or cream. Haupia (pudding of coconut milk. sugar. yams. Boiled cassava. Sweets Sugarcane. Dairy products Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. and soaked and served in coconut milk with chili added). rice dishes. lamb and mutton. lemon. stretching from above the Arctic Circle to the Gulf of Finland. shortening. sweet potato. chicken. green onions. and extensive marshland. fish (mullet). Major Languages Finnish (both Swedish official) Russian and other Ethnic Groups Finnish Swedish Other 93% 6% 1% Major Religions Lutheran Greek Orthodox Other None 83% 1% 1% 15% . sweet potatoes. garlic. corned beef. and shredded beef and all bound in banana leaves. breadfruit. eggs. or taro root. winged beans. litchis. cabbage. whole fish. Bread and cereals Rice. a fish. guavas. Foods cooked in a pit: whole pig. Dishes Starchy vegetables such as taro root boiled or baked and pounded into a paste. yams. eggplant. tamarind. macadamia nuts. melons. lemons. sugar. goat..

gathering wild fungi and berries. Dairy products Milk. crackers.5 HIV rate 0. lamb and mutton. The many lakes provide freshwater fish. and reindeer are hunted and eaten. an autonomous province. along with Estonian and Hungarian. poultry. These and other foods are displayed at markets in Helsinki harbor. lima beans. potatoes. . pulp and paper. 44. sea fish like Baltic herring. sheep.4% Urban 62. textiles History Recent archeological discoveries indicate that humans may have lived in Finland for 100. chemicals. carrots. At about the beginning of the Christian era. meat of reindeer (a large deer). Influences on food Finland is a large country with a relatively small population (5. sugar beets. hare. cream. fish Chicken. Meat. fish. and Norway in the Arctic. 82. which was part of Sweden. The latter is from Karelia. or long curd. mushrooms. sausage. company Navteq. peas. cattle. Culinary traditions are based on hunting. lettuce. The Lapps have their own culture and foodways.1% Unemployment rate 7. hare. spinach. rye. pancakes. Vegetables Potatoes. roe of burbot. lead.100 The Food and Culture around the World – France Population density per sq. copper. Fats and oils Butter. sour milk (piimä and viili. In 1917 it declared independence and in 1919 became a republic. rice. with strong emphasis on reindeer. Legumes Split peas (green and yellow). crayfish.5 female Per capita GDP $35. whitefish.000 years. wheat. elk. the eastern province of Finland. wheat.6 Literacy rate 100% Life expectancy 75. The Baltic Sea provides sea fish including Baltic herring. forcing cessions of territory then and additional cessions after World War II. fishing.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. mi. iron ore. who was reelected for a second term in 2006. bear. machinery and scientific instruments. pork. goats Natural resources timber. shipbuilding. The area was gradually Christianized from the 11th century. From 1154 to 1809 Swedish settlers also inhabited the region.300 Labor force in agriculture & forestry 4. and customs shared with other Scandinavian countries such as rye bread. is a small group of islands in the Gulf of Bothnia. the part of Finland. rice-filled pasties. Sami ancestors probably arrived by about 7000 BCE. cabbage. is one of the few surviving examples of the Finno-Ugric linguistic family. fish (freshwater fish like burbot.S.749) and two languages. eggs. rutabagas. salmon. cheese.3 male. goat.7% Arable land 7% Agriculture barley. cucumbers. and resembles Russian pasties. and sturgeon [caviar]). is inhabited by the Lapps. Nokia bought the U. Lapland. chickens. the early Finns probably migrated here from the Ural Mountain area. Neighbors Sweden and Russia influenced Finnish cuisine because Finland was part of Sweden for more than 600 years and part of Russia for another 100 years.244. Sweden.000 live births 3. oats.” smoked reindeer tongue. Finland joined the EU in 1995. margarine. rye and/or wheat flour bread. In Finland’s forests elk. bear. Finnish bread (Suomalaisleipä). In 2000 it elected its first woman president. round flat yeast loaf from wheat and rye flours. miukku. Aland (Ahvenanmaa). The Soviet Union invaded in 1939. who provide Father Christmas with his home territory and reindeer. vegetable oil. both spoken by almost everyone. The Finnish language. a maker of digital maps for mobile systems. salmon. lard. oats. beef and veal. chromite Industries metals and metal products. copper refining. dill pickles. electronics. with a backdrop of delicately colored classical buildings. pigs. In 2007 agreement was reached with the nurses’ unions to provide raises over four years and a year-end bonus. whole-grain porridges. Examples include the smörgåsbord and Karelian pasties. foodstuffs. which is eaten). zinc. salt pork. Bread and cereals Barley. In 1809 Finland became an autonomous grand duchy of the Russian Empire. sour cream. Finland signed a treaty of mutual assistance with the USSR in 1948 and a pact with Russia in 1992. Delicacies: burbot “caviar.

Baked fish stuffed with rice and cucumbers. smoked by wrapping in newspaper layers and setting in embers. often served with egg butter (chopped hard-boiled egg stirred into soft butter). or roast served with mashed potatoes. a mountainous plateau in the center. planked (pinned on a board and baked in front of open flames). Catalan. boiled tiny new potatoes served with dill. fish cooked with potatoes and dill soup. Crayfish steeped in dill solution. boiled. Vatkattu marjapuuro (whipped ligonberry pudding). pork. After-sauna food Salty food such as herring or grilled pork-and-mutton sausage to replace body salt lost in the sauna (an extremely hot. and other minorities 77% Major Religions Roman Catholic Muslim Protestant Other and none 83–88% 5–10% 2% 1–27% 23% . in many dishes including potato porridge and the favorite. loved by Finns. peppercorns. bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea. tea. vinegar. vodka. raisins. Cold fruit soups. coffee. the province in central Finland. Stew of mutton.The Food and Culture around the World – France 101 Fruit Ligonberries (small cranberries). Patakukko (baked casserole of fish and pork filling under a rye crust). Basque. Dishes Herring with dill. Italian. Sweets Sugar. dusted with confectioner’s sugar). smoked salmon and new potatoes with dill. peas. rye flour and malt boiled. molasses. and sour cream. with sugar and cream or piimä. Fresh berries are popular in summer. soup. baked (traditionally in a birchbark basket). salt. Beverages Milk. raspberries. in a stew. Major Language French (official) Regional dialects and languages Ethnic Groups French (Celtic and Latin) North African. the Pyrenees Mountains on the southwest border with Spain. Large lacy pancakes (muurinpohjaletut) sprinkled with sugar or with berry jam. Fish eaten outdoors: raw. Meatballs. Roast pork or leg of lamb. strawberries. Fleming. Rutabagas. France consists of a wide plain covering more than half of the country. Potatoes. Fresh berries plain. Portuguese. 15. Savo whitefish poached. vanilla. salted. Pita-ja-joulupuuro (whole-grain barley porridge) served with fruit purée. Summer vegetable soup (kesäkeitto) made from carrots. Kalakukko (fish pastry made of rye dough baked around a fish and pork fat filling). beer. and served cold with toast. or (as above) baked in a shell of rye bread. apples.771 ft). cognac. sour milk (piimä). Reindeer meat stew (poronkäristys). blueberries. marzipan (sweetened almond paste). Major rivers include the Seine and Loire. Omelets. from Savo. grilled on sticks. Hearty savory soups: meat and potato dumplings soup. lemons. Pies and tarts containing berries. mustard. baked shell of rye dough with rice filling. FRANCE French Republic Geography France is in Western Europe. oranges. Seasonings Dill (free with fish bought in Finland). Easter sweet Mämmi (rye pudding). mixed with molasses and bitter orange peel. Jewish. Pork gravy. Karelian pastie (piirakka). golden cloudberry liqueur. Holiday fare On Midsummer’s Day (June 24). dry air bath to relax). small potatoes. cubed and simmered plain or with pork and mutton in a casserole. allspice. Blanc is the tallest peak in Western Europe. Salad of greens and mushrooms or cucumbers. German. and spinach in cream sauce. and served with cream and sugar. Nuts and seeds Almonds. cloudberries (golden berries found mainly within the Arctic Circle). and veal with allspice. and the Alps in the east (Mt. Kiisseli (berry pudding). Crullers (deep-fried yeast batter. ligonberry purée. or steamed on top of potatoes in a pot. Vietnamese. homemade beer (kalja) and mead (sima). or with whipped cream. parsley. whipped.

Martin. in West Indies. After his death. 84. islands near the Grand Banks. Alsace and Lorraine were returned to France after World War I. feldspar. in South America. Germany invaded France again in 1940. antimony. A revolution in 1848 drove Louis Philippe. French Possessions: Bassas da India. Europa Island. France withdrew from Indochina in 1954 after a costly war and from Morocco and Tunisia in 1956. when after France’s defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871). metallurgy. potatoes. Germany seized Alsace and Lorraine provinces in 1871 and invaded France in World War I. two island groups in the South Pacific. and the First Republic was established. Germany. but growing industrialization and the middle class pressed for change. gypsum. and Réunion. chickens. . 259.102 The Food and Culture around the World – France Population density per sq. iron ore. The monarchy was overthrown by the French Revolution (1789–1793). arsenic. last of the Bourbons. Celtic Gaul. Napoleon Bonaparte defended the republic from foreign attack and ruled from 1799 to 1814. pigs. became overseas territorial collectivities in 2007. in 843. and Italy was divided among his three grandsons.4 HIV rate 0.2 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 77. between Fiji and Samoa. electronics. south of Newfoundland. St. east of Australia. into exile. In 2004 the French government passed a law banning wearing Muslim headscarves and other religious symbols in public schools.2% Arable land 33% Agriculture wheat. a Mediterranean island. in the Pacific southwest of Mexico. fruits. Gauls came around 1200 BCE. the Third Republic was formed. the center of the French Atlantic cod fisheries. The region. The Hundred Years War (1337–1453) settled the contest with France’s victory. goats Natural resources coal. and the only one that chose to remain a French dependency after Comoran independence in 1975. vegetables. aircraft. uranium. Overseas Territories (T) and Countries (C): French Polynesia (C). in the Society group). between East Africa and Madagascar. off coast of Southeast Africa. fish Industries machinery.2 female Per capita GDP $33. sheep. bauxite. Guadeloupe.200 Labor force in agriculture 4. the most populous of the four Comoros Islands in the Indian Ocean off Mozambique in Africa. fluorspar. for example.000 live births 3. is a region of France and the birthplace of Napoleon I. Corsica. Wallis and Futuna Island (T). France was the most powerful European nation. The English also claimed the French throne.1% Urban 76.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. potash. whose court was the center of the Western world. In 2006 protests and strikes led to some concessions for younger workers. tourism History Archeological excavations indicate continuous settlement in this land from Paleolithic times. the area now roughly France. zinc. Overseas Departments: French Guiana. scattered islands in the South Pacific. grapes. in West Indies.4% Unemployment rate 8. Martinique (birthplace of Napoleon’s Empress Josephine). in the West Indies. mi.7 male. A limited monarchy followed from 1852 to 1871. cereals. By the 8th century Charlemagne extended Frankish rule over much of Europe. Overseas Territorial Collectivities: Saint Pierre and Miquelon. automobiles. timber. sugar beets. New Caledonia and Dependencies (T). tried to restore order with Louis XVIII. Barthelemy and St. cattle. in Indian Ocean near Madagascar. was conquered by Caesar in 58 to 51 BCE and ruled by Rome for 500 years until the Franks invaded in the 5th century. 1815. After Napoleon’s defeat the Congress of Vienna. the Marquesas and Society Islands (the principal and most populous island is Tahiti. The high point of absolute monarchy was the reign of Louis XIV (1643–1715). certain islands in the southern Indian Ocean and Adélie Land on the Antarctic mainland. France was liberated by the Allies in 1944. In 2008 France pledged additional troops to its contingent as part of NATO forces in Afghanistan. it freed most of its remaining African territories from 1958 to 1962. Mayotte. Clipperton Island. off coast of East Africa northwest of Madagascar. In 1328 when Philip VI ascended the French throne. Southern and Antarctic Lands (T). chemicals. Glorioso Islands.

and cream) and filet de boeuf béarnaise (beef filet with sauce of egg yolks. especially Belon oysters. France developed its la grande cuisine. both semisoft. Provincial cooking is simple fare made at home featuring fresh local ingredients. olives. in the north. cheese (Camembert. fish Beef and veal. using the best ingredients from throughout France. France has historically had a gastronomic capital. and capers). Champagne. Bread is a main food. is noted for Bresse chicken. also in the northwest and east of Brittany. in central and southwest France. A large and diverse country. snails. apples. baguette (long thin white wheat loaf with a crisp crust.” and Brie. raised on grape vines) especially red burgundy. produces fruits and vegetables. mussels. pork. and tomatoes (à la Provençal means that a dish contains these items). yogurt. cornmeal bread. Languedoc retains its Roman influence as in cassoulet. goat. was consumed by country folk. duck. At about 1900 white bread was a luxury only city dwellers could afford. and special dishes pâté de foie gras (goose liver and usually truffles baked with a finely ground pork stuffing) and quiche lorraine (egg. the land surrounding Paris. Provincial/regional specialties The historic provinces can be grouped into 11 regions. and ham. eggs. and tarragon). rye-wheat loaf. lobsters). Paris. . The cooking of France has been divided into classic cuisine and provincial (regional) cooking. mild). in the west. tomato. goose. Bread and cereals Wheat. has more highly flavored fare than in north France and shows Mediterranean influence in cooking with garlic. ham. and duck. sole). is salade Niçoise (tuna. Rhine wines. and porridge. produces wines (and snails. such as crêpes (very thin pancakes) from Brittany in the 1920s and cassoulet (a casserole of white beans. other raw vegetables. famous for truffles. the “national cheese. tomatoes. is the other great wine-producing region. and Perigueux. turkey. produces sparkling wine named after the province. or cornmeal bread in the south. cream. sausages. Meat. Classic cuisine (la grande cuisine) is elegant. and is the home of crêpes. It also is a large food processor and the largest food exporter in Europe. and cider. people who care about their food. which flourished in the French court in the 18th century. rye. Provence. green peppers. named after Nice. chicken stock. Several factors made this possible. and bacon baked in a pie crust). Bourgogne (Burgundy). Dairy products Milk. flaky rolls). has German-influenced foods such as goose. croissants (buttery. lamb. Cognac (the brandy capital). formal. poultry. and mostly prepared in restaurants centered in Paris. chicken. spread from Paris to the rest of France. in the mountains of east France. In the Languedoc. cream. Some food refinements made in Italy during the Renaissance inspired French cooking after Catherine de Medici married Henry II of France in 1533. Franche-Comté. Foix. made primarily from cabernet sauvignon grape). white wine. butter. sauerkraut. home of the bordelaise sauce (with 13 ingredients plus red Bordeaux wine. in southeast France. Some regional foods spread to Paris and throughout France. Bordeaux. fish (cod. sausage. chefs who advanced the art of cookery by building on the past and exploring new tastes. another specialty. Bretagne (Brittany) region. pork. its principal city Dijon hosts the annual gastronomic fair and is the home of mustard made with white wine and herbs. Ile de France. in northeast France.” often called French bread). produces dairy products including Camembert cheese. all used in the famous bouillabaisse (fish stew containing various Mediterranean fish and shellfish). olive oil. and writers about food. or mutton) from Languedoc in the 1990s. Normandy. the birthplace of classic cooking. Roussillon region in central south France. it produces a great variety of foods. hard-boiled egg. a small bird usually simply roasted. has seafood. a city in this region. made with soft wheat. sausage. shellfish (oysters. After World War II the baguette. uses finest foodstuffs from all the regions in dishes such as lobster bisque (lobster cooked with seasonings. and its coasts provide fish and seafood. in east France. in northwest France. where resources were concentrated. and Foix and Roussillon show influence from neighbor Spain as in omelets with tomatoes. Alsace and Lorraine region. lettuce.The Food and Culture around the World – France 103 Influences on food France is famous for its cuisine. Touraine. corn. the “national bread. an ingredient in beef bourguignon (beef stew). a dark loaf of rye and wheat. lemon juice or vinegar. barley.

safflower oil. vinegar. Crêpes rolled around strawberries and whipped cream. green peppers. grated sharp cheese. at breakfast with hot milk offered. raspberries. Fruit Grapes. and usually wine. Main meal: hors d’oeuvre (appetizer) such as pâté on toast. various seasonings. onions. zucchini. green peas. tomato. and zucchini cooked in olive oil). lard. Coq au vin (chicken cooked in wine). lemon juice. black truffles (fungi found underground among oak roots). strawberries. oranges. pears. Cheese soufflé (baked light airy dish made from thick white sauce. and beaten egg whites). butter. asparagus. mustard. sliced onions. fruit. thyme. artichokes. cauliflower. Germain (pea soup) Grilled steak (bifteck). fruit. Nuts and seeds Chestnuts. Butter is the basic cooking fat in the northwest. hard-boiled eggs). leeks. peaches. Breakfast: bread or croissant. mushrooms. and bay leaf). corn oil. lemons. hot chocolate. olive oil. coffee. Crêpes Suzette (crêpes flavored with orange liqueur sauce). radishes. garlic. Meals and service Three meals a day is typical. lettuce. Escargot (snails cooked in garlic butter). parsley. for example béchamel sauce (cream sauce. served with French fries (pommes frites). Beverages Coffee. vanilla. Sauces made with white stock (from fish. melons. or veal) or brown stock (from beef or veal). bread and butter. green beans (haricots verts). Legumes White beans. Seasonings Salt. or egg dish and vegetable. black pepper. coffee or hot chocolate. marmalade. . milk. Ratatouille (tomatoes. liqueur. Dishes Pâté (mixture of finely ground meat. walnut oil. and grilled in butter. poultry. Strawberries with crème Chantilly (whipped cream with confectioner’s sugar and vanilla). pistachio nuts. usually served with butter and syrup). and in small cups (demitasse) after other meals and in sidewalk cafés. carrots. accompany the meal. turnips. split peas. almonds. goose fat. sometimes peppered (au poivre). The meal is served in courses. Coffee is served strong and black. and seasonings. or basic white sauce. Onion soup (made with broth. jam. Potage St. Vegetables Potatoes.104 The Food and Culture around the World – France Fats and oils Butter. green salad. Petits fours (small fancy cakes). served over slices of French bread with cheese). or fish. apples. dipped into egg/milk mixture. baked in a crust). cucumbers. chicken. Madeleines (small cakes or cookies). marmalade. chicken. and roux (flour cooked in butter or fat drippings). nectarines. French toast (pain perdu: leftover bread sliced. wine. green pepper. crêpes filled with strawberries and whipped cream. eggplant. Street food and snacks Roasted chestnuts. sunflower seeds. and olive oil on the Mediterranean coast. tomatoes. Strawberry or cheese tarts (small baked pie crusts filled with fresh strawberries or cheese). wine. pastries. fish. apricots. meat. Pan bagna (French bread sandwich with olive oil and various ingredients: anchovies. and garlic. Sweets Sugar. seasonings. nutmeg. eggplant. Orange soufflé. olives. champagne. made from white stock. and sometimes a dessert or petits fours. lard in the northeast. sauerkraut. cabbage. olives. cheese. onion. chocolate. éclairs). lentils. Green salad dressed with olive oil. and usually wine. spinach. onions. vinegar. Cream-filled cakes and pastries (cream puffs. bouquet garni (selected herbs such as tarragon. walnuts. and roux).

Gabon’s earliest inhabitants probably were the Pygmies. chili pepper.5 male. and green leaves for daily fare. manganese. Gabon is one of the most prosperous black African countries. 105 . legumes. palm trees. Due to abundant natural resources. plantains. Most of the land is covered by dense forest. cassava. Major Languages French (official) Fang. Gabon became independent in 1960. peanuts. plateaus. chickens. rabbits. food and beverages History Artifacts from Paleolithic times have been found in Gabon. chemicals.2% Life expectancy 52. pigs.9 Literacy rate 86. sugarcane. Myene. Bapounou 10%.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. niobium.G GABON Gabonese Republic Geography Gabon is in central Africa. goats. Influences on food The ocean provides fish and seafood. In 2007 food and fuel prices increased 25%. Bandjabi Ethnic Groups Bantu tribes (major groups: Fang 29%. and government programs. The Portuguese explored the area in the 15th century. coffee. with mountains in the northeast. Bantus from southern and eastern Africa followed. corn. uranium. established their first settlement in 1839. sheep. and took control of the region in the second half of the 19th century. coffee. and cocoa greatly influenced food in Gabon. 54. Nzebi. bordering the Atlantic Ocean and straddling the Equator. sugarcane. Bapounou/Eschira. foreign private investment. grains. ship repair. diamonds.9% Unemployment rate 21% Arable land 1% Agriculture plantains. tomato. Nzebi 9%. bananas. The French came in 1630.6 HIV rate 5. fish Industries oil extraction and refining. People rely on starchy roots. timber. cattle Natural resources oil. hydropower. potato. and livestock. and okra. 14. cocoa. palm oil.6 female Per capita GDP $14. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. iron. and mountains produce cocoa. The slave trade dominated commerce in the 18th and much of the 19th century. The government promised free electricity and water to the country’s poorest households and also instituted price ceilings on basic commodities. French control in the 19th and 20th centuries also influenced the food. watermelon. The Dutch came in 1593. Gabon consists of coastal lowlands and plateaus. natural gas. Native African foods include black-eyed peas.000 live births 52. The tropical lowlands. The Fang arrived in the late 18th century.100 Labor force in agriculture 60% Urban 83. gold. mi. manganese. Obamba) French 7% Other African and European Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant/independent Christian Muslim Traditional beliefs None 45% 28% 12% 10% 5% Population density per sq. gold.

The smallest country in Africa. tomatoes.1 male. red chili peppers. coconut oil. potatoes. red beans. kola nuts. rabbit. or black-eyed pea or bean purée. cucumbers. Rice boiled in coconut milk. with bits of fish. sweet potatoes. dates. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). poultry. millet. gives food a red color. or peanuts. Meat. beer. shea oil. Insects Termites (often called white ants). yams. smoked. mi. or dried). okra. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. green leaves (cassava. peanut candy. Vegetables Plantains. fried sweet dough balls. pork.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. only miles wide. locust beans (carob). fish (fresh. shea nuts. Stews of root vegetables. hot pepper. black-eyed peas. bordering the Atlantic Ocean. formed into balls or bite-size scoops to eat stew. 55. peanut oil. GAMBIA. sour milk. cashews. fried fish. and red pepper.9 Literacy rate 40. mangoes.9% Unemployment rate extremely high Arable land 28% . locusts.300 Labor force in agriculture 75% Urban 53. sugar. Omelet of eggs. Fats and oils Palm oil.000 live births 68. pineapple. watermelon. sugar. baobab. goat.106 The Food and Culture around the World – Gambia. red chili peppers. yams. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs (coupé-coupé). bitter leaf). coffee. the main cooking fat. Chicken is popular. Major Languages English (official) Mandinka (Malinke) Fula (Fulani) Wolof Other native dialects Ethnic Groups Mandinka Fula Wolof Diola Soninke and other 42% 18% 16% 10% 14% Major Religions Muslim Christian Indigenous 90% 9% 1% Population density per sq. mango seeds. The Bread and cereals Rice. Dairy products Milk. eggplant. lemons. guinea fowl. bell peppers. pumpkin. bean balls. guavas. akee apples. black-eyed peas (cowpeas). 444. fried yams. or peanuts. salted. onions. balls of steamed rice. cocoa. Seasonings Salt. bread made from mashed bananas and flour.7 HIV rate 0. Roast chicken with peanut sauce. Sweets Honey. and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. plantain chips. cassava. coconut. cheese. Beverages Cocoa. Nuts and seeds Palm kernels. Fruit Bananas. boiled and pounded green leaves. papaya. and onions). whey. watermelon seeds (egusi). THE Republic of The Gambia Geography Gambia is near the west tip of Africa. okra. onions. Gambia is primarily savanna and bisected by the wide Gambia River. sorghum. Nuts and seeds thicken and flavor sauces. sesame seeds. palm oil. lamb and mutton. onions.9 female Per capita GDP $1. Palm oil. beef. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn). fish Chicken. game. Snacks are common and available at street stalls in urban areas. Sauces of ground peanuts. Plantain cooked in palm oil with onions and chili. buttermilk. eggs.1% Life expectancy 53. bananas baked with honey. seafood. or beef. corn. curds. tomatoes. chicken. or coconut. Moin moin (steamed ground paste of black-eyed peas.

beverages. fish. porridge. Stew of peanuts. curds. in 1588. and peanut sauce. Vegetables Cassava. Meat. tomatoes. limes. goats. lamb. Insects Termites (often called white ants). and Songhai. titanium. rice. baobab. cassava. Fruit Coconut. okra. tomato. sesame. goat. plantains. From 1982 to 1989 Gambia was confederated with Senegal into Senegambia. In 2008 he announced that substantial amounts of uranium had been discovered and would be exploited.” Dishes Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or boiled corn flour). akee apples. and simmered in the marinade). . formed into bite-size scoops to eat stew. beef. black-eyed peas (a variety of cowpeas). pineapple. smoked. cattle. Influences on food The Atlantic Ocean and Gambia River provide fish. or root vegetables with chilies. lemons. eggplant. tomatoes. bell peppers. vegetables. onions. In 2007 Gambia’s president resisted pressure from China to drop the country’s support for Taiwan. corn. The introduction of New World foods such as corn. leaving farmers unpaid after a bumper crop. In 2000 the peanut market collapsed due to mismanagement. the Wolof. mango seeds. Yassa (chicken or fish marinated in lemon or lime juice. potatoes. pumpkin. okra. coconut milk. and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. eggs. dried baobab leaves. shea oil. Bread and cereals Millet. Steamed rice balls. The government was in turmoil during the 1990s and to 2006. Chicken baked with tomatoes. Fish and meat stew. Nuts and seeds thicken and flavor sauces. fish and seafood (fresh. zircon Industries peanut processing. and Fulani have settled here. yams. guavas. Fats and oils Palm oil. gives dishes a red hue. locust beans (carob). red beans. The tribes here have been associated with the West African empires of Ghana. Palm oil. It became independent in 1965 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1970. watermelon. rice dishes. hot red chili peppers. buttermilk. British rule for almost 400 years left British influence. Native African foods included watermelon. mangoes. pork. “Bush meat” (game. bananas. cheese. sour milk. tourism. grilled. poultry. whey.The Food and Culture around the World – Gambia. Dairy products Milk. the predominant cooking fat. rice. black-eyed peas. agricultural machinery assembly History Since the 13th century. Mali. spicy dishes are liked. A military coup in 1994 deposed the president. chickens. Thick. oil palm. Seasonings Salt. hides. and potato greatly influenced food customs in Gambia. onions. Palaver sauce (green leaves). Adalu (boiled or baked and mashed vegetables). peanuts. sesame seeds. Jollof rice (boiled rice with various meats. chicken. Daily fare is mostly starchy foods (grains and starchy vegetables) with legumes and greens. sticky. okra. ginger. watermelon seeds (egusi). and okra. cornmeal and plantain cakes. sorghum. sheep. Chicken is popular and prestigious. Nuts and seeds Cashews. sweet potatoes. chili peppers. especially antelope and wild pig). coconut oil. biscuits. Gambia became Britain’s first African possession. fried with onions. Meat is a luxury. chili pepper. and sometimes carob or cocoa). guinea fowl. pigs Natural resources fish. Severe famine occurred in the 1970s. tomatoes. locusts. who had served since 1970. papaya. The 107 Agriculture Millet. salted. fish Chicken. onions. Gari (roasted cassava meal). cucumbers. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). peanuts. Most foods are boiled or fried. rabbits. cassava. bitter leaf. Peanut sauce. and spices). taro. melokhia (crain crain). tin. green leaves. Savanna provides grass for animal herds. Malinke. or dried). and herbs and perhaps bits of fish. thyme. kola nuts (contain caffeine). “African nutmeg. sorghum. or beef. corn. Fréjon (black-eyed pea or bean purée.

conflicts have included separatist rebel movements by ethnic Abkhazis and South Ossetias. corn. Persia and Turkey struggled here.700 Labor force in agriculture 55. A temporary administration for the republic of South Ossetia was endorsed by the Georgian parliament in 2007. and Azerbaijan). hydropower. Russia (that controlled Georgia for most of the 19th and 20th centuries). 80. tea. In the 8th century Arabs conquered Georgia. kanya (peanut candy). Major Languages Georgian (official) Russian (official in Abkhazia) Ethnic Groups Georgian Azeri Armenian Russian. aircraft. leading to war with Persia (1804–1813). which Georgia does not recognize. pigs. From the 16th century on. machine tools. cattle. citrus. Georgia was forcibly incorporated into the USSR in 1922. Mongols. Since independence. hazelnuts. It was part of the Roman Empire by 65 BCE. plus attempts to assassinate the president. fruit. chemicals History The region became a kingdom about 4 BCE and contained the ancient kingdoms of Colchis and Iberia.108 The Food and Culture around the World – Georgia Sweets Honey.000 live births 16.8% Arable land 12% Agriculture potatoes.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Also. Street food and snacks Shawerma (rotisserie lamb). the United States authorized $1 billion in reconstruction for Georgia. coal and oil deposits. Hibiscus sabdariffa). vegetables. fried fish. it is generally agreed that Georgia has had a favorable influence on Russian cuisine. and assaulted key Georgian cities. and neighbors (Russia. Mongol and Turkish invasions in the 13th and 14th centuries disintegrated the kingdom. sugar. Beverages Beer. In 1992 the northwestern republic of Abkhazia declared its independence.2 male. Persia. Located at the east end of the Black Sea. and gained independence in 1991 when the Soviet Union disbanded. Armenia. deep-fried sweet dough balls. banana fritters. bean balls. Influences on food Influences include the invaders (Arabs. GEORGIA Geography Georgia is in Southwest Asia bordering the east coast of the Black Sea. Turkey. red zinger (herbal tea made from flower pods of roselle. other 84% 7% 6% 3% Major Religions Orthodox Christian Muslim Armenian-Gregorian Other 84% 10% 4% 2% Population density per sq. Ossetian. puff-puff (doughnut). goats Natural resources forests. sheep.1% Unemployment rate 13. with the Caucasus Mountains to the northeast. coconut biscuits.1 Literacy rate 100% Life expectancy 73. and Turks). became a USSR republic in 1936. mining. ginger beer. recognized the independence of both. fish Industries steel. copper. iron ore. In 2008 Russia sent forces to South Ossetia and Abkhazia.6 HIV rate 0. electric appliances. manganese. and vegetables. Georgia has . Georgia has a Mediterranean-type climate and some fertile land that grows grain.3 female Per capita GDP $4. In 1801 Russia annexed Georgia.6% Urban 52. chickens. mi 172. grapes. which over the centuries came to extend from the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea and to include parts of Armenia and Persia. The northernmost country of the Caucasus. Christianity was introduced here in 337 CE.

tkemali (tart plums stewed with coriander. Mountain trout fried in butter. greens (tarragon. saffron. goat. saffron. figs. game. Baked casserole of green beans with beaten eggs poured over. or yogurt. and olive oil). green beans. or melon rind cooked in syrup. chestnuts. . and tea and citrus are grown. pomegranates. cherries. dill. eggs. tomatoes. wheat bread is preferred. Located on the southern slopes of the Caucasus Mountains. Chankhi (stew of a little meat. garlic. tarragon vinegar. and often with rice). coriander. fried in butter. Persian influence is strong. tea. rivers and lakes provide fish. pickles. and tomato soup/stew with fenugreek). onion. lavash (thin crisp bread). cherries. apricots. almonds. cardamom. covered. lemon juice. Bread is eaten at every meal. olives. Herbs and spices are used liberally. Fats and oils Butter. In eastern Georgia. mint. Chuchkella (walnut halves coated with grape candy). oil. cress. and garlic). red pepper. fish. pomegranates. peda (pita bread). Legumes Beans especially kidney beans. Dishes Soups thickened from either egg or acidic ingredients. Dairy products Milk (cow. and high pastures for grazing livestock. Beverages Milk. sausage. cloves. Chicken boiled whole and covered with pomegranate sauce. Plov (rice dishes). olive oil. barberries. or broiled. Also. boiled. Apricots. Eggplant baked with onion. lentils. Roast suckling pig. a lot of vegetables. plums. oregano. lamb. Bread is often baked in a toné (an outdoor brick-lined pit oven). scallions). long loaves of white bread. tarragon. kachapuri (bread stuffed with cheese before baking). Observant Muslims do not consume pork products or alcohol and fast from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. Religion also influences food practices. yogurt. and grapes and other fruits flourish. almond. cinnamon. rice dishes.The Food and Culture around the World – Georgia 109 fish and seafood. red pepper. brandy. Walnuts are used liberally in cooking and not just as a garnish. with chopped onions browned in butter and bouillon added. citrus. fish Chicken. fenugreek. Gozinakh (walnut. greens. thin bread. as well as suitable conditions for growing tea. cultured clabber (matsoni). eggplant. porridge. Lubio (simmered kidney beans mixed with scallions. or hazelnut honey brittle). marigold petals. Sauces: satsivi (contains walnuts pounded with garlic. sugar. thyme. water buffalo). Ghome (cornmeal porridge). Vegetables Potatoes. garlic. black pepper. beef. Nuts Hazelnuts. others featuring grapes. Orthodox Christians do not consume animal products on the many fast days. rice. basil. often used on roasted poultry and a little is often added to fruit sauces). tomatoes. and lemon juice added just before serving so as not to curdle). and coriander or with fried onions and tomatoes (Adzhersandal). barberries. Zakuski (small appetizers served before main meal) Cheese. pork. Sweets Honey (sometimes in the comb). and simmered). parsley. Fish smoked. Meat cooked in chunks on skewers (kebab). wheat. Fresh fruit. Chakhokhbili (chicken pieces rolled in finely chopped onions. poultry. onions. cucumbers. Georgia has forests that supply nuts and game. wine. Mtswadi (grilled marinated game or unseasoned lamb or kid). then layered with tomatoes. melon. other berries. Meat. Fruit Grapes. corn is the main grain. Deep-fried cheese eaten with cornbread. clarified butter. Seasonings Onions. mchadi (round flat cornbread). Turkish influence is strong. Chikhirtma (chicken stock with egg yolks. coriander. raisins. Kharcho (beef. Bread and cereals Corn. asparagus. sheep. split peas. cheese. walnuts. sour cream. garlic. In western Georgia.

Bavarian. part of a NATO peacekeeping force. gained strength after the 10th century. Coasts and rivers provide fish and seafood. grapes. In 2007 the economy improved. East Germany and West Germany. nickel. natural gas. 1618 to 1648. electronics. After that war. uranium. fruit. The war left Germany in small principalities and kingdoms. the Third Reich. mi 610. fish Industries iron. Charlemagne ruled Saxon. construction materials. coal. In 2002 record floods occurred. rapeseed. barley. 56 and 53 BCE. with its capital in Bonn. the Berlin Wall surrounded West Berlin and prevented access to it from East Berlin and adjacent areas of East Germany.9 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 76. Rhenish. East Germany. it was the Republic of Germany (1919–1933). 82. In 1990 Germany was reunited and Berlin again became the capital.000 live births 4 HIV rate 0. From 1961 to 1989. The recession continued in 2003 and the government reduced benefits. they were defeated by Julius Caesar. divided the empire into Protestant and Roman Catholic parts and led to the Thirty Years’ War. cattle. in Afghanistan. starting World War II. and Berlin.1% Unemployment rate 8. with Berlin as its capital.8% Urban 73. . steel. hills in the center and west. Frankish. Hitler invaded Poland in 1939. pigs. bordering the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. cement. In 2008 Germany agreed to add troops to its forces. and other lands. After World War I. chemicals. Numerous central European states with a common culture were united to form Germany in 1871. salt. aided by Luther’s revolt in 1517. and Germany lost much of its land and all its colonies.0% Arable land 33% Agriculture sugar beets. In 1933 Adolf Hitler became chancellor of the totalitarian state. German tribes followed by the end of the 2nd century BCE. potash.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. iron ore.110 The Food and Culture around the World – Germany GERMANY Federal Republic of Germany Geography Germany is in central Europe. Conflict between the Holy Roman emperors and and the Roman Catholic popes. machine tools. the former capital. was divided. the eastern part of which became the German Empire. Prussian chancellor Otto von Bismarck formed the North German Confederation in 1867. centering on Germany and northern Italy. cabbage. food and beverages. West Germany. was a one-party state under Soviet control.1 male. including the Rhine and Danube. goats Natural resources coal.200 Labor force in agriculture 2. The Holy Roman Empire. in 1918. shipbuilding History Celts probably were the first inhabitants.3 female Per capita GDP $34. with rivers. machinery. Influences on food Germany is a large and diverse country that produces a variety of foods. defeated Germany was split into two countries. Unemployment hit a postwar high in 1998. and formed the German Empire. the German Empire was dissolved. copper. became a prosperous parliamentary democracy. Germanic invasions destroyed the Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries. Austria lost the land to Prussia in 1866. controlled by the Nazi Party. proclaiming King Wilhelm I of Prussia the German emperor in 1871. lignite. potatoes. Other influences include the Roman Empire. sheep. wheat. vehicles. chickens. and mountains in the south. Major Language German (official) Ethnic Groups German Turkish Italian Other 92% 2% 1% 5% Major Religions Lutheran/Reformed Roman Catholic Sunni Muslim Other or unaffiliated 34% 34% 4% 28% Population density per sq. timber. It has flat land in the north. defeated France in 1870.

lemon juice. rye. prunes. sold raw. cherries. chicken. Rolllmops (marinated herring fillets rolled around onions and pickle). olive oil. salmon. loaves). Sour taste and combined sweet and sour tastes are common. The central region. rice dishes. kugelhopf (round yeast cake). sage. anise seeds. fish and shellfish (herring. tarragon. its cold climate fare includes dark rye bread. Pike or carp stuffed. Italian influence in the mountains. pumpernickel bread. lard. beer. vanilla and almond extracts. The north region is influenced by proximity to Scandinavia and the North and Baltic seas. cucumbers. smoked and scalded. and beer on the sacred table. These divisions reflect in the culinary regions of Germany today. Duck. must be cooked before eating). duck. banquets influenced by Roman times and Charlemagne’s court. vegetable oil. and apples. as depicted in a 15th-century stained-glass window in a church in the town of Soest. seafood. Prior to unification of Germany in 1871. lettuce. with meat. sour cream. buttermilk. may be eaten as is or simmered). Dairy products Milk. white beans. Thick soups made from potatoes. dumplings. horseradish. knockwurst (fully cooked and like a cold cut). cardamom. vinegar. tomatoes. may be eaten as is). pancakes. rice. dill pickles (made from cucumbers). marzipan from ancient Persia. mushrooms. split peas. walnuts. wild birds). and the potato from the New World. salty biscuits (Salzgebäck). doughnuts. cheeses (including Emmentel. shown is the Last Supper but with Westphalian ham. lamb. cauliflower. Fats and oils Butter. Sausages (wurst): rohwurst (cured and smoked. wheat. with the separate German-speaking kingdoms of Prussia in the north and east. turnips. sole. French cuisine and French cooks brought late in the 18th century when coffee. bruhwurst (the frankfurter type. and bratwurst (similar to sausage links. carrots. France. spice cookies and cakes. goose. Saxony in the center. chestnuts. spice trade. sauerkraut (salted and fermented cabbage). The south has lighter food. cloves. cooked in wine. celery. Bismarck herring (fillets soaked in vinegar with onion rings and seasonings). although with fancy decorated pastries. Münster). lemons. tea. and dark rye. gooseberries. Meat is often cooked with fruit. parsley. with sausage or bacon and onion. with wheat bread. currants. and cut into paper-thin slices). the region was a collection of small independent states. chocolate. Baden game and Black Forest cake. oranges. raisins. peas. Meat. goat. plums. Fish such as sole or salmon poached or sautéed and served with butter or lemon sauce. bread. chicken fat. . with rolling hills and forests. the Crusades and Arab conquests. game (wild boar. apples. potatoes. lentils. onions. Legumes Kidney beans. pike. eggs. braised in beer or wine. Dishes Pickled herring. spinach. navy beans. fish Pork. thyme. and the New World. and pastries became popular. Rhineland white wines. asparagus. pears. sausages. eel. has a rich and hearty cuisine. artichokes. dried peas. and thickened with flour. apples. rolls. Seasonings Salt. Cream soups such as cream of cauliflower. bacon. cream. green beans. allspice. caraway seeds. dill. carp). venison. Limburger. poppy seeds. or lentils. pork. and served with sour cream sauce or sweet-and-sour sauce with raisins and spices. and wholesome family-type dishes. Nuts and seeds Almonds. barley.The Food and Culture around the World – Germany 111 Charlemagne’s uniting most of Europe into a Christian community by around 800. hazelnuts. goose fat. Some examples are grape cuttings first planted in the Rhineland by the Romans. black pepper. or stuffed with apples or prunes and roasted. Fruit Grapes. cured. or pumpernickel. Vegetables Potatoes. potatoes. apricots. Bread and cereals Wheat. Goose (a favorite) stuffed with onions. garlic. cocoa. ginger. and herbs and roasted. cinnamon. and Württemburg and Bavaria in the south. The frankfurter (a sausage from Frankfurt) and hamburger (Deutsches beefsteak) have spread around the world. ham (Westphalian ham. poultry. lightly smoked. onions. cabbage (red and green). chocolate. sour cream. green peppers. mustard. beets. beef and veal. nutmeg. bread (white. German fare is hearty. and Bavarian strudel and meatless Fridays in this Catholic area.

Green or cucumber salad. and tiny ones (spätzle) in the south. onions. onion. cream. large ones served with roast meat. Venison or wild boar roasted or braised and served with mushrooms and tart berry sauce (Preiselbeeren). sold in konditorei. beer. coffee. raisins. an annual festival in late September and early October. dessert usually with whipped cream. and coffee. Hazelnut cream pudding (egg custard with ground hazelnuts folded with whipped cream and chilled). bordering the Atlantic Ocean. anchovies. Midday meal: soup.. butter. Evening meal (abendbrot): bread. Stewed fruit (e. and salad. cheese. GHANA Republic of Ghana Geography Ghana is In West Africa. a light (helles) beer. a dark (dunkle) beer. and carp for dinner on Christmas Eve. Apple strudel (sliced apples. and nut stuffing on Christmas Day. colored and shaped as fruits) for the seasons. pears. Dumplings (knödel) usually boiled. sugar. wine. stollen (sweet yeast bread with almonds. wine (usually white). springerle (molded anise seed). Sweets Honey. and spice cakes and cookies (lebkuchen and pfeffernüsse). the most holy seasons in this mostly Christian country. a coastal strip. meat with vegetables. vinegar. National dish Braten (roast) of pork. Snacks Torte and kuchen (fruit tarts and pastries like cherry tarts. Simmered asparagus with hollandaise sauce. The most common beer is lager. custard. Festival and holiday foods Sausage and beer for Oktoberfest. cream puffs). Honey and spice cakes (lebkuchen and pfesserkuchen). and candied fruit). pancakes. Roast pork with dried apples. and liqueur added. Pork (the most common meat) or veal schnitzel (thin slice lightly breaded and fried). bock. sauerbraten: roast marinated in vinegar.Cookies: spritzgebäck (pressed hazelnut). cold cuts. cinnamon. . and prunes. Black Forest cake (Schwarzwälder Kirschtorte). decorated tree (the Christmas tree custom comes from Germany). and spices. gingerbread. Beverages Milk. Potatoes boiled. and raisins rolled in buttered paper-thin dough and baked). Second breakfast (midmorning): coffee and sandwich or fruit. feature a lighted. Red cabbage and apples simmered with vinegar and onions. currants. or mashed. roast goose with apple. Grilled pork chops. Poached meatballs. and assorted fish. raisin. or veal (e. Apple pancakes with hazelnut cream. Steak Tartar (raw ground beef and sometimes pork or veal) served on toast or with egg yolk. has the strongest flavor and highest alcohol content. and chocolate curls. or buttermilk. sausage. sugar. chocolate layer cake with kirsch (cherry liqueur). simmered apples and potatoes topped with bacon and onion rings cooked in bacon drippings. and marzipan (paste of almonds and sugar with rosewater or orange. ham or salad.112 The Food and Culture around the World – Ghana Schwarzsauer (a stew of goose blood and giblets with dried fruit). Beets simmered with wine.g. cherries. braised with a little liquid in a tightly covered pot. apricots.. and the Volta River and Lake Volta. also in dumplings. prunes for pork). capers. Roast chicken or pheasant sometimes stuffed with green grapes. Green herb sauce. Streuselkuchen (yeast cake with cinnamon crumb topping). Grilled or fried hamburger.g. small ones in soups. Meals (five a day) Breakfast: bread with butter and jam. Advent and Christmas. Rice pudding with fruit. Eintoff (onepot dish of simmered meat and vegetables). Kaffee (afternoon sociable snack): coffee and small cakes or cookies. Himmel and Erde (heaven and earth). roasted. and parsley. whipped cream. and served with gingersnap crumbs and sour sauce). Later in the evening guests may come for dessert and wine or beer. beef. gifts. It consists of low fertile plains and scrubland.

Palm oil. The Gulf of Guinea. millet porridge (tazafi) in the north. cattle. Portuguese traders came in 1470. rabbit. cocoa. Spicy. is red. pigs Natural resources gold. root crops. mi 262. bananas. and some animals. bananas. fermented corn balls (kenkey) steamed in corn husks in the south. coconut oil. food processing History Major civilizations flourished in this region: the Ghana Empire along the Niger River (400–1240 CE). the predominant cooking fat. game. lumbering. plantains. industrial diamonds.400 Labor force in agriculture 56% Urban 47.3 HIV rate 1. The first peaceful transfer of power from one elected president to another was in 2001. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). where gold-seeking Mande traders had arrived by the 14th century. lamb and mutton. tomato. peanuts. A main influence was the introduction of New World foods such as cassava.4 female Per capita GDP $1. manganese. grains. and development projects (the Volta River hydroelectric and aluminum plants) were built in the 1960s. Elmira. millet. corn. aluminum smelting. A major offshore oil find was reported in 2007. locusts. Political conflicts occurred in the following decades. Britain controlled this region as the Gold Coast from 1820 until it became independent in 1957 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1960. locust beans (carob). prestigious food. and Swedes in 1640. goat. peanuts. Influences on food Ghana is said to have one of West Africa’s best cuisines. and potato during the 16th and later centuries. shea nuts.9% Unemployment rate 20. sour milk. guinea fowl. The Portuguese later established a settlement. cornmeal and plantain cakes. light manufacturing. corn. salted. palm oil. corn. curds. chili pepper.The Food and Culture around the World – Ghana Major Languages English (official) Asante Ewe Fante Ethnic Groups Akan Mole-Dagbon Ewe Ga Other 45% 15% 12% 7% 21% Major Religions Christian Muslim Indigenous beliefs None 69% 16% 9% 6% 113 Population density per sq. goats.2 Literacy rate 65% Life expectancy 58. red beans. Fats and oils Shea oil. yams. Dairy products Milk. or dried). sheep. schools. Chicken is a popular. poultry. black-eyed peas. Hospitals.000 live births 52. fish and seafood (fresh. fish Chicken. beef.6 male. Daily fare is mostly grains. thick. Meat. Bread and cereals Rice. Insects Termites (often called white ants). peanuts. fish. buttermilk. rubber. debt and accusations of government corruption ensued. as headquarters for the slave trade. with fish if nearby. The fertile plains produce cocoa. cocoa. plantains. hydropower Industries mining. watermelon. rice dishes. Native African foods include black-eyed peas. bauxite. cheese. starting in the 13th century. eggs. and okra. in the 18th and 19th centuries. 60. and Lake Volta provide fish. landing on the Gold Coast.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. forest snails. sorghum. . legumes. starchy vegetables. chickens. whey. peanut oil. and greens. Ghanaian Kofi Annan was UN secretary general from 1997 to 2006. however. the Akan civilization. sticky foods are liked. timber. and the Ashanti Empire. rivers. pork. The English came in 1553.3% Arable land 18% Agriculture cassava. rice. smoked. British control for over a century left some British influence. the Dutch in 1595.

fried plantains. fried fish. chilies. Roast chicken with peanut sauce. akee apples. and minced garlic). kola nuts. chili. magnesite . wheat. respectively. beer. mangoes. garlic. cattle. tomatoes. goats. wine. pineapple fritters with peanut cream. bordering the Mediterranean Sea.3 Literacy rate 97. zinc. parsley. garlic. and sometimes carob or chocolate). watermelon seeds. coconut biscuits. and fréjon (blackeyed pea or bean purée. papaya. lead. GREECE Hellenic Republic Geography Greece is in southeast Europe on the southern end of the Balkan Peninsula. Beverages Cocoa. melokhia (crain crain). yams. plantains. barley.” horseradish. sweet porridge. often on the table. and horseradish). chickens. nickel. cocoa. coconut milk. thyme. boiled okra. hot red chili peppers. onions.200 Labor force in agriculture 12% Agriculture sugar beets. Street food and snacks Spicy kabobs. combined and dressed with lemon juice and chopped red pepper. Fruit Bananas. Red snapper marinated in lemon juice and dressed with oil. pumpkin (ponkie). sesame seeds. oranges. potatoes. Sauces: palaver (green leaves). “African nutmeg. Nuts and seeds Shea nuts. garlic. steamed rice balls.000 live births 5. and fried yams.4% Infant mortality rate per 1.2% Unemployment rate 8. green leaves. grapes.2 HIV rate 0.0% Arable land 20% 98% 1% 1% Population density per sq. onion. Greece has mountains in all areas and a heavily indented coastline. coconut. and sometimes chicken). bell peppers. hard-boiled eggs. bitter leaf. okra. Chicken gizzards grilled on wood skewers. oil. sugar. Major Language Greek (official) Ethnic Groups Greek Other 93% 7% Major Religions Greek Orthodox (official) Muslim Other Urban 60. peppers. tomato. Fufu (paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or boiled corn flour) formed into balls or bite-size scoops to eat stew. Seasonings Salt. Pili-pili (sauce of chili pepper.2 female Per capita GDP $29. thyme. and grated coconut. iron ore. olives. baobab. tomato. onions. Imogo (fish and prawns simmered separately. bauxite. cashews. rice boiled in coconut milk. parsley. lignite. coffee. watermelon. tobacco. Peanut stew (ground peanuts with tomatoes. tomatoes. Pumpkin stewed with other vegetables and minced meat. 82. red zinger (herbal tea made from flower pods of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). potatoes. dried baobab leaves. sweet potatoes. onion. peppers. beehives Natural resources fish. onion. mi 212. mango seeds. corn.114 The Food and Culture around the World – Greece Vegetables Cassava. lemons. Sweets Honey. eggplant. tomato. Tatali (fried cakes of cornmeal and plantain with hot peppers). onions. pigs. pineapple. boned and shelled. palm kernels. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried such as boiled rice.1% Life expectancy 77 male. deep-fried bright colored sweet dough balls (togbei). Akotonshi (stuffed land crabs). sheep. cucumbers. Gari foto (cassava meal cooked with tomatoes. and scrambled eggs).

Political and military changes occurred during the next some 20 years. and a dark age ensued. and fruit. 750 BCE as a group of city-states. preserved Milk. and his son. olive oil. Greece was part of the Byzantine Empire until the 15th century. hollow center). lamb. beef. chemicals. reaching its height of power in the 5th century BCE. Ancient Greece excelled in art. fish. notably the former Yugoslavia that took the name Republic of Macedonia. chickpeas.The Food and Culture around the World – Greece 115 Industries tourism. Much of the land is mountainous and rocky. squash. for fruit and especially for wine. cherries. Greece joined NATO in 1952 and the EU in 1981. The economy performed well. Also. food and tobacco processing. Byzantine. especially during Lent. Greece shares a cuisine with the other Middle East countries except for differences due to religion. Vine cultivation is also important. predominant in Israel. democratic government returned. notably the olive. After the fall of Constantinople to the Turks in 1453. King Constantine fled to Italy in 1967. yogurt. Fats and oil Legumes Corn. pita bread (flat. as well as Arab. garlic sauce that accompanies fried fish (skordalia). drama. architecture. the monarchy was restored in 1935. sun dried. pork. Turkey. with unemployment decreasing and tourism remaining strong. barley. the food is frugal and relies on fresh ingredients: vegetables. rice. and Balkan neighbors. plums. Greece was part of the Ottoman Empire. Much of the terrain is terraced and planted with trees that will withstand the heat and aridity. does not prohibit consumption of pork or alcohol. It became a republic in 1924. poultry. green peppers. eggs. white. Devastating forest fires occurred in 2007. and in 1975 the monarchy was abolished. and has special foods for religious holidays. It hosted the Olympic Summer Games in 2004. After the fall of the Roman Empire. cucumbers. It was succeeded by the Mycenaean civilization c. Vegetables Olives. rice dishes. goat. Meat. as does Islam in the Muslim countries. lentils. kefalotiri cheese (hard. raisins. walnuts. yellow. textiles. Nuts and seeds Almonds. olive oil. The cuisine of ancient and modern Greece shows remarkable continuity in dishes such as cracked whole wheat boiled in milk. In the 2nd century BCE the Romans conquered the Greek states. sesame seeds. currants. and democracy. scallions. sausage. Olive oil. Chicken. fish and seafood. butter. fasting and feasting rules differ between Orthodox Christians and Muslims. mathematics. also prohibits pork consumption. another important influence. fish salted fish. 2000 BCE. literature. science. feta cheese (moist. Turmoil in the Balkans in the 1990s led to strained relations between Greece and some neighbors. metal products History The Minoan civilization reached its peak on Crete c. Beans (including fava and white beans). tomatoes. Influences on food include the Roman. eggplant. Judaism. In 1944 the monarchy was restored. Classical Greece began to emerge c. . Dairy products often grated). Influences on food The Mediterranean and Aegean coasts provide fish and seafood to this small country. In general. philosophy. oranges. The Orthodox religion limits animal food intake on its many fast days. salty). grape leaves. quinces. Athens suffered a damaging earthquake in 1999. and yellow split-pea purée soup dressed with raw onion. lemons. Alexander the Great. hazelnuts. The first official visit by a Greek official to Turkey in 49 years occurred in 2008. Greek Orthodox Christianity. Bread. potatoes. It won its independence in a war with Turkey (1821–1829) and became a kingdom. Bread and cereals pasta. who spread Greek culture throughout his empire. and lemon (fava). During World War II Nazi forces occupied Greece. yellow split peas. predominant in Greece. after invasions by Indo-Europeans. 1600 BCE. round. In 338 BCE Greece was taken over by Philip II of Macedon. and Ottoman Empires. and stored for winter soup making (tarhana). figs. filo dough. notably Easter.and pie-making are a long tradition. apricots. Additional invasions destroyed the Bronze Age culture. as told about in the epics of Homer. seafood. Fruit Grapes. wheat.

onions. traditional cakes such as melomarkaroma (honey-dipped biscuits made with olive oil and orange juice) and kourabiethes (butter cookies studded with almonds and dusted with powdered sugar). olive oil. lentils. Boiled potatoes.) is In the Caribbean Sea about 90 miles north of Venezuela. nuts. Street food Gyro (sandwich of thin slices of souvlaki. parsley. garlic. black pepper. sugar. Sweets Honey. vinegar. Major Languages English (official) French patois Ethnic Groups Black Mixed Indo-Pakistan and other 82% 13% 5% Major Religions Roman Catholic Anglican Other Protestant 53% 14% 33% . tomato. cinnamon. and chickpeas such as fasolatha (white bean soup with tomatoes and garlic). high. Sautéed squash. Mezze Feta cheese cubes. hard-boiled eggs painted red. Fruits are served at the end of a meal. Greek salad (greens. tomato wedges. and cinnamon. cloves. dill. and bread pieces). and syrup). sparing use of spices (black pepper. olive oil. It includes a mountainous. volcanic main island and Carriacou and Petit Martinique islands. scallions. tomatoes. oil. Spoon sweets (fruits boiled with sugar) offered by the spoonful as a sweet welcome to any guest on arrival at a home. rice. cucumber. Deepfried fish served with skordalia (garlic. Chicken pieces braised in tomatoes. lemon juice. and seasonings. tomato. lights (lungs). tomatoes. mostly breads. Holiday dishes Christmas stuffed turkey. black olives. Olive relishes. beer. Turkish-style coffee. cheeses. kidney. Winter and Lenten soups of beans. Spaghetti and sauce of ground beef. or rotisserie lamb. New Year roasted suckling pig. Intestines or caul stuffed with rice. onion. GRENADA Geography Grenada (Pronunciation: first A is long. olives. Inland mountains and plains fare Robust. thyme. lamb chopped liver and lights wrapped with intestine on skewers and roasted. and sugar). cinnamon. oregano. Lamb shank roasted with garlic. taramosalata (dip of fish roe beaten with lemon juice. cakes and puddings are eaten with coffee. Baklava (baked layers of filo dough. allspice. Casserole of shrimp. Dishes Moussaka (baked sliced eggplant. For New Year’s Eve. a large. cakes decorated with red-painted hardboiled eggs and often individually shaped as hens or rabbits for each child in the family. For Christmas and New Year. Easter spit-roasted whole baby lamb or goat. and other vegetables). garlic. tomatoes and onions covered with beaten egg or white sauce). onions.116 The Food and Culture around the World – Grenada Seasonings Lemons. and paximathia (baked barley bread slices and aniseed). lemon juice. and allspice. rich yeast cake (vasilopitta. Coastal and island cuisine Light. mainly vegetables and seafood dishes such as fish soup finished with avgolémono (egg and lemon juice) sauce and psarosoupa (soup of fish. olive oil. aniseed) except on Aegean coast. Basil’s cake). For Easter. cheese or meat pies such as spanakopita (baked filo dough layered with spinach and feta cheese). tomatoes. cumin. parsley. Fried strips of yellow cheese. where Arab influence is strongest. and feta cheese dressed with oil and vinegar). meat. or St. liver. scallions. Vegetables and grape leaves stuffed with rice. ground meat. Beverages Wine. in pita bread with tomato and yogurt). Halva (boiled semolina. and feta cheese. Service Greeks prefer flatware to fingers for eating. retsina (resinated wine). onion. and bread pieces or mashed potato). heart. ouzo (anise-flavored alcoholic drink).

black pepper. and chilled).6 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 12. Fruit Bananas. light assembly operations. For example. cream. coconuts. eggs. chilies. Butter. sheep. pork. Boiled rice.7 male. coconut oil. fried cornmeal cakes. France controlled the island from 1672 to 1762. yams. sweet potatoes. flying fish. he encountered the Caribs. chilies. pigs Natural resources Industries timber. Kidney beans. citrus. cinnamon. tomatoes. avocados. Pepper pot (a meat stew containing boiled juice of cassava and pepper). allspice. papaya. okra. mace. cocoa. chickens. onions.2% Arable land 6% Agriculture sugarcane. then Britain controlled it until it became independent in 1974. Hot chili sauce. The same foods are used today. after a military coup and execution of the prime minister. mi 680. akee. sweet peppers. fish food and beverages. Slaves from Africa also influenced foodways such as in using okra. Hurricanes caused severe damage in 2004 and 2005. British influence is reflected in salt cod.000 live births 13. In 1983. onions. oranges. sea turtles. mangoes.The Food and Culture around the World – Grenada 117 Population density per sq. goat. Meat. bananas. Nutmeg. who ruled here for 150 more years. snapper. When Columbus arrived in 1498. Seasonings garlic. In 1843 an English captain sailing home from the Spice Islands in the East Indies stopped in Grenada and left some small nutmeg trees. coconut. using foods available from the sea and grown on this tropical island. a leading producer of nutmeg and mace (which grow on the same tree) is called the Spice Island. cassava. biscuits. red beans. Rice cooked with peas or beans. wheat. tourism. sea eggs also called sea urchins. condensed. nutmeg. and others. guavas. malanga (taro-like plant with corms and green leaves). construction History The first inhabitants were Arawak Indians. French. fish Chicken. cattle. lobster. fish and seafood (salt cod. Influences on food Arawak and Carib Indians ate fish and seafood and fruits and vegetables. black-eyed peas. along with foods brought to the region by the Spanish. annatto. cream added and blended. In 2007 Grenada’s High Court ordered the release of 3 of the 13 imprisoned leaders of the 1983 insurrection. breadfruit vichyssoise (breadfruit simmered with butter. Vegetables Avocados. blended. . limes. cashew nuts. vegetable oil. Dishes Callaloo (soup of malanga leaves cooked with okra). breadfruit. four cabinet members. Nuts and seeds Almonds. who were massacred by the Carib Indians. cashew fruit. bread and biscuits made using wheat flour and cassava. French settlers came in 1650. aged cheese. lamb. evaporated). plantains. and six supporters. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Cow’s milk (fresh. chickpeas. and jellied orange consommé (made by heating gelatin in chicken stock. Fried cornmeal and okra bread. wheat flour breads. 67. frogs). French control for almost a century and British control for over two centuries left influences on Grenada’s food. rum. Now Grenada.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. tropical fruit. poultry. cocoa. pigeon peas. goats. democratic self-government was reestablished. Codfish fritters. pineapple. textiles. Fried plantains. lard.5 female Per capita GDP $10. and garlic. forces from the United States and six area nations invaded Granada. cassava bread (made from grated cassava fried in a flat loaf). Turtle soup. rice. Bread and cereals Corn. British. and tea. sour sop. adding fresh orange juice. beef. squash. salt.500 Labor force in agriculture 24% Urban 30. mace. rice dishes. annatto seeds. and chilling). Cold soups such as avocado soup.2 Literacy rate 96% Life expectancy 63. land crabs.

a part of the United States of Central America. GUATEMALA Republic of Guatemala Geography The northernmost Central American country. In 2004 an extremely violent crime wave occurred. tea with coconut biscuits. soft drinks. Dinner: like lunch but with more meat. molasses. 80% of the population. The Spanish brought new foods including rice. metals. Guatemala was a Spanish colony from 1524 to 1821. sugar. Guatemala consists of cool central highlands and mountains. coffee. and rum). cocoa.000 years before the Spanish conquest. white 64% 33% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant/other Christian Indigenous Mayan beliefs and other 57% 40% 3% Population density per sq. and the ancient dishes tamales and tortillas are still popular. beef. oil.700 Labor force in agriculture 50% Urban 47. nickel. furniture. sheep. pigs. Corn remains as a staple. chicle. A series of dictators held power for the next century. coconut biscuits. coffee with milk. wheat flour. Major Languages Spanish (official) Amerindian languages Ethnic Groups Mestizo (mixed Amerindian & Spanish) Amerindian (Mayan) Black. sweetened fruit juices poured over crushed ice. Beverages Coffee with milk. Influences on food The Maya influence has endured especially in the highlands. chemicals. textiles and clothing. folded and chilled).9 female Per capita GDP $4. beans.8% Unemployment 7.2% Life expectancy 68. In 2007 three Salvadorans on an official visit were murdered.5% Arable land 13% Agriculture sugarcane. fruit juices. tourism History The ancient Mayan Indian Empire flourished here over 1. Caribbean island foodways from native Carib-speaking Indians and laborers from Africa and Asia imported to work influenced food on the Caribbean coast of Guatemala. rare woods. a part of Mexico. chocolate mousse. and lowlands and fertile river valleys along the Caribbean.118 The Food and Culture around the World – Guatemala Sweets Sugarcane. fish. a narrow strip along the Pacific Ocean. corn. pork and lard. vegetables. tea. sour sop fool (sour sop and whipped cream. In 2005 a freetrade agreement (CAFTA) with the United States was ratified. beer. . An elected liberal government took control in 1945 and instituted reforms.6 Literacy rate 73. cornmeal cake (cornmeal. cattle. and finally an independent republic in 1839. Drought and weak export prices in 2001–2002 worsened the conditions of Guatemala’s poor. goats Natural resources oil. rum. fruit. coconut. mi 310. guava and nutmeg jelly. and breadfruit.8 HIV rate 0. 71. milk. rubber. bananas. Meals Breakfast: bread and coffee with milk. and dessert added when available. chickens.2 male. Lunch: rice and beans or peas with meat if affordable. cardamom. Snacks Fruits. iced tea usually with lime.000 live births 28. Various governments and periods of civil war and armed conflict have ensued.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. hydropower Industries sugar. milk.

vanilla. cakes. Roasted meat. Coffee. Fats and oils Legumes Milk (evaporated). carrots. with garnishes such as cheese and hard-boiled eggs. kidney. fish Dairy products beverage. It contains local ingredients including corn and other plant foods. squash seeds. rice (with cheese or meat added if available). chocolate. corn tortillas. distilled drink Meals Breakfast: corn tortillas. sour cream. and steamed). pineapple. coconut candy. Refried black beans (frijoles volteados). breadfruit. sausage. Special occasion dishes Black tamales stuffed with a mixture of chicken. garlic. chayote squash (green pear shaped gourd). prunes. Chirmol (tomato sauce. or fried and often paired with rice (frijoles con arroz). Salads such as avocado. Beans simmered with spices.or rum-flavored cakes and fritters. Snacks Candy. green beans. coconut. then topped with a sausage and pickled cabbage). economical dry food mixture. Milk is not usually drunk as a Lard. onions. brown). plantains. beans (sometimes with eggs). tomato. wrapped in corn husks or leaves. Bread and cereals rolls. In Guatemala Mayan meat stew (pepián) thickened with toasted squash seeds. rice. chicken. beans. poultry. or breadfruit. beets. ice cream. and salad. chicken. Posole (semi-fermented corn dough. Rice fried before boiling or cooked with coconut milk. lamb. gruel. or fish dish. grapes. Seasonings Cardamom. called Guatemalan caviar. rice pudding. goat. and can be mixed with water to make a gruel. or a beverage as nutritious as milk. beef. seafood. Plantains served in chocolate sauce during the Holy Week before Easter. fritters. fish. coffee or juice. poultry. a soup. chili peppers. pork. oranges. meat. fruit ices. a specialty on the Caribbean coast. cheese. chocolate. rum. pumpkin. cinnamon. shared by many family and friends at a social event on All Saints’ Day. puréed. Dishes Atole (corn gruel). tomatoes. wheat. raisins. tortillas or bread.The Food and Culture around the World – Guatemala 119 Staple foods Corn. chocolate. mangoes. Coconut bread. chickpeas. butter. and raisins. Corn. Beans (black. lettuce. Beverages (venado). vegetable oils. Meat. custard. cabbage. roselle fruit (used to make sorrel drinks and jams/jellies). Pickled vegetables (cabbage. cream. Tamales (spicy meat-stuffed corn dough. small Chicken. and dressed with vinaigrette or a sweet-and-sour sauce). Black beans are especially popular. fruit ices. baked bananas. white). Nuts and seeds Palm tree nuts. Vegetables Plantains. onions. passion fruit. drinks. sugar (white. beets). achiote (orange-red coloring). Incaparina was developed at the Institute of Nutrition for Central America and Panama. Incaparina A nutritious. Dinner: same as lunch or in wealthier areas: soup. chicken. spices. eggs. honey. used liberally. teas. Fried potatoes. shortening. and fish. pork. custard. turnovers. ice cream. beef. coconut. diluted to make a beverage or used in other ways). rice dishes. rice. and pickled cabbage. avocados. sometimes appetizers and dessert. Sweets Sugarcane. . rice pudding. prunes. fruit drinks (refrescas). beer. fried plantains. or seafood and plantains or cassava in coconut milk. carrots. Soups and stews of meat. cilantro. often with chili). wheat bread. wine (chica). Empanadas (small turnovers made with wheat flour dough filled with a savory meat mixture). red. other citrus. chili. beans. corn tortillas. papaya. sweet peppers. Fruit Bananas. pickled vegetables. potatoes. Lunch: beans. based on the traditional corn gruel (atole). Mixtas (open-faced sandwich of tortilla spread with guacamole. cassava. Fiambre (a huge salad of vegetables. and sausages.

6% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 4% Agriculture cassava. and greens. and forest in the southeast. porridge. and forests provide fish. . diamonds. sweet potatoes. or dried). corn. The Susu civilization reached its peak in the 13th century. gold. The government announced the discovery of substantial uranium deposits. It came under French control in 1849. to the Atlantic coast.120 The Food and Culture around the World – Guinea GUINEA Republic of Guinea Geography Guinea is In West Africa. Chicken is prestigious. Bread and cereals Rice. Guinea’s first president (1958–1984) turned to Communist nations for support and set up a one-party state. goat. France withdrew all aid. locusts. millet. iron ore. and sweet potato influenced Guinea’s food. rice dishes. mi 103. chili pepper. eggs. Thick. spicy food is liked. rice. 58.000 refugees from civil wars in neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone in the 1990s and early 2000s. salt Industries bauxite. pork. fish and seafood. French Guinea became part of the federation of French West Africa in 1895. sticky.3 Literacy rate 29. Guinea received 300. grass for animal herds. salted. Dairy products Milk.4 HIV rate 1. iron. and Niger rivers). mountainous middle region (source of the Gambia. sorghum. It consists of a narrow coastal plain. rabbits. smoked. lamb and mutton. Meat. hydropower. In 2007 strikes and demonstrations demanded that the president (since 1984) resign. starchy vegetables. poultry. The region was part of the ancient West African empires. beef. Major Languages French (official) Each ethnic group’s language Ethnic Groups Peuhl (Fulani) Malinke Soussou (Susu) Other 40% 30% 20% 10% Major Religions Muslim (nearly all Sunni) Christian Indigenous beliefs 85% 8% 7% Population density per sq. goats. savanna upland farther inland. During the 1990s a new constitution was adopted and the first multiparty elections were held.5% Life expectancy 55. Guinea chose independence in 1958. fish Chicken. sour milk. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. diamonds. (fresh. the Baga. whey. pigs Natural resources bauxite. The Fulani dominated part of the region from the 16th century into the 19th century.1 female Per capita GDP $1. cattle. steamed or fried cornmeal patties. Native African foods include okra. he agreed to yield some power to the prime minister. bananas. and game. guinea fowl. Influences on food French control in the 19th and 20th centuries left French influence such as French bread in some areas. coffee.1 male. “Bush meat” (game such as antelope and wild pig). tomato. After a military coup in 1984 Guinea began westernizing its government. cassava. black-eyed peas. corn. The Atlantic Ocean. French bread. dough balls. In the mid-15th century the Portuguese visited the coast and established a slave trade. gold. Insects Termites (often called white ants). savannah. wheat. and watermelon. sheep. pineapples. oil palm fruit. light manufacturing History In about 900 CE the Susu began migrating here from the desert and pushed the original inhabitants. The diet is mostly rice. cheese. chickens. pastes. buttermilk. coastal plain. curds.000 live births 67. Senegal.100 Labor force in agriculture 76% Urban 33% Infant mortality rate per 1. bordering the Atlantic Ocean. fish. aluminum refining. uranium. legumes. mountains.

beer. thyme.4 female Per capita GDP $500 Labor force in agriculture 82% Urban 29. lemons. plantains. Major Languages Portuguese (official) Crioulo African languages Ethnic Groups Balanta Fula Manjaca Mandinga Other 30% 20% 14% 13% 23% Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Muslim Christian 50% 45% 5% Population density per sq. and spices). Stew of peanuts or okra with chilies. fried dough balls. watermelon. Sweets Honey. kola nuts.7 male. fried fish.” ginger. onions. Omelet of egg. potatoes. limes. onions. watermelon seeds (egusi). Vegetables Cassava.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. kanya (peanut candy). coconut milk. and perhaps carob or chocolate). fried sweet dough bits. and about 25 islands off the mainland. tomatoes. mangoes. mi 139 Literacy rate 64. sesame seeds. Jollof rice (boiled rice with various meats. locust beans (carob). taro. beans. eggplant. It is mostly a swampy coastal plain. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). beef. okra. ginger beer. chili peppers. plantain chips. Sauce of ground peanuts with crushed peppers. Guinea-Bissau is in West Africa. bordering the Atlantic Ocean. cucumbers.The Food and Culture around the World – Guinea-Bissau 121 Fats and oils Palm oil. GUINEA-BISSAU Republic of Guinea-Bissau Geography Formerly Portuguese Guinea. baobab. red zinger (herbal tea made from hibiscus flower pods). sweet green pepper. sweet omelet with fruit pieces. and simmered in the marinade). vegetables. sugar. sweet potatoes. is red.000 live births 101. Roasted whole fish. pineapple fritter. melokhia (crain crain). green leaves. pumpkin. palm nuts. guavas. coconut. Nuts and seeds Cashews. the main predominant cooking fat.6 HIV rate 1. grilled. peanut oil. Fish and meat stew.8% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 8% . and chunks or balls are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. mango seeds. “African nutmeg. bell peppers. steamed rice balls. bananas. and chicken. and tomato. or fish. black-eyed peas (a variety of cowpeas). coconut oil. bitter leaf. Sauce of green leaves (palaver sauce). okra. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. tomatoes. Fruit Pineapple. served with boiled rice. Beverages Coffee. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or boiled corn flour.6% Life expectancy 45. shea oil. served with boiled rice or fufu. cooked on both sides. onion. yams. 49. Seasonings Salt. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. and peanut sauce. tomatoes. onions. Gari (roasted cassava meal). Adalu (boiled and mashed vegetables). hot red chili peppers.Yassa (chicken or fish marinated in lemon or lime juice. fried with onions. Roasted chicken with tomato. papaya. Fréjon (black-eyed pea or bean purée. akee apples. with a low savanna area in the east. Palm oil. formed into balls or bite-size scoops to eat sauce or stew). dried baobab leaves.

peanuts. vegetables. formed into bite-size scoops to eat stew. millet. Most foods are boiled or fried. Peanut sauce (ground and pounded peanuts with seasonings). hot red chili peppers. tomatoes. locusts. peanuts (groundnuts). and peanut sauce. In 2005 the former president who had been deposed in 1999 returned from exile in Portugal and was elected president. watermelon seeds (egusi). porridge. swamps. lemons. corn. shea oil. Fish and meat stew. guavas. tomatoes. sweet potatoes. cheese. Gari (roasted cassava meal). a destructive civil war in 1998. oil palm. eggplant. Thick. especially antelope and wild pig). rabbits. lamb. beer. buttermilk. sheep Natural resources fish. cucumbers. black-eyed peas (a variety of cowpeas). potatoes. eggs. Guinea-Bissau is one of the world’s 10 poorest countries. and supplied salt to the western Sudan. Colonization began in the 19th century. granite. okra. sour milk. bauxite. Nuts and seeds Cashew nuts. curds. and sometimes carob or chocolate). Meat. fish and seafood (fresh. “African nutmeg. pastes. onions. steamed or fried cornmeal patties. bell peppers. mangoes. Yassa (chicken or fish marinated in lemon or lime juice. The slave trade flourished here in the 17th and 18th centuries. chili peppers.” ginger. chili pepper. Vegetables Cassava. grew rice. The Atlantic Ocean. coconut oil. corn. fried with onions. dried baobab leaves. fish Chicken. Influences on food Portuguese influence is strong. gives dishes a red color. phosphates.000 years ago. onions. Fruit Coconut. corn. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. pumpkin. Bread and cereals Rice. goat. cotton. yams. Dairy products Milk. beans. wetlands. The land came under influence of the Mali Empire and was known as the kingdom of Gabú. salted. Political turmoil followed. and okra. baobab. coconut milk. onions. Palaver sauce (green leaves). ducks. bitter leaf. Fats and oils Palm oil. Dishes Jollof rice (boiled rice with various meats. potato. chicken. plantains. pigs.122 The Food and Culture around the World – Guinea-Bissau Agriculture rice. clay. sesame seeds. or beef. chickens. people lived along the coast in this land. bananas. Chicken baked with tomatoes. Palm oil. peanuts. spicy dishes are liked. timber. sticky. guinea fowl. and cashew nuts greatly influenced food customs. kola nuts. cassava. adding to native African foods including watermelon. green leaves. with a military coup in 1980. Daily fare is mostly grains and starchy vegetables with legumes and greens. tomato. taro. cashews. whey. . Legumes Beans. thyme. In 1974 Portuguese control was overthrown and independence was attained. or dried). melokhia (crain crain). and military coups in 1999 and 2003. The UN’s 2007 World Drug Report named the country as a key post for moving cocaine from Latin America to Europe. rice dishes. akee apples. pork. watermelon. and spices). limestone. Stew of peanuts. smoked. limes. goats. okra. poultry. beef. unexploited deposits of oil Industries agriculture products processing. Cashew nuts are the main export. papaya. sorghum. mango seeds. okra. grilled. Fréjon (bean or black-eyed pea purée. Chicken is prestigious. cattle. Seasonings Salt. or root vegetables with chilies and tomatoes and perhaps bits of fish. Adalu (boiled and mashed vegetables). black-eyed peas. locust beans (carob). and forests provide fish and game. Steamed rice balls. Fufu (a paste made of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or boiled corn flour). pineapple. and simmered in the marinade). Insects Termites (often called white ants). soft drinks History More than 1. In the mid-15th century Portuguese explored the area and imported slaves from it. the predominant cooking fat. “Bush meat” (game.

fried sweet dough bits. After slavery was abolished. cattle. goats. fried sweet dough balls. gold. Guyana’s history and cuisine are more closely linked to the West Indies than to Spanish or Portuguese possessions in Latin America. chickens.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. have influenced Guyana’s food.7% Arable land 2% Agriculture sugarcane. from the 1840s indentured laborers from India came for plantation work. Guyana gained independence in 1966. fish Industries bauxite. sugar. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. soft drinks.5% Unemployment rate 11.4 HIV rate 2. An extensive network of rivers runs from north to south. fried bean balls. gold mining History Indigenous inhabitants were the Warrou. coconuts. pigs Natural resources bauxite. Influences on food The Dutch and the British. African slaves were brought to work in sugarcane and spice plantations. Guyana became a Dutch possession in the 17th century and a British possession in 1815. textiles. Beverages Beer. . as well as their trade with India and Indonesia. Recent violence included assassination of the agricultural minister and others in 2006 and massacres of two villages in 2008. African slaves were brought to work the plantations. sheep.The Food and Culture around the World – Guyana 123 Sweets Honey. Grassy savanna divides the areas. ginger beer..800 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 28. Hibiscus sabdariffa). diamonds.8 male. 69. The diet depended largely on manioc (cassava) meal. The cooking of this region reflects strongly the preferences of the imported labor as well as local resources and colonial influences. vegetable oils. none 28% 17% 8% 7% 7% 33% Population density per sq. fish. rice. hardwood timber.1 Literacy rate 98.000 live births 30.8% Life expectancy 63. mi 10. red zinger (herbal tea from flower pods of roselle. kanya (peanut candy). which has remained severely depressed. those for western Guyana and Venezuela have been resolved. banana fritters. In 2007 the UN International Tribunal for the Law of the Seas’s decision on the maritime boundary dispute between Guyana and Suriname gave Georgetown (Guyana) the far larger share of the Guyana-Suriname Basin under dispute. Guyana is in northern South America. rice milling. timber. where 90% of the people live. bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Georgetown was expected to resume offshore oil exploration. The government nationalized most of the economy. In 2000 border disputes with neighbors Venezuela and Suriname occurred. shrimp. coconut biscuits. Major Languages English (official) Amerindian dialects Creole Caribbean Hindustani Urdu Ethnic Groups East Indian Black (African) Mixed Amerindian 44% 30% 17% 9% Major Religions Hindu Pentecostal Roman Catholic Anglican Muslim Other. shawerma (thin slices of marinated lamb packed tightly on a vertical spit and roasted. and Indian and Indonesian indentured laborers succeeded them. sugar. Tropical forest in the south covers more than 80% of the land. The low coastal area. has fertile soil for agriculture. thin pieces of meat are cut off the outside). shrimp.2 female Per capita GDP $3. GUYANA Co-operative Republic of Guyana Geography Formerly British Guiana.

shrimp. and lime zest). onions. Doconon (poached leaf-wrapped cake of corn flour. Pudding of rice. Other dishes resulted from importing or adapting European ones. beer. bananas. Couac coco (flour from grated and dried coconut. Legumes Beans. goat. tomatoes. papaya. potatoes. Fats and oils Vegetable oils. eggs. okra. cheese. Sweets Sugarcane. malanga. rice dishes. honey. Okra and cornmeal mush (coo-coo). large bird oko. butter. Meat. and pepper. Vegetables Cassava. cinnamon. Indian and Indonesian dishes increased as those populations increased here. . wheat flour bread. Madou (macerated fruit). pork.124 The Food and Culture around the World – Guyana although the coastal areas had seafood. sweet potatoes. and spices. plantains. sesame seeds. mixed meats. cashews. Boiled or steamed rice. and sugar or salt). sugarcane brandy (cachaça). tea. fish Chicken. sugar.” cassava meal bread. cloves. cinnamon. European imports such as Dutch split-pea soup and rijsttafel. tapioca (from cassava). Pepper pot stew may have originated in Guyana. corn flour cake. callaloo (edible leaves of root vegetables especially amaranth. corn. dendé oil. limes. Bread and cereals Rice. chili peppers. Indian curries. wheat. lard. fish. flour. lamb and mutton. pumpkin seeds. and French Guyana (a French region). soft drinks. and liquid “milk. Fruit Coconut (fresh.” coconut milk. cloves. other seafood. Nuts and seeds Brazil nuts. evaporated milk. sugar. fruit juices. Seasonings Cinnamon. cayenne pepper. curry powder. chili pepper. pumpkins. Beverages Coffee. black pepper. a substantial stew of cassareep (boiled juice from grated bitter cassava root). evaporated milk. milk). Street food and snack Wang (toasted ground sesame seeds. and spices). cornmeal mush and bread. or corn “milk. their scrapings. banana. or potatoes. sugar. Boiled or fried plantain. cinnamon. peanuts. olive oil. sugarcane juice. coconut. Settlements of Bush blacks (former runaway slaves) had dishes reflecting an African past. dried. taro). poultry. beef. peas. lime zest. sweet potatoes. Guyana cuisine resembles that of neighbors northern Brazil. Dishes Pepper pot. Suriname (also a former Dutch possession and then a British colony). other tropical fruits. fresh ears of corn. Dairy products Milk (cow. other spices. goat).

3 HIV rate 2. The Duvalier family controlled a dictatorship from 1957 to 1986. occupation from 1915 to 1934 brought stability. and slaves bought from Africa influenced food customs in Haiti. the Arawak term for grilling meats. sheep Natural resources bauxite. Haiti attained independence in 1804. calcium carbonate.1% Life expectancy 55. condensed. land crabs. 838. much of the rest is semi-arid.4 female Per capita GDP $1. Barbacoa. rice.300 Labor force in agriculture 66% Urban 42. wheat flour bread. goat. coffee. Two thirds of Haiti is mountainous. mi.8 male. aged cheese. They ate a wide variety of fish and seafood. wheat. 125 . copper. hydropower. Spanish control for two centuries. gold.S. French control for about a century. leaving only traces of their foodways. corn. After a 1791 insurrection by the slaves.2% Unemployment rate 32. It became a leading sugarcane producer. and floods have occurred as recently as 2008. goats. Meat. Major Languages French (both Creole official) Ethnic Groups Black Mulatto and white 95% 5% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other Voodoo widely practiced 80% 16% 4% Population density per sq.7% Arable land 28% Agriculture sugarcane. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. probably is the origin of the American word barbecue. Poverty. Damaging hurricanes. fish Chicken. political unrest.H HAITI Republic of Haiti Geography Haiti occupies the western third of the island of Hispaniola. the world’s first independent black country. Influences on food The indigenous Arawak almost disappeared following the Spanish conquest. light assembly of imported parts History Arawak Indians inhabited the area when Columbus explored it in 1492. cassava. fruits. cement. cassava bread (fried grated cassava). horses. dependent on slaves. chickens. fish Industries sugar refining.000 live births 62. flour milling. and health problems have plagued Haiti for decades. Haiti was a French colony from 1697. sorghum. textiles. eggs. fish and seafood (salt cod. Following a century of wrecked economy. in the Caribbean Sea.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. and political violence. storms. lamb. dictatorships. fried cornbread. cattle. the U. and coastal areas are warm and moist. marble.7 Literacy rate 62. Income from Haitians living overseas continued to help with survival and growth. beef. pork. lobster). poultry. evaporated). pigs. corn. violence. Bread and cereals Rice. 59.

71 female Per capita GDP $4. olive oil. mangoes. Meals Breakfast: coffee with milk. plantains. milk. guavas. star apples. cashew apples. coconut. saffron. Beverages Coffee.8 male. garlic. papaya. Colombo (prepared with Colombo powder). then sauced or marinated). cashew nuts. malanga). Dishes Callaloo (green leaves cooked with okra. black mushrooms. gâteau de patate (sweet potato bread). fruit. soft drinks. malanga. coconut cream. Barbecued goat with chili peppers. saffron. Service Protein foods are served first to the father in the household and then to the mother and children. black pepper. Simmered akee. cinnamon). Snacks Fresh fruit. hot red chili peppers. vegetables. Legumes Red kidney beans. vegetable oil. lima beans.6 HIV rate 0. Acrats de morue (codfish fritters). garlic. citrus. black mushrooms. lard. Specialties Riz au djon djon (simmered rice. and fruit. for example. annatto. Crab stew. greens (cassava.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Ceviche (raw fish marinated in lemon or lime juice with olive oil and spices). Sauce Ti-malice (onions marinated in lime juice. Snacking is frequent among children. and perhaps egg. and combined with the marinade). beer. coriander. Dinner: rice and beans with meat. Vegetables Cassava. white. Lunch: rice and beans with meat if affordable. boiled beans stirred into melted lard. 176. Poulet roti à la créole (roasted banana-stuffed chicken). yams.126 The Food and Culture around the World – Honduras Fats and oils Butter. heated. Escabeche (fish fried.9% Arable land 10% . coconut cream. okra.1% Life expectancy 67. Sweets Sugarcane. then simmered in boiled bean liquid. and a little salt meat or fish). bread.7% Unemployment rate 27. allspice. sugar. onions. black-eyed peas.000 live births 24. lime juice. the mushrooms color the cooking water black). molasses. and dessert if available. Major Languages Spanish (official) Amerindian dialects Ethnic Groups Mestizo Amerindian Black. cinnamon. tomatoes. garlic. Pepper pot (stew of vegetables and meat. pineapple. brown sugar. and served over rice). Seasonings Salt. cereal. coffee with milk. breadfruit. green peppers. and lima beans. other 90% 7% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant and other 97% 3% Population density per sq. HONDURAS Republic of Honduras Geography This Central American country has coastlines of 500 miles on the Caribbean Sea and 40 miles on the Pacific Ocean. Spicy soups. onions. Nuts and seeds Almonds. fish. Honduras is mountainous. with wide fertile valleys and rich forests.8 Literacy rate 83. mi. rum. sautéed in butter with chilies and garlic. fruit juice poured over crushed ice. annatto (achiote) seeds. soursop. sweet potatoes. milk. coriander. Colombo powder (allspice. bread. rum.100 Labor force in agriculture 34% Urban 46. Red beans and rice (rice heated in melted lard. nutmeg. Fruit Bananas. avocados. Griots de porc (fried pork) with fried plantain. highly seasoned with pepper). squash.

sour cream. pork and lard. rice dishes. palm oil. carrots. vanilla. nogada (praline-like candy). diluted to make a beverage or used in other ways). Beverages Coffee. Coconut bread. Honduras was devastated by a hurricane in 1998 that killed at least 5. ice cream. roselle fruit. poultry. avocados. cassava. goat. Bread and cereals Corn. squash seeds. pumpkin. coffee. or breadfruit. beans. coal. coconut. citrus. beer. Vegetables Plantains. and pickled vegetables plus sometimes appetizers and dessert. garlic. conch. or fried and often paired with rice (frijoles con arroz). Pickled vegetables (cabbage. Roasted meat. ice cream. coconut. sheep Natural resources timber. custard. Sweets Sugarcane. textiles.600 people and caused extensive damage. lettuce. Remittances from these workers accounted for about 25% of Honduras’s GDP. A civilian government took office in 1982. Rice often fried before boiling or cooked with coconut milk. and steamed). pork. rice. rice.or rum-flavored cakes and fritters. cabbage. brown). rum. lead. gold. chickpeas. Rice is consumed frequently. Beans simmered with spices. chickens. Meat. Fruit Bananas. government extended the Temporary Protected Status program that allowed 78. achiote/annatto (orange-red coloring). onions. The Spanish brought new foods including rice. . meat. cattle. cilantro. corn tortillas and gruel. wheat. The Maya influence endures especially in the highlands. beef. goats. chocolate. potatoes. poultry. Seasonings Onions.The Food and Culture around the World – Hungary 127 Agriculture sugarcane. fruit ices. or fish dish. wheat bread and rolls. tropical fruit drinks (refrescas). coffee. custard. chayote squash (green pear-shaped gourd). fish Chicken. fried plantains. fish and seafood (shrimp. clothing. In 1502 Columbus arrived and settlement followed. beets. with corn the staple and tamales and tortillas reminders of the ancient past. chicken. oil palm fruit. Dairy products Milk (evaporated). Staple foods Corn. bananas. butter.S. Posole (semi-fermented corn dough. chili. honey. iron ore. white).000 Hondurans to work in the United States because of Honduras’s environmental disasters. chili peppers. mondongo (tripe soup). antimony. baked bananas. red. pigs. Caribbean island foodways from native Carib-speaking Indians and laborers from Africa and Asia imported to work influenced food on the Caribbean coast of Honduras. Milk is not usually drunk as a beverage. vegetable oils. cinnamon. sea turtle). copper. eggs. tomatoes. grapes. fruit ices. mangoes. or seafood and plantains or cassava in coconut milk. In 2007 the U. In 2005 Honduras ratified a free-trade agreement (CAFTA) with the United States. with cheese or meat added if resources permit. and breadfruit. sugar (white. silver. In the 20th century Honduras was under military rule with frequent civil war. sea turtle. Influences on food Honduras’s long coastline on the Caribbean Sea supplies fish and shrimp. Legumes Beans (black. wrapped in corn husks or leaves. and fish. Meals Corn and beans are eaten at every meal by the poor. citrus. chicken. and salad. wine (chica). cheese. pimento. Honduras gained independence from Spain in 1821 and formed the Federation of Central America in 1838. Soups and stews of meat. wood products History In the 1st millennium CE the Mayan civilization flourished in Honduras. lamb. green beans. Dishes Atole (corn gruel). Fried potatoes. zinc. Specialties Conch. papaya. Snacks Candy. passion fruit. kidney. coconut. shortening. Salads such as avocado. a specialty on the Caribbean coast. beets). Tamales (spicy meat-stuffed corn dough. cream. rice pudding. plantains. Nuts and seeds Palm tree nuts. rice pudding. cakes. fish Industries sugar. Fats and oils Lard. carrots. sweet peppers. tortillas or bread. Dinner in wealthier areas: soup. puréed. beef and cheese. breadfruit. pineapple. fritters.

Its eastern half is a great fertile plain. and Russia. By 14 BCE western Hungary was part of the Roman Empire. and Czechoslovakia. Austria. red paprika. potatoes. Food and music are closely linked in Hungary.000 Labor force in agriculture 5. Italy. Yugoslavia. Defeated with other Central Powers in World War I. pharmaceuticals. and in 1867 the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary was formed. geese. The Danube River is the border in the northwest and swings south to bisect the country. Influences on food Influences include the earliest settlers (mostly Slav). The Magyar tribes that roamed Central Europe long before Hungary was a state ate a hot spicy meat soup/stew. sheep. natural gas. wheat. Hungary gained independence in 1989. Hungary as a nation began at the end of the 9th century.000 live births 8 HIV rate 0.5% Urban 63. sunflower seed. Germanic and Asiatic peoples. the Roman Empire. In 2007 the popularity of the Socialist prime minister’s government fell after an austerity program to reduce the soaring budget deficit. The Mongols invaded in 1241. eastern Hungary was inhabited by Germanic and Asiatic peoples. Gypsies arrived in the area probably from India and were mistaken for Egyptians. and communists took control in 1947. and their food and music are intertwined. In 896 CE the Magyars from the east invaded Hungary and founded a kingdom. sugar beets. Major Language Hungarian (official) Ethnic Groups Hungarian Roma (Gypsy) German.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. fish Industries mining. Stephen I (977–1038) Christianized the country and made it into a strong. Austria dominated Hungary until it regained independence in 1849. cattle. The west and north are hilly. motor vehicles History Earliest settlers were mostly Slav. in 1918 Hungary lost land to Romania. mi. pigs. invading Mongols and Turks. gulyás.5 Literacy rate 98. construction materials. paprika was probably added in the 18th century. they brought an eastern influence as in their mystical fortunetelling. Hungary joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004.128 The Food and Culture around the World – Hungary HUNGARY Republic of Hungary Geography Hungary is in east central Europe.1% Unemployment rate 7. the most controversial part was health care.5% Arable land 50% Agriculture corn. Medieval Hungary reached its peak during the reign of King Matthias I (1458–1490). metallurgy. with royal feasts including the feast (with Gypsy music) for the wedding of the King with Princess Beatrice of . The Ottoman Turks invaded repeatedly in the 15th to 17th centuries. other 92% 2% 6% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other Christian Other Unaffiliated 52% 21% 12% 15% Population density per sq. goats Natural resources bauxite. 77. processed foods. from which their name derives. chickens.6 female Per capita GDP $19. 278.9% Life expectancy 69 male. fertile soil. textiles. Christianity. coal. The Magyars also brought cabbage leaves stuffed with meat from their ancestral home in the Caucasian Mountains. After defeat of the Turks (1687–1697). Hungary joined Germany in World War II. was captured by Russia. when Hungarian tribes that had been moving west and southwest from Asia for centuries gained control of the land. mainly because of the Gypsies. independent nation. New World foods.

Cookbooks continued being published and as a result Hungarian cuisine is probably the best documented of any Central European country. and potatoes. cabbage. containing the orchard area. chicken pieces browned in heated lard. beef. onions. Italian influence also includes sauces made with the food’s own juices. thyme. curd cheese. potatoes. salt. Dairy products Milk. Rabló-hus (robbers’ meat). grapes. wheat bread. rice pilafs. simmered with onions and garlic that have been heated in the lard. fish Pork. vegetable oil. onions. paprika. Budapest had its famous pastry shops and a reputation for fine hotels. paprika is stirred in. Main foods are bread. sunflower seeds. The land grows grains. pancakes. vinegar. fogas (perch-pike). During Turkish rule in central Hungary in the 16th and 17th centuries the Turks introduced filo pastry (which evolved into strudel). beets. lamb and mutton.The Food and Culture around the World – Hungary 129 Naples. corn. Meat. sour cream (the favorite ingredient). walnuts. chicken. Lecsó (green peppers. She imported cheese. and the food is covered and simmered. poultry. lemons. By 1867. skewered lamb or beef cooked outdoors at country inns and . and/or green peppers. The basic cooking of ordinary people adapted Italian. with sour cream added to the juices and the chicken heated in the sauce. noodles. goat. Dishes Hungary’s most famous dish. meat and/or vegetable pieces are stirred in. water or stock. paprika. Hungarians. Stews served with sour cream and boiled potatoes. and sausage simmered with onions and garlic that have been browned in heated lard or bacon fat with paprika added). lard. cream. caraway seeds. the latter three and potatoes originated in the New World. or chicken. tomatoes. After the Hapsburgs gained control of Budapest from the Turks in 1686 and stayed on. paprika. dill. grilled. Other specialties: fish soups and other fish dishes of Lake Balaton. apricots. garlic. potatoes. turned in flour with paprika and fried. Much of Hungary was part of the Hapsburg Empire from 1282 for about 600 years and showed Germanic influence. paprika-spiced stew of beef. they brought French influence from their capital. northern Hungary. Lakes and rivers including the Danube provide fish. pasta. green peppers. black pepper. rice dishes. the largest lake in Central Europe. dumplings. when the Austro-Hungarian dual monarchy was established. water or stock and seasonings are added. Seasonings Red paprika (sweet. rye. poppy seeds. dried red pepper). with peasant traditions from the East and West. The regions of Hungary are the western area with Lake Balaton. Fats and oils Lard. where descendants of hunting tribes established there before the Middle Ages still live. and Hungarian cookbooks appeared. sunflower seed oil. onion. Mutton and vegetable soup thickened with a roux. bacon. tomatoes. cinnamon. hazelnuts. vanilla. marjoram. ginger. and garlic from Italy. butter. and fruits. cherries. stuffed with bread crumbs and seasonings and roasted. goose liver pâté. tomatoes. German. Hungarian cuisine continued to flourish during the first half of the 20th century. and French dishes. bacon. eggplant. Vienna. gulyás (goulash in the United States). eggs. parsley. Chicken and noodle soup. and the Great Hungarian Plain. goose. pork. and has rebounded since. and corn. After King Matthias’s death Hungary declined and was defeated by invading Turks. raisins. a roux is made by browning flour in lard and then adding seasonings. oranges. piquant spice made from ground. ham. or noodles. split peas. for example. suffered under the inhibiting influence of communism after World War II. For many dishes. The great delicacy. apples. rice. sauerkraut. and consider that life and art are one and that food and cooking are important. Fruit Sour cherries. and sometimes garlic. dumplings. Chicken paprika (paprika csirke). have vitality and love of life. sweet cherries. sausage. or poached in white wine. fresh pork fat. Vegetables Potatoes. as well as supporting livestock. caraway seeds. pickles. and chicken stock. onions. Bread and cereals Wheat. meat especially pork. Nuts and seeds Almonds. pita bread. Legumes Kidney beans. lentils. Cooking methods For most meat or vegetable dishes onions are browned in heated lard. fish. tomatoes. and the Tokay wine area. cocoa.

features the Easter Eve feast of chicken soup with dumplings or noodles. simmered sour cherries. Meals and service Three meals a day with snacks is typical. Töltött káposzta (rolls of cabbage leaves stuffed with ground pork. chilled. and green peppers). day or night. chilled. paper-thin pastry filled with curd cheese. tomatoes. pickles. Cold cherry soup (Hideg Meggyleves). and unleavened bread the usual fare. mixed with mayonnaise. rice. and coffeehouses. Pastries. the most important religious holiday. expresso bars. A small glass of expresso is offered to any visitor. then braised with vegetables and spices and decorated with carrot and pickle strips). Honey breads and honey cakes. and heavy cream and red wine stirred in before serving. eggs. in the morning and late afternoon. Gypsies usually eat two meals a day. Tokay). Dessert strudel (vargabéles. chocolate filling between layers and around sides. sour cream. and cakes and pastries with coffee. hot chocolate. simmered with onions that have been heated in lard. fried foods. sugar. and dusted with confectioners sugar. stuffed cabbage rolls. Special occasion food Easter. Dobos cake (Doboschtorte).130 The Food and Culture around the World – Hungary served with fried potatoes and pickle slices. by common consent the greatest Hungarian food. vanilla. with stews. butter. Potato paprika (boiled potatoes. Braised pork chops. peeled. cake with seven layers. Street food and snacks Pastries and expresso or hot chocolate with whipped cream at coffeehouses. caraway seeds. and served on lettuce. Green pepper salad (pakrikasaláta). mixed with vinegar and seasonings. Beverages Coffee. Steaks Eszterházy (beef round steaks floured and browned in heated lard. simmered with sauerkraut and tomato purée). at home or office. eggs. pastry shops. a main meal includes a sweet. sugar. beer. and sometimes sausage. roasted. Roast pork. and arrowroot. Pancakes rolled around apricot jam. sprinkled with walnuts. are found in bakeries. stock or water. wine (including the most noted. and paprika. or cobbler’s delight). and caramel topping. sugar. roasted meat. . Sweets Honey. water. and seeded green peppers cut into strips. and raisins. paprika.

these curdle the milk. diatomite Industries fish processing.8 female Per capita GDP $38. aluminum smelting. Iceland’s language has maintained its purity for 1. In 1944 Iceland’s assembly. 82. green vegetables. glaciers. Denmark ruled Iceland from 1380.2 HIV rate 0. and long dark winters. three quarters of the surface is wasteland: glaciers. Despite limiting the catch of codfish. horses. tourism History Iceland was settled by Norwegian seafarers and Irish who left Ireland in the late 9th century. There are geysers and hot springs. Iceland’s economy slowed in 2007. recognizing it as a separate state in 1918. In 1980 Iceland elected a woman president. The Gulf Stream moderates the climate. After the early 1990s recession. established in 930.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. cattle. is the world’s oldest surviving parliament.1% Agriculture potatoes. a country of lava fields. chickens. codfish stock in Icelandic waters has decreased over the years. tomatoes.4 male. Following several years of vigorous growth. geothermal power. Althing. It was Christianized by 1000. is used extensively for preservation of meat. The worldwide financial crisis in 2008 hit Iceland hard.S. Influences on food In general. prompting the prime minister’s warning of national bankruptcy. the liquid remaining after the curds are removed from skimmed milk (as in making skyr or cheese).000 live births 3. and a lava desert. proclaimed Iceland an independent republic. military presence in Iceland ended with the closing of Keflavik naval air station in 2006. Major Languages Icelandic (official) English Nordic languages German (widely spoken) Ethnic Groups Icelandic (homogeneous mixture of Norse-Celtic) European Other 94% 4% 2% Major Religions Lutheran Church of Iceland (official) Other Christian Unaffiliated. Whey. when it joined Norway. other 86% 8% 6% Population density per sq. pigs. cereals. Skyr is made by adding bacterial cultures and rennet to skimmed sheep’s or cow’s milk. in the North Atlantic Ocean. ferrosilicon production.800 Labor force in agriculture 5. mi.9 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 78. and the curds become skyr. A 55-year U. the world’s first elected female chief of state. Althing. is not well suited for agriculture. 131 .5% Arable land 0.2% Unemployment rate 2. touches the Arctic Circle and is Europe’s most western point. Iceland was an independent republic from 930 to 1262. Two important dairy products are skyr and whey. fish. However. 7.000 years. Most people live on the 7% of land that is fertile coastline. the economy rebounded. A volcanic region.1% Urban 92. lamb and dairy products are excellent. goats Natural resources fish. lakes. hydropower. Iceland. sheep. Iceland shares a common cuisine with the other Scandinavian countries.I ICELAND Republic of Iceland Geography Iceland.

round. salt pork. is buried and allowed to ferment. Smoking. mushrooms. vinegar. Rice porridge with sugar and cream. shark). currants. cardamom. poultry. Beverages Milk. cheese or cream. Meat. onions. They also provide hot water and heating for houses in Reykjavik. sour cream. cormorant). the abundant hot geysers in Iceland heat the earth so that it can be used to cook the food. beer. Butter cookies. dried fish. eaten traditionally but are eaten less often now. tomatoes. It includes the Himalayan Mountains. a traditional beverage). raisins. oatmeal or rice porridge. trout. fish Chicken. mustard. plums. margarine. the world’s highest. testicles. Roast ham or pork. wheat. Skyr with cream. or after the evening meal are usual. smoked items (lamb. salmon. bread from rye flour. sugar. guillemot. Vegetables Potatoes. skyr (milk curds). almond paste (marzipan). cream. Boiled potatoes. Whey-preserved items include offal (such as lamb’s heart. Pancakes served with fruit preserves or berry jam. Fats and oils Butter. turnips. Pea soup. black pepper. eggs. densely populated Ganges Plain in the center. mysa (whey. Fruit Apples. prunes. and cardamom. and sometimes fruit. rice. rye. Skate boiled in cooking liquid from smoked lamb. coffee. it is sold in small pieces (hákarl). cabbage. lard. late afternoon.132 The Food and Culture around the World – India and butter. drying. . cooked on a griddle). making it safe to eat. beef. cloves. Legumes Split peas (yellow and green). mustard. aquavit. tongues. The climate ranges from near-Arctic cold to tropical heat. tea. goat. in the north. milk. pancakes. Sweets Sugar. Fjallagrasamjólk (a distinctive Icelandic soup made with milk and lichen). buttermilk. There is a tradition of using dried fish in place of bread. often served with pancakes. a lichen (a plant consisting of a fungus and a green or blue-green alga). dill. Dairy products Milk (sheep. oats. Christmas food Smoked lamb. potato bread (thin. sea birds (puffin. with butter. Dishes Dried fish such as halibut served raw. although with crinkled black skin. Almost a fourth of the area is forested. carrots. cinnamon. and fish). lichen. halibut. Greenland shark flesh. bordering the Indian Ocean. cheese. preserving food for winter is important. and great rivers with extensive deltas. berries. lamb. the fertile. Cakes made with butter. Seasonings Salt. Braised red cabbage. ginger. INDIA Republic of India Geography India occupies most of the Indian subcontinent in southern Asia. Bread and cereals Barley. horseradish. A national dish Sheep’s head stored in whey. and feet). and fermenting are other methods used to preserve meat and fish. Sea birds (made less fishy tasting by steeping them in milk overnight). unleavened (flat) breads. pork. buttermilk. whey. plateau in the south. white (called French) bread. Meals Three meals a day plus a coffee break midmorning. Nuts and seeds Almonds. cow). As in other far north countries. the large cormorant is considered the best. inedible when raw and untreated. sausages. bread made from Iceland moss. fish (cod. sauerkraut. caraway seeds. sausages. A unique method of cooking is to bury food in a patch of hot earth to cook by itself.

Kashmir A northwest region bordering Pakistan. Vasco da Gama established trading posts (1498–1503). manganese. predominantly Hindu. and 2004 tsunami caused great devastation. and the foods in the regions vary accordingly. died in 1997. wheat. Nationalism grew after World War I. famous for her work among the poor. and political conflicts claimed many lives. diamonds. sugarcane. India was partitioned into India. led by Mahatma Gandhi. Influences on food India. Mother Teresa of Calcutta. has a great diversity of climates. transportation equipment. camels Natural resources coal. corn. Mogul emperors ruled from 1526 to 1857.9 male.3 HIV rate 0. now Pakistan. is from a berry that grows on a vine in southwest India. The climates vary from snowy Himalayas in the north to the tropical south. India is the world’s most populous democracy. mica. the most important spice. India now refers to the country. The coast and rivers provide fish. The Dutch followed. sheep. especially in high-technology industries. The earliest important centers of agriculture and civilization (about 3200 BCE) were in the Indus Valley. vegetables. A 1999 cyclone. Sikkim became a protectorate of India in 1950 and an associate state in 1974. natural gas. steel. and Pakistan. One of the world’s oldest civilizations dates back to at least 3000 BCE in the Indus Valley. Arabs invaded the west in the 8th century. tea.The Food and Culture around the World – India Major Languages Hindi (both English official) 21 other official languages Ethnic Groups Indo-Aryan Dravidian Other 72% 25% 3% Major Religions Hindu Muslim Christian Other 81% 13% 2% 4% 133 Population density per sq. cotton. Wheat is common in the north. coconut. ethnic. chemicals. India became independent in 1947 and a democratic republic in 1950. mining. and the British gained control of most of the country. predominantly Muslim. fish Industries textiles. iron ore. goats. fruits. rice and coconut are common in the south. cement. The British East India Company came in 1609. 1. oil. chromite. whereas it used to refer to the whole subcontinent. 71. Buddhism was established in the 3rd century BCE. large in area and the second most populous country in the world. pigs. oil. sorghum. jute. and cuisines. Sikkim Bordering northern India. The economy has grown since the 1990s. Turkish Muslims gained control in the north by 1200. Hinduism originated here about 2000 BCE. bauxite. In 1949 the UN gave the northwest part of Kashmir to Pakistan and the east two thirds to India. food processing. titanium.7% Infant mortality rate per 1.700 Labor force in agriculture 60% Urban 28.9% Arable land 49% Agriculture rice. which India incorporated as its only Muslim-majority state.000 live births 32. cattle. water buffalo. 2001 earthquake. millet. who advocated self-rule and nonviolence.9 female Per capita GDP $2. mi. software History Agriculture in India dates back at least to the 7th millennium BCE. oilseeds. The next phase occurred when Aryans. India’s first woman president took office in 2007. Around 1500 BCE Aryans from the northwest invaded and merged with early inhabitants to create Indian civilization. limestone.3% Unemployment rate 9. machinery. wheat and barley were staples.000 Literacy rate 66% Life expectancy 66. pulses. pepper. India is the land of spices. Kashmir is predominantly Muslim. agricultural and pastoral people from . Bombings in recent years including 2008 have killed hundreds of people. cultures. potatoes. In the 1980s and 1990s religious. The economy has continued to perform well. During the 4th to 6th centuries CE a golden age existed. chickens.

lassi (diluted yogurt). such as milk and ghee. bread (roti). quinces. Vegetables Potatoes. paratha (unleavened whole wheat flour pancake). eggs. the Indian version of Mongol. sardines). cumin seed. or other liquid is added it is a wet masala. and accompanying savory dishes add flavor. cumin. a sun-dried fish from Bombay coast. beginning in the 16th century and lasting more than two centuries. cheese (pannir). okra. lentils. beef. puri (puffed circles of deep-fried unleavened whole wheat bread). arrived around 1500 BCE and formed the Vedic culture. spinach. peanut oil. mustard seeds. Another important Hindu principle is division of human society into castes. rosewater. although they consume dairy items and some eat eggs (notably the Parsi). cashew nuts. green peas. peanuts. jackfruit. melons. eggplant. limes. fresh curds. eat beef and prepare fine beef dishes. red chilies. vegetables. cauliflower. guavas. peppers. and spices are widely consumed. for example pork and spiced pork sausage. such as meat and alcohol. cinnamon. they eat no beef. rice dishes. pigeon peas. and those of the higher castes are vegetarians. fenugreek. Through the Moghul court. fish Chicken. and others). lamb and mutton. mung beans. pomegranates. poultry.134 The Food and Culture around the World – India Central Asia. black-eyed peas. turmeric. naan (individual bread loaf made of white flour and cooked on tandoor inner wall). black pepper. Most Indian vegetarians abstain from meat and poultry. An important feature of Indian cuisine is vegetarianism. turmeric. who depend on lentils. is basic in Indian ideology and was reinforced by Buddhism and Jains doctrine. leafy green vegetables. Meat. Fats and oils Ghee (clarified butter). The Mongol Empire at its height in the Middle Ages covered most of the known world. walnuts. cucumbers. plantains. Cereal is the main component of the meal. sesame seeds. fish (Bombay duck. introductions included the highly refined cuisine of Persia such as pilaf and sweet dishes. sesame seed oil. grapes. and rice (Jain is an extremist vegetarian sect). Also. idli (steamed small pancake of ground lentils and rice). vegetable oils. poppy seeds. tamarind. buffalo). lemons. the tandoor (cylindrical clay oven). established Goa as a colony in 1510. tamarind. Dairy products Milk (cow. traditionally a Hindu could consume only foods cooked and served by a member of an equal or superior caste. buttermilk. dairy products. goat. when yogurt. tomatoes. spices and herbs (such as coriander seed. dietary laws prohibit consumption of pork and alcohol by Muslims and of onions (or any root) by Jains. allspice. pimento. Garam masala (a blend of spices such as coriander. Nuts and seeds Almonds. carrots. pork. Most Indians are Hindus. radishes. and brought Portuguese and Christian Catholic influence. kept dry. water buffalo. betel nuts. rokum (a sour deep red fruit). oranges. Ahimsa. coconut. ground together. shellfish (shrimp). cardamom. Bread and cereals Rice. papaya. In other religions. mint. mustard oil. pomfret. garlic. apples. reverence for life. Fruit Bananas. some foods are considered pure. lentils. Jains and a large proportion of Hindus are vegetarians. Legumes (dal) Chickpeas. is fried or used in curry. coconut. nutmeg. green beans. peaches. coconut milk. who also settled along the west coast. coconut oil. Muslim invasions beginning in the 8th century CE introduced new eating patterns emphasizing meat. These important influences increased the diversity of Indian cuisine. dosa (seasoned pancake made with ground rice and lentils). Seasonings Onion. British control for more than three centuries resulted in Anglo-Indian cookery. chapati (crisp flat round whole wheat bread cooked on a griddle without oil). wheat. kidney beans. Bombay duck. . More recently. Throughout India cereals. important culinary immigration was in the north by Moghuls. and only members of the same caste will eat together. saffron. The principle of regarding cattle as sacred dates from the Vedas about 1800 BCE. ginger. soybeans. pistachios. mullet. fenugreek. The Portuguese opened the sea route to India in 1498. pineapple. Syrian Christians. and fruits and nuts from other parts of the empire. and used as the base for curry sauces. yogurt. sunflower seeds. mangoes. Masala. raisins. black pepper. and others impure and to be avoided.

mutter paneer (simmered cheese cubes. is a central pile of rice or bread surrounded by savory accompaniments in small containers. Pakora (deep-fried vegetable such as eggplant. may consist of anything except the staple rice or bread. broiling. fruit drinks (sharbat). saffron. yogurt. or pickled fruits or vegetables. curds. in northwest India. spices. steaming (prevalent only in the south).. speared on long spikes that are then placed in the tandoor and cooked). Coffeehouses are popular meeting places. Dishes Boiled or steamed rice. and herbs and spices). and ginger). features the bread naan. Dal (lentil purée). Samosa (triangleshaped deep-fried pastry filled with spicy mixture of meat or vegetable.g. vegetable curry (aviyal). soaked in rose-flavored syrup). dam (cooking food in a tightly covered or sealed pot. the standard cooking medium. Korma (lamb with curry sauce thickened with yogurt and nuts or poppy seeds). barfi. 1996). stir-frying. then simmered in water covered and often with added ingredients). coffee in southern India. chicken curry (murgi kari). the prototype of curry powder in the West. a betel leaf wrapped around a betel nut with spices and lime paste. lamb. Chutney (a spicy dish made from raw. on an individual metal serving tray (thali). or onion rings). Cooking methods Boiling. Beverages Tea in northern India. and mustard oil. Tandoori cooking. or herbs. plus afternoon tea or coffee with snacks is typical. Gulab jamun (deep-fried balls of milk. and chutney). and onion salad with green herbs). shrimp curry. rosewater. potato. mustard. and ghee. Dishes decorated with gold and silver leaf. herbs. nuts. mid-morning and evening (the main one). Sambar (lentil purée cooked with vegetables and spices).g. Khir (milk and rice pudding). An acclaimed vegetarian dish. for example. is chewed after meals as a digestive and breath freshener (and it turns the mouth red). jalebi. Sweet samosas (small fried and flaky pastries stuffed with sweet filling). Salt . A Parsi dish. baking. masala. palm wine. fried lentils. Barfi (candy made by cooking milk slowly with sugar to fudge-like consistency and adding coconut. seafood. spices. Achar (brine pickles). eaten anytime but often in the afternoon. mostly done in Punjab. simmering. and steamed or baked.The Food and Culture around the World – Indonesia 135 cloves. and spices). Rayta (cold mixture of raw or cooked vegetables. potato). Curry (made by stirring a spicy mixture. Biryani (layered simmered spicy lamb and boiled saffron rice. Kofta (fried and then simmered meatballs of ground meat with spices). e. and perhaps ground almonds or pistachios). Kashmir has rice as an important crop and milk and honey. shallots. and tandoori chicken (chicken marinated with lime juice. Cookware The metal karhai (resembles a wok) and iron tava (griddle) are usual cookware. for example. grilling. Meals and service Two meals a day. Paan. Street food and snacks Salty snacks (chat). Pachadi (yogurt with ingredients such as ground coconut and red chilies). sugar. poultry. tomato. Kababs (small pieces of lamb or other meat. a snack. molasses. often stir-fried. skewered and broiled or grilled). for example. boiled potato rayta. or vegetables. and coconut. ekuri (scrambled eggs with fresh herbs and peppers). Cachumbar (cucumber. wrapped in a banana leaf. raisins. into onions heated in ghee or oil and then adding the main ingredient and simmering). Jalebi (pretzel-shaped deep-fried batter whorls soaked in syrup with saffron and rosewater).. sometimes with saffron. bhelpuri (cereals. Sweets Sugarcane. widespread only in the north). Persons use fingers of right hand and mix the accompaniments with rice or fold them in a piece of flatbread. Tiffin. Halva (pudding made from milk and fruit or vegetable such as carrot). Pomfret fish stuffed with green chutney. cooked. Rice cooked with jaggery. Kashmir In northern India and adjoining northern Pakistan. A main meal. Pilaf (rice cooked first in melted fat or oil so that grains remain separate. jaggery (unrefined palm sugar). e. deep frying. water flavored with fruit syrups. green peas. flour. red pepper. Cooking some usual Indian foods in iron karhais or tavas significantly increases their iron content (Kollipara and Brittin. Spice blends are usually dry and aromatic in northern India and spicy-hot wet masalas in southern India. with raisins and cashews). fruits. and spices. mango or tomato chutney) usually accompanies curry.

cassava. modified form of Malay) English Dutch Local dialects (Javaanese most widely spoken) Ethnic Groups Javanese Sudanese Malay Madurese Minangkabau Han Chinese.3% Arable land 11% Agriculture rice. 73. The Netherlands ceded sovereignty in 1949. Trade with China started in the 5th century CE. Sumatra. yogurt-marinated lamb simmered with spices.2% Unemployment rate 10. earthquakes are frequent. a zoological demarcation between Asian and Australian flora and fauna. other 41% 15% 9% 3% 3% 29% Major Religions Monotheism (official) Muslim Protestant Roman Catholic Hindu Other 86% 6% 3% 2% 3% Population density per sq. formed with reeds and mud to provide fertile beds for vegetables. Hindus. Arab traders brought Islam along the trade routes in the 13th century. Portuguese traders arrived in the 16th century. coal.8 Literacy rate 91. salt. the west half of New Guinea. often covered with pink water lilies from the Asian lotus and prominent in the cuisine.136 The Food and Culture around the World – Indonesia tea. of the high priestly class (men go by the title of pandit). fish. cattle. Wallace’s Line. nickel. goats. cocoa. nationalists declared independence. INDONESIA Republic of Indonesia Geography Indonesia is in Southeast Asia. Earthquakes in 2005 and 2006 and floods in 2007 killed thousands and caused extensive damage. coffee. and along the equator. mi. Many Hindus are Brahmins. silver Industries oil and natural gas. sheep. Bali. and Malaysia. In the 20th century Indonesia was united under one rule for the first time.4% Life expectancy 68 male. it comprises over 13. The mountains and plateaus on the major islands have a cooler climate than the tropical lowlands. is prepared by boiling a special leaf with water. Major Languages Bahasa Indonesian (official. The Dutch replaced the Portuguese as the most important European trader in the 17th century and ruled Indonesia until 1942. which held its Hindu religion and culture. timber. Indian Ocean. and Islam took hold in the islands except Bali. rubber.000 years ago Hindu and Buddhist influence from India reached Indonesia. copper. Unlike Brahmins of the rest of India. served frequently. apparel. peanuts. chemical fertilizers. mining.3% Urban 48. including Java (one of the most densely populated areas in the world). gold. plywood. Nearly 2. Kashmir is famous for its lakes. Also on the lakes are houseboats and floating vegetable gardens.500 islands (6.1 female Per capita GDP $3.000 live births 31 HIV rate 0. A massive earthquake triggered devastating tsunamis in 2004. and soda until an almost pink color permeates the brew. and Timor. bordering the Pacific Ocean. Muslim and Christian clashes from 1999 to 2002 and terrorist bombings in 2002 and 2004 killed thousands. most of Borneo. and Buddhists comprise the population. tin. Muslims. and a republic was declared in 1950. sugarcane. copra. With the largest number of active volcanoes in the world.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. Kashmir pandits eat meat as in the Kashmiri specialty rogan josh (curried lamb). footwear. 336. divides Indonesia. An archipelago off the Southeast Asia mainland. Following Japanese occupation from 1943 to 1945. cement.700 Labor force in agriculture 43. textiles. A peace agreement in 2005 ended decades of conflict . rubber History People migrated to Indonesia from mainland Asia before 1000 BCE. chickens. natural gas. pigs Natural resources oil. milk. palm oil. bauxite.000 inhabited).

Vegetables Cassava. and a social system conducive to efficient production of staple crops. coconut milk. fish Fish (fresh. water buffalo (carabao). and the Dutch controlled the islands to 1949. litchis. jackfruit. Opor ajam (chicken and coconut milk curry). made by simmering cubed water buffalo or beef. vegetables (lalab). tamarind. oranges. turmeric leaf. garlic. Nuts and seeds Candlenuts. Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. cassava. sago. Food preparation Food is cut into small pieces before cooking or is carved in the kitchen. or saté (bits of skewered meat. The economy continued to perform well in 2007. Nasi goreng (fried rice: meat and vegetables fried. tamarind. bread.The Food and Culture around the World – Indonesia 137 between pro-independence insurgents and the military. eggplant. In the past. and Java have very fertile volcanic soils. and coconut milk until coconut milk be- . Dutch trade became dominant in the 17th century. cabbage. chili peppers. turmeric. lard. Southeast Bali. Dishes Boiled rice. the world’s most populous Islamic nation. and all combined). Meat. dried). they observe the end of Ramadan (the fasting month) by at least two days of social visiting when junior family members or employees visit senior ones to ask forgiveness of the past year’s trespasses. yogurt. South China Sea. butter. goat. known as the East Indies. and flooded rice fields provide fish and seafood. The basic diet is rice. Most of the Hindus fled to Bali and have maintained their culture. lamb. rivers. especially rice. peppers. Food is hot. dipped in a hot spicy peanut sauce. salt. although now milk bars are popular in big towns. mangoes. Soto ajam (ginger chicken soup). Dutch influences include baked wheat flour products (biscuits. sesame oil. wheat. Rice. Sumatra of Spain. often topped with a fried egg. peanut oil. sesame seeds. drink tea. mung beans. or fish/seafood. chicken. For centuries a few small islands in East Indonesia supplied the Old World with its most treasured spices. soybeans and bean curd. bananas. taro. and Java of England. West Sumatra. poultry. rice dishes. and salty. cocoa. the government said it planned to leave OPEC in 2008. The Indian Ocean. bitter cucumber (gourd). papaya. basted with soy sauce and oil. abundant rainfall. Bread and cereals Rice. pomelo. pork. frying. and Islam became dominant here. corn. vegetable oil and shortening. often poured over rice. eggs. durian. Muslims do not consume pork or alcohol. With oil production failing.500 islands. yet Java has nearly half of Indonesia’s population. cucumbers. ginger root. sour. sweetened condensed milk (used in coffee). garlic. Legumes Peanuts. The spread of Islam in the 15th century broke up the last great Hindu-Javanese empire. lemon grass. lakes. noodles. probably brought from the Southeast Asian mainland at least 2. Fats and oils Palm oil. coconut oil. food was sometimes wrapped in leaves and baked in a trench lined with hot stones. sweet. cakes. kenari nuts (similar to almonds). a dish of village origin. long green bitter bean (peté). Influences on food Indonesia. and eat cakes. onion. green beans. fried thin rice. laos. chicken. Chili peppers were introduced from the New World after discovery voyages in the 16th century. and sago are still favored. In Indonesia. Satay. beef. the fourth most populous country of the world. has become the main food except in East Indonesia and West Java where taro. lime juice. fish. Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) is roughly the size of France. Seasonings Chili peppers. limes. and grilled over charcoal). salted. sweet pastries. margarine. Rendang (dry beef curry). fermented shrimp paste (trassi) and fish sauce. soy sauce. and cakes). Portuguese traders frequented these islands. and then simmering with onion. and serving dishes all at once in a rijsttafel. covers a vast area and consists of more than 13. cream (used whipped in pastries). and wheat flour bread. rice fried in the same oil.000 years ago. during the 16th century. Rice wrapped in banana leaves and steamed or baked. Fruit Coconut. and hot chilies. a fried egg on fried rice. melons. Dairy products Water buffalo milk. bean sprouts.

coated with grated coconut). Java lalab (raw or lightly boiled vegetables such as cabbage and cucumbers served with hot sambar made with trassi). such as fish. cotton. zinc. lead. coconut juice. Sumatra water buffalo stew. IRAN Islamic Republic of Iran Geography Iran is in the Middle East. a meat. Sambar (hot spicy relish or chili. iced tea. Special occasion dishes Bali tumpeng (rice cone). mi. sugar. Sweets Raw sugar. vegetables. and sugar. Sumatra gulai (an everyday curry: anything cooked with chili. salt.670 m) in the north. and bean sprouts with hot spicy coconut milk and peanut sauce). sugarcane. fruit drinks. Beverages Coffee.3 Literacy rate 84. and sweet bean paste bits). and coconut milk).600 Labor force in agriculture 25% Urban 66. and very thick.287 km) long.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. A Bali specialty Chopped turtle meat mixed with coconut milk and spices. and garlic fried in a little oil and added to a main ingredient to flavor it while it cooks).2% Unemployment rate 11. iron ore.4 female Per capita GDP $10. beef. coal.138 The Food and Culture around the World – Iran comes oil. potatoes. fruit. sweet black tea. 72. or chicken gulai. Most Indonesians mix rice with other cooked foods just before eating and eat with fingers of their right hand. tamarind.4 male. chicken. onion. and onions. or fish dish. other spices. fruit. sulfur. and turmeric—and ginger for fish—in coconut milk and retaining its sauce).603 feet (5. Steamed cakes of glutinous rice flour. Meals and service Usual meal: rice.7% Life expectancy 69. sheep. brown. natural gas. tomatoes. Nasi kuning (yellow rice made by boiling rice with turmeric in coconut milk). cucumbers. bean drinks. cassava. a food offering symbolizing the sacred mountain where the deities lived. and soup. and coconut. cattle Natural resources oil. salt. tjintjau (iced drink of brewed tjintjau leaves. bordering the Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf. Immature coconut. and many oases and forests. Sumatra lado (a fiery sambar of chili. Onde-onde (simmered balls of rice flour. Many people do not drink with meals. copper.5% Arable land 10% Agriculture grains. manganese. sugar beets. nuts.000 live births 36. Java rempah (fried patties of ground beef. Sweet rice cakes sprinkled with sesame seeds. a large salt desert 800 miles (1. palm sugar. coconut milk. goats. stir-fried). Major Languages Persian (Farsi) (official) and Persian dialects Turkic and Turkic dialects Kurdish Arabic Ethnic Groups Persian Azeri Gilaki and Mazandarani Kurd Arab Other 51% 24% 8% 7% 3% 7% Major Religions Islam (official) Shi’a Muslim Sunni Muslim Other (including Christian) 89% 9% 2% Population density per sq. with seafood or beef added it becomes a more substantial sambar goreng. chromium. It has interior highlands and plains surrounded by mountains rising to 18. sugar. 104. fish .9 HIV rate 0. Java gado-gado (vegetables such as cabbage. spices. Moluccan candy (crisp balls of ground kenari and sugar). eaten at weddings. rice wine (brom). chickens. onion.

beluga sturgeon.500 years ago. came from the east during the second millennium BCE and supplanted an earlier agricultural community. sunflower seeds. after talks ended in deadlock in 2008. which regained independence in the next century. white beans. Bread and rice are eaten at most meals. game. with Shiite Islam the official religion. Vegetables Tomatoes. poultry. The ancient silk route from China to Syria went through northern Iran. beef. cherries. costly war over a waterway between them. eggplant. potatoes. and arts and sciences flourished. Meat. Distinctive for rice dishes and use of fruit. From 1502 to 1722 the Iranian Safavid dynasty ruled. Iran’s climate. Bread and cereals Wheat. Dairy products Yogurt. spinach. peaches. vegetable oil (sunflower). Legumes Chickpeas. sumac. . fish Chicken. barberries. replacing the indigenous Zoroastrian faith. olives. the United States added sanctions. an Indo-European group related to the Aryans in India. petrochemicals. Turks and Mongols ruled here from the 11th century to 1502. from the warm Persian Gulf to cold high mountains. citrus. ancient Persia. Reza Khan took power in a coup in 1921.The Food and Culture around the World – Iran 139 Industries oil. poultry. wheat leavened flatbreads including lavash (flexible. forming a high arid central plateau. textiles. thin bread cooked on tandoor wall. Mountains circle Iran. pomegranates. In 1941 he abdicated and was succeeded by his son. and Afro-Arab-Indian trade was through southern Iran. Persians carried their produce such as spinach. rendered fat of fat-tailed sheep (donbeh). it keeps well and is used to eat food by hand). Date and orange trees grow in oases in the south. from the Indus to the Nile. returned and established a fundamentalist Islamic republic. metal fabricating. oranges. raisins. clarified butter (roghan). pistachios. and saffron to the corners of the known world. sesame seeds. became shah in 1925. dates. rice (long grain. 728 BCE and were overthrown in 549 BCE by the Persian king Cyrus the Great. more than 2. mulberries. goat. lemons. the Persian Empire. and many countries. white). feta cheese. and began modernization and changed the country’s name to Iran in 1935. plums. fish (herring. armaments History The Iranians. eggs. Centrally located in the ancient world. Persian cuisine has influenced that of the Ottoman Empire. results in a diversity of growing seasons and grains and fruit. shrimp. and eaten sparingly. exiled by the shah in 1963. cement and other construction materials. eggplant. In the 19th century Britain and Russia controlled the country. The Caspian Sea and Persian Gulf provide fish. expensive. In 333 BCE Alexander the Great conquered Persia. filo dough pastry. split peas. radishes. yogurt. stuffed vegetables. food processing. Influences on food Iran. with consumption of pork or alcohol forbidden for Muslims. Persia reasserted it autonomy in the 9th century. who brought economic and social change and was overthrown in 1979. broad (fava) beans. Shiite leader Ayatollah Khomeini. walnuts. rhubarb. lamb. extended from Russia to Egypt and from Greece to India. Britain severed Afghanistan from Persia in 1857. cucumbers. Viticulture has flourished for thousands of years. currants. Earthquakes in 1990 and 2003 caused thousands of deaths and great damage. quince. other grains. tuna). grapes. apricots. fertilizers. Fruit Melons. diluted yogurt drink (ayran). Arabs brought Islam in the 7th century. Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Meat is scarce. is a land bridge connecting cold northern plains with hot southern deserts and the Middle East with the Far East. The soil is fertile and water is carried in underground channels from mountains to the fields and orchards. Trade carried other products such as rice. and later to North Africa and southern Europe. cold in winter and hot in summer. nectarines. Arabs. pomegranates. rashi (sesame paste). To halt Iran’s uranium enrichment program. onions. rice dishes. limes. and sweet pastries. The Persian Empire. In the 1980s Iran and Iraq had a long. was at its zenith in 525 BCE. persimmons. lamb and mutton. beets. caustic soda. pine nuts. swordfish. and tea from China and India through Persia to Greece and Rome. Medes occupied this land from c. Nuts and seeds Almonds. camel. Militants and Islamic conservatives have clashed with the government. eggplant. carrots. Fats and oils Butter. the UN Security Council imposed sanctions in 2006 and 2007. Iranian (Persian) cuisine resembles that of the Muslim Middle East: wheat. medlars (resemble apples).

dill) served fresh at every meal and used in many dishes. served with rice or eaten rolled in bread with herbs and pickles. sweet. yogurt. tea. mint. rice or rice flour. tomato. meat is often cooked with fruit. pistachios.” or “relish. basil. onion. where food and music accompanied drinking wine. Stew of mutton or lamb. vinegar. melon. spices (saffron. and syrup). rosewater. all encased in caramelized sugar. The Persian word maza means “taste. and served with saffron chicken). almonds. either chelo (plain) or polo (mixed with vegetables. Herbed omelet. It is mostly a plain and includes the valley between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Desserts made with sugar. olives. cinnamon. Chicken stew with pomegranate (fesenjan). rice is boiled. Stuffed sweet pastry (qotab.g. tea (grown in the Caspian region and in the 20th century superseded coffee) served hot. Sweet sprouted wheat kernel pudding (samanu). nuts. nuts. the solid ingredients are beaten into a paste and served separately while the broth is served with bread. or samosa). mountains in the north. especially lime). mint. or poultry). orange peel. nutmeg. cloves. chickpeas. fruit. cucumber. Sorbets. marjoram. onion. Meat or poultry sauces or stews (khoresht) accompany plain rice (chelo). garlic. desert in the southwest. lemon juice. rosewater. Shireen polo. turmeric). Festive occasion food Large pieces of meat roasted (e. herbs (parsley. lavash. Stuffed meat. cardamom. cardamom. onions. and marshland along the Persian Gulf. coffee (popular for centuries). Alcohol prohibition for Muslims has prevented the mezze tradition from continuing in Iran. Thick soups of pulses and herbs with fruit such as the popular ab-goosht (made with lamb bone. “king of Persian dishes” (saffron rice.” Mezze were first bits of tart fruit and later nuts and roasted meat bits. garnished with barberries and almonds. syrup. in either. whole lamb stuffed with rice. National dish Chelo kabob (marinated lamb pieces grilled on skewers and saffron rice with egg yolk and sumac). meat. Vegetables stuffed with rice and baked in sauces. and turmeric (dizzi). dates. Many savory dishes taste sweet and sour or sour. and nuts. mixed with butter and saffron. salad of cucumber and tomato. coriander. chickpeas. Mezze The mezze perhaps originated in ancient Persia. Dishes Rice. nuts. and raisins. sambusak. chives. especially chicken and lamb roasted in a tandoor or grilled over charcoal. and limes). and fruit) or grilled. saffron. Beverages Sharbat (iced fruit drink. Summer soup of yogurt. Meal Lunch (main meal): saffron rice with lamb. carrot shreds. other 75–80% 15–20% 5% Major Religions Islam (official) Shi’a Muslim Sunni Muslim Christian. Sweets Sugar. and heated in a pan to produce a brown crust on the bottom. broad beans. other 62–65% 32–37% 3% . The most popular dessert: fresh fruit followed by tea and sweetmeats. wheat or chickpea flour. Major Languages Arabic (official) Kurdish (official in Kurdish regions) Turkoman (Turkish dialect) Assyrian Armenian Ethnic Groups Arab Kurdish Turkoman. such as almonds rolled in sugar syrup (noql) or baklava (baked layers of filo pastry. and dried fruit.. in small glasses throughout the day to all. tarragon. Kabobs (meat pieces marinated in onion and lemon juice and grilled on a skewer). IRAQ Republic of Iraq Geography Iraq is In the Middle East. Assyrian.140 The Food and Culture around the World – Iraq Seasonings Onion.

olives. troop numbers in Iraq. a Christian group speaking a modern dialect of Aramaic. dates. rice. Influences on food Iraq has the same natural division as ancient Mesopotamia. The Ottomans ruled it from the 16th century to 1917. natural gas.S. pita bread (flatbread. . porridge. Vegetables Tomatoes. apples. from cattle or water buffalo. cattle Natural resources oil. Both cook usual northern dishes such as stews. civilians. goat. In 2007 a “surge” increased U. Al Iraq (Babylonia) grows rice and dates. fish Chicken. is more common than in most of the Arab world and often more common than mutton. Beef. Turkish influences include strudel pastries. fish. chickens. Legumes Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). An Iraqi cabinet was named in 2003. broad beans (fava beans). some pastries and candies. beef. stuffed vegetables (Turkish dolma). Al-Jazirah (Assyria) grows wheat.3 male.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. and stone fruits. which was composed of Assyria in the arid north upland and Babylonia in the marshy south. who do not consume pork or alcohol and fast from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. 169. Two main minority groups in the northeast are Kurds. poultry. potatoes. Persian influences include meat cooked with fruit.600 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 66. and the sour flavoring citric acid crystals (Turkish name limon duzi). sheep. green onions. parsley. and the Persian name rashi for sesame paste instead of the Arabic name tahini. textiles. Saddam Hussein was captured in 2003 and charged with crimes against humanity.S. eggplant. Fats and oils Olive oil. Turkish-style clotted cream.S. It became independent under a king in 1932 and a republic in 1958. Iraqi resistance to UN inspection of suspected weapons of mass destruction sites led to a U. and dates. clarified butter (ghee). potatoes. eggs. fish (catfish. leather. rice dishes. and coalition forces. sulfur.4 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 28% Arable land 13% 141 Agriculture wheat. vegetable oil. water buffalo. Persian and Greek conquests followed. repressing Iraqi Kurds and Shiites and launching wars against Iran in 1980 and Kuwait in 1990. goats. Often meat is combined with grain in a dish. Dairy products Yogurt. Bread and cereals Wheat. In 3000 BCE the Sumerians originated the culture of the Babylonians and Assyrians. lentils. cracked wheat (burghul). barley.000 live births 45.The Food and Culture around the World – Iraq Population density per sq. Most Iraqis are Muslims. mi. Arab Muslims held the land from the 7th century CE until the Mongols took it in 1258. tried beginning in 2005. pickles. and convicted and executed in 2006. Insurgents continued attacks against police. food processing History One of the world’s earliest civilizations was in Mesopotamia. In 2004 U. who speak a Persian-related language. Rivers and the Persian Gulf provide fish.1% Life expectancy 68. In 2005 Iraq elected a transitional assembly and president. authorities transferred sovereignty to a transitional Iraqi government. chemicals.1 Literacy rate 74. Northern cuisine resembles that of neighbor Syria. round with hollow center). and grain still dominates the diet. Ancient Mesopotamia civilizations subsisted on wheat and barley. Saddam Hussein became president in 1979 and ruled as a dictator until 2003. 71 female Per capita GDP $3. in the Tigris-Euphrates valley. phosphates.-led coalition invasion in 2003 and Iraqi government collapse. celery. fish Industries oil. A decrease in civilian casualties and violence followed in 2008. cream. mutton and lamb. cotton. construction materials. After World War I Iraq became a League of Nations mandate administered by Britain (the British occupied it in both World Wars). and Assyrians. Arab bread (round wheat flour yeast loaves). stews served over rice. tomatoes. shabbut). southern cuisine relies on rice. filo dough pastry. feta cheese. green peppers. rice. pickled vegetables made pink by beets. Meat. barley. onions.

and dried). cattle.4% Arable land 17% Agriculture sugar beets. apricots. Dishes Harissa (meat stewed with whole wheat). sugar. green onions. the universal Muslim dish. pine nuts. Major Languages Irish (Gaelic). gypsum. cooked on stakes over a fire). in the south. limes. Seasonings Onions. turnips. uruq (meat cut small. mi. served with bread and vegetable pickles. pistachio nuts. called kabab in Iraq except among non-Arab Kurds and called caftan elsewhere. It occupies most of the island west of Great Britain and separated from it by the Irish Sea. and trotters of sheep). beer. Fisinjan (fowl stewed with walnuts and pomegranate). boiled rice replaces wheat and tail fat of fat-tailed sheep replaces meat. lemon juice. and turmeric or tomato juice). 80. wheat.9 female Per capita GDP $43. dolomite . gathered in the Kurdish territory. IRELAND Geography Ireland is in Western Europe bordering the Atlantic Ocean.000 live births 5. vinegar.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. sesame seeds. a fried or poached flat wheat loaf stuffed with meat. peppergrass. salt. raisins. or masgoof (split large fish.142 The Food and Culture around the World – Ireland Fruit Dates. barley. and baked like bread). pomegranates. saffron. Mutabbag (fish or meat smothered in rice). Pacha (boiled heads. paprika. sesame paste (rashi). The principal river is Shannon. The Atlantic coastline is heavily indented. Tharid (a casserole of flatbread layered with meat stew). Manna (sweet substance that appears on plants). A unique Iraqi dish. oregano. a favorite for picnics. limestone. reputedly Mohammed’s favorite dish. silver. 156. sheep. National dish Masquf. Boiled rice. water flavored with rose syrup. potatoes. Grilled ground meat on skewers. black pepper. chickens. raisins.3 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 75. natural gas. Pastries such as baqlawa (baklava) and mutabaqa (flaky bun of puff paste). fermented. Onion dolma (hollowed onion stuffed with rice and meat). Lamb boiled and then glazed in clarified butter. pigs. Assyrian soup (rice and vegetable soup with dill and yogurt). and celery leaves. cinnamon. cumin. tea. made by Assyrian women of villages around Mosul. apples. figs. cumin. barite. turmeric. cardamom. Kashki (meat and cracked-wheat porridge with dried limes. quinces. almonds. Syrups flavored with fruit or flowers such as roses. spoken mainly in the west English (both official) Ethnic Groups Irish Other white Other 87% 8% 5% Major Religions Roman Catholic Church of Ireland (Anglican) Other None 87% 3% 6% 4% Population density per sq. Ireland consists of a central plateau rimmed with hills and mountains. mixed with leavened dough. copper. goats Natural resources fish. cooked and eaten outdoors by a river. Tarkhina (yogurt and cracked wheat mixed. mint. zinc. More spices are used than in Syria or Turkey. arak (grape distillate).1 HIV rate 0. and spices. respectively. Sweets Honey. lemons. tamarind. Nuts and seeds Almonds. preferably shabbut. lead.2% Unemployment rate 4. garlic. peat. Beverages Coffee. both sweet and often flavored with cardamom and mint.4 male. served with slices of tomato and onion and Arab bread. stomachs.100 Labor force in agriculture 6% Urban 60. Mosul kubba (kibbeh). walnuts. rosewater. often fried. melons. dill. tarragon. grapes.

6000 BCE. the 1840s. curds. In 2007 a power-sharing agreement was reached with a new government for Northern Ireland. . oats. By the early 20th century. assimilated the inhabitants. usually smoked. The diet for many people is potatoes. Irish governments have favored peaceful reunification of all Ireland. has endured. oats. Medieval Ireland’s vast forests. Bread and cereals Barley. dairy products. machinery. pharmaceuticals. The Great Famine of the 1840s resulted in death or emigration of 2 million people. baked over an open fire. By the end of the 18th century potato had displaced cereal and dairy products as the dominant food. and beans. partly because Ireland produces a lot of them and partly because most Irish people are Roman Catholics. ending nearly 40 years of conflict in the six northern counties of Ireland under British jurisdiction. and meat and dairy products consumption. refined food customs from outside. and the Anglo-Irish struggle continued for over 700 years. A potato blight arrived in the mid-1840s. occasionally with fish. so wheat and rye breads and pea and bean soups increased in the diet. it was caused by a fungus that almost completely destroyed the potato crops. Cows grazed in lush pastures and supplied abundant milk. The result of the civil war (1919–1921) between the Catholics in southern Ireland. In about 300 BCE Celtic tribes migrated to the islands. The Gaelic culture spread to Scotland in the 5th century CE. and stout. bacon. sugar. everyone planted them and soon came to depend on them. soda bread (crisp bread made with wheat flour. tea. Ireland’s cuisine is often described as simple and hearty. or a salted joint. Influences on food Celtic influence. wild boar. In recent years. clothing. crabapples. and white bought bread replaced homemade breads and milk drinks. bicarbonate of soda. Norsemen invasions began in the 8th century and ended in 1014 with defeat by the Irish. oatcakes. some was made into salted butter. Britain in 1949 recognized Ireland’s independence but declared that the northern six counties’ cession required the consent of Northern Ireland. Wealth was calculated on the size of the dairy herd. In the late 19th century there were increases in grazing and dairy farming. established in the 4th-century BCE. In the 18th century butter exportation soared accompanied by increased cultivation and consumption of potatoes. tea. Anglo-Normans arrived in the 11th and 12th centuries and increased the cultivation of wheat. salted bacon. so not much beef was eaten. was that Southern Ireland became the Irish Free State in 1922 and Northern Ireland remained part of the United Kingdom. agricultural prosperity. Until well into the 20th century the Irish Catholics ate fish (usually boiled salted fish with a basic white sauce) on the fast days of Wednesday and Friday and during Lent. moist climate. onions. berries. Patrick converted the Irish to Christianity. peas. The Picts and Erainn inhabited the islands during the Stone and Bronze ages. Overall. hops. Cereals were made into porridge and cakes of oats and barley. and the Protestant majority in the north. over a third of the Irish relied almost exclusively on the potato for food. recognized as a national dish by 1800. Ireland’s first woman president was Mary Robinson (1990–1997). The potato thrived in Ireland’s cool. Upper society has more diversified. By the time of the Great Famine. inland waterways. and buttermilk). or egg. the same century that St. plus boiled herring or salted bacon if available. and everyone peeled their potatoes and ate them with milk or buttermilk. The Irish added the potato to lamb or kid to become Irish stew. and mutton were the usual meats. and established a Gaelic civilization. fish. The early Irish diet centered on cereals and dairy products. who preferred continued union with Britain. watercress. and coasts contributed venison. Pork. Ireland’s economy has improved dramatically. and fish. reducing Ireland’s population by over a fifth. The potato rapidly became the basic foodstuff and has remained so. turnips. brewing. English invasions started in the 12th century. and eaten with honey. rice. By 1851 about a million Irish had died and about a million had emigrated. wheat. Usually potatoes were boiled in a pot of water. who favored independence. chemicals. and salted meat dominated the diet until the potato arrived from the New World in the 17th century. rye. textiles. Ireland became a sovereign democratic state in 1937 and a republic in 1948. with expanded educational opportunities and foreign investment in high-tech industries. oatmeal porridge. wheat flour and oatmeal bread. Irish people eat a lot of fish and potatoes. soda bread. rail transportation equipment History Humans settled Ireland c.The Food and Culture around the World – Ireland 143 Industries food.

hazelnuts. or baked meat and vegetables. and butter). greens. also baked. herbs (parsley for sauces. Fish and chips (deep-fried. onions. vinegar. Colcannon (boiled potatoes and cabbage mashed together with milk. sugar. cauliflower. mint for lamb or peas). pork. Bubble and squeak (leftover potatoes and cabbage chopped and fried together). Shepherd’s pie (meat and onion pie topped with mashed potatoes). St. cabbage. bacon. and chopped onions). boiled. sesame seeds. and iced with sugar and cut into squares). onions. Mashed potatoes. or fruit). buttermilk. Pie (meat. and water spread over pastry and baked. walnuts. heavy). On March 17. raisins. vinegar. Pickled cabbage. commemorating Ireland’s patron saint. Vegetables Potatoes. peas. goat. . and spices). soy. vegetable oil. battered fish and fried potatoes). lard. Kidney beans. and milk). lamb and mutton. Nuts are popular in sweets. National dish Irish stew (simmered mutton or kid. Beverages Milk. carrots. Tea: hot tea and a light snack. leeks. baked. Condiments Worcestershire sauce (anchovies. Patrick’s Day dish bage is popular. mint jelly (used with lamb). strawberries. flour. goat). allspice. beans. spices. margarine. potatoes. pea. pecans. lima beans. curds. Dishes Potatoes. thyme in poultry stuffing. Bean. garlic. lentils. corned beef and cab- Sweets Honey. fish. beef. salt. with white bread. called mash. Fats and oils Legumes Butter. ISRAEL State of Israel Geography Israel is in the Middle East. salt pork. Boiled lobster. plums. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Roast pork with apples.144 The Food and Culture around the World – Israel Meat. and water plus perhaps other vegetables). and marinated). Meals Breakfast: oatmeal porridge. usually boiled. Soused mackerel (mackerel with onions. butter. Berry pudding. chestnuts. Food is mildly seasoned and served with flavorful sauces and strong flavored condiments used to taste. and tea or milk. pork Dairy products Milk (cow. and desert in the south. rosemary for lamb. Fish and shellfish. Blarney— resembles Swiss). custard. and hearty soups. onion. or poultry. chicken. game. cherries. split peas. raisins. beer (stout preferred. poultry. It has a fertile coastal plain. turnips. and other vegetables. the Judean Plateau in the center. cream. gooseberries. leeks. Gur cake (stale bread and cake. dark. Seasonings Salt. beef stews. tea (black. fish sausage. Roast beef or lamb. Dinner: meat. butter. rich. currants. potatoes. Pudding (steamed. onions. and lemon juice. taken by most people in late afternoon. at the east end of the Mediterranean Sea. Champ (mashed potatoes with milk. herbs. eggs. covered with or in a crust and baked). Fruit Apples. served with milk and sugar). Irish whiskey. sheep. The Jordan is the only principal river. vanilla. fish. and mustard soups. parsnips. vegetables. garlic. sage for poultry stuffing. cheese (cheddar. black pepper. or fruit. Irish Christmas cake (white fruitcake with nuts and allspice). Boxty (pancakes made with grated raw potatoes.

8 female Per capita GDP $25. the area was controlled by Rome. 82. flatbreads. renaming it Palestine. fruit and nuts. moderate. timber. For many centuries inhabitants of the region have eaten wheat products. magnesium bromide. Palestinian Territories Gaza Strip and the West Bank are the Palestinian Territories.5% Urban 91. In 2005 Israel evacuated Jewish settlers from Gaza and made a fortified barrier on its border to block infiltrators.000 live births 4. Gaza Strip. mi. In 1947 the UN General Assembly partitioned Palestine into an Arab and a Jewish state. more secular faction). potash and phosphates. wood and paper products.3 HIV rate 0. with Israel retaining control over security. and Greek conquests. raw vegetables. food.2% Arable land 15% Agriculture potatoes. In 1993–1994 agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority provided for interim self-rule in Gaza. in 2008 Hamas blew up part of the border wall between Gaza and Egypt. chickens. In 2002 Israel began building a security barrier in the West Bank. the Philistines. after earlier inhabitants. many of the people adhere to the dietary laws of the Jewish religion. After Hamas took over in 2007. tomatoes.1 Literacy rate 91. in 1917 Britain took control of the land. called Canaan by the Hebrews. Israel intensified military and economic pressures. copper. Israel controls much of the land. phosphate rock. potash. is inhabited mostly by Palestinian Arabs. the Palestinians now have full or shared control of 40% of the area.800 Labor force in agriculture 18. cotton. Persian. Conflict with Arabs continued through the 20th century and as of late 2008. In 2007 in bitter fighting in Gaza.5 male. Immigration of Jews and Arabs increased. lentils. goats Natural resources fish. more than 35% of whom live in refugee camps. In 2008 relations between Israel and Syria were strained when Israeli planes bombed a military building in Syria. cattle. Also. In 2004 the World Court in a nonbinding ruling said the barrier violated international law. Israel captured it from Jordan in 1967. Since 1996 the Palestinian Authority has been responsible for civilian government.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. pigs.1% Unemployment rate 8. Israel captured Gaza from Egypt in 1967. After Babylonian. sheep. .8% Life expectancy 78. clay. West Bank is bordered by Israel and Jordan. Judaism developed in this land. Hamas ousted Fatah from Gaza but the president retained power in the West Bank. leading to deteriorating relations with Arabs. beverages. citrus. lamb and kid. during the 2nd and 1st millennium BCE . Israel became independent in 1948. natural gas. broad beans. A victory by Hamas militants in legislative elections in 2006 led to a power struggle with the president of the Palestinian Authority (of the Fatah. although a Jewish minority remained. Jews migrated there during Nazi persecution. who favored a negotiated settlement with Israel. tobacco History Israel occupies the southwest corner of the ancient Fertile Crescent. After four centuries of Ottoman rule. sand Industries high-tech projects. 906. between Israel and the Mediterranean Sea.The Food and Culture around the World – Israel Major Languages Hebrew (both Arabic official) English Ethnic Groups Jewish Arab (mostly) and other 76% 24% Major Religions Judaism Muslim Christian Other 76% 16% 2% 6% 145 Population density per sq. Arabs invaded in 636 CE and by a few centuries later Arabic language and Islam prevailed. Influences on food Israel’s varied cuisine is a blend of indigenous Middle Eastern cooking and that of many Jewish immigrants who settled there since nationhood.

from Germanic and Slavic areas with cuisines far removed from the biblical landscape and climate. ducks. Fats and oils Olive oil. raisins. Vegetables Potatoes. or sciatic nerve (runs through hindquarters of quadrupeds). yogurt. cheese (usually feta). Under Jewish dietary laws no work including cooking may be done on the Sabbath (sundown Friday until Saturday evening) so food must be prepared ahead of time. In summary. and food for special occasions (especially no leavened bread during Passover). Both Islam and Judaism came from a Middle Eastern nomadic pastoral culture and have much in common. and fish that have both scales and fins. avocados. lettuce. turkey. pomegranates. oranges. fish. Sephardic cooking developed in a geographic and cultural climate compatible with the Bible. cucumbers. breaded and fried). baked or fried). Börek (pastry filled with meat or cheese). walnuts. filo dough. cardamom. pine nuts. tomato. chopped liver. goat. Once the country was established. and locusts (baked and sun dried). Sephardi refers to Jews of the Iberian Peninsula and their descendants. bananas. seasoned. Jews who came in the late 1940s after many centuries of exile in the southwest corner of the Arabian Peninsula. how to slaughter. beef. Legumes Broad beans (fava beans). Thus Jewish dietary laws forbid consumption of pork. rice dishes. kreplach. lox (salmon). and utensils for dairy and meat are required. kibbeh. radishes. Fruit Grapefruit. with hollow center). gefilte fish. white yeast loaf braid bread. pureed beans or chickpeas). chickpeas (garbanzo beans). sesame seeds. kneidlach. ginger. Kibbeh . round. hilbeh. yeast buns. eggplant. Hummus (boiled. lamb. Schnitzel (cutlet. usually veal or pork. pita bread (thin. apples. fish Chicken. unleavened bread). matzoh (crisp. brought a hotly spiced diet and specialties such as qat. consumption of. Jewish food is influenced by Jewish dietary laws and two main branches: Sephardi and Ashkenazi. blood. pirog. of meat. or slice. Yemenites of Israel. Gefilte fish (fish skinned and boned and stuffed back into the skin or made into balls and poached). flat. figs. Condiment Hilbeh (sauce of tomatoes. Nuts and seeds Almonds. The kibbutz (collective agricultural settlement) tradition has simple fare of local foods such as homemade bread and applesauce. nondairy margarine. butter. fenugreek seeds. cream. Goulash (meat stew seasoned with paprika and onions). onions. although the proportion of the population that adheres strictly to Jewish dietary laws (the observant Orthodox Jews) is small. poultry. samosa. and spices). settlers came from colder climates with different food customs. Seasonings Onions. ground fenugreek seeds. squash. tomatoes. peppers. dates. cracked wheat. lentils. pomelos. pistachios. coriander. goulash. the majority of whom lived in countries that at one time were under the influence of Islam. Dishes Ful medames (boiled. Tabbouleh (salad of parsley. hot red pepper. Jewish dietary laws are based on the Torah (the first five books of the Bible. corn.146 The Food and Culture around the World – Italy and dairy products. Jewish food includes börek. and of dairy products and meat at the same meal. cumin. caraway seeds. blini. Bread and cereals Wheat. black pepper. tzimmes. birds that are not prohibited. In Israel. how to cook. blood. dill. seasoned fava beans). barley. eggs. latkas. pork. pasta. Separate cooking of. rice. grapes. nondairy imitation dairy products. and shellfish. Pirog (pie with savory or sweet filling. lemons. bagel. Ashkenazi Jews are from the Rhine Valley and further east. Dishes from Central and East Europe include schnitzel. curry powder. and cracked wheat). used to dip bread. the Jewish influence on the availability and marketing of foods is disproportionally greater. and chicken soup. and lax. forbidden is eating swine. Meat. Dairy products Milk. parsley. olives. carrots. the commands of God to Moses) and the Talmud (rabbinical interpretations). Blini (small pancakes). fenugreek seeds. prickly pear cactus (sabra). these are the commands: what may be eaten (Leviticus 11 and Deuteronomy 14) is animals that both chew the cud and have cloven hooves. vegetable oil. hot red chilies. Shawerma (rotisserie lamb or beef). bagel (dense round yeast bun with a hole in the middle). or kat (a narcotic shrub whose leaves are chewed or brewed into tea). garlic.

mountains including the Apennine Mountains forming the peninsula’s backbone. and dill. grapes. raisins. Samosa (small crisp. wine. onions.4% Unemployment rate 6. it lasted until the 5th century CE. citrus peel. tomato. From the 15th to the 18th century Italian lands were controlled by France. and seasonings. The Roman Empire included Western Europe. Beverages Tea. Germanics invaded for several centuries. Latkas (potato fritters). zinc.400 Labor force in agriculture 5% Ethnic Groups Italian Other 96% 4% Major Religions Roman Catholic Muslim Other. Sweets Honey. sheep. northern lakes. food processing. brandy. beans. olives. machinery. flaky pastry).2 female Per capita GDP $30. Street food and snacks Ful medames. chemicals. tabbouleh. potatoes. and North Africa. parsley. fruits. sugar. Roasted or stewed poultry or fried fish with fruits. served with orange sauce. and Austria. Boiled squash with garlic and dill.The Food and Culture around the World – Italy 147 (paste of grain. Rome became the major power in Italy after 500 BCE.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. none 90% 2% 8% Urban 67. Honey cake with spices. 512. Major Languages Italian (official) German French Slovene Population density per sq. wheat. and seasonings. Kneidlach (dumpling). chicken broth. crude oil deposits. goulash. coffee. and almonds. ears of corn. the Holy Roman Empire. Spain. “Israeli hotdog. sulfur. pigs. chickens.000 live births 5. falafel. vegetables. Kreplach (small filled pasta). Italy includes the fertile plains of the Po River Valley. cattle. frozen. and figs. mi. tomatoes. Sesame seed candy. Stew of beef liver and lungs with lemon. textiles. resulting in the Renaissance. marble. shawerma in pita bread. motor vehicles History Indo-Europeans migrated into the area probably from 2000 to 1000 BCE. and eggs in the shell) assembled on Friday and slow cooked. natural gas. French fried potatoes. National dish Falafel (small fried patties/balls of puréed beans or chickpeas). and meat). Avocado half stuffed with nuts and fruit. coastal plains. the Balkans. The Etruscan civilization dominated here from the 9th to the 3rd century BCE. An advanced civilization developed in the northern city-states.” often with hilbeh. the Middle East.2 Literacy rate 98. chicken. Fried whole tilapia fish from the Sea of Galilee. 83. Crepes with bananas. ITALY Italian Republic Geography In southern Europe. a freshwater lake. perhaps olives. mercury. stuffed with ice cream. potash. Sabbath dish Cholent (rice. iron and steel. Fresh fruit.6 HIV rate 0. fish Industries tourism. this boot-shaped peninsula extends from the Alps Mountains into the Mediterranean Sea. Figs simmered in syrup. and cucumber salad. Tzimmes (sweet vegetable or meat dish). soybeans. and islands including Sicily and Sardinia. and dipped in hot oil. Lettuce. corn. coffee. meat. .8% Arable land 26% Agriculture sugar beets.9% Life expectancy 77. goats Natural resources coal. Baked casserole of matzoh. potatoes. beaten eggs. raisins.1 male.

pasta with fish) during Lent. and herbs to a completed dish to thicken and to increase flavor. Parma ham. and coffee drinking was widespread by the late 17th century. pimento peppers. Catalan is a strip along the western Mediterranean. often with melon or figs as an appetizer). in the first century CE. the cuisine was renowned during the time of classical Greece. New World foods brought from the Americas such as corn. lightly frying onion with garlic and herbs as the starting point for many dishes. fried bread. Naples. The northwest coast.. The cooking of the Italian peninsula was the first fully developed cuisine in Europe. have pecorino Romano. varied spices. northern fare uses more dairy products and meat than the south. who eat meatless dishes (e. often used in desserts).. Italy joined the Allies during World War I. and seasonings. Most Italians are Roman Catholics.148 The Food and Culture around the World – Italy Italy was reunified during the 1850s and1860s. Northeastern Italy with Venice on the east coast features seafood and coffee. Also. Florence. During the time of the Roman Empire. provolone. and produces wine and vermouth. has pasta as the staple food and the characteristic combination of tomato and pasta. notably black pepper in desserts. eggplant dishes.g. Polenta (cereal porridge) and cheese pie are two of the oldest Roman dishes. with an active volcano its . beef. adding a pounded mixture of garlic. Fascism led by Benito Mussolini controlled Italy from 1919 to 1943. including the culinary ones. In 2008 the premier reaffirmed Italy’s commitment to the Afghan mission. as Apicius (1958) noted in one of the world’s first cookbooks. wine. vegetables. Italy’s capital. home of pizza. Sicily. Pasta was common in Italy by the 13th century. Called the mother cuisine. The northern center including Bologna has pork sausage similar to American bologna. pasta is commonly stuffed with cheese or meat and topped with a cream sauce. and mixed-fish stews/soups. proscuitto (a raw smoked ham served thinly sliced. spaghetti. From the 9th to the 11th centuries. with Bologna the capital of northern Italian cuisine and Naples the southern capital. wine (especially Chianti). Naples was an important port in medieval times and a gateway for the entry of Catalan cookery. and beef. and ice cream. Italian foods famous worldwide include pasta. pizza. Main foods are pasta and fish. and gorgonzola and Bel Paese cheeses. Parmesan cheese. lasagna) in the north and olive oil and tubular pasta made without eggs (e. Italy was allied with Nazi Germany in World War II. banquets were held in Rome and spices from India were used. is known for green spinach noodles. varied. potatoes. garlic. olive oil. in the north. and the use of pork and lard. grows rice. vineyards. features seafood and herbs. marzipan (almond paste). cheese. and Parmesan cheese. Liguria region with Genoa. Lombardy region in the north including Milan produces rice. vanilla. and popular. Influences on food The Phoenicians and Greeks probably brought the olive tree and chickpeas to the region in ancient times. and rice flavored with saffron. Italy has improved indusrial output and living standards. taking expert chefs with her. Italian cuisine was introduced to France in 1533 when Catherine de Medici of Florence moved to France to marry King Henri II. and ricotta (a sheep’s milk cottage cheese. it is usually served unfilled and with a tomato sauce. Parma ham. Italy led the Renaissance in the arts. and it worked with other counties to establish the EU. sugarcane. They left a strong influence in sweet and savory dishes using almonds and dried fruit. Italy developed and spread over the world a cuisine that is tasty. and aperitifs such as vermouth. Arabs occupied Sicily and brought oranges. rice. whereas in the south. Since World War II. and especially tomatoes also influenced Italian cuisine. It was a charter member of NATO (1949) and of the European Community. enjoyable. Main differences are in fats and pasta. a hard sheep’s milk cheese similar to Parmesan but with sharper flavor. macaroni. In addition. The regions around Rome. Tuscany region is famous for olive groves.. cheeses of surrounding regions include mozzarella. which uses more beans. chocolate. Southern cuisine features olive oil. eggplant. Piedmont region in the northwest including Turin invented grissini (slender breadsticks). pizza. Turin hosted the 2006 Winter Olympics. usually butter and flat pasta made with eggs (e.g. butter. its capital. In Sicily. Northern foods include butter.g. spaghetti) in the south. an island in southernmost Italy. tomatoes. Characteristics of Catalan cuisine are the condiment olive oil with garlic. Coffee and spices were brought in through the great trade center Venice in the 16th century. Regional variations Italian cuisine differs mainly for north and south.

garlic. walnuts. Flavored ices or sherbets (granita). Sicily: . Galatia (ice creams). poppy seeds. Deep-fried seafood (shrimp. are mining. butter. melons. and distinctive bread in thin sheets. hazelnuts. lentils. raisins. artichoke. gorgonzola). goat. broccoli. Cheese pie. features seafood. peas. Fruit Grapes. fava beans. Fats and oils Olive oil. Bel Paese. The regions around Rome: fettucine Alfredo (boiled long. figs. white beans. mushrooms. celery. Ravioli (boiled small pasta packets filled with meat or cheese). Nuts and seeds Almonds. garlic. basil. black pepper. soybeans. Pollo alla cacciatora (chicken braised in wine with vinegar. cheese. Vegetable such as broccoli simmered in wine and olive oil with garlic. Vegetables Tomatoes. Northwest and Turin: bagna cauda (hot bath: a dip of anchovies. pesto. pears. or cheesecake (crostata di ricotta). chicken. squash. sheep-raising. eggplant Parmesan (baked eggplant. and cheese). and olive oil or butter). saffron. tarragon. nuts. Seasonings Salt. cabbage. Veal parmigana (veal cutlet. Dairy products Milk (cow. Bread and cereals Wheat. with Parmesan cheese and saffron). spinach. fish Pork. Zabaione (custard with Marsala). cheese (Parmesan. Venice: scampi (broiled shrimp with garlic butter and lemon juice). Northwest coast and Genoa: burrida (fish stew containing octopus and squid). noodles). beef and veal. mozzarella. marjoram. poultry. and mozzarella and Parmesan cheeses). corn. In Sardinia. and cheese). wheat. sage. rice. often served on pasta. pine nuts. and is best known for sweets and Marsala (sweet dessert wine). oregano. then simmered in tomato sauce with onion. Bologna: lasagna Verdi al forno (spinach-flavored lasagna baked in meat and white sauces with Parmesan cheese). cream. lemon juice. Legumes Chickpeas. lamb. citron. Alla Milanese often indicates rice in a dish. and oregano. smelts). ricotta. bay leaves. vegetables. pistachios. kid. garlic. vegetable oil. bread. asparagus. also a mountainous island and west of the mainland. ham. garlic. currants. shallots. baked trout with mushrooms and scallions. eggs. cream. Meat. goat). outside of Italy alla fiorentina (Florentine) refers to a dish containing spinach. tortellini (boiled egg pasta rings stuffed with meat. tomato. Florence: boiled green spinach noodles served with butter and Parmesan cheese. apricots. ham. onions. Boiled spaghetti with seasoned tomato sauce and cheese. Naples and southern regions: pizza (baked yeast dough crust topped with tomato sauce and cheese).The Food and Culture around the World – Ivory Coast 149 highest peak. chocolate. pimento peppers. cherries. squid. gnocchi (semolina dumplings baked with butter and cheese). calzone (pizza dough folded over cheese. garlic. vinegar. chestnuts. olives. risi e bisi (rice and green peas simmered in chicken stock). pasta (spaghetti. and sprinkled with Parmesan cheese). thyme. small fish such as sardines eaten whole). peaches. tomato sauce. rosemary. scallions. Fried artichokes. potatoes. kidney beans. Fried cheese balls. or salami and baked or fried). and tomato sauce or in pasta e fagiole (pasta and bean soup). sheep. lupine seeds. served in soup or with meat or cream sauce. cornmeal porridge. Pesto (paste of basil. Canneloni (pasta rolled around filling of seasoned meat and spinach and baked in tomato and cream sauces with Parmesan cheese). vanilla. eggplant. Amaretti (almond macaroons). olive oil. fish and shellfish (shrimp. and citrus. often eaten for breakfast. Sweets Honey. Regional special dishes North and Milan: panettone (coffee cake with raisins and candied fruit). parsley. romaine lettuce. cloves. garlic. and eggs). sausages. Dishes Minestrone (vegetable soup). risotto (rice cooked in butter and chicken stock. mint. lard. Sautéed veal scallops (scaloppine). and lamb. oranges. sugar. A national dish Polenta (cornmeal porridge) often served with cheese or sauce and especially popular in Milan. grows grapes. breaded and fried. flat egg noodles mixed with butter. lemons. rice dishes. and rosemary). salt pork. boiled pasta served with olive oil.

bread. cappuccino (coffee and hot. and jam. Marsala. Coffee. chocolate. Marsala). espresso. espresso.150 The Food and Culture around the World – Ivory Coast cannoli (deep-fried pasty shells filled with sweetened ricotta cheese. vermouth). chocolate drink. aperitifs (Campari. or Sambucca may be drunk after dinner. meat. Sambucca (anise-flavored liqueur). or poultry dish and vegetable. bread and red wine. fresh fruit and cheese or occasionally cake or ice cream. Dinner: like lunch but lighter. and citron). cassata (layer cake with ricotta filling and chocolate frosting). Beverages Wine (Chianti. beaten milk).VOIRE) . soup or pasta. green salad. a fish. Main meal (usually lunch): antipasti (appetizers). coffee. tea. Meals Breakfast: coffee. spumoni (chocolate and vanilla ice cream with a layer of whipped cream with fruit and nuts). IVORY COAST (SEE CÔTE D’I.

wheat. cattle. corn. goat. Jamaica belonged to Spain and then to Britain. Influences on food The indigenous Arawak almost disappeared following the Spanish conquest. goats. Violence between government forces and West Kingston slum residents claimed some lives in 2001. 75. Slavery was abolished in the late 1830s and the plantation system collapsed. coffee. fruit. south of Cuba and west of Haiti. They ate a wide variety of fish and seafood. gypsum. limestone. poultry. 600 and when Columbus visited in 1494. Hurricane Ivan killed at least 17 people and destroyed thousands of homes in 2004. seafood. aged cheese. cream.6 HIV rate 1. lobster). light manufactures. the biggest sporting event ever held in the Caribbean.000 live births 15. Jamaica gained independence in 1962. Meat. This tropical island has abundant fish. Other influences were from slaves bought from Africa and by indentured labor from India. mi. and its food customs were influenced by these powers. Jamaica also has coastal lowlands and a limestone plateau. condensed. oranges. fish Industries tourism. Spain colonized the area in the early 16th century. pigs. rum. 151 .700 Labor force in agriculture 17% Urban 52. including the Blue Mountains in the east.4 female Per capita GDP $7. eggs. fried cassava bread. Bread and cereals Rice. beef. Mountains. wheat bread. porridge.7% Infant mortality rate per 1.9 male. lamb. potatoes. sheep Natural resources bauxite. Major Languages English (official) English Patois Ethnic Groups Black Mixed East Indian and other 91% 6% 3% Major Religions Protestant Roman Catholic None and other 63% 3% 34% Population density per sq. Jamaica’s first woman prime minister took office in 2006. bauxite/alumna. pork. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. agriculture processing. fish and seafood (salt cod. rice dishes. bananas. and vegetables. fried cornbread. coconuts.6% Unemployment rate 8. In 2007 Jamaica hosted a leg of the Cricket World Cup Tournament. Black African slaves were imported to work on the sugar plantations. Jamaica’s musical innovations include ska and reggae. evaporated). It suffered during the 1981–1982 depression. paper History Arawak Indians inhabited this land c. 670. fish Chicken. Only traces of their foodways remain. cover 80% of the land. cement. They later died of disease under Spanish rule.J JAMAICA Geography Jamaica is an island in the Caribbean Sea. metal. chickens.6 Literacy rate 86% Life expectancy 71.9% Arable land 16% Agriculture sugarcane. blood sausage. Britain ruled it from 1655.

who spiced and smoked wild pig. coffee. black pepper. Jamaican breakfast fruit bowl (fruits such as papaya. salt pork. sautéed plantains. fruit. cassava bread. malanga). thyme. cashew apples. Legumes Pigeon peas. coriander. black-eyed peas. cinnamon stick. onions. pineapple fool (chopped pineapple folded into whipped cream and chilled). milk. hot chili peppers. The four main islands consist largely of mountains separated by narrow valleys. hot pepper sauce (chilies in vinegar). scallions. okra. combined and shook). Sweets Sugarcane. squash. Nuts and seeds Almonds. and fresh juices. Deep-fried green plantain chips. rum. coconut cream. Typical meal Jerk (barbecue) chicken or pork. baked yams. or is topped with whipped cream or rum. Blue Mountain cocktail (rum. Akkra (bean or pea fritters). coriander. JAPAN Geography Japan is an archipelago in the Pacific Ocean off the east coast of mainland Asia. served with lime juice and rum sauce. . mangoes. nutmeg. sweet potatoes. Specialty cuisines Jerk is a technique attributed to escaped African slaves. rum. coffee liqueur. annatto. Salt fish gundy (spread). a flour batter. coconut. or ginger. The coast is deeply indented. and grilled. Mango chutney (mango preserves made with spices and hot chilies). fruit juice poured over crushed ice. molasses. vegetable stews. Fuji. ugli (orange and grapefruit cross. Specialty dishes Curried goat meat (meat cubes browned and simmered in a curry sauce) served with saffron rice and mango chutney. Volcanoes include Mt. combined and mixed with onions and hot chilies sautéed in fat rendered from salt pork. ginger. meat is rubbed with the jerk mix. cassava. coconut custard topped with whipped cream flavored with rum. pineapple. papaya. cinnamon. wedding cake (dark fruitcake made with candied citrus and soaked in rum). Escovitch (marinated fish). and brown sugar). and the mixture heated). garlic. cassava bread or cornbread. iced tea usually with lime. Street food and snacks Jerk (barbecue) chicken or pork. bay leaves. vinegar. Pickapeppa sauce (made from tomatoes. yams. and mango slices on ice).152 The Food and Culture around the World – Japan Fats and oils Butter. star apples. cornmeal porridge. kidney beans. vodka. raisins. breadfruit. beer. Simple. malanga. near Tokyo. tamarind. Typical I-tal dishes include rice and pigeon peas or kidney beans. allspice. mangoes. marinated for several hours. pineapple. and ginger. hot chili pepper. and perhaps marijuana. akee. soursop. bananas. guavas. Vegetables Potatoes. banana bread. Jamaica pepper (allspice). limes. developed in Jamaica). Jamaica’s prized Blue Mountain coffee is sometimes flavored with orange rind. cinnamon. Usual seasonings are thyme. grapefruit. Fruit Coconut. brown sugar. cashew nuts. greens (cassava. garlic. Dishes Callaloo (green leaves of cassava or malanga cooked with okra). ginger. garlic. Today jerk refers to barbecue seasoning (allspice. Rice cooked with peas or beans. unprocessed food is emphasized. onions. and chilies). highly seasoned with crushed peppercorns). annatto (achiote) seeds. rice and peas or beans. vegetable oil. coconut. green peppers. onions. grapefruit. and annatto). thyme. I-tal (meaning vital) is the way of life for followers of the Rastafari religion (an Afro-Caribbean faith). Spicy soups. lime juice. lard. tomatoes. plantains. cinnamon. shortening. curry powder. oranges. olive oil. lemons. Stamp and Go (deep-fried codfish cakes made from soaked salt cod. coconut. Souse (marinated pork). National dish Salt fish and akee (simmered cod and simmered akee. rum. saffron. avocados. black pepper. allspice. Roast pork loin coated with a glaze of brown sugar. soft drinks. Beverages Coffee. Pepper pot (stew of vegetables and meat. and ice. onions. Seasonings Salt. orange juice. sugar. lime juice.

mi. In 1998 Nagano hosted the Winter Olympics. Influences on food Japan consists of mountainous islands so that little land is available for agriculture.6 female Per capita GDP $33. A full-scale tea ceremony (chaji) includes a meal (cha kaiseki) of small courses that balance colors and tastes and reflect the season. and a program of modernization and industrialization began. They developed a deep appreciation for nature. and tea. In 1868 the shogun system was abolished. vegetables. During this time Buddhism was introduced by way of Korea. cattle. U. long the principal religion of Japan. and fruits. Fish/seafood and rice (gohan) are the main foods and eaten at most meals. rebuilt. Chinese influences included Buddhism. The United States dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. with meat and game when available.000 live births 2. goats. resulting in a frothy green drink. 1941. partly to stay alert. The coastal waters supply fish and seafood.7 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 78.6% Urban 66% Infant mortality rate per 1. shoguns prohibited trade with foreign countries except for a Dutch trading post.1% Arable land 12% Agriculture rice.600 Labor force in agriculture 4. and a feudal system dominated from 1192. Between the 6th and 9th centuries. trade began. pork.7 male. processed foods History Legend has it that the empire was founded 660 BCE. electronic equipment. pigs. Japan’s earliest inhabitants were probably from Siberia. sugar beets. It attacked Pearl Harbor on Dec. machine tools. sheep Natural resources fish Industries motor vehicles. In the mid-16th century the Portuguese began trading with the Japanese and introduced tempura (deep frying batter-coated food). vegetables. and became a world leader in economics and technology. textiles. fruits. In the 1850s Japan ended a millennium as a tightly closed nation and began to industrialize and to borrow from the Western diet.The Food and Culture around the World – Japan Major Language Japanese (official) Ethnic Groups Japanese Other 99% 1% Major Religions Shinto and Buddhist observed together 84% Christian and other 16% 153 Population density per sq. 1904–1905. partly through the Japanese courts’ adoption of the Buddhist tea ceremony in the 15th century. became a widespread beverage. chickens. and poultry began to appear in dishes. Japan annexed Korea in 1910. sugarcane. A damaging earthquake in 1995 caused thousands of deaths. During the period from 1603 to 1867. In the late 1990s and into the 21st century Japan suffered a lengthy recession. launching war against the United States. Japan was at war with Russia. The ceremony is still important in Zen temples and also now as a social activity. first imported from China around 800 CE. Much of the food supply is imported. Buddhist vegetarianism was gradually abandoned and beef. seaweed. Shoguns (military dictators) held power from 1192 to 1867. After World War II Japan adopted a democratic constitution in 1947. soybeans. ships. a constitution was adopted (1889). Warring clans were rising. . Japan developed a cuisine relying on indigenous ingredients: fish. Migrations from South China merged ancestor worship with nature worship (animism) to produce Shintoism. Also in the late 19th century. Unification was achieved in the late 1500s. China strongly influenced Japanese civilization through the 700s. and Japan surrendered in 1945. A simpler tea party (chakai) has only a sweetmeat served before the tea. via the peninsula that later became Korea. 85. chemicals. Today the tea ceremony reflects harmony with nature and with one’s self. Tea is made by adding hot water to green tea powder and whisking. steel and nonferrous metals. China has had a strong influence on Japan. 7.8 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 4.S. The tea ceremony started in the 13th century and evolved as Zen Buddhist monks drank tea ceremoniously during their devotions. and Japan and China were at war. A unified Japan dates from the 4th to 5th century CE. followed by emperors. The Portuguese and Dutch traded with Japan and brought missionaries in the 16th and 17th centuries. Historically isolated. 879. Tea.

applied to meat near end of grilling). tonkatsu (pork cutlet) breaded and fried. poultry. lamb. including many cooked at the table: sukiyaki (beef slices and vegetables simmered in soy sauce and sake in a shallow pan). beef. green beans. tomatoes. peas. cabbage. carrots. turnips. Food preparation Usually food is cut into small pieces that are cooked on the range top. garnish. Nabemono (one-pot dishes). sake (rice wine). lima beans. Agemono (fried foods): tempura (shrimp. Dairy products Milk. onions. Pickles (Tsukemono: soaked things) Plums. Salads: aemono (mixed things) with a thick dressing. vegetables. Suimono (clear soups). chicken. yams. butter. is important for dairy products. Nimono (long-simmered dishes) such as octopus. rice flour cakes. Legumes Soybeans. usually based on dashi (soup stock containing dried bonito fish and kelp). peanuts. Seasonings provide sweet. and Tokyo and Osaka feature seafood. chicken. cabbage. Regional variations and specialties Of Japan’s four main islands. azuki bean paste. buckwheat noodles (soba). or vegetables. seafood. and umami tastes. popular with children. for example. Honshu. eggplant. daikon (giant white radish). mandarin oranges. fish. cottonseed oil. most households and many restaurants have a portable gas or electric ring heating unit. Salad dressing: rice vinegar. ginkgo nuts. ginger. Southern islands Shikoku and Kyushu are subtropical and produce citrus fruit.g. lotus root. sesame seeds. miso (fermented soybean paste). often on skewers: eel. walnuts. apples. Chameshi (rice cooked with other ingredients. Mushimono (steamed food): horakuyaki (steamed shrimp. poppy seeds. wasabi (green horseradish paste). malt. Hokkaido. tofu (soybean curd). adzuki beans. and sesame seeds. mirin (sweet rice wine). adzuki beans or mushrooms). usually dipped in soy sauce and wasabi. ginger (beni shoga). or cooked in a shallow pan). sour. Bread and cereals Rice (short grain and glutinous). Meat. Raw fish dishes: sushi (vinegared rice topped with raw fish. goat. Yakimono (broiled. wheat noodles (udon). Fats and oils Sesame seed oil. pumpkin. Fruit Tangerines. and sunomono (vinegared things) with a thin dressing. plums. with appreciation for the properties of each food item. green onions. Dishes Boiled and steamed short-grain rice. Menrui (noodles) boiled.. konbu (kelp). In far south Kyushu. Cooking at the table is popular. Nagasaki has Chinese influence. bitter. Seasonings Soy sauce (shoyu). onions. and water). soups. bamboo shoots. Oyakodon (boiled chicken mixed with scrambled eggs on a bed of rice). grilled. taro root. salt. eggs. teriyaki (glaze of soy sauce and mirin. beef. and noodles. seaweed. Vegetables Potatoes. Meat is expensive and little is used. daikon. Zensai (appetizers) such as miso-marinated asparagus. buckwheat. grows most of Japan’s rice. black beans. spinach. eggplant. often wrapped in nori and served with soy sauce for dipping). fish. scallions. cantaloupe. pears. chicken or vegetables lightly battered and deep fried). Seaweed Nori (laver). hot mustard.154 The Food and Culture around the World – Japan Soybean products. the far north island. sashimi (thinly sliced raw fish/seafood). chrysanthemum greens. crackers. pork. lettuce. shoyu (soy sauce: soybean extract. rice porridge. chicken. here Kyoto has vegetarian specialties. and mushrooms). cucumbers. shabu-shabu (beef and vegetables simmered in broth and then dipped in a . food wrapper. olive oil. vegetable oil. cucumber. the largest and with the largest proportion of arable land. strawberries. fish Fish and shellfish. Japanese cuisine is renowned for its careful preparation and presentation. squash. Nuts and seeds Chestnuts. e. rice vinegar. wheat or barley. Japanese do not use appreciable amounts of dairy products. peaches. persimmons. cashew nuts. crackers. spinach with sesame seeds and miso. and fruit are important foods. soy sauce. wheat. gingko nuts. salty. dried mushrooms. ice cream. peanut oil. sweet potatoes. chawan-mushi (steamed custard of egg and dashi with small pieces of meat in the bottom). mushrooms. asparagus. Shirumono (thick soups) such as misoshiru (soybean paste and dashi soup). Simmered dishes such as taro root. sugar.

Ammon. served (e.6 Literacy rate 93. Fugu. sheep. 1000 BCE. It shares the Dead Sea with Israel. New Year’s dish Mochi (round rice cake made by pounding hot steamed glutinous rice into sticky dough). and vegetables cooked on a hot metal plate (teppan) in the center of the table in some restaurants. citrus.. oil. The bento box holds a lunch or picnic (of at least 10 items). nori. as sashimi) in restaurants whose chefs must be specially licensed. beer. a blowfish with a lethal poison in its liver and ovaries. olives. cattle Natural resources phosphates. Teppanyaki (grilling): beef. it causes slight numbness of lips and tongue. in 1920. Breakfast: pickled plums. Tea accompanies meals. Arid hills and mountains cover about 88% of the land. Abdullah. The Ottomans gained control in the 16th century. as emir of Transjordan. Japanese sip soup from a bowl and eat with wood chopsticks with slender. Meals and service Three meals a day plus a snack (oyatsu) are usual. light manufacture History Present-day Jordan comprises Edom. Arabs conquered it in the 7th century. sake (rice wine. The Jordan River flows through the country. Okashi (small confections. Moab. only steamed custard (chawan-mushi) is eaten with a spoon. phosphate mining. sweets. Babylonians. Steamed glutinous rice confections. served with ponzu (soy sauce mixed with citrus juice).5% Arable land 3% Agriculture tomatoes. Lunch: rice with leftovers or dashi.1% Life expectancy 76. and each food in its individual dish (usually of porcelain). covering two thirds .3% Infant mortality rate per 1. usually adzuki bean paste). Snacks Crisp crackers of rice and seaweed. Manju (dumplings). pickles. It passed to the Assyrians. Britain took control of it. Fruit ends dinner.g.6 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 14. served warm). The land along the Jordan River was united from ancient times to 1922. JORDAN Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan Geography Jordan is in the Middle East. in small individual portions. fertilizers. sugar. served with tea to visitors or after a formal meal. oil refining. and Bashan in biblical times. 174. In 1921 Britain installed an Arabian. simmered dish.4 female Per capita GDP $4. tsukudani (tiny fish and kelp simmered in soy sauce). All foods are served at once. soup. with fertile areas in the west. goats. fish Industries clothing. cement. Sweets Honey. potatoes. then known as Transjordan. mitzutaki (chicken and vegetables cooked in broth). Mochi gashi (rice cakes with sweet bean paste). pharmaceuticals. Seleucids. grilled or fried dish. rice. and Roman Empire.900 Labor force in agriculture 5% Urban 78. potash. chicken.000 live births 15. cucumbers. fruit. Persians. coffee or black tea with Western foods.The Food and Culture around the World – Jordan 155 sauce). shrimp.2 male. rice. Dinner: raw or vinegared fish. Yokan (sweet bean jelly). tapered ends. chickens. mi. Much of eastern Jordan was incorporated into Israel under Kings David and Solomon c. shale. potash. Major Languages Arabic (official) English widely understood among upper and middle classes Ethnic Groups Arab Armenian Circassian 98% 1% 1% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Christian (majority Greek Orthodox) Other 92% 6% 2% Population density per sq. Beverages Green tea (nihon-cha). or noodles with bits of meat or vegetable. soup. 81.

sumac. cilantro. and herbs and spices. In 1946 an independent kingdom was proclaimed. and changed its name to Jordan. pistachios. olives. barley. wrapped in leaves and simmered). chickpeas. sometimes with fruit. and herbs and spices. drained yogurt (labaneh). carrots. or yogurt. apples. eggplant. yogurt. tahini (ground sesame). olives and olive oil. fish. parsley. basil. round with hollow center). onions. Pilaf (rice first heated in oil in which chopped onions have been browned. sometimes ground meat balls. yogurt. About 500. poultry. peaches. Hussein. bananas. rice. his son Abdullah became king. clarified butter (ghee). peanuts. Stuffed grape leaves (rice. Traditionally food reflected the climates of Jordan’s three regions: citrus. lamb and mutton. Meat stews. Moussaka (minced lamb. or bulgur). Bread and cereals Wheat. figs. Islamic dietary law forbids consumption of pork or alcohol and requires fasting from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. turmeric. and simmered. and other fruits from the plateau. Boiled lamb shanks with tomato sauce.156 The Food and Culture around the World – Jordan of Palestine. Lentil soup. cereals. filo dough pastry. with a sauce of seasoned butter or broth of whey or yogurt poured over the top). Fats and oils Olive oil. and the religion Islam. Jordan’s economy grew in 2007. camel. Vegetable and meat stew. it lost these lands to Israel in the 1967 war. bananas. Foul (simmered fava beans topped with raw vegetables and herbs). and cracked wheat). melons. and cracked wheat basic foods. The traditional village food freeki (corn picked green and roasted on wood) is now a specialty in urban areas. pulses. green peppers. beef. and topped with rice and boiled lamb or chicken. Legumes Chickpeas. Jordan and Israel agreed to end their state of war in 1994. eggs. dressed with oil. vegetable oils. Vegetables stuffed with rice. ground lamb or beef. goat. Hummus (puréed seasoned boiled chickpeas). white cheese (feta). coriander. . Baked eggplant. pulses. ground lamb or beef. onions. reigned carefully between powerful neighbor Israel and rising Arab nationalism. lamb fat. grapes. margarine. and vegetables from the Jordan Valley. a dried form of yogurt). Vegetables simmered and served cold. sesame seed (often ground. king from 1952 until his death in 1999. Ottoman. The staple diet of Jordanian villages remains cereals. Kabobs (usually small chunks of meat. butter. lemon juice. Shawerma (rotisserie lamb or beef). tahini). cow). mint. Flatbreads layered with yogurt. lentils. cherries. cardamom. lemon juice. Dishes Green salad. Fruit stewed with meat and served cold. Britain. walnuts. oregano. The growth of large urban centers such as Amman and Irbid added new food customs from Palestine. fenugreek seed. National dishes Mansaf (cracked wheat or rice with jameed. Dairy products Milk (sheep. garlic. cumin. cucumbers. roasted corn. dates. cracked wheat (burghul. roasted or grilled on a skewer). The village and desert populations were poor. and sheep and goat dairy products. the kingdom gained the West Bank and East Jerusalem. with lentils. Until recently the food was that of the villages and the desert. Recently there has been the rise of the middle-class population and greater availability of meat. eggplant. Arab. tomato. rice dishes.000 refugees from the Iraq War were living in Jordan in mid-2008. a whole sheep was a luxury for a special occasion such as a marriage. wheat flour flatbreads (mostly pita. Fruit Lemons. pomegranate. goat. Nuts and seeds Almonds. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. pine nuts. In 1970–1971 fighting between the government and Palestine Liberation Organization resulted in expulsion of the PLO from Jordan. and dairy products from the sheep and goat herds of the desert. parsley. squash. Lebanon. Tabbouleh (salad of chopped tomato. corn. Influences on food Influences include Persia. placed on a communal platter. Roast chicken stuffed with rice and pine nuts. oranges. wild herbs. Falafel (fried patties of bean or pea purée). and Syria. onions. broad beans (fava beans). and tomato sauce baked in a dish lined with eggplant slices). and then water or broth added and covered and simmered). potatoes. cinnamon. Vegetables Tomatoes. Meat. black pepper. saffron. Seasonings Onions. fish Chicken. and chickpea casserole.

a meat. One eats with the right hand if no utensils are provided. soaked in honey or syrup and often cut into diamond shapes). soft drinks. or fish dish. labaneh. . cheese or yogurt. Street food and snacks Shawerma slices in pita bread. Sukalakamala. Main meal (early afternoon): bread. dates. Baklava (baked pastry of thin layers of filo dough with butter and nuts. dessert. foul or other bean dish. Obeidat and Brittin. leftovers. 2004). olives. beer. Men eat first or are served first. Arabic coffee (sweet. flavored syrups. salad or olives.The Food and Culture around the World – Jordan 157 Sweets Honey. poultry. Chocolate candy. vegetable or legume dish. often with cardamom). Evening meal: like breakfast. or soup. sugar. and Obeidat. 2008. eggs. Beverages Tea (sweet. wine. often with mint). Meals and service Breakfast: tea or coffee. rice or cracked-wheat dish. Halveh (sweet paste of ground sesame seeds). coffee or tea. Jordan almonds (candy-coated almonds). then women and children. roasted ears of corn (Brittin.

In 2007 the economy continued strong. sulfur.2 female Per capita GDP $11. bauxite.6% Life expectancy 62. Later Indians. and cattle.6 HIV rate 0. In 1995 private land ownership was legalized. mi.000 live births 26.2 male. lead. Influences on food Kazakhstan is a vast area of steppe in Central Asia and the largest of the former Soviet republics except for Russia. coal. camels. 158 . Until the 20th century most Kazakhs were nomadic herdsmen who raised horses. little rain. yaks. mainly due to oil revenues. boosting the economy. electric motors. chickens. goats. reelected in 1999 and 2005. President Nazarbayev encouraged Western investment in the oil industry. was authorized in 2007 to run for an unlimited number of terms.9 Literacy rate 99. uranium.2% Ethnic Groups Kazakh Russian Ukrainian Other 53% 30% 4% 13% Major Religions Muslim Russian Orthodox Other 47% 44% 9% Urban 57. Nazarbayev. molybdenum. 14.K KAZAKHSTAN Republic of Kazakhstan Geography Kazakhstan is in Central Asia. sheep. construction materials History The indigenous Kazakhs were nomadic Turks belonging to Kajakh hordes. Central Asia is mostly arid with extremes of climate and terrain. 73. and Ukrainians arrived. It warned foreign oil firms of suspension for failure to observe environmental regulations. cattle. The Kazakhs consolidated a nomadic empire in the 15th to 16th centuries. Mongols ruled here from the 13th century to the period from 1730 to 1853. sheep. cobalt. barley.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. Four times the size of Texas. They dwelt in domed tents (yurts) and lived on milk and milk products. it is mostly steppe land with hilly plains and plateaus. copper. titanium. nickel. fish Industries oil. and frequent wind and earthquakes. Major Languages Kazakh (both Russian official) Russian used in everyday business Population density per sq. In 1994 it agreed to dismantle nuclear missiles. with mountains on the east. It became the first Central Asian country to donate to economic development of its neighbors. tractors and other agricultural machinery.1% Unemployment rate 7. coal. goats. gold. pigs Natural resources oil. potatoes. iron ore. Arabs.177-mile Caspian Sea coastline on the west. chrome ore. manganese. Kazakhstan became independent in 1991. Thousands of years ago inhabitants of Turkic and Iranian stock mixed with Mongolian and Chinese invaders forming major tribal groups that survive today. cotton.100 Labor force in agriculture 32. zinc. bordering Russia on the north and with a 1. natural gas. Oil discovered in the Caspian Sea in 2000 added to Kazakhstan’s huge oil and mineral resources. Russians. A republic of the USSR from 1936. when Russia gradually gained control. Tatars. phosphates.8% Arable land 8% Agriculture wheat.

Candy: khalva (made from flour. turnips. pears. carrots. Uzbekistan. fat from fat-tailed sheep (does not liquefy completely when rendered but retains tiny cracklings). shubat (fermented camel’s milk. mint. The northern 60% of the land is arid. thick and has high fat content). usually from fat-tailed sheep. sour milk. tomatoes. honey. rice heated in rendered fat from fat-tailed sheep or oil before adding water. and China. lamb pieces seasoned. The fertile Lake Victoria Basin is in the southwest. dairy products. pork. Lunch: thick hearty soup or cheese. and candy. who ruled it for centuries. noodles. and goats simmered until it clabbers and grows sharp). covering. thick soups. and tea. Samsa (fritters filled with ground walnuts. flatbread. marinated. sheep. greens. radishes. Seasonings Onions. Shashlyk (lamb shish kebabs). butter. vinegar. fruit preserves. people sit on rugs or chairs and use hands to scoop food. Kazakhs eat fish. rhubarb. fruit or a sweet. as is done today using irrigation. Tajikistan. Vegetables Potatoes. dried fruit. who controlled it for centuries and is its neighbor to the north. camel. flatbread. beef. white mulberries. camel. Palov (rice pilaf). Influences on food in Kazakhstan include Mongols. wine. beef. They drank large amounts of hot green tea. it is served with small pastries. There were also oases dwellers. Fats and oils Butter. and vegetables. Kazakhstan and the other Central Asian countries (Turkmenistan. peppers. served in a samovar and drunk in porcelain bowls. salt. rice. fish Chicken. cream. Beverages Tea. semi-liquid main courses. pomegranate. its neighbor to the east and the origin of noodles. smoked horsemeat sausage (kazy). pumpkins. cheeses (kurt. and tea. Many include offal. . with few eggs. fish. Manty (steamed dumplings filled with peppery ground lamb). dill. Meals and service Breakfast: clabber or cheese. kumys (fermented mare’s milk). black pepper. cherries. poultry. and Kyrgyzstan) share a common cuisine: lamb. who raised grain. barberries. Nuts and seeds Walnuts. figs. grapes. and fruit. flatbread (usually round). mare. goat. sun dried and reconstituted by soaking crumbled bits in water. onions. jujubes (a type of date). a hard cheese. Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan share the most similar cuisine. and tea. Russia. dried red peppers. bukman (made with concentrated. Dishes Kazakhstan besh barmak (thinly sliced lamb. peaches. and walnuts or hot syrup poured over nuts). yogurt. or flatware and plates. Hot green tea is drunk throughout the day. dumplings. Fruit Apples. sour milk. To dine. pastries. rice dishes. Most dishes are eaten cold. KENYA Republic of Kenya Geography Kenya is in East Africa. airan. fruit. or horsemeat and diamond-cut noodles served with a bowl of meat broth). Unlike Kyrgyz and some other Central Asians. and vegetables. goat. clabber. hazelnuts. flatbread. fruits. and roasted on skewers over charcoal embers. Bread and cereals Wheat. often made with mutton pieces and onion (browned in the fat/oil before adding rice). cucumbers. Meat. Dairy products Milk (sheep. especially near Kazakhstan’s long coast on the Caspian Sea. barley. vegetable oil. fruit. Sweets Honey. sweetened cream and browned flour). milk from camels. and sugar). Fruit. flatbread. at home and in tea houses. pistachios. Evening meal: meat dish or palov. plums. garlic. flatbread as edible scoops and plates. on the equator and bordering the Indian Ocean. cow. Fried pastries filled with seasoned ground beef (beliashi). caraway seeds. shinni (fruit syrup drink). lamb and mutton. millet. quinces. apricots. sugar. greens. and simmering. with milk and salt in the morning.The Food and Culture around the World – Kenya 159 supplemented by meat. yak). coriander. The Great Rift Valley. melons.

wheat.6% Life expectancy 56. along with gathered greens. cut flowers. cattle. encouraged foreign investment from other countries. and the Masai and related people lived on milk products and blood of cattle. In 1998 a truck bomb explosion at the U. The diet of the highlands contains almost no meat. Also a plateau 3. and eggplant. The British encouragement of Asians to settle in East Africa affected local cooking as in using curry (mchuzi) and cooking many fish dishes with coconut milk. Influences on food Apart from the coastal plains.000 live births 56 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 14. and bananas. separates the western highlands from the lowland coastal strip.700 Labor force in agriculture 75% Urban 20. pigs Natural resources limestone. Kenya is Africa’s second highest mountain. sheep.000 to 10. soap. an ingredient more commonly used in East Africa than in other parts of Africa. established colonies along the coast from about 700 CE. mi.000. The Portuguese took control of the area in the early 1500s. onions. cement. agricultural processing. never women. salt. they traded in slaves and ivory and introduced spices.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. Large game reserves have been developed. Mt.160 The Food and Culture around the World – Kenya flanked by high mountains. soda ash. In the 1990s corruption and poor economic practices led to suspension of aid and World Bank funding. Terrorist acts and violence continued as of 2008.4 male. Most indigenous peoples have long been pastoral. the United States blamed this attack on Islamic terrorists associated with Osama bin Laden. widespread unemployment. To end the violence. tourism History People may have lived here about 2 million years ago. Kenya gained independence in 1963. During the early 1990s political turmoil. The Kikuyu migrated to the area from the south and the Masai came from the north to the area in the 18th century. clothing. not food. cigarettes). corn.S. hydropower. in European cooking. Britain gained control in the 19th century. goats. In the first two decades after independence. Kenya’s rate of economic growth was among the highest in Africa. Arabs. wildlife.6% Arable land 8% Agriculture sugarcane. Developing . largely because Jomo Kenyatta. Cattle were regarded as wealth. oil refining. the two presidential candidates in the 2007 election made a powersharing agreement in 2008. much of the terrain is highland plateau. fish Industries small-scale consumer goods (textiles. fruit. in spite of abundant game and the cattle-breeding tradition. fluorspar. sorghum. 56. industry and agriculture grew. Major Languages Kiswahili (both English official) Many indigenous languages Ethnic Groups Kikuyu Luhya Luo Kalenjin Kamba Other African Other 22% 14% 13% 12% 11% 27% 1% Major Religions Protestant Roman Catholic Muslim Indigenous beliefs Other 45% 33% 10% 10% 2% Population density per sq. chickens. with some of the best climate in Africa.7 Literacy rate 73. coffee.000 feet elevation is in the south. The earliest foreign traders. The British trained many African men. 172. grilling and barbecuing. tea. Others lived on mostly millet. By the 8th century CE Arab colonies exported spices and slaves from the Kenya coast. In 1992 Kenya’s first multiparty elections in three decades were held. high inflation.9 female Per capita GDP $1. prime minister 1963–1964 and president from 1964 to 1978. There were complex traditions of women cooking only in their homes while men cooked outdoors. embassy in Nairobi killed more than 200 people and injured about 5. potatoes. and tribal conflicts occurred. Under a modified private enterprise system.

very thick cornmeal (or millet) porridge. kudu). and paste. Sweets Sugarcane. rice and coconut pancakes. Rice steamed with butter. cloves. or antelope steaks marinated and braised. Kenyans eat a large amount of starchy vegetables and green leaves. important protein sources. wheat. poultry. N’yama choma (goat kebabs). honey. As elsewhere in Africa. Major Languages English (official) l-Kiribati Ethnic Groups Micronesian Other 99% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant (Congregational) Other 52% 40% 8% . lard. beer. Street food and snacks Fried pastries. caterpillars (harati). now although animals are protected. lentils. corn. okra). Insects Locusts. beans. Kiribati comprises three widely separated main groups of islands: the Gilberts. Mashed beans. seafood. pineapple. rice. Dishes Sukuma wiki (Swahili for “stretch the week”). Peanut soup.The Food and Culture around the World – Kiribati 161 agriculture exists on farms and plantations established by Europeans. and the Line Islands. sweet potatoes. Irio. lentils. red wine. Formerly the Gilbert Islands. dried baobab leaves. flying ants. south of the Hawaiian Islands. stew. Vegetables Potatoes. fritters. fowl. the Phoenix Islands. tomatoes. Seasonings Chilies. fish Chicken. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). cheese (including adaptations of European ones). kudu. eggs. sesame seeds. Nuts and seeds Cashew nuts. strawberries. are eaten daily. curry powder. and potatoes or cassava) often served with curried chicken. green leaves (amaranth. cassava. Game meat skewered and roasted. porridge. green bananas. papaya. coffee. KIRIBATI Republic of Kiribati Geography Kiribati (pronounced Kiribass) consists of 33 Micronesia islands in the mid-Pacific Ocean. game is plentiful and antelope are farmed. pancakes. cowpeas. Honey is important. yams. eggplant. Much of the seafood is salted and dried and sent inland. okra. The Indian Ocean and Lake Victoria supply fish and seafood. European hunters found game in the mountains. Bread and cereals Corn. Beverages Tea. coconut pudding. the most common staple food. crickets. worms (madora). rice dishes. plantains (green bananas). fish. or potatoes. grasshoppers. grilled corn on cob. Green leaves cooked with peanut paste. National dish Ugali. mangoes. Meat. In 1999 the International Date Line was moved to follow Kiribati’s east border. coconut. starchy food is regarded as “real food” and relishes as accompaniments. beef. Gazelle. onions. mandazi (doughnut or fritter). or fish. plantain custard. Fats and oils Butter. Fish cooked with coconut milk. a Kikuyu dish (mashed beans. Dairy products Milk. corn. coconut milk. Green bananas boiled in banana leaves and mashed. game meat (gazelle. baobab. Most of the islands are low-lying coral atolls. lamb and mutton. mutton. pork. served with mashed green bananas and local beer. fried insects. sorghum. peanut oil. Legumes. a stew of leftover meats and vegetables. goat. with erratic rainfall. served with beef. Fruit Bananas. millet.

breadfruit. roots and tubers. Europeans brought new food plants. Coconut oil and cream. sweet potatoes. coffee. bitter melon. salt. fish (mullet). taro. onions. phosphate fishing. soy sauce. or sweet potatoes. Main foods in the traditional diet are fish and seafood. poultry. sweet potatoes.8 male. corned Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. breadfruit. British control for part of the area from 1892 to 1979. Boiled or steamed rice. vegetable oil and shortening. many others). peanuts. breadfruit. sesame oil.6% Infant mortality rate per 1.1 female Per capita GDP $3. Dishes Boiled taro root. handicrafts Natural resources History Austronesian-speaking people settled Kiribati before the 1st century CE. plantains. Chunks of white fish marinated in lime juice. noodles. or sweet potatoes with coconut cream and seasonings Sweets Sugar. Self-rule was granted in 1971. Bread and cereals Meat. red chili peppers.S. and coconut cream. Pork is the main meat. and cooked greens or seaweed. Arrowroot-thickened puddings and other dishes. eggplant. becoming Tuvalu in 1978. chicken pieces. taro leaves wrapped around a filling of coconut cream. Pork. pudding made from coconut milk with sugar. A traditional meal is boiled taro root. taro. and later merged with older groups to form the traditional culture. fish or pork. daikon.162 The Food and Culture around the World – Kiribati Population density per sq. lentils. eggs. Meals Two or three meals daily are typical. ginger. lard. pigs fish.600 Labor force in agriculture 2. spam. shellfish (crabs. onions. green onions. crabs. and coconut. Dishes cooked in a pit: whole pig. sweet potatoes. lemon. Vegetables Taro root and leaves. The Phoenix Islands were included in 1937. papaya. melons. breadfruit. breadfruit. bananas. bananas. onions. mi. and the evening meal the largest. Fruit Coconut. traditionally cooked in a stone-lined pit over coals along with other foods. peas. chickens. The Ellis Islands separated from the colony in 1975. Asians brought rice. President Anote Tong was reelected in 2007. seaweed. and U. green leaves. bread. wheat bread. and teas. fish beef. lemons. beef. winged beans. cassava. with the same foods at all. Dairy products Fats and oils Rice. garlic.7 Urban 43. 352. limes. and certain animals to the Pacific Islands. copra. Nuts and seeds Candlenuts (kukui). arrowroot.7 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 6. and other leaf-wrapped mixtures of taro. Boiled or steamed greens. Kiribati gained UN membership in 1999. soybeans. Fijians and Tongans came about the 14th century. whole fish. Legumes Soybeans. control for part of the area during the 20th century.4 Literacy rate NA Life expectancy 59. 66. macadamia nuts. and shredded beef and all bound in banana leaves. Beverages Coconut juice. In 1979 the remaining islands became the independent nation Kiribati. chicken. pineapple. tamarind.1% Arable land 3% Agriculture Industries coconuts. The Gilbert and Ellice Island colony was a British protectorate from 1892. onions. rice dishes. yams. breadfruit.000 live births 44. toddy (wine made from coconut palm blossoms). sweet potatoes. Influences on food Influences on food include the Austronesian original settlers. mangoes. tea. guavas. Seasonings Coconut cream or milk. Fijians and Polynesians who came about the 14th century. cabbage. lime or lemon juice. litchis. fresh fruit. . immature coconut. wheat. especially for feasts.

Koreans descended primarily from the Mongolians. In 2002 it admitted producing nuclear weapons and. 1894–1895. Korean cuisine is based on grains (mainly rice) flavored with spicy vegetable. potatoes. aid. yellow. or fish side dishes. machine building. Korea’s earliest civilization. graphite. mining. cattle.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. In 1948 it divided into North Korea and South Korea. NORTH Democratic People’s Republic of Korea Geography In East Asia. the south by the United States North Korea was founded in 1948 as a communist state in the zone occupied by Russian troops after World War II. was founded in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula in 2333 BCE. The colder mountainous North Korea produces less food than the fertile warm plains of South Korea. It is highly seasoned and recognizable by its five tastes (salty.1 female Per capita GDP $1. green. iron ore. They were culturally advanced and had royal courts and centralized governments. In 1994 it agreed with the United States to stop its nuclear development program in order to receive U. Agricultural settlements appeared by 6000 BCE. In 2008 it gave an accounting of its nuclear program to China. when Turkic-Manchurian-Mongol peoples migrated here from China. the Korean peninsula was partitioned at the 38th parallel into two occupied zones: the north by the USSR. soybeans. sweet. zinc.900 Labor force in agriculture 37% Urban 61. electric power.1% Arable land 14% Agriculture rice.000 live births 21. South 163 KOREA.9 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 24. Korea is a 600-mile peninsula jutting out into the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea. with narrow valleys and plains. white. Japan annexed Korea in 1910. The kingdoms were unified to form Korea.S. 75. Major Language Korean (official) Ethnic Groups Korean (homogeneous) Chinese (small Japanese numbers) Major Religions Traditionally Buddhist and Confucianist Christian (some) Population density per sq. mi. 505 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 69. The nation used its mineral and hydroelectric resources to develop its military and industry. After Japan’s surrender at the end of World War II. In the 17th century CE Korea became a vassal state of China. tungsten.S. gold. Korea was a vassal state of China from the 17th century to 1895 and was controlled by Japan from 1910 until the end of World War II. sour. goats. sheep Natural resources fish. Korea was granted independence. Around the time of Christ there were three kingdoms in Korea. chickens.5 male. coal. metallurgy. A communist regime was in power for the next four decades. pigs. the United States eased sanctions on it. magnisite. agreed to stop in exchange for aid. bitter. hydropower Industries military products. poultry. According to legend. corn. Influences on food Neighbors China and Japan have influenced Korean cuisine. in a draft accord. At this time Buddhism was introduced to the area and became accepted by royalty while Confucianism flourished among the minor aristocracy. Following Japan’s victory in the Sino-Japanese War.The Food and Culture around the World – Korea. chemicals. and hot) and colors (red. lead. meat. copper. In 2007 North Korea agreed to begin closing its nuclear facilities in exchange for U. and black). textiles History Korean history dates back to the Neolithic Age. Choson. starting the Korean War. heavy fuel oil. It has been divided into everyday . North Korea occupies the area north of the 38th parallel and is mostly mountains. which ended in 1953 when a cease-fire was proclaimed. It invaded South Korea in 1950. North Korea suffered from a deteriorating economy and famine in the late 1990s. salt.

perilla (shiso). walnuts. Seasoned tobu (bean curd). barley. onions. sesame seeds or oil. Meat. red beans. rice wine. The Mongolian barbecue. South cooking of common people and cuisine for the royalty. eggplant. seaweed. sesame seeds. Bread and cereals Rice (usually short grain glutinous). salted. Bowls of accompaniment dishes are served on a tray in the center of the table for communal eating. fish and shellfish. persimmons. Street food and snacks Grilled and steamed tidbits. eggs. Wine and appetizers may be served before dinner. winter melon. cinnamon. melons. wheat. Marinated beef is often barbecued or grilled at the table over a small charcoal brazier or gas grill. rice with bean cakes. green onions. Dates rolled in sesame seeds. gingko nuts. stir-frying ingredients on a convex iron griddle. and kimchi. rice wine (mukhuli) with scallionflavored pancakes. Rice cookies. and soy sauce with chopped green onions and sesame seeds) before cooking. and garlic and then grilled. chestnuts. Bulgogi (barbecue beef). onions. green onions. Fruit Asian pears. wheat flour pancakes. ginger root. Beverages Hot barley water. Legumes Soybeans. Beverages. Lunch: noodles or rice with broth and garnishes. sesame oil. green tea. Deep-fried. soju (sweet potato vodka). chrysanthemum leaves. peanuts. salt. Meals and service Three small meals with snacks are typical. complex cooking methods. vegetables. with hot red chili peppers). and cakes. the latter using more varied seasonings. Dried fruit especially persimmons. are served after the meal. chili peppers. Chrysanthemum leaf salad. spam (canned pork product). and toasted. Steamed rice cakes perhaps filled with nuts. fermented fish sauce (saewujeot). and sliced into strips. mushrooms. soy sauce. kimchi. adzuki beans. Boiled noodles. Sweets Honey. herbal tea (ginseng). cherries. apples. pork. corn. hot mustard. beer. sugar. noodles (wheat. poultry. two or three vegetables. pistachios. Seasoned eggplant. sugar. such meals include more dishes and both wine and dessert. Dipping sauce: soy sauce. beef. rice vinegar.164 The Food and Culture around the World – Korea. beef strips marinated in soy sauce. carrots. garlic. Firepots. mung beans. Pickled seafood. buckwheat. and kimchi. battered vegetables. Meatballs. Dairy products Milk and milk products are generally not consumed or used in cooking. grapes. bean sprouts. or mung bean). Today the latter cuisine is used in meals for special occasions or guests. mutton. goat. barley water or tea. Vegetables Potatoes. Fresh fruit sometimes concludes the meal. cucumbers. lemons. sweet potatoes. soup. and soup. fish Chicken. and red pepper. Nuts and seeds Pine nuts. Each diner is served individual bowls of rice. usually cabbage. bamboo shoots. sweets. black pepper. is uncommon although featured in some Korean restaurants outside Korea. Seasonings Soy sauce. Cooking methods Meat is often marinated (in oil. Sweets are made for special occasions and snacks. are used for special dishes. dates. bronze or brass utensils with a bowl surrounding a central chimney that holds charcoal to cook the food. tangerines. Fire pot (sinsullo). soybean curd (tobu). beef or liver. rice tea. pears. vinegar. for example. soy paste. and elegant presentation. rice dishes. Fats and oils Sesame oil. Dishes Steamed rice. Garnish: eggs cooked into a thin omelet. and nuts cooked in seasoned broth heated over charcoal. or red beans. lamb. jujubes (red dates). buckwheat. Breakfast: soup. cabbage. hazelnuts. Steamed dumplings. Kimchi (fermented vegetables. Seaweed laver (kim) brushed with sesame oil. white radish. vegetable oils. lemon juice. rice gruel. . garlic. rolled. dumplings. Dinner: rice (the main dish) with accompaniments (panch’an) such as a meat or fish dish if affordable. Seaweed soup (miyak gook). metal chopsticks and a metal soup spoon are provided. cooked egg strips. millet. rice vinegar.

barley. conquered the other two kingdoms and unified Korea in 668. or fish side dishes and dipping sauces. beef was banned from 2003 to 2006 because of concern over “mad cow disease. coal.The Food and Culture around the World – Korea. its coasts supply fish and shellfish.276.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. mi. lead. poultry.1 Literacy rate 97. pigs. shipbuilding.2% Arable land 17% Agriculture rice.800 Labor force in agriculture 7. a communist nation was formed in North Korea. vegetables. occupies the land below the 38th parallel on the Korean peninsula. It was united in a kingdom in 668 CE. At around the time of Christ there were three kingdoms in Korea. In 1948 Korea divided into North and South Korea. Influences on food Neighbors China and Japan have influenced Korean cuisine.3 male. and support livestock.1% Unemployment rate 3. The South Koreans formed the Republic of Korea in 1948. steel History Civilization in the Korean Peninsula dates back to the third millennium BCE.” Ban Ki-Moon. Korea gained independence at the end of the Sino-Japanese war of 1894–1895. 1. South Korea has fertile warm plains that produce grains. Import of U. Roman Catholic) Buddhist Other 49% 26% 23% 2% Population density per sq. with a rugged east coast and many harbors and islands. Major Language Korean (official) English widely taught in school Ethnic Group Korean (homogeneous) Chinese (some) Major Religions None Christian (Protestant. one of the southern kingdoms. a former Hyundai executive and mayor of Seoul. with Chinese aid. one in the north and two in the south. the presidents of South Korea and North Korea agreed to work for reunification of their two countries. In 2007 South Koreans.2 female Per capita GDP $24.S. fruits. concerned with economic issues. auto production. Japan controlled Korea from 1910 until the end of World War II. in East Asia. Buddhism was introduced to the area and became accepted by royalty while Confucianism flourished among the minor aristocracy. occupations. telecommunications. became UN secretary-general in 2007. tungsten. cabbages. goats. South 165 KOREA. Koreans descended primarily from the Mongolians. elected their first CEO president. Korea was associated with China until it gained independence in 1895. meat. chickens. Once called the Hermit Kingdom. graphite. Silla. bordering the Sea of Japan and the Yellow Sea. In 1945 the 38th parallel was made the line dividing the Soviet and U. The North Korean army attacked South Korea in 1950. The North-South railway line was reconnected for the first time since the peninsula was divided in 1945. SOUTH Republic of Korea Geography South Korea. citrus. hydropower potential Industries electronics. The diet is based on rice and includes spicy vegetables. vegetables. and South Korea President Kim Dae Jung won the Nobel Peace Prize.9% Life expectancy 75. Japan forcibly annexed Korea as Chosun in 1910. root crops. South Korea’s foreign minister from 2004 to 2006. 80.000 live births 4. Korea has a recorded history since the 1st century BCE. Korean cuisine is highly . sheep Natural resources fish.3 HIV rate <0. and fruit.5% Urban 80. It is mountainous.S. a 1953 armistice left Korea divided along the 38th parallel. These kingdoms were culturally advanced and had royal courts and centralized governments. chemicals. A vassal state of China from the 17th century. starting the Korean War. In 2000. cattle. molybdenum.

sweets. onions. persimmons. with more varied seasonings. Dates rolled in sesame seeds. metal utensils with a bowl around a chimney holding charcoal. It includes everyday cooking of common people and refined cuisine for royalty. stir-frying on a convex iron griddle. Seasoned tobu (bean curd). and black) in meals. Kimchi (fermented vegetables. soup. tangerines. South seasoned and includes five tastes (salty. rice dishes. rice wine (mukhuli) with scallionflavored pancakes. jujubes (red dates). or mung bean). wine. poultry. Sweets are made for special occasions and snacks. or red beans. buckwheat. dates. Dinner: rice (the main dish) with accompaniments (panch’an) such as a meat or fish dish if affordable. mangoes. rice gruel. hazelnuts. mung beans. chrysanthemum leaves. accompanies meat or vegetable dishes. Sweets Honey. green onions. lemons. usually cabbage. and dessert. seaweed laver (kim) brushed with sesame oil. wheat flour pancakes.166 The Food and Culture around the World – Korea. and soup. Dishes Steamed rice. Beverages (e. lamb and mutton. Deep-fried. sesame oil. Bread and cereals Rice (usually short grain and glutinous). carrots. and elegant presentation. Bulgogi (barbecue beef). rice vinegar. salted. and cakes. Steamed dumplings. Fire pot (sinsullo). garlic.. beef or liver. plums. Fruit Asian pears. pistachios. barley water or tea) are served after the meal. bitter. barley. Steamed rice cakes with nuts. perilla (shiso). and vegetables. Dried fruit especially persimmons. fish Chicken. sweet. potatoes. Fruits are usually eaten raw. seaweed. winter melon. Now the latter cuisine appears in meals for special occasions or guests and includes more dishes. herbal tea (ginseng). gingko nuts. oranges. peanuts. melons. red chili peppers. eggs. Seaweed soup (micas gook). fish and shellfish. cooked egg strips. is uncommon but used in some Korean restaurants outside Korea. white. and kimchi. buckwheat. Meatballs. spam (canned pork product). two or three vegetables. Nuts and seeds Pine nuts. with hot red chili peppers). satsumas. and garlic and then grilled. millet. Lunch: noodles or rice with broth and garnishes. sweet potatoes. rice tea. Rice cookies. sugar.g. Mongolian barbecue. hot barley water. beef strips marinated in soy sauce. eggplant. beef including variety cuts. Wine and appetizers may be served before dinner. lemon juice. beer. Breakfast: soup. Beef is especially popular. and hot) and colors (red. kimchi. sugar. wheat. complex cooking methods. often at the table over a small charcoal brazier or gas grill. mushrooms. Legumes Soybeans. walnuts. Fresh fruit sometimes concludes the meal. vegetable oils. hot mustard. apples. goat. grapes. garlic. dumplings. Special dishes may be cooked in firepots. bamboo shoots. and red pepper. pork. battered eggplant. Garnishes: egg omelet rolled and sliced into strips. fermented fish sauce (saewujeot). sesame seeds. Fats and oils Sesame oil. marinades. sesame seeds or oil. Meals and service Three small meals with snacks are typical. cakes of rice with beans. . soy paste. bean sprouts. chestnuts. Bowls of accompaniment dishes are on a tray in the center of the table for communal eating. white radish. and kimchi. adzuki beans. for weddings. noodles (wheat. soy sauce. rice wine. red beans. Cooking methods Meats are often marinated and grilled or broiled. Boiled noodles. Beverages Soup. beets. ginger root. green. soybean curd (tobu). cooked in seasoned broth heated over charcoal. Dairy products Milk and milk products are generally not consumed or used in cooking. sea salt. Meat. green onions. yellow. sweet potato vodka (soju). Each diner is served individual bowls of rice. Chrysanthemum leaf salad. black pepper. rice vinegar. cherries. cinnamon. Pickled seafood. metal chopsticks and a metal soup spoon are provided. Dipping sauce: soy sauce. and toasted. Vegetables Cabbage. sour. cucumbers. Seasonings Soy sauce. Street food and snacks Grilled and steamed tidbits.

and Montenegro. Influences on food Influences include the Romans. lignite. kaolin. potatoes. Most people are of Albanian origin.9 Literacy rate NA Life expectancy NA Per capita GDP $1. leather. Kosovo is one of the smaller Balkan countries. sheep Natural resources nickel. Slavs.4% Urban NA Infant mortality rate per 1. lead. zinc. where food is cooked and bread is baked collectively and people eat communally. Meals are served out of a huge cooking pot or baking pan on low round tables. By the 19th century Islam became the predominant religion. Serbs. The Kingdom of Serbs. pasta.800 Labor force in agriculture 21. construction materials. The population then became predominantly Muslim and Kosovar (ethnic Albanian). Food traditions are strong in the older generation and in the villages populated by Albanians in the former Yugoslavia. Albania. In 1991–1992 independence was declared by parts of Yugoslavia. fruits and vegetables. Ethnic fighting continued in the 1990s. Kosovo has cuisine of Albanian and Turkish influences. Albanian cookery evolved as a result of Islamization and the influence of Turkish food practices. where food remained Graeco-Mediterranian. a province of Serbia with more than 90% Albanian population. bauxite Industries mineral mining. cheese. a Slavic people. . pilaf. base materials. and Slovenes was created after AustriaHungary’s collapse at the end of World War I and was joined by Kosovo. mi. and yogurt. Kosovo’s land produces grain.1% Arable land NA Agriculture wheat. including Kosovo. Low flood basins are surrounded by high mountain ranges. In 2008 Kosovo. Many people live in patriarchial communities of between 50 and 90 members. Albanians were Christians. except in the traditionally Orthodox south. Unlike Christians. and Turkish coffee and sweets. Serbs regained control in the First Balkan War. Greek in feta cheese. magnesium.The Food and Culture around the World – Kosovo 167 KOSOVO Republic of Kosovo Geography Kosovo is in southeastern Europe bordering Serbia. Axis powers invaded it in 1941 and occupied it for the rest of World War II. Ottoman Turks took control in 1389. wine. Major Languages Albanian Serbian Bosnian Turkish Roma (both official) Ethnic Groups Albanian Serb Other 92% 5% 3% Major Religions Muslim Serbian Orthodox Roman Catholic 91% 6% 3% Population density per sq. appliances History The area was part of the Roman and Byzantine empires. fruits (berries). whose isolation from Albania has strengthened tradition. In 1929 the country’s name was changed to Yugoslavia. 1912–1913. machinery. took control here in the Middle Ages. and livestock. declared its independence from Serbia. cattle. and Turks. and Italian in tomato sauce. neighboring countries. Turkish influence are reflected in mezze. hay. Until the Turkish occupation of this area in the 15th century. and religion. Macedonia. Eastern Orthodox in the south and Roman Catholic in the north. rice. Serbia declared its independence in 2006. Serbia and Montenegro became the new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. 505. grapes for wine. chrome. Croats. From 1999 Kosovo was an autonomous region of Serbia administered by the UN. chickens. corn.000 live births NA HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 44. In 2003 Yugoslavia changed its name to Serbia and Montenegro. Main foods are bread. and in 1998–1999 Serbia repressed and expulsed ethnic populations in the province of Kosovo. Muslims do not eat pork.

fava beans. Nuts and seeds Walnuts. cornmeal bread. and dumplings. eggplant. peanuts. Midafternoon snack Turkish-style coffee or tea and pastries. baked. pork. a small triangular pastry filled with white cheese and eggs. eggplant. tea. melons. Fruit Grapes. fish Lamb and mutton. Fruit compote. fruit juice. Dumplings filled with meat. Meat. salad of onions. especially walnuts. pine nuts. oregano. sesame oil. almonds. garlic. cucumbers. e. pickles. Baklava (filo dough layered with nut filling. and flatbreads such as pita (thin circle with hollow center. are used in many savory and sweet dishes. tangy ewe’s milk cheese similar to cheddar called kashkaval). Sweets Honey. Moussaka (baked minced lamb. then steamed or simmered with water or broth). tomato. cucumbers. plums. leavened bread. vegetable oils. a regular restaurant antipaste (appetizer). wheat flour pastry. cinnamon. For wealthier people.168 The Food and Culture around the World – Kosovo Bread and cereals Wheat. sardines. sugar. onions. cherries. lamb or goat. turnovers. cheese. bulgur. and yogurt. Fats and oils Olive oil. beer. corn. apricots. perhaps soup and/or pilaf. and sauce. soaked in flavored syrup. Mezze (appetizers) Salads such as liptao (feta cheese with bell pepper. sheep. Baked pasta. ouzo. tomatoes. cheese. thick.g. and fresh vegetables. mint. and tomatoes. Pastitsio (béchamel sauce). and hardboiled egg) and tarator (soupy salad of yogurt. rendered lamb fat. mint. sesame seeds. sunflower seeds. rice dishes. fish and seafood. dates. garlic. orme (beverage made from fermented cabbage). or fresh fruit. dill. and slightly sour loaf. Vegetables Potatoes. beef. Breakfast: bread with cheese. Baked macaroni. peppers. chicken. sweet. omelets. or orme. butter. ground meat. mushrooms. fish. and fruit. hazelnuts. rice. spit-roasted lamb or entrails. with lamb or mutton when affordable. pasta. pomegranates. pistachios. anise-flavored aperitifs including ouzo and the Turkish specialty raki (alcoholic beverages are prohibited for Muslims but are consumed in the Balkans). Turkish-style coffee (strong. onions. wheat kernels (bulgur). Dairy products Milk (cow. three meals a day with a midafternoon snack are typical. olives. white cheese similar to feta and a hard. Main meal (usually at midday): mezze with ouzo or raki. goat). anise. yogurt or cheese. cardamom. wine. brandy. figs. Shish kebabs (lamb pieces skewered and grilled).. berries. lemons. or jam and coffee or tea. and baked variety meats. and tomato sauce). syrup. Fresh fruit. Byrne me djathë. wheat bread including the standard dark. heavy. National appetizers Kanelloni alla toskana (pancakes stuffed with minced veal and with a gratin finish). lemon juice. pickles. often with cardamom). nuts. Kofta (meatballs. Meals The poorest people eat cornmeal bread. olives. . yogurt (kos). Grape or cabbage leaves stuffed with rice or meat (dolma). preserves. a Balkan specialty. meat dish with salad of raw vegetables. cream. cheese (usually from goat or sheep milk. fried or skewered and grilled). Dishes Rice pilaf (rice sautéed in butter or oil in which onions have been browned. parsley. usually with raki. poultry. Seasonings Onions. deli meats. cabbage. parsley. goat. pepper. poppy seeds. and olive oil). Legumes Chickpeas. often cut in diamond shape). eggs. pears. Tabouli. Beverages Coffee. Nuts. Halvah (sweet paste made with grain and crushed sesame seeds). a pocket) and lavash (a large crisp bread). yogurt drinks.

fish.2% Arable land 1% Agriculture tomatoes. is low-lying desert and extremely hot.2 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 2. and Britain and Islam. Lamb is the most popular meat and chicken the second favorite. beef. Britain controlled foreign relations and defense from 1899 until Kuwait’s independence in 1961.g. founded in 1759. Oil provides most of Kuwait’s income. shrimp. 377. cattle oil. rice. lamb. Meat. in the Middle East at the north end of the Persian Gulf. potatoes. The Sabah dynasty. cucumbers. water desalination. Hindu. Islam forbids consumption of pork or alcohol and requires fasting from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. mi. education. Most of the population is non-Kuwaiti and cannot vote. Influences on food Influences include Arab. goats. natural gas Natural resources Industries oil. ghee (clarified butter). poultry. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Yogurt (laban).4 Literacy rate 93. pancakes. Bread and cereals Wheat. fish. In 2008 foreigners were 97% of the private sector work force.000 live births 9. resulting in the availability of a wide variety of foods. eggs. Iraqi forces invaded Kuwait in 1990 and a U.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. butter. cracked wheat.The Food and Culture around the World – Kuwait 169 KUWAIT State of Kuwait Geography Kuwait. labneh (strained yogurt). and social security. Parsi. Sesame seed oil and paste. Kuwait is mostly desert so it raises practically no crops. couscous. It has an extensive coastline that provides fish and seafood. lentils. surrounding cultures of Ottoman. construction materials History Kuwait probably was part of an early civilization in the 3rd millennium BCE and traded with Mesopotamian cities. Major Languages Arabic (official) English widely spoken Ethnic Group Kuwaiti Other Arab South Asian Iranian Other 45% 35% 9% 4% 7% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Shi’a Muslim Christian. A substantial proportion of the population is expatriates. food processing. shrimp. Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). flatbread (e. neighbors Saudi Arabia and Iraq. other 60% 25% 15% Population density per sq. sheep.300 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 98. and Iran and India. olive oil. cement. petrochemicals. In 2005 women gained political rights. rice dishes. shipbuilding. which became an autonomous sheikdom by 1756. with no taxes. pita). filo pastry. Horn of Africa. cream.-led coalition liberated it in 1991. goat. the Anizah tribe of central Arabia founded Kuwait City. chickens. 78. Early in the 18th century CE. still rules Kuwait. feta cheese. many are Palestinians.4 male. Shrimp and fish such as hammour (grouper) and zubaidi (silver pomfret) are also popular. milk. paying for free medical care. . fish Chicken.S.9% Life expectancy 76.7 female Per capita GDP $39.

saffron. onion. Seasonings Salt.3 HIV rate 0. fresh herbs. rare earth metals. Tea is usually consumed black and very sweet. gold. melons. horses. 72. saffron. the Tien Shan and Pamir Mountains. spinach. KYRGYZSTAN Kyrgyz Republic Geography Kyrgyzstan is in Central Asia. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Lamb. Dates. lamb kebabs. and coriander). mi. Possible national dish Khouzi (baked whole lamb stuffed with chicken. other metals. ataif (small stuffed pancakes. cotton. wheat. served on a bed of rice garnished with almonds and ghee. a Ramadan specialty adopted from northern neighbors). brandy. mint. with snow and glaciers. oil. grilled on skewers (kebab mashwi). are consumed in large quantities.1% Arable land 7% Agriculture potatoes.5 Literacy rate 99. sometimes puréed and fried. Fresh herbs are sold in markets. 73.000 Labor force in agriculture 65% Urban 35. limes. baklava (pastry of thin filo dough layered with nuts and soaked in honey or flavored syrup). fresh herbs (especially parsley. Tomato and cucumber salad. and rice spiced with baharat. In this rugged country. mint. Beverages Coffee. sesame seed paste (tahini). cattle. garlic. natural gas. watermelon. pieces or ground. nutmeg. and onion casserole. Fresh salt pickles. the main drink and strongly associated with the renowned Arabian hospitality.000 feet.3 female Per capita GDP $2.1% Unemployment rate 8. lemon juice. yogurt drinks. sugar. wine. finely ground beans and is usually flavored with cardamom. tobacco. coriander. baharat (a spice mix of black pepper. Street food and snacks Roasted chicken. chickens. sheep. fruits. eggplant. potatoes. figs. garlic. available from shawarma stalls. Sweets Dibis (date molasses).170 The Food and Culture around the World – Kyrgyzstan Vegetables Tomatoes. sesame seeds. Eggplant. especially during Ramadan. Coffee. loomi (dried Omani limes). lemons. shawarma (vertical spit-roasted lamb pieces) sliced thin and served sandwich style in flatbread with tomato. tea. Fruit Dates.3% Life expectancy 65. Average elevation is above 9. tomato. and paprika).1 male. cardamom. coal. honey.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. Dishes Simmered or steamed rice or couscous. Major Languages Kyrgyz Russian Uzbek (both official) Ethnic Groups Kyrgyz Uzbek Russian Other 65% 14% 13% 8% Major Religions Muslim (mostly Sunni) Russian Orthodox Other 75% 20% 5% Population density per sq. onions. olives. and onions). cover 95% of the land. cassia. parsley. and vegetables (machbous). mangoes. corn. bananas. fish . is prepared from well-roasted. vegetables. and tahini. goats.000 live births 32. Shrimp simmered with rice. eggs. cumin. oranges. pigs Natural resources hydropower. fruit drinks. Boiled chickpeas or lentils. cloves. cardamom. berries. A large lake is 1 mile above sea level. cucumbers. the most important fruit. beer. grapes.

lentils. noodles. smoked horsemeat sausage Dairy products Milk (sheep. airan. cream. Bread and cereals Wheat. along with Turkmenistan. It became independent in 1991. yogurt. vegetable oil. mare. camel. kumys (fermented mare’s milk). vinegar. food processing. Meat. the ancient caravan route between China and the Caspian Sea. cheeses (kurt. Seasonings Onions. For example. Rose-petal jam. Influences on food Kyrgyzstan. pork. The area became part of the Qing Empire of China in the mid-18th century. Kaurma lagman (fried noodles and meat). black pepper. seasoned and usually marinated meat cubes skewered and grilled. rice dishes (palov). and reconstituted by soaking crumbled bits in water. After 1917 it was an autonomous area. pomegranate. Kyrgyzstan shares a similar cuisine with Kazakhstan. barberries. cereals in porridge-like soups. and Tajikistan. mulberries. carrots. poultry. In 1864 Russia annexed it. rice. furniture. thick soups. sun dried. a new constitution limiting presidential power was enacted in 2006. caraway seeds. Manpar (sliced noodle). noodles came from China. Besh barmak (in Kyrgyzstan. apricots. large clay jar or oven. refrigerators. figs. and Russia and Islam. clabber. cherries. Nuts and seeds Walnuts. . mint. cement. flatbread. fish (kazy). Unlike Kazaks but like some other Central Asians. and red peppers). apples. lamb and mutton. is the land of the old Silk Road. onions. fat from fat-tailed sheep (when rendered retains tiny Chickpeas. rice heated in oil before adding water and boiling. Lake Issyk-Kul grilled fish. Dried fruit. pistachios. beans. beef. Rhubarb compote. Manty (steamed dumplings filled with ground lamb. Sweets Honey. greens. plums. hazelnuts. Fruit Grapes. its huge neighbor on the north: lamb. electric motors History The native Kyrgyzk are a nomadic Turkic people of Central Asia who in ancient times settled in the Tien Shan Mountains. thinly sliced lamb or mutton and square-cut noodles served with a bowl of meat broth). Samsa (fritter with walnut. bukman (sweetened cream and browned flour). Boiled or roasted meat. sheep. textiles. Influences on food include neighbors China and Kazakhstan. yak). Candies: khalva (grain. fish. from milk from camels. cow. Kyrgyz eat little fish. salt. Until the 20th century most people were nomadic herders who lived in domed tents (yurts). sugar or honey. and goats simmered until it clabbers and becomes sharp). Chicken. Private land ownership was ratified in 1998. It came under USSR control in 1924 and was made the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936. tea. sugar. Dishes Porridge-like cereal soups. butter. Uzbekistan. In 2007 political conditions continued to worsen and the continuing economic stagnation forced increased numbers to work abroad. a hard cheese. although Kyrgyz have distinctive tea. raised animals. and nuts). peppers. garlic. Samsas (pies filled with ground meat or chopped onion and greens). logs. also a popular street food. and few eggs. sour milk. often sour. often with mutton and onions. tomatoes. pumpkin. Palov (pilaf). They were conquered by Genghis Khan’s son Jochi in 1207. shoes. and lived mostly on dairy products. goat. flatbread. onions. Fats and oils cracklings). dried red peppers. Shashlyk (lamb kebabs). After protests about election fraud in 2005. corn. and sugar filling). Legumes Butter. Flatbread (nan) is usually round loaves often cooked in a tandyra (tandoor). Vegetables Potatoes. melons. rhubarb. semi-liquid main dishes. goat. slices of dough in soup or stew.The Food and Culture around the World – Kyrgyzstan 171 Industries small machinery. dill.

greens. people sit on rugs or chairs and use hands to scoop food. Lunch: thick hearty soup or cheese. and tea. and fruit. sour milk.172 The Food and Culture around the World – Kyrgyzstan Beverages Tea (made with twice as much milk as water. Evening meal: meat or palov. at home and in tea houses. pepper. and tea. or flatware and plates. To dine. flatbread. and a fried flour mixture). and tea. flatbread as edible scoops and plates. Hot tea is drunk at meals and between meals. salt. . flatbread. wine. flatbread. fruit or a sweet. Meals and service Breakfast: clabber or cheese.

poultry. water buffalo. Meat. cement History People migrated here from southern China from the 8th century CE on. pigs. the French popularized French bread and coffee. and Vietnamese influenced Laos’s cuisine. poultry. notably the construction of large hydropower dams and to mining development. In 2004 the U. Major Languages Lao (official) French English Ethnic languages Population density per sq. gemstones Industries mining. have suffered floods and drought since 1993. In Laos. timber. tin.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. The Lao are not bread eaters and do not usually use dairy products. corn.0% Arable land 4% Agriculture rice. Jungles dominate this landlocked country. ramie.S. A kingdom was founded in the 14th century and lasted until 1713. with high mountains along the east border and the Mekong River flowing through it for 932 miles. and Indians and Malaysians contributed curries and coconut milk-flavored dishes. It relied on Vietnamese aid through the 1980s. with eggs. other. Malaysian. fish (abundantly supplied in landlocked Laos by the rivers and irrigated fields). have food traditionally different from Laotian and resembling Vietnamese. 173 . goats Natural resources fish.L LAOS Lao People’s Democratic Republic Geography Laos is in Southeast Asia in the north central part of the Indochina Peninsula. such as a preference for long-grain rice. Communist forces took control in 1975 and established the Lao People’s Democratic Republic.9 Literacy rate 73.6 HIV rate 0. agricultural processing. the Lao gather much of their food from the countryside and cultivate rice and corn. gold. timber. gypsum. cattle. Influences on food Chinese. 74. fish sauces. Laos came under Siamese (Thai) rule in the 18th century.2 male. tribal Lao forced from the mountains to the lowlands during Southeast Asian conflicts. In 2007 Laos’s economy continued to grow. In 2005 some international banks agreed to fund a hydroelectric dam expected to bring Laos $2 billion revenue annually.5 female Per capita GDP $2. The diet is rice. coffee. French. chickens.2% Life expectancy 54. mostly along the western border. and sweets are luxuries. 58. mainly due to foreign investment. and fruits. subsistence farmers. vegetables. Indian.2% Unemployment rate 7. They enjoy feasts. sugarcane. Congress approved normalization of trade with Laos. a beautiful large country with a small number of inhabitants. became a French protectorate in 1893. mi. although seasonings are Laotian. vegetables. construction. The Chinese introduced soy products. Hmong.000 live births 79.100 Labor force in agriculture 80% Ethnic Groups Lao Khmou Hmong Other 55% 11% 8% 26% Major Religions Buddhist Traditional beliefs. except for rule by Burma from 1574 to 1637. garments. hydropower. 80% of the population. Its economy was adversely affected by the Asian financial crisis in the mid-1990s. and regained independence in 1949. and meat as affordable. electric power. In this poor county. sweet potatoes. and unspecified 67% 33% Urban 27. Thai. tourism.

or meat dish. pork. bamboo shoots. Sweets Sugarcane. Dairy products Sweetened condensed milk. Specialties Furr (soup of pork. breadfruit. nam pla (fish sauce). vegetables. men on the other. goat. Stir-fried vegetables. squash. poultry. followed by others in descending order of age. soy sauce. beef. and hemp. Laotians often eat with their fingers. duck. Legumes Soy products. tamarind. wheat flour French bread. potatoes. Laap (spicy ground meat. Meat. lemons. lime juice and leaves. tempeh (a chewier version of tofu. soursop. a fish. fish (fresh. mangosteens. bean or fruit drinks. peas. for example. cucumbers. corn. mint. cooked vegetable or fresh salad. At dinner. Steamed banana leaf–wrapped rice. Fats and oils Bacon. watermelon. dried). lotus seeds. palm sugar. rice wine or whiskey (for special occasions). Fish sauces are important sources of protein and used in many dishes. mustard. LATVIA Republic of Latvia Geography Located in Eastern Europe on the Baltic Sea. cabbage. durian. then diners eat freely except no one serves himself or herself at the same time as another or before one of higher rank. hills are in the east. traditionally uncooked). Latvia is fertile lowland with lakes. eggs. celery. bean sprouts. and pastries. padek (fermented fish sauce or paste containing fish chunks). lemon grass. guavas. curry powder. peanuts. corn. mangoes. noodles. or marijuana. wheat. and nam padek (the liquid from padek). noodles. palm sugar. and peat bogs. fruit. Seasonings Coconut cream and milk. leaves). Fruit is popular for dessert or snacks. and tea or coffee. also long grain). they eat soup with a porcelain or wood spoon. garlic. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. soy milk. salted. Fruit Bananas. or meat. cassava. plantains. Salad of raw vegetables or unripe papaya or mango with lime juice. margarine. a time for socializing. game such as venison. papaya. soup. oranges. water chestnuts. water buffalo. basil. tea (often blended with blossoms such as jasmine). Stewed or grilled meat. food is served on a low rattan tray. coconut. garlic. or bean curd) and soy milk. Dishes Steamed rice. onions. fish sauces and pastes. marshes. eggplant. limes. peanut oil. sesame seeds.174 The Food and Culture around the World – Latvia Bread and cereals Rice (usually sticky. Beverages Broth (often the only available beverage). custard apple. usually pork. Dried noodles topped with meats and vegetables. persons of highest rank take the first mouthfuls. star fruit. or glutinous. pumpkin. vegetable oil. butter. banana leaves. Most meals are rice. Salty beef jerky with fish sauce. fresh coriander. coconut cream. and chili dressing. fish Chicken. mushrooms. poultry. hot chilies. jackfruit. whipping cream. Major Languages Latvian (official) Russian Lithuanian Ethnic Groups Latvian Russian Belarusian Other 58% 30% 4% 8% Major Religions Orthodox Lutheran Roman Catholic Other None 29% 20% 19% 6% 26% . almonds. women gather on one side. candy. chrysanthemum. lard. bitter melon. ginger. radishes. Foods are set out at one time and people help themselves. pineapple. Nuts and seeds Cashew nuts. jicama. taro. lotus root. carrots. using balls of sticky rice to scoop up foods. Meals and service One to three meals a day is typical. coffee (with sweetened condensed milk). rice dishes.

Sweden. buttermilk. goat. barley cereal and porridge (putra). vinegar. vegetables. potatoes. dumplings. sole survivors of a group closely related to Sanskrit within the Indo-European family of languages. and vegetables). lamb.7 male. beef and veal. smoked sprats. dill. Bread. bay leaf. rice. lemons. cucumbers. pickles. pieces of cooked fish and potato with the broth plus fried onion rings and grated carrot. Cucumbers in sour cream with dill. It elected its first woman president in 1999. Sweden (1629–1721). agricultural machinery. Chicken stewed or breaded and fried. Fish soup (zivju supa). mi.8% Life expectancy 66. limestone.The Food and Culture around the World – Latvia Population density per sq. apricots. Germany. corn. fish Chicken. Latvia regained independence in 1991 when the Soviet Union dissolved. venison. poultry. Germany controlled it from 1941 to 1945. animal production. Solianka (soup of cooked. sesame seeds (often used in pastries). Latvia joined the EU and NATO in 2004. pharmaceuticals History Baltic tribes settled here along the Baltic Sea in ancient times. ligonberries. Fried Baltic salmon with plum compote (cepts lasis ar plumju kompotu). chickens. and Russia. fish and seafood (eel. mushrooms. hazelnuts. and pastries. An agreement about the border was reached with Russia. beets. goats Natural resources fish. bacon. Cabbage and beet soups. wood Industries motor vehicles and railroad cars. raisins. and dairy products are main foods.7% Arable land 28% 175 Agriculture wheat. Latvia was part of the German-speaking state Livonia until 1561. split peas Vegetables Potatoes. Meat. In 1998 Latvia eased citizenship laws that had discriminated against ethnic Russians. sheep. It was ruled by Poland (1562–1629). cream. rice. After the Russian Revolution of 1917. caraway seeds (often used with cabbage). plums. between Estonia to the north and Lithuania to the south. chestnuts. cinnamon. The Baltic Sea and lakes provide fish and seafood. sprat. Baked or fried pastry filled with seasoned meat or cabbage. salt pork. in 2006.000 live births 9 HIV rate 0. currants. fish eggs (caviar). sugar beets. bacon. electronics. onions. ham. Latvia was conquered by the Vikings in the 9th century CE and by a German order of knights in the 13th century. cheese. cubed fish. peat. walnuts. wheat light-colored bread. cheese. In 2007 the GDP grew by an estimated 25%. Influences on food include Baltic tribes. pickled herring. oats. Seasonings Onions. vanilla. lentils. cucumbers. pancakes. rye bread (eaten at most meals). cattle. Influences on food Latvia is central of the three Baltic countries. sour cream. dolomite. and dairying.300 Labor force in agriculture 13% Urban 68% Infant mortality rate per 1. sauerkraut. Legumes Beans. Large fried ground . Poland. sausage. lard. 91. Fats and oils Butter. Kurzemes pork (floured ham slice simmered with browned onions in bouillon and cooked with sour cream and mushrooms). Dishes Pickled herring. amber. onions. poppy seeds. and Russia (1721–1918). radishes. parsley. wheat. rhubarb. Dairy products Milk (cow. vegetable oil. radios. carrots. barley. 77. turnips. when the USSR retook it. synthetic fibers. eggs. cherries. and tomatoes). fertilizers. Latvia’s capital. potatoes. raspberries. Fruit Apples. although it accepted the seizure of Latvian border counties by the USSR. Latvia declared its independence and was an independent republic from 1918 to 1939 until Soviet troops invaded in 1940. cauliflower. tomatoes. sheep). Fertile soil allows crops (grain. millet. Bread and cereals Rye. potatoes. pepper. sunflower seeds. salt. sugar beets. Nuts and seeds Almonds. herring). green peas. pork.5 Literacy rate 99. Latvian and Lithuanian languages are rarities. cranberries. or fruit. pigs. cabbage. with more spicing than in Estonia. Sour and salty tastes are prominent. hydropower. cottage cheese. rice dishes. fish. washing machines. Boiled dumplings of flour or potato sometimes filled with meat.8% Unemployment 6. The first NATO summit conference to be held in a former Soviet republic was held in Riga. Smoked salmon. lemon.3 female Per capita GDP $11.

Christians fleeing persecution in Syria settled in the area now northern Lebanon and founded the Maronite church. settled about 3000 BCE. hot chocolate. fish Industries banking. Boiled or fried potatoes. jewelry. tea.176 The Food and Culture around the World – Lebanon meat patties (e. fermented. wine. France forced the Ottomans to establish an autonomous province for the Christian area.005. Possible national dish Skaba putra (porridge of barley. Later the Mamluks ruled Lebanon. In a civil war. Sweets Sugar. Beverages Milk. After the Druze massacred the Maronites in 1860. ligzdinas: mostly beef with pork and bread. tomatoes. Major Languages Arabic (official) French English Armenian Population density per sq. and a peeled whole hard-boiled egg in the center of each patty). coffee sometimes topped with whipped cream. leaving Hezbollah.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. kvass. minerals and chemical products History Present-day Lebanon is the area of ancient Phoenicia. with Christians the majority. oranges. goats. and salt pork.2% Arable land 16% Agriculture potatoes. at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. a Muslim extremist . 1948–1949. several Arab countries aided Muslim factions while Israel aided Christian forces. Cabbage stuffed with seasoned ground meat. It has a narrow coastal strip. Conflict continued in the 1980s and through the 1990s. sheep. food processing. Kisels (currant or and berry juices thickened with potato flour).4% Life expectancy 70. mi. cement. Pancake served with berries or jam. and served cold with sour cream).1% Unemployment rate 8.. water (surplus in a water-deficient region). 76 female Per capita GDP $11. 1975–1976. chickens.9 male. In 1991 Lebanon and Syria signed a treaty recognizing Lebanon as a separate state for the first time since the countries gained independence (1943–1946).6 HIV rate 0. Most of the land is two mountain ranges running north to south. vodka. wine. became independent in 1920 and was administered under French mandate from 1920 to 1941. potatoes. Alexander torte (pastry with raspberry preserve filling and powdered sugar and lemon juice icing). Palestinian refugees settled in southern Lebanon. with the fertile Bekaa Valley in between. In 1970 the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) moved its headquarters there. beer. pigs Natural resources limestone. In 1943 public positions were divided among religious communities. cattle. LEBANON Lebanese Republic Geography Lebanon is in the Middle East. Arab tradesmen settled in southern Lebanon by the 11th century and founded the Druze faith. textiles. apples. After the Arab-Israeli War. In 1516 the Ottoman Turks took control in Lebanon. Mont Lebanon. In the 6th century CE. eaten with herring or bread and butter.000 live births 22. 1. Lebanon. grapes. iron ore.g. Lebanon gained full independence in 1946. salt. By the 1970s Muslims became the majority. olives. honey.6 Literacy rate 87. tourism. formed from five former Turkish Empire districts. sour milk. tobacco. Israel withdrew almost all its troops in 2000. molasses.300 Labor force in agriculture NA Ethnic Groups Arab Armenian Other 95% 4% 1% Major Religions Muslim (mostly Shi’a) Christian (mostly Catholic) Other 60% 39% 1% Urban 86.

wheat bread. moist. Bread and cereals Wheat. Fats and oils Olive oil. and Africa. green peppers. in control of much of the area. Seasonings Tahini (sesame seed paste). A favorite dish Fattoush (salad of parsley. rosewater. Hindbeh bil-zeyt (boiled wild chicory sautéed in olive oil and garnished with caramelized onion). The Phoenicians reached this land around 3000 BCE. onions. cucumbers. after 29 years of occupation. Dairy products Milk (goat. olives. grains. Stuffed vegetables. cow). Bread is consumed at most meals. Beverages Coffee. feta cheese (white. tomatoes. foodstuffs. quince. tea. Legumes Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). Syria withdrew all of its troops. baked. Romans. and Ottomans invaded the land and the French administered it. cinnamon. fresh herbs (parsley. goat. and lemon juice). candied. camel. mint. chicory. garlic. oregano). fish Chicken. lettuce. and wine at the ancient crossroads of Europe. especially the Ottomans. Roasted chicken. although it has more vegetarian dishes due to Lenten restrictions of its larger Christian community. Fruit Oranges. vegetable oil. filo dough. Violence increased in 2006 but eased after a power-sharing agreement by the government and Hezbollah in 2008. sugar. and rosewater or orange blossom water. and bread toppings). pine nuts. The Romans merged the states between the Taurus Mountains and the Sinai desert into a province named Syria. is mountainous with a long coastline on the Mediterranean. hazelnuts. tomatoes. Persians. National dish Kibbeh (finely minced lamb paste with cracked wheat. dried. apples. cardamom.300 UN military personnel remained in Lebanon in mid-2008. grapes. and salty). walnuts. Vegetables Potatoes. pork. wine. Square honey cakes. Egyptians. Dishes Stuffed pastries. beef. trading spices. Candied dates. and preserved in a pot. rice. Sanbusak (crescent-shaped fried meat. sesame seeds. pepper. mint. Cracked wheat fermented in yogurt. Lebanon shares a similar cuisine with neighbor Syria. Lahm bi-ajine (flatbread topped with minced meat. Lebanese use fat sparingly. Grilled or fried meat and fish. Specialties: Burghul bi d’feeneh (cracked wheat. fava (broad) beans. lemon juice. They established city-states and became the first great commercial mariners. poultry. Muslims. apricots. onions. honey. figs. Asia. Fruits dried. . and lemon juice. sesame oil. cooked and covered in its own fat. lentils. dates. pastry fillings. Sweets Honey. sumac. Greeks. raisins. in 1946 Lebanon became independent. Preserved foods Vegetables dried or pickled. arak (anise-flavored aperitif often served with mezze). the majority. pistachios. Grape leaves stuffed with rice. Shish kabob (grilled lamb pieces on skewers). which provides fish and seafood. basil). sugar. orange blossom water. Meat. onion.or flower-flavored syrup. navy. lamb and mutton. raw or cooked). spices (allspice. Baraziq (small round biscuits dipped in pistachios and sesame seeds). Nuts and seeds Almonds. Meat (including variety cuts) and vegetable stews. burghul (cracked wheat). and black. soaked in syrup). water. cucumbers. About 12. usually leavened flatbread including pita (thin round bread with a hollow center). each left influence.or cheese-filled pie). Lamb or mutton cut into small pieces. clarified butter. and red beans. In 2005. and basil or mint. fish and shellfish. eggs. Pilaf (rice heated in oil in which onions have been browned and then steamed with water or broth). sheep’s tail fat. and pieces of pita bread). tomatoes. Crusaders. one of the world’s smallest countries. yogurt. cherries. fruit juices. sheep. are forbidden consumption of pork or alcohol and are obliged to fast from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. melons. or made into jam. chopped onion. pomegranates.The Food and Culture around the World – Lebanon 177 group. and meat). chickpeas. rice dishes. yogurt drinks. Influences on food Lebanon. Candy made of boiled sugar. eggplant. Baklava (filo dough layers filled with nuts. and ground to produce kishk (used in soups. onions.

French. fish. including the Dutch. with violence and changes in kings several times in the 1990s. barley. and was restored to direct control by Britain. apparel assembly. porridge. seafood. The diet of rural people was that of their East African forefathers except that corn (which the European settlers planted and the Africans soon cultivated) replaced millet in porridge. An estimated 20% of the people faced food shortages in 2007. wheat. sand. mountainous and rocky. mint. textiles. mainly raises grain and livestock. . rice.2% Life expectancy 41 male. parsley. Influences on food Lesotho. melon. pigs Natural resources water. wheat. It gained independence as Lesotho in 1966. olives. Bread and cereals Corn. The country is mountainous. beans. French Huguenots founded the wine industry. broiled eggplant with tahini sauce. beverages. LESOTHO Kingdom of Lesotho Geography Lesotho is a small country in southern Africa. Diners tear pieces from a disk of flatbread to scoop and eat mezze. The Dutch and Germans brought an appreciation for baked goods and jam and preserves (konfyt). porridge. goat. fish Chicken. eggs. Most of Lesotho’s GNP is from citizens working in South Africa. pickles.000 to 11. Called Basutoland. Chiefdoms formed. 39. chickens. beef. and the most powerful organized the Basotho in 1824 and sought British protection from the South African Boers. pulses. caterpillars. German.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. doughnuts. sorghum. Major Languages English (both Sesotho (southern Sotho) official) Zulu Xhosa Population density per sq. ant larvae. was annexed to Cape Colony 1871 to 1884. Lebanese mezze are generally considered the best. sheep. mi. goats. Insects are fried or roasted. Most of the population is indigenous. Muslim slaves and laborers imported from Malaysia and India to South Africa have also influenced local fare. diamonds. and lemon juice). and especially the British because Lesotho was a British protectorate for nearly a century. elevation 5. Lesotho’s worst in 30 years.3 female Per capita GDP $1. oil. rice dishes. fried kibbeh. expert fishers experienced in preserving fish. founded the Cape Malay cuisine prominent in southern Africa. building stone Industries food. cattle. The cuisine has been influenced by European settlers of the region. Dairy products. Meat. corn. with rocky tableland. The chief industry is raising livestock. The Malays. barley. Cattle were wealth and seldom eaten.2% Unemployment rate 50% Arable land 11% Agriculture potatoes. Conflicts with South Africa and internally have occurred since 1986. tarts. cookies. mainly due to drought. lamb and mutton. ostrich). breads.178 The Food and Culture around the World – Lesotho Mezze (tasty snacks) Hummus (chickpea dip).000 feet. tabbouleh (salad of chopped tomato. 181. pork. poultry.6 HIV rate 23. Insects Locusts. surrounded by the Republic of South Africa. the area became a British protectorate in 1868. game (venison. and insects were and are eaten.000 live births 78.300 Labor force in agriculture 86% (subsistence) Ethnic Groups Sotho Other 99% 1% Major Religions Christianity (official) Christian Indigenous beliefs 80% 20% Urban 23. sorghum. and cracked wheat with onions. handicrafts History Bantu-speaking farmers settled here in the 16th century. clay.6 Literacy rate 82. greens. termites (white ants). the chief export is diamonds.

Major Languages English (official) About 20 ethnic languages Ethnic Groups African (Kpelle. pigs. cloves.S. tomatoes. Legumes Beans. Atjar (unripe fruit or vegetables preserved in oil with spices). Potjie (stew such as of venison simmered in a pot).7 Literacy rate 55. peanuts. Sosaties (lamb or mutton marinated. Dishes Corn porridge (putu). Grated raw fruit or vegetable salads with lemon juice or vinegar and chilies.9 HIV rate 1. A coup in 1980 ended Americo-Liberian political dominance over . served with curry sauce). It is mostly a plateau and low mountains covered with dense tropical forests. Soetkoekies (spice cookies with wine). tomatoes. Vegetables Potatoes. coffee. cream. butter. with a marshy coastline and six major rivers. Beverages Tea. Beans simmered (sometimes with melon or pumpkin). Biltong (salted meat strips dried and preserved over smoke). vegetable oil. 42. rubber.The Food and Culture around the World – Liberia 179 Dairy products Milk. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Bredie (stew of spiced mutton cooked with vegetables such as onions. rice. wine. quinces. grapes. Boiled rice. apricots. dates. Tarts made with sweet potatoes or egg custard. diamonds.5% Life expectancy 39. Liberia was founded in 1822 as a home for freed American slaves. Fruit preserves and jams.) Caribbean (descendants of slaves from Caribbean) 95% 3% 2% Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Christian Muslim 40% 40% 20% Population density per sq. sugarcane. fish Industries rubber and palm oil processing. Frikkadels (braised meat patties). ginger. hydropower.9 male. sweet potatoes.5 female Per capita GDP $400 Labor force in agriculture 70% Urban 58. and barbecued or simmered in marinade. Fruit leathers (called planked fruit). Grape-stuffed chicken or suckling pig. peas. carrots. oil palm fruit. pumpkin. cauliflower. Fats and oils Fat of fat-tailed sheep. goats. Fruit Melon. chili peppers. lemons.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. lentils. Sweets Honey. grapefruit. gold. It became a republic in 1847. walnuts.7% Unemployment rate 85% Arable land 3% Agriculture cassava. timber. apples. LIBERIA Republic of Liberia Geography Liberia is on the southwest coast of West Africa. cinnamon. garlic. curry powder. Spicy fruit or vegetable relishes (chutney). Bassa. Seasonings Vinegar. bay leaf. potatoes. Koeksister (deep-fried braided doughnuts). chilies. raisins. timber. cucumbers. bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Gio) Americo-Liberian (descendants of slaves from U. tangerines. turmeric. diamonds History Africa’s first republic. fish oil. mi. cocoa. 89. Dried fruits.000 live births 143. or pumpkin). sugar. Bobotie (meatloaf with spices topped with a custard mixture and baked). green leaves. coconut. skewered. always eaten with rice. onions. cattle Natural resources iron ore. sheep. sometimes served for special occasions. chickens.

In 1997 former rebel leader Charles Taylor was elected president. thyme. cocoa. shea oil. guavas. dried baobab leaves. spicy food is liked. kola nuts. . potatoes. curds. banana fritters. peanut oil. bordering the Mediterranean Sea. fish Chicken. honey. onions. Meat. plantains. imposed in 2001 to reduce the export of illegal “blood diamonds” that had helped finance the civil war. In turn. beef. okra. legumes. papaya. poultry. Hard-boiled eggs. chili pepper. corn. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. biscuits. New World foods such as cocoa. or peanuts with bits of fish or meat. In 2001 the UN imposed sanctions on Liberia for aiding insurgency in Sierra Leone. Peanut sauce (ground peanuts. and simmered in the marinade. chili peppers. coconut biscuits. lamb and mutton. pumpkin. eggs. Fruit Bananas. onions. Boiled rice.180 The Food and Culture around the World – Libya indigenous African descendants. Fufu (pounded boiled starchy vegetables or boiled corn flour). Dairy products Milk. and onions). beer. tomatoes. Seasonings Salt. pineapple. Fats and oils Palm oil. locust beans (carob). sticky. eggplant. akee apples. The UN authorized a peacekeeping force to help stabilize Liberia in 2003 and extended the mandate to 2008. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). black-eyed peas (a variety of cowpeas). fish and seafood (fresh. and a peace agreement was reached in 1996. and fish. buttermilk. Palm oil. and tomato greatly influenced food customs. and carob or chocolate). bitter leaf. Freed American slaves brought influence from the United States. A civil war began in 1989. Gari (roasted cassava meal). root vegetables. and peanut sauce. game. cassava. okra. Insects Termites (often called white ants). the predominant cooking fat. cheese. plantain chips. Jollof rice (rice simmered with meats. Chicken baked with tomatoes. in 2003 he went into exile in Nigeria and the UN indicted him for war crimes. fried sweet dough balls. vegetables. and chunks or balls are dipped in sauce or stew and eaten by hand. Mountains are in the north and south. porridge. Beverages Coffee. sugar. fritters. green leaves. millet. pancakes. whey. fried fish. Bread and cereals Rice. Thick. goat. Most of the land (92%) is desert and semi-desert. grilled. coconut oil. guinea fowl. is red. melokhia (crain crain). bean balls. coconut milk. sesame seeds. locusts. Insects are roasted or fried. Fréjon (pea or bean purée. pork. Nuts and seeds Cashews. black-eyed peas. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. his trial began in 2007 and continued in 2008. corn. Stews: fish and meat. chicken and peanuts. Arable land lies in a narrow coastal zone along the Mediterranean. onions. and okra influenced food customs in the New World. Chicken or fish marinated in lemon juice. In 1996 modern Africa’s first woman head of state was installed to lead the transitional government. Hibiscus sabdariffa). In 2007 the UN Security Council lifted its ban on Liberian diamond exports. bell peppers. Chicken is well-liked and served to special guests. fried with onions. watermelon. native African foods such as watermelon. tomatoes. “African nutmeg. Sweets Sugarcane. cucumbers. smoked. Palaver sauce (pounded green leaves and seasonings). and spices). sorghum.” cocoa. okra. red zinger (herbal tea made from flower pods of roselle. mango seeds. chilies. baobab. mangoes. lemons. or dried). taro. kanya (peanut candy). LIBYA Socialist People’s Libyan Arab Jamahiriya Geography Libya is in North Africa. Daily fare is mostly grains and starchy vegetables. beans. tomatoes. Vegetables Cassava. Influences on food The Atlantic Ocean and rivers provide fish. sweet dough. The tropical climate and heavy rainfall grow crops such as cassava and sugarcane. rabbit. salted. hot red chili peppers. yams. coconut. peanuts. sour milk. watermelon seeds (egusi). Adalu (mashed boiled vegetables). greens. sweet potatoes. limes.

rendered lamb fat. lentils. food processing. Dairy products Buttermilk. barley. and stored in its own fat. citrus. Influences on food Influences in ancient times included the Berbers. beef. pumpkin. Now cucumbers and other vegetables are grown using new technology.1 Literacy rate 86. fried in olive oil.The Food and Culture around the World – Libya Major Languages Arabic (official) Italian English Ethnic Groups Arab and Berber Other 97% 3% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Other 97% 3% 181 Population density per sq. The Mediterranean provides fish and seafood. sheep. olives. cheese. Vegetables Tomatoes. peppers. cement History Libya was first settled by Berbers. chopped. okra. 9. fish Industries oil. lamb and mutton. It was ruled by Italy from 1912 and by Britain and France after World War II. A decade later Qaddafi led army officers to depose the king and made Libya an Islamic republic. Greeks. cracked wheat. ghee (clarified butter). cooled. pastry. In the 7th century BCE. In the 16th century it became part of the Ottoman Empire. Libya was conquered by the Romans in the 1st century BCE and by Arabs in 642 CE. potatoes. chickpeas. peanuts. fish and shellfish. Rule by Spain in the 16th century followed by the Ottomans starting in the same century and Italy from 1912 to the end of World War II also influenced Libyan food. soybeans. Some legumes and most fruits except dates and some citrus are imported.9 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 30. and in 1989. who do not consume pork or alcohol. camels Natural resources oil. greens. soybeans. gypsum. poultry. mi.8 male. vegetable oil.000 live births 21. Increased prosperity from oil and increased food imports in the last decades of the 20th century also influenced the cuisine. peaches.8% Life expectancy 74. . sesame oil. wheat. olives.4 female Per capita GDP $12. commonly used in cooking). Phoenicians. eggs. parsley. apricots. Onions have been grown here for a long time. goats. sun dried. baguette (French bread). gargush (meat cut into long strips. goat. couscous. Arabs were a strong influence. citrus. cucumbers. In 2008 the Italian prime minister visited and pledged aid as reparations for Italy’s years of colonial rule. Libya’s mostly desert land and hot climate limit agriculture. The UN imposed sanctions in 1992 for Libya’s failure to cooperate in cases about plane bombings in 1988 of an American plane over Lockerbie. cattle. Fats and oils Olive oil. After UN inspections. barley. wild crabapples. Fruit Dates. vegetables. In 2007 Libya was elected a nonpermanent member of the UN Security Council for a two-year term.0% Arable land 1% Agriculture tomatoes. fish Chicken. flatbreads. natural gas. yogurt. in 2004 the United States and Libya restored diplomatic relations after 24 years. and the UN lifted sanctions. 79. Brief rule by Britain and France also had some influence. Libya became independent in 1951.300 Labor force in agriculture 17% Urban 77% Infant mortality rate per 1. salted. figs. Legumes Peanuts. textiles. Meat. pasta. Most Libyans are Muslims. Bread and cereals Wheat. dates. Libya fought with Egypt and with Chad during the 1970s. fava beans. Scotland. chickens. potatoes. Libyan cuisine is hot and spicy. eggplant. In 2003 Libya renounced terrorism and settled the plane bombing cases. carrots. iron and steel. Oil was discovered here in 1959 and it brought wealth. Libya signed a contract with British Petroleum to drill for oil and gas. and Romans. Phoenicians settled in the eastern part and Greeks in the western part. handicrafts.

Dishes Couscous (tiny balls of grain dough steamed and served like rice) mixed with stew or sauce. Falafel (small fried bean purée cakes).000 Labor force in agriculture 2% Urban 14. cumin. food products. none. includes some of the above dishes. It was a member of the German Confederation from 1815 to 1866. sesame seeds.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. garlic. Beverage Tea (sweetened. precision instruments. Austria administered Liechtenstein’s ports to 1920. The Rhine valley occupies a third of the country and the Alps Mountains cover the rest. Mezze (snacks. Hot red pepper sauce. Cheese cubes.5 female Per capita GDP $25. German. cinnamon. Seasonings Hot red pepper. poppy seeds. population 34. other 66% 10% 24% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Muslim Other. Kabob (grilled skewered small chunks of meat). Deep-fried anchovy-filled pastry. corn. apples. Potato salad (boiled potatoes heated in oil. ceramics. Almond cookies. caraway seeds. pigs.5 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 2. potatoes. cattle. Dolma (stuffed vegetable). and red pepper sauce). pharmaceuticals. the other two meals are light. Dates. lemon juice. mi.182 The Food and Culture around the World – Liechtenstein Nuts and seeds Almonds.000 live births 4.4% Arable land 25% Agriculture grapes. sometimes stuffed with pistachio paste flavored with rosewater.498) is in Central Europe. Pastry filled with sweet almond or sesame seed paste. when it became an independent principality. between Austria and Switzerland.4 Literacy rate 100% Life expectancy 76.4 male. Meals Lunch. market gardening. Sweets Honey. In 2004 Prince . unknown 76% 7% 4% 13% Population density per sq. Italian. lemon juice. beaten into a hard dough. rosewater. cucumber and yogurt. black pepper. pumpkin seeds. onion. wheat. Stewed chicken. pine nuts. barley. eggplant purée. caraway seeds. metal manufacturing. Switzerland has administered its postal services since 1921 and is united with it by a customs and monetary union. goats Natural resources hydroelectric potential Industries electronics. shaped into a pyramid around which is poured a thick meat and potato stew. and cracked wheat). sugar. Baklava. tourism History The people are descended from the Alamanni tribe that came to this area in 500 CE. sheep. Tabbouleh (salad of parsley. Turkish. Major Languages German (official) Alemannic dialect Ethnic Groups Liechtensteiner Swiss Austrian. Bazin. Liechtenstein was founded in 1719 from two independent lordships of the Holy Roman Empire. and served in small glasses with foam on top). tomato. Ground lamb turnover. a distinctly Libyan dish (barley flour boiled in water. dental products. and hummus (chickpea purée). and decorated with whole hard-boiled eggs). 58. 83. pistachios. poured repeatedly to form foam. LIECHTENSTEIN Principality of Liechtenstein Geography This tiny country (area 62 square miles. Dips such as taramosalata (fish roe spread). orange water. the main meal. Macaroni with meat and vegetables in tomato sauce. appetizers) Olives. Fried doughnuts dipped in lemony honey syrup.

and marshes in the north and west. influences on food include neighbors Switzerland. mustard. bacon. beer. In 2007 Liechtenstein began to modernize its justice system. pastry. small rivers. butter. chestnuts. Ground meat seasoned. bread (often made with rye and other grains and thus darker than bread made from wheat flour). Legumes Kidney beans. Mid-afternoon coffee break: coffee and cake or cookies. Meat. or baked. cucumber pickles. lakes.. beets. with hills in the west and south. raising livestock. and fried. ham. onions. meat. sheep). Dishes Potatoes. milk. sausage. Mid-morning snack: coffee and pastry. barley. soups. navy beans. split peas. often damp climate allows growing grain and potatoes. Lakes and rivers supply fish. Dairy products Milk (cow. fish Beef and veal.The Food and Culture around the World – Lithuania 183 Hans-Adam II turned daily operations of the country over to his son. Beverages Coffee. Pea soup. mashed. dairy products. and sausage. or eggs. hot chocolate. vegetable oil. Fats and oils Butter. cookies. or one-pot dishes. and jam. Braised or fried meatballs. fish dish. cabbage. Dumplings stuffed with ground meat. baked or fried. Vegetables Potatoes. lemon. lentils. Seasonings Sour cream. chicken. Fruit is usually cooked. fertile soil. A lighter lunch: stew or one-pot meal. salt pork. cherries. often breaded and fried). pork. raisins. Guests are usually invited not for dinner but for dessert and wine later in the evening. usually with whipped cream. ham. Influences on food In this tiny. Fruit/berry pudding. cabbage) or pastry. and producing dairy products. pastries (sometimes fruit-filled) with whipped cream. or ham. The cold. Evening meal: breads. cheese. apricots. Pork or veal schnitzel (cutlet. fish. cabbage. cucumbers. caraway seeds. cheese. sauerkraut.g. mountainous central European country. Foods are often dried. Meals Three meals with snacks daily is usual. Nearly half of workers commute daily from nearby countries. Stewed fruit. cold fish. fried. sour cream. grapes. or fermented. wine. dumplings made with flour or potatoes. Major Languages Lithuanian (official) Russian Polish Ethnic Groups Lithuanian Polish Russian Belarusian. and dessert. Breakfast: bread. blackberries. potatoes. or fruit and fried or baked. carrots. Meat cooked with fruit. Crown Prince Alois. perhaps with soft-boiled egg. Nuts and seeds Almonds. beans. and many forests. Sweets Honey. mixed with bread crumbs. Bread. corn. poppy seeds. Fruit Apples. sugar. lard. Bread and cereals Wheat. it is on the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development’s blacklist of uncooperative tax havens. as well as geography and climate. Austria. LITHUANIA Republic of Lithuania Geography Lithuania is in Eastern Europe on the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. vinegar. pickled. Ground meat–stuffed vegetables (e. Many international companies have headquarters here. and sweets are eaten daily. vanilla. cheese. Taxes are low. Cut meat cooked in stews. eggs. goat. lamb and mutton. Sour-tasting food is liked. dill. and Germany. Lunch (the main meal): soup. rye. walnuts. cakes. lemons. poultry. hazelnuts. boiled. It is a lowland country. one or two meat dishes with vegetables and perhaps stewed fruit. other 83% 7% 6% 4% Major Religions Roman Catholic Russian Orthodox Other None 79% 4% 7% 10% . formed into patties. cinnamon. cream.

green beans. lamb. mushrooms. apricots. Lithuania joined the EU and NATO in 2004. Bread and cereals Wheat. more than US $73 billion at the beginning of 2008.184 The Food and Culture around the World – Lithuania Population density per sq. sour cream. rye bread. corn. This history influenced Lithuanian food. The last Soviet troops left in 1993. Russia brought Lithuania under its rule in 1795 with its partition of Poland. and potatoes. goat. raisins. buttermilk. goose. sugar beets. It was a large territory in the Middle Ages. pork. rhubarb. UN admittance followed in 1991. cherries. Boiled potatoes. lard.7 male. lemon. or cheese). porridge. rye. In 1386 the Lithuanian grand duke became king of Poland. cabbage. eggs. . 79.8% Urban 66. and in a union with neighbor Poland for four centuries extended at one time to the Black Sea.000 live births 6. beef and veal. dill. vegetable pickles. pork. vegetables. cattle. In 2007 the Baltic nations and Poland agreed to build a new nuclear power station in Lithuania. onion. buckwheat. beets. cucumbers. sauerkraut. parsley. potatoes. or fish. carrots. Lithuanian-American Valdas Adamkus was president from 1998 to 2003 and again in 2004. amber Industries metal-cutting. and kasha. and Germany. fresh cream. garlic. walnuts. largely due to foreign direct investment. and nutmeg). sunflower seeds. and Lithuania and Poland united to oppose the Teutonic knights. goats Natural resources fish. Refrigerators and freezers.6 Literacy rate 99.9 female Per capita GDP $17. millet. nutmeg. Germany occupied Lithuania during both World Wars. black pepper. mi. electric motors. Boiled dumplings. Following World War I and the collapse of Russia. dairy products. Fats and oils Butter. Lithuania was annexed by the USSR in 1940. sausage such as sviezia desira (ground beef and pork with garlic. poultry. meat. and Lithuania regained independence in 1991. cranberries. hemp (marijuana. caraway seeds. oats. barley. stretching to the Black Sea and almost to Moscow.7% Life expectancy 69. pastry. fish Chicken. pepper. chestnuts. ligonberries. caviar. used in traditional Lithuanian fare). lettuce. cloves. Kasha (barley. peat.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. Seasonings Sour cream.6% Arable land 45% Agriculture wheat. Vegetables Potatoes. machine tools. sheep. Cepelinai (dumplings made of grated potato and stuffed with meat. parsley. dishes with Russian influence include beet soup. Fruit Apples. is often ground. currants. Russia. hazelnuts. chickens. flax. raspberries. split peas. textiles History Lithuanian tribes united in the 13th century. cheese (fresh sweet cheese such as Lithuanian farmer’s cheese. The economy grew substantially. lentils. smoked ham. Influences on food Lithuania is the southernmost Baltic country. cabbage. They made one of Europe’s largest empires. vinegar. cinnamon. salt pork. Lithuania has kept its language and many indigenous food traditions. barley. TVs.700 Labor force in agriculture 15. Dairy products Milk. Potato pancakes. fish and seafood (especially Baltic herring). It had close trading lines with the Mongol-Tatars and the Ottoman Empire. Lithuanian cuisine has been influenced most by Poland.6 HIV rate 0. or millet porridge). Soup made from beets (eaten cold in summer). cottage cheese. hard cheeses often with caraway seeds).1% Unemployment rate 5. the USSR regained control of it in 1944. pigs. bacon. onions. in 1918 Lithuania declared independence. fruit soup. Meat. reflecting the agrarian country and Baltic coast. sometimes stuffed with potatoes. dumplings. poppy seeds. Legumes Beans. plums. pancakes. 141. buckwheat. mushrooms. Dishes Salad of cucumbers and sour cream with dill. For example. ginger. flaxseed oil. or fruit. Main foods are Baltic herring. made from flour or potatoes. oil refining. second in importance to bread. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Meat. bread (usually rye and served at most meals). vegetable oil. pickled herring.

it approved the EU constitution in 2005. In 2000 the grand duke. sheep. In 1839 the western part was given to Belgium and the eastern part continued with the Netherlands and became autonomous in 1848. 486. apple cheese (baked apples sieved. and milk. tea.6 HIV rate 0. Beverages Milk.000 live births 4. Traditional Christmas Eve dish Avizine kose (fermented oatmeal porridge. pig’s stomach stuffed with potatoes and herring. moistened bread crumbs. milk.The Food and Culture around the World – Luxembourg 185 Baked or fried pastry dough filled with meat or cabbage. lightly breaded and fried. Luxembourg became independent in 963. A favorite dish. chicken. grapes. vodka. and dried). or beer. chemicals. Meals Three hearty meals a day are typical. oats. coffee. beer. after 36 years on the throne. Kiselius (thickened fruit soup). the largest at lunch. Cutlet (slice) of pork. 57 to 50 BCE. Cookies with apples and ginger. Major Languages Luxembourgish French German (national) (both official) Ethnic Groups Luxembourger Portuguese French Italian German. aluminum History Luxembourg was inhabited by Belgic tribes at the time of the Roman conquest. iron and steel. and sugar). It became part of the Spanish Netherlands in the mid-16th century. molasses. Honey cake (lekakh).7 female Per capita GDP $82. chopped almonds. or veal. It has mountains with heavy forests in the north and a low fertile plateau in the south. In the late 19th century it exploited its extensive iron ore deposits. and milk. and other spices). Once part of Charlemagne’s empire. telecommunications. Fried patties of ground meat. chopped onion. It was one the founding members (1951) of the organization that became the European Union.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. metal products. and baked. fruits. pressed. Kulduny (lamb-stuffed pastry) served with sour cream.500 Labor force in agriculture 1% Urban 82. mi. kasha or boiled potatoes. Belgium. Luxembourg was overrun by Germany in both world wars. kvass (fizzy sour beer fermented from rye bread or beets). potatoes. It was made a duchy in 1354 and ceded to the house of Burgundy in 1443 and to the Hapsburgs in 1477. Snacking is rare. It joined NATO in 1949.8 Literacy rate 100% Life expectancy 75. cargo transport. Usual meal: bread. wheat.4% Arable land 27% Agriculture wine. Fried black bread with garlic. bordering France. cinnamon. chickens. goats Natural resources iron ore (no longer exploited) Industries banking and financial services. cattle. boiled. It was made a grand duchy in 1815. 82. salad or soup. food processing. tea. sugar. In 1866 it left the Germanic Confederation. A specialty. combined with honey and spices. and Germany. National drink Krupnikas (mildly fermented beverage with cloves.9 male. glass.2% Unemployment rate 4. barley. information technology. In 1948 it ended its neutrality by joining a customs union with Belgium and the Netherlands. LUXEMBOURG Grand Duchy of Luxembourg Geography Luxembourg is in Western Europe. abdicated power in favor . Sweets Honey. other 63% 13% 5% 4% 15% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Muslim Orthodox Other 90% 3% 2% 1% 4% Population density per sq. and served with boiled syrup of pounded poppy seeds. pigs. German tribes invaded the area after 400 CE.

pickles. fruit. lemons. lard. raisins. cabbage. broad beans. hazelnuts. Boiled. beer. Bread and cereals Wheat. rye. smoked ham. Rivers provide fish. Legumes Split peas. plums. red). cherries. wheat. Sweet bread. chocolate. Fats and oils Butter. mashed. Sweets Honey. Cookies. cheese. beef. Soup of entrails (gebeck). margarine.186 The Food and Culture around the World – Luxembourg of his son. notably Belgium and France. sour cream. lamb. National dish Judd mat Gaardebounen (boiled smoked pork with boiled potatoes and broad beans with sage). fish. hot chocolate. fish Chicken. or fried potatoes. pears. shallots. pork. apples. and livestock. sausage. Other influences include Luxembourg’s history of poverty and its present prosperity as an international banking center. Dairy products Milk. strawberries. sage. rice. France. cinnamon. or capers. pepper. and rye). The fertile plateau in the south sustains production of grains. Special occasion fare For Christmas (Kermesse): Soup made with pork offal (Gehäck). tomatoes. walnuts. oranges. oats. potatoes. onions. eggs. carrots. also influenced the food here. Vegetables Potatoes. Waffles with butter and sugar or with whipped cream and strawberries. cream. bread (whole wheat. Seasonal tarts (tartes des quetsches) made with plums. poultry. Dishes Split pea or bean soup. and Germany. melon. Yeast-raised cake with raisins (Kiirmeskuch) eaten spread with butter and a thin slice of smoked ham. asparagus. cloves. Fried or grilled trout. or mashed potatoes with red wine replacing milk or cream (mashed potatoes à la Luxembourgeoise). barley. prunes. Pickled pig’s trotters. vanilla. pecans. kidney beans. tea. pastry. Prunes soaked in local wine. Brussels sprouts. mustard. . In 2007 Luxembourg’s economy was ranked the fourth most competitive in the world. Beverages Coffee. wine (white. shallots. Fruit Grapes. Meat. who ruled the region from 1556 to 1713. goat. addition of a Luxembourg wine to a stew or fish dish. salt pork. vegetable oil. sauerkraut. Influences on food Luxembourg is a tiny country (area 998 square miles) between Belgium. sugar. Seasonings Vinegar. cookies. Nuts and seeds Almonds. sesame seeds. who later owned this land. waffles. In 2008 the country opened a new airport terminal. The suffix à la luxembourgeoise refers to a variety of dishes: fried meat served with a sauce containing any combination of gherkins. nutmeg. charcuterie. chestnuts. capers. Spain. and the Netherlands. Its cuisine has been influenced by these neighbors.

the Byzantine Empire. tobacco. It survived in various sizes and under various rulers including the Roman Empire. which became Yugoslavia. Greece has blocked Macedonia’s bid to join NATO because of its use of a Hellenic name and symbols. The Ottoman Empire ruled it from 1389 to 1912. After the Roman Empire division in 395 CE. goats Natural resources iron ore. 77. Present-day Macedonia is the western half of the ancient Kingdom of Macedonia. In 1918 Serbia became part of the Kingdom of Serbs. vegetables. cattle. lead. In 2001 violence between Macedonia’s ethnic Albanians. wine.0% Arable land 22% Agriculture wheat. 214.1% Unemployment rate 36. mining History Macedonia has been inhabited since before 7000 BCE. chickens. In 1991 Macedonia declared independence. Slavic tribes settled it by the mid-6th century. It is mostly mountainous. Croats.1 female Per capita GDP $8. chemicals. potatoes.6 Urban 65.8 Literacy rate 97% Life expectancy 72 male. pharmaceuticals. mi. north of Greece. In antiquity Macedonia was the heart of Alexander the Great’s empire.500 Labor force in agriculture 19. manganese.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. and Slavs gained independence. cement. In 1913 most of the land (the north and center of the area) was incorporated into Serbia. and the Ottoman 187 .000 live births 9. Influences on food Macedonia is a Balkan country and northern neighbor of Greece. It has three large lakes. when native Greeks. pigs. Major Languages Macedonian (both Albanian official) Turkish Ethnic Groups Macedonian Albanian Turkish Roma Other 64% 25% 4% 3% 4% Major Religions Macedonian Orthodox Sunni Muslim Other or unspecified 65% 33% 2% Population density per sq. zinc.M MACEDONIA The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Geography Macedonia is in southeastern Europe. grapes. sheep.3 HIV rate <0. tungsten. asbestos. silver. Bulgarians. the rest went to Greece and Bulgaria. textiles. who sought greater autonomy in the heavily Albanian western part of Macedonia. and the government led to Parliament’s granting broader rights to its Albanian minority and making Albanian an official language in 2002. fish Industries food processing. copper. the Byzantine Empire ruled Macedonia. which was defeated by Rome and became a Roman province in 148 BCE. It joined the UN in 1993. The Vardar is the main river. nickel. with deep river valleys and small areas of agricultural land. gold. Bulgaria seized it in 1185. and Slovenes. under the name The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia because Greece objected to its using the name of an ancient Greek province.

sunflower oil. and wine. beef. Guests come in late afternoon for sweets and coffee. Old Slavic dishes and adaptations of Greek and Turkish dishes are found. pumpkin.. Nuts and seeds Almonds.g. sunflower seeds. dates. walnuts.188 The Food and Culture around the World – Madagascar Empire in the 14th to 20th century. grape leaves or cabbage). cracked wheat. Bread and cereals Wheat. fish Chicken. cheese. buttered. sugar. It raises grains. fish. rich. pears. and delicately flavored under a golden cream crust. and often cut into diamond shapes). e. Madagascar lies in the Indian Ocean off the southeast coast of Africa. couscous. Baklava (pastry made of layers of thin filo dough. or jam and coffee or tea. or ouzo. Main meal (in early afternoon): appetizers such as hummus (chickpea dip). Kabob (meat chunks marinated and grilled on a skewer). lemons. onions. which is prevalent. such as hummus. lamb. yogurt. Supper: a light meal in late evening. Vegetables Potatoes. pistachio. corn oil. respectively). fruit. Favorite foods in Macedonia include lamb. Dolma (stuffed vegetable. It has fertile valleys in the central mountainous plateau and low coastal areas. Macedonia has early springs with early fruits and vegetables followed by long hot summers. lemon juice. wheat bread such as leavened loaves and pita. dolma. mint. olives. black beans. fruits. is made by shepherds in alpine dairies. oranges. cheese-or meat-pies. Islam also prohibits consumption of alcohol. rice. very thick. corn. Street food and snacks Mezze (tasty bits). ouzo (anise-flavored aperitif). wine. sesame seeds. porridge. in contrast to predominantly meat eaters. yogurt or cheese. sheep). Balkan people can be called grain eaters. cherries. eggplant. Sheep yogurt (ovcho kiselo mleko). onion. and egg casserole). olives. tea (both sweet. cardamom. Seasonings Anise. eggs. Kofta (pounded meat. a hard tangy ewe’s milk cheese called the cheddar of the Balkans). figs. The food is typically Balkan: bread and other flour-based products with dairy products. sheep). Dairy products Milk (cow. all often supplemented with hot red chilies or chili powder that gives Macedonian country food its characteristic fiery flavor. Fats and oils Butter (cow. . cucumbers. eggplant. filo dough. It was part of Yugoslavia for much of the 20th century. poultry. and vegetables. Dishes Cornmeal porridge (bakrdan). millet. Food consumption during feasting and fasting differs for Orthodox Christians and Muslims. Fruit Grapes. many other herbs and spices. tomatoes. white beans. feta and kashkaval. garlic. pork. meat or bean dish with a salad of raw vegetables.g. grape leaves. but wine and ouzo are popular in the Balkans. cheese. Sweets Honey. cheese (e. tomato. fava beans. This history has influenced Macedonia’s food. MADAGASCAR Republic of Madagascar Geography The fourth largest island in the world. olives. Legumes Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). grapes. noodles. Beverages Coffee. Moussaka (eggplant. pasta. melons. Sheep is important and its yogurt is prized. olive oil. Meat. made into small meat balls. and livestock. cabbage. dolma. layered with sweetened filling of mixed nuts. mixed with other ingredients. rice dishes. wine. lamb and mutton. with cardamom and mint. and. plums. hot red chili. are widely available from street vendors and cafes for snacking. yogurt.. and grilled or fried). lentils. unlike Christianity. Islam forbids consumption of pork. soaked in honey or flavored syrup. Meals Breakfast: bread with cheese. Rivers provide fish.

Dairy products Yogurt. seafood. The island became a French protectorate in 1885. coconut cream and oil. Simmered . brewing. Fats and oils Butter. Rice is frequently cooked in an earthenware pot.8% Arable land 5% Agriculture rice. goats. A cyclone in 2008 killed at last 83 people and left 145. African.100 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 28. lard. green leaves. sugarcane. and the rest caramelized and mixed with boiling water to make ranon’ apango (rice water).600 lives. The inhabitants. lentils. garlic. In the 18th and 19th centuries the merina kingdom dominated. The first European to visit was Portuguese navigator Diogo Dias. semi-precious stones. coconut. eaten for breakfast. pigs. hydropower Industries meat processing. goose.6 male. A new constitution was adopted in 1992. cement. Indian. and Arab) French.000 homeless. in 1500. Fruit Bananas. Savory dishes are not highly spiced. Seasonings Vanilla beans. Dishes Apangoro (simmered rice). salt. bauxite. cocoa. coffee. 64.000 live births 55. A cholera epidemic and cyclones in 2000 claimed 1. Trade in slaves and arms led to development of the Malagsy kingdom in the early 17th century. In 2002 a 6-month civil war occurred. lamb and mutton. curry. reflecting the island’s French rule from 1896 to 1960. unifying much of the island. lemons. graphite. Arab. Sosoa (soupy cooked rice). pork. wheat. still predominate.1% Unemployment rate 2. the center part eaten. rice dishes. and independent in 1960.000 years ago by Malayan-Indonesians. eggs. bananas. sugar. cattle. and garlic (sakay) is used in some. Vanilla and cloves are important. auto assembly History This island was settled 2. fish and seafood. Vegetables Cassava. vanilla. cocoa. tar sands. mica. peanuts. peanuts. a French colony in 1896. other Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Christian Muslim and other 52% 41% 7% 189 96% 4% Population density per sq. whose descendants.6 HIV rate 0. goat. cloves.3 Literacy rate 70. Descendants of African Bantus live on the west coast. coal. It took its new name in 1975. Comoran. chickens. Rice and cassava are main foods. hides. ginger. beans. East African. onions. Meat. quartz. mi. plantains. Influences on food Madagascar is almost a continent because it occupies its own tectonic plate so that indigenous species of plants and animals evolved separately than those of neighboring continent Africa.5 female Per capita GDP $1. In addition to Malay/Indonesian. descended from Malay/Indonesian seafarers. 89. Brèdes (soup made with leaves). although a paste of chili. French influence is evident.The Food and Culture around the World – Madagascar Major Languages Malagasy French English (all are official) Ethnic Groups Malagasy (mixed Malayo-Indonesian. After a coup in the 1970s the new regime nationalized French interests and expulsed foreigners. fish Chicken.5% Infant mortality rate per 1.7% Life expectancy 60. cloves. and Indian influences. glassware. soap. Legumes Beans. cassava. geese. vegetable oil. beef. A ban on multiparty politics in place since 1975 ended in 1990. In 2007 amendments to the constitution substantially reduced the size of the national assembly and increased the president’s powers. chromite. the Malagasy. tomatoes. Bread and cereals Rice. ginger. as the Malagasy Republic. chili peppers. poultry. the Malagasy. political and economic instability has followed. bread (called mofo) usually baguette (French bread). In 2004 the World Bank and International Monetary Fund agreed to write off at least half of Madagascar’s debt. textiles. sheep Natural resources fish.

in spite of abundant game and the tradition of breeding cattle. tea. in the Rift Valley. Lesotho. Others lived on mostly grains and bananas. pork. often the only dessert on a menu.5 HIV rate 11. sugar.7 male.5 Literacy rate 71. Malawi provided substantial amounts of corn to drought-stricken Zimbabwe. Nyanja. sheep Natural resources fish. and 2005. cattle. which came under British authority in 1891 and became the protectorate Nyasaland in 1907. pigs. not food. mi. 18th century. Major Languages Chichewa (official) Chinyanja Chiyao Chitumbuka Ethnic Groups Chewa 35%. In 2007 a recovery from drought occurred due to a bumper crop of corn for two consecutive years. and brèdes).8% Life expectancy 43. Beverages Rice water (drunk with meals). and the Masai and related people lived on milk products and blood of cattle. Cassava cakes. In 1884 Cecil Rhodes’s British South African Company received a charter to develop the country. National dessert Banana flambé. Cape Maclear Beach. sugar. Rougaille (a sauce of chili. Ngonde 4%. Malawi owns most of Lake Malawi. sawmill products. tobacco. limestone. cassava. 1480. potatoes. tomatoes. cement. tomato. coffee. Influences on food The cuisine of Malawi resembles that of other East African countries such as neighbor Tanzania.1 female Per capita GDP $800 Labor force in agriculture 90% Urban 17. Arabs. has fine beaches and restaurants. Spicy peanut stew or sauce. Maravi 12% Ngoni 9%. Christian missionaries.9% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 21% Agriculture sugarcane. Simmered and often mashed beans or lentils. made hot and spicy with small hot chili peppers. coal and bauxite Industries tobacco. Much of the terrain is high plateaus and mountains. hydropower. Sena. 383. MALAWI Republic of Malawi Geography Malawi is a landlocked country in southeastern Africa. lemon. High plateaus and mountains line the Great Rift Valley. Tumbuka 8%. Fried plantains. The highland diet contains almost no meat. National dish Romazava (stew of beef. Spicy pickled vegetables (achards). cotton. 2003. and Chikulamayembe. tea. The earliest foreign traders. consumer goods History Humans have inhabited the area since about 8000 BCE. Lomwe 8%. Malagasy pil-pil dishes. Malawi gained independence in 1964. Cattle were regarded as wealth. Bantu-speaking people came between the 1st and 4th centuries CE. Major kingdoms established include Mravi. Sweets Sugarcane. tea. Coconut pudding. More than 7 million people suffered from severe food shortages in 2002. and ginger). . corn. on Lake Malawi. 43.190 The Food and Culture around the World – Malawi cassava. Vanilla-flavored pudding.000 live births 90. and Swaziland. goats. other 16% Major Religions Christian Muslim Other 80% 13% 7% Population density per sq. 1600. A large slave trade occurred in the 18th and 19th centuries. Ngonde. and Arab slavers. with gathered greens. David Livingstone explored the area in the 1850s and 1860s. unexploited deposits of uranium.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. Tonga. chicken. which runs north-south through the country. Yao 8%. chickens. onion. bringing Islam. served with savory dishes.

Dairy products Milk. pumpkin. coconut milk. important protein sources. Descendants of Dutch who trekked north from the Cape and later moved further north into southern Malawi left some influence. Milk products are important. game is plentiful. Fruit Bananas. lentils. Vegetables Potatoes. lamb and mutton. starchy vegetables. Asians brought practices such as using curry spices and cooking fish with coconut milk. Legumes. coconut pudding. beef. respectively) are farmed and exported. saffron. green leaves. Beverages Tea. onions. doughnuts. These are fried or dried. Fried. Major Languages Malay (official) English Chinese dialects Panjabi Ethnic Groups Malay Other indigenous Chinese Indian Other 50% 11% 24% 7% 8% Major Religions Islam (official) Muslim Buddhist Christian Hindu Other 60% 19% 9% 6% 6% . meat drippings. and eggplant. tilapia and catfish (chambo and mlamba. ants. crickets. beef. game. Green leaves cooked with peanut paste. okra. Meat. traded in slaves and ivory and introduced spices. Lake Malawi supplies fish. watermelon. Legumes Cowpeas. peanut oil. Fats and oils Butter. Green bananas boiled in their leaves and mashed. sorghum. eggs. Nuts and seeds Cashew nuts. fish Chicken. poultry. cinnamon. are eaten daily. Bread and cereals Corn. Peanut soup and paste. porridge (the common staple food). Curried chicken. honey. millet. and green leaves. lard. yams. caterpillars (harati). worms (madora). sesame seeds. Boiled rice. watermelon seeds. beer. bordering the South China Sea. or poached fish with coconut sauce. rice and coconut pancakes. MALAYSIA Geography Malaysia is in Southeast Asia. cloves. Insects Locusts. banana jam. fritters. Most of the land is a tropical jungle. seafood (salted and dried). grasshoppers. and potatoes or cassava). cassava. rice. the British trained African men in European cooking and encouraged Asians to settle in the region. Dishes Thick porridge of corn or millet. fried pancake filled with minced meat and egg. Seasonings Chilies. rice dishes. pork. The diet is mostly porridge. Goat. grilled. Irio (mashed cooked beans. eggplant. although animals are protected. or mutton stew. British control from the mid-19th century to 1964 left influence. with a mountain range running north to south the length of the peninsula. pancakes. dried baobab leaves. European hunters found game in the mountains. Sweets Sugarcane. curry powder. fish. beans. green bananas. It is the southern part of the Malay Peninsula and the northern third of the island of Borneo. interior mountains in East Malaysia. Street food Fried pastry. sweet potatoes. papaya. corn. sugar. and swampy coasts. grilled corn on cob. goat. cheese (including some adapted from European ones). coconut. onions. peanuts (groundnuts). For example.The Food and Culture around the World – Malaysia 191 established colonies along the coast from about 700 CE.

coconut oil. lard. Malaysia has three main cuisines.000 people. Chinese. it values hotness and sourness. fish Chicken. Traders from India came in the 2nd to 3rd century CE and brought Hinduism. Legumes Soybeans and products such as soy sauce. sweet potatoes. Influences on food Malaysia consists of West Malaysia. natural rubber.5% Unemployment rate 3.9 female Per capita GDP $13. fish and seafood (pomfret the most prized). 75. Rice is the main food. Along with Indonesia and Brunei. natural gas. West Malaysia is influenced by its Thai neighbors. cooked for all three meals daily. Dairy products are uncommon. Malaysia pledged to protect some rainforest on the island of Borneo. In 2002 Malaysia passed stringent immigration laws. shrimp paste. Japan invaded in 1941. and adventurers.192 The Food and Culture around the World – Malaysia Population density per sq. East Malaysia is a melting pot of tribes. and East Malaysia. cassava. dried anchovy. goats. dominant in the peninsula and coastal towns of Borneo since before the 16th century. it passed to the Dutch in 1641. mi. breadfruit. ti. iron ore. with seafood secondary. copper. In 1965 Singapore was separated from Malaysia. prawn/shrimp pastes (blacang). The economy grew from the 1970s but suffered from the Asian currency crisis in the 1990s. glutinous rice in sweets. British Singapore (where the British had founded a settlement in 1819).3 male. Sumatran exiles founded Malacca about 1400. poultry. lamb. tin mining and smelting. seaweed. and noodles from Chinese tradition.9% Life expectancy 70. goat. fish sauce. on the Malay Peninsula and adjoining Thailand and Singapore. cream. vegetable oil. cattle. Indian influence includes spices. Dairy products Sweetened condensed milk. Bread and cereals Rice. mung beans. and Sabah (north Borneo) and Sarawak (northwest Borneo). and Indian. oil History Malaysia has been inhabited for 6. Islam. traders. forbids consumption of pork or alcohol. lard. and achar (pickles). timber. pigs. coconuts. coconut milk. tin. where palm oil plantations and logging had destroyed huge tracts of rainforest. electronics. cocoa. Vegetables Taro. on the northern part of the large island Borneo and adjoining Brunei. Fats and oils Palm oil. Its biotechnology initiative of 2006 had attracted substantial investments. wheat. bauxite Industries rubber and palm oil processing. chickens. eggs. Malaysian ancestors migrated to the area between 2500 and 1500 BCE. light manufacturing. sheep Natural resources fish.300 Labor force in agriculture 13% Urban 67. 199. Abundant natural resources allowed prosperity. pepper. beef. Malaysia was created in 1963 from Malaya (which had become independent in 1957). It was a trading and religious center until captured by the Portuguese in 1511. Britain took control in 1867. and foreign investments aided industrialization. timber. peanuts. greens. Chinese and Indian influence is strong due to mass movement of labor during the colonial period. water buffalo.2 Literacy rate 91.000 live births 16. and aromatic roots and leaves as in Malaysian cooking but retains the use of pork. Other influences include European traders and British control (1867–1963). Chinese began to migrate to Malaysia in the late 19th century. although condensed milk may be used in coffee and whipped cream in pastry. as well as immigrant elites from East and South Asia. European traders came in the 16th century.4 HIV rate 0. zucchini.000 years. pork. tamarind. oil. The United States added Malaysia to its list of countries not doing enough to stop human trafficking. . rice dishes. water chestnuts.000 to 8. Malaysia’s economy remained strong in 2007. gelatin. Nonya (Straits Chinese) cooking is associated with immigrants who settled in the 15th century and up to World War II. noodles.2% Arable land 5% Agriculture oil palm fruit. Meat. rice. duck. Malay. Islam took a firm hold in the 15th century. It uses chilies.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. The Indian Ocean tsunami in 2004 took lives and displaced 8. curries. yams.

000 live births 30. gelatin. Rempah (spice mixture of varied ingredients.” formerly venison. bananas. turmeric. macadamia nuts. prawns) such as prawn sambal. chicken. melons. broth.5 male. and chicken). limes. cocoa. cinnamon. shrimp paste. other 99% 1% Major Religion Islam (official) Sunni Muslim (virtually 100%) Population density per sq. sweet potatoes Natural resources fish Industries tourism. aromatic roots and leaves. mangoes. Street food Fried noodles.190 islands. 3. Nasi samin (rice cooked in oil with garlic and onions. boat building. Satay (small strips of meat. spicy relishes or Chilies and other spices fried together and used with a main ingredient. now water buffalo meat or beef. Fried noodles (kway teow). coconut processing. Islam was adopted in 1153 CE. shipping. fish sauce. cubed and simmered with spices and flavorings in coconut milk). fruit juice. lemon grass. Chicken braised in coconut milk and chili sauce. bean drinks. The Portuguese . with coconut milk. onion. Seasonings Chilies. lime juice. Rendang (“dry beef curry. 76 female Per capita GDP $4.331. Naga sari (pudding of mung beans. onion.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. bananas. durian. grated coconut. Major Languages Divehi (Sinhala dialect) (official) English (spoken by most government officials) Ethnic Groups Maldivian (South Indian. papaya. and peanuts. Ceylon controlled the islands. coconut juice. ginger root.g. satay. laos (of ginger root family). and all combined).600 Labor force in agriculture 22% Urban 33. soy sauce. often marinated with soy sauce and flavorings and grilled). MALDIVES Republic of Maldives Geography Maldives is in the Indian Ocean southwest of India. coconut milk and cream. sugar. sugar.4% Arable land 13% Agriculture coconuts. and all take chicken and hot sauces of ground Chilies. sold by street vendors and in market stalls and night stores. Malays and Chinese Malays often take pork satay. and coconut).8 Literacy rate 97% Life expectancy 71. Islands are flat and less than 5 square miles each. Dishes Boiled rice (nasi). It consists of 19 atolls with 1. mi. Sweets Palm sugar. garments History Maldives was settled in the 5th century BCE by Buddhist seafarers from India and Ceylon (now Sri Lanka). Longlong (rolls of rice steamed in banana leaves). garlic.. often fried before use). Muslim Malays take goat meat.The Food and Culture around the World – Maldives 193 Fruit Coconut. The atolls are less than 6 feet above sea level. fish processing. spices. kuey lapis (has many different colored layers of gelatin).6 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 14. Sambal (hot. Gulai (curry or anything cooked in coconut milk and retaining its sauce) such as shrimp curry. coriander. pineapple. Beverages Tea. Nuts Litchis. for example. Nasi goreng (meat and vegetables fried. cumin. corn. coffee. kava (alcoholic drink made from pepper plant). Nonya desserts mostly based on thick brown palm sugar syrup. and glutinous rice. Baked puffs filled with ground beef curry. or fish/seafood on thin bamboo skewers. tamarind (tart pulp from tree pod). rice fried in the same oil. e. laos. garlic. pepper. 198 inhabited. Arab) Sinhalese. tamarind.

peas. palm tree sap. and banana. honey. fruit juice. onion. and Britain. usually served with rice.” is important in cookery because when finely ground it thickens and flavors. The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 killed at least 82 people and displaced more than 21. In 2008 a new constitution providing for multiparty elections was adopted. coconut juice. bananas.200 islands. Tuna is sold fresh. lime juice. In the south are a grassy plain and the only fertile area. coconut milk. The British gained control of Ceylon in 1796 and made the Maldives islands a protectorate in 1887. Meat. chili pepper. It is a landlocked country. The islands became independent in 1965 and. Malinke. mostly low-lying coral islands. Fresh fruit. as a paste (rihaakuru). bananas. MALI Republic of Mali Geography Mali is in West Africa. fish Fish and seafood (usually reef fish and tuna). poultry. smoked. became a republic in 1968. After a bomb explosion in Male targeting foreign tourists.194 The Food and Culture around the World – Mali dominated in Male. consisting of approximately 1. mostly in the Sahara. of which about 200 are inhabited. other tropical fruits. coffee. Soninke) Peul Voltaic Tuareg and Moor Other 50% 17% 12% 10% 11% Major Religions Sunni Muslim Indigenous beliefs Roman Catholic 90% 5% 5% . In 2008 a boy scout reportedly saved President Gayonne (in power since 1978) from knifing by an assailant. Fats and oils Coconut cream and oil. Tuna is used in soup. Dishes Boiled or steamed rice. Tourism has been developed. the capital. The latter. where the Senegal and Niger rivers provide irrigation. long a sultanate. the main food. Boiled or fried sweet potatoes. Arab. Coconuts. onion. Major Languages French (official) Bambara Numerous African languages Ethnic Groups Mande (Bambara. Seasonings Chili pepper. Sweets Honey. Confections made with coconut. Islam. Inhabitants are primarily Islamic seafaring people. with land area only about the same as Singapore. Rising sea levels threaten the country. the government took measures against religious groups advocating militancy and fundamentalism. National dish Garudhiya (a soup containing chunks of tuna). Beverages Tea. Other influences include India. Ceylon. or smoked and sun dried (hikimas). onions. and sweet potatoes are grown. sugar. and in filling of “short eats” gulha and bajiyaa. “Maldive fish. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. is a unique country in that more than 99% of its territory is sea. Dutch rulers of Ceylon controlled the Maldives islands during the 17th century. Fruit Coconut. lentils. Legumes Beans. coconut. rice flour. Fried. rice. canned. from 1558 to 1573. Influences on food Maldives. limes. Bread and cereals Corn. corn. grilled. palm tree sap. or poached fish. The sea provides fish.600 here. and lime juice.

raisins. with military coups overthrowing the government in 1968 and 1991. West Africa. tomatoes. fish Chicken. pigs Natural resources gold. Food customs are influenced by North Africa. cotton. rice. rock rabbit. Baguette bread is common in towns. rice dishes. camel. uranium. and chicken and guinea-fowl are popular. watermelon seeds. Dishes Boiled millet grain and cassava mush. In 2005 locust infestation and drought threatened 10% of the people with starvation. corn. buttermilk. In 1973–1974 famine killed 100. Nuts and seeds thicken sauces/stews. all from the New World. The French subjugated the area in 1898 and named it French Sudan in 1920. Meat may be grilled on open fires. Vegetables Yams. camels.8% Arable land 4% 195 Agriculture millet. goat. Seasonings Chilies. 51. Morocco conquered Timbuktu in 1591 and ruled over it for two centuries. are popular. rice. onions.3% Life expectancy 48 male. beans. Meat and fish are often dried. Timbuktu was a center of Islamic study. mangoes. In the 1990s foreign investment increased and Mali became Africa’s second largest cotton producer. In country areas the traditional wood-burning hearth of three stones on which a pot sits is still used. cheese. where the Senegal and Niger rivers supply fish and water for irrigation. coconut. as in West Africa. plantains. millet couscous (tiny balls of grain dough steamed and served like rice). cassava leaves with dried fish and palm oil. sour milk. watermelon. garlic. and religion. gypsum. cane rat). Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). and the Sudanese Republic changed its name to the Republic of Mali and became independent in 1960. bananas. noodles (kata). poultry. tilapia). eggs. Influences on food Mali has much in common with the other countries immediately south of the Sahara. Bread and cereals Millet. tomatoes. it was briefly joined with Senegal to form the Mali Federation. sheep. The fertile area is in the south. cassava.000 Labor force in agriculture 80% Urban 30. For example. cattle.000 people. Most people are Muslim. cowpeas. Meat and fish are often combined in sauces. Steamed couscous. Corn. curds. peanut oil. Senegal withdrew. wheat. porridge. and tomatoes.5% Unemployment rate 8. Red meat is a luxury. Fruit Dates. a French influence. Legumes are important.000 live births 103. Cornmeal porridge. Meatball and peanut sauce. wild grains. mi. tomatoes. Dairy products Milk. salt. okra. fish. fish Industries food processing. Nuts and seeds Kola nuts. hydropower. Drought occurred in the 1980s. limestone. okra. granite. lentils. shea nuts. Meat. when the Songhai Empire in the Timbuktu-Gao region gained control. sweet potatoes. leg of lamb stuffed with dates and raisins resembles Moroccan dishes. vegetables. corn. and Chilies. Chilies. phosphates and gold mining History The region has been inhabited since prehistoric times. lamb.9 female Per capita GDP $1. Boiled rice sometimes with a thin stew of beef and tomatoes. fish (perch. greens. goats. 26. guinea fowl.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. construction. beef. Mali was on caravan routes through the Sahara since 300. greens. baguette bread. Herders live in the north. Dried . but some is eaten as well as game. Much of Mali is sparsely populated desert. pigeons.8 HIV rate 1. Political instability has continued. onions. In 2007 members of a dissident Taureg group attacked military targets in northern Mali.2 Literacy rate 23. chickens. Stews: red meat and okra. foods brought from the New World. game (antelope. who do not consume pork. Ovens are uncommon. Proclaimed the Sudanese Republic in 1958. pork. sesame seeds.The Food and Culture around the World – Mali Population density per sq. peanuts. France (Mali is a former French colony). red palm oil. phosphates. whey. Fats and oils Shea oil and butter (from the seeds of the African shea tree). It was part of the great Mali Empire from the 12th century to the 15th century. kaolin.

1% Unemployment rate 6. Byzantine rule followed. sheep. chickens. bean fritters. sugar. Street food Kabobs. and dried okra powder. and other vegetables. After rule by feudal lords. It is based on fish and seafood. mi. Malta gained independence in 1964 and became a republic in 1974. shipbuilding and repair. Malta came under rule by the Knights of Malta in 1530. Italy. dried fish. citrus. qwarezimal (which contains no fat or eggs). peanut candy. Jollof rice (rice and tomato or palm oil. barley. In 2007 an agreement was signed to set up a SmartCity in Malta. 81. mi. Some people still eat fish on Fridays and a favorite cake. In 1979 British military forces withdrew after 179 years of presence. and reassociated with Britain from 1814. food and beverages. Influences on food Malta’s cuisine is influenced mainly by its location. tsnein achra (a Mali special celebration pastry of rice flour and honey). drawn from the nobility of Catholic Europe. A strong influence is the Roman Catholic Church. and vegetables. the biggest foreign investment ever in Malta. and diced meat and tomatoes) mixed before serving. pigs. 3. taken by the British in 1800. and Comino (1 sq. MALTA Republic of Malta Geography Malta is an island group in the Mediterranean Sea. Present-day Maltese are descendants primarily of ancient Carthaginians and Phoenicians. grilled sweet corn. controlled Malta for centuries. Gozo (26 sq. during Lent.8% Arable land 31% Agriculture potatoes. A Bambara tribe invention. in the Mediterranean Sea and near Italy.6% Life expectancy 77. Sweets Honey. Another . pasta.1 male. It was seized by Napoleon in 1798.8 HIV rate 0.). Stuffed camel stomach (similar to haggis). tomatoes. returned to the Knights in 1802. Major Languages Maltese English (both official) Ethnic Groups Maltese British and other 97% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic (official) Other 98% 2% Population density per sq. south of Sicily. salt Industries tourism. cattle.). Arabs controlled Malta from 870 until 1091 when defeated by the Normans. The coastline is heavily indented. During World War II Malta was severely bombed by Germany and Italy. limestone. electronics. pharmaceuticals History Malta was inhabited as early as 3800 BCE. Beverages Beer. sweet pastries. Rome ruled Malta from 218 BCE. Festive occasion dishes Millet grain and cassava mush served with two sauces (minced meat. Paul was shipwrecked in Malta in 60 CE. The Carthaginians controlled it from the 6th century BCE.000 live births 3. Malta (95 sq. goats Natural resources fish.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. and the Knights of St.400 Labor force in agriculture 3% Urban 93.307 Literacy rate 91. St. mi. Malta became a full member of the EU in 2004 and joined the euro zone in 2008.). In 60 CE the apostle Paul converted the inhabitants to Christianity.196 The Food and Culture around the World – Malta cassava porridge with smoked fish. melons. wheat. John. tomatoes. cut flowers. maafe (chicken and peanut stew with sweet potatoes and tomatoes). grapes. green peppers. mi. shawerma (rotisserie lamb). coffee. The Phoenicians occupied it. cauliflower.6 female Per capita GDP $53. Low hills cover the interior of the islands.

green peppers. onions. dolphin. oregano. ruler of Malta for 150 years. and saffron). Pastizzi (covered tartlets) filled with ricotta and sprinkled with sugar. goat. peas. spinach. goat). lentils. and eaten hot. marjoram.900 Labor force in agriculture 21. hazelnuts. rice dishes. eggplant. served with a tomato or cream sauce. Major Languages Marshallese English (both official) Ethnic Groups Micronesian U. 902.4 Urban 70% Infant mortality rate per 1. anchovy).S. and fruits. similar to cottage cheese). onions. cucumbers. Timpana (macaroni. pasta. parsley. tomato. tomatoes. and anchovy. sugar. eggs. often with tall glasses of coffee or tea in mid-morning. Seasonings Salt. lupine seeds. Snacks The ubiquitous pastizzi. rice. usually filled with ricotta cheese and sprinkled with sugar. fish and seafood (e. and cheese baked in a flaky pastry). Dishes Boiled pasta. Aljotta (a light fish soup flavored with garlic and marjoram).The Food and Culture around the World – Marshall Islands 197 influence is Britain.5 Literacy rate 93. vegetables. olives. pastry. Fats and oils Olive oil.. grapes.g. wine. Bread and cereals Wheat.g. beef and veal. Trifle (cake layered with jam and whipped cream or custard). They are two 800-mile-long parallel chains of coral atolls of limestone and sand. MARSHALL ISLANDS Republic of the Marshall Islands Geography The islands are in the Pacific Ocean. halfway between Hawaii and Papua New Guinea. garlic. Dairy products Milk (cow. tomato sauce. basil. mi. black pepper. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Lampuki pie (baked dolphin in pastry). or sometimes baked with tomato sauce or other ingredients.6% Arable land 11% . made with green and white vegetables and garnished with a poached egg and soft cheese. lard. barley.000 live births 26. walnuts. white beans. other fruits. sheep. Vegetable soup containing pasta. fish Chicken. citrus including the famous Maltese oranges. tomato sauce. eggs. bread. The development of restaurants and tourism with a large proportion of British visitors emphasized British cuisine. Ross fil-forn (baked rice. butter. ricotta. cauliflower. Soppa tal-armla (widow’s soup). meat. Meat. more than 1% of the population is British. only a few feet above sea level. fava beans. Many Maltese dishes depend on local fish. Legumes Chickpeas. pork. Fruit Melons. tea. cream. white Other Pacific Islander and East Asian 89% 6% 5% Major Religions Protestant Assembly of God Roman Catholic Other 55% 26% 8% 11% Population density per sq. although filling can be peas. 73 female Per capita GDP $2. lamb. zucchini. poultry. onion.9 male..4 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 33. kidney beans. Sweets Honey. eggs. e. meat. Also. cheese (soft cheeses.7% Life expectancy 68. pine nuts. Vegetables Potatoes. saffron. Beverages Coffee.

tomatoes. arrowroot. tomatoes. Boiled or fried breadfruit. whole fish. rice dishes. Beverages Coconut juice. vegetable oil and shortening. Fresh fruits are eaten as snacks. fruits. chili peppers. and some animals. Main foods are fish. taro leaves wrapped around various fillings and all bound in banana leaves. bananas. cassava. About 30. the agreement was renewed in 2003. Fruit Coconut. taro. Boiled or steamed greens and seaweed. Dairy products Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. Arrowroot-thickened puddings and other dishes. breadfruit. peas. daikon. tuna processing. green onions. Influences on food in the Marshall Islands include the Micronesians who first inhabited the islands and the Spanish. sweet potatoes. tea. tamarind. or marinated in lime juice and finished with onions. sweet potatoes.000 to 40. lemon. lentils. the islands were explored by the Spanish in the 16th century and named for a British captain in 1788. noodles. macadamia nuts. breadfruit. Vegetables Breadfruit. onions. chicken. immature coconuts. Bread and cereals Rice. . A New World food. ginger. Coconut milk is the usual liquid cooking medium. A usual meal: boiled taro root. mangoes. mahimahi. Dishes Boiled taro root. and shredded beef. Europeans brought new food plants. breadfruit. Japanese. pineapple. Nuts and seeds Candlenuts (kukui). Fats and oils Coconut cream and oil. yams. Meat.198 The Food and Culture around the World – Marshall Islands Agriculture breadfruit. tomatoes. onions. coconut pudding. sesame oil. fish (mullet.S. pork. After World War II. craft items History First inhabited by Micronesians. British. lard. Meals Two or three meals daily are typical. fish Pork. lemons. nuclear testing was done from 1946 to 1951 on Bikini and Enewetak islands. and chicken. bread. and the evening meal the largest. In 1986 the United States agreed to provide financial aid to the country to maintain its defense and to compensate victims of nuclear testing. and Americans. Seasonings Coconut cream and milk. Japan claimed them in 1914 and administered them between the world wars. and perhaps chili peppers.000 years ago people from Southeast Asia began to move south to the West Pacific islands and later migrated to islands further east. wheat bread. the tomato. spam. coconut cream. Asians brought rice. and tea. Fish stewed with vegetables. bitter melon. coconut. bananas. the main meat. fish Industries copra. wine made from fermented sap of coconut palm blossoms. Sweets Sugar. Influences on food The Marshall Islands are in the Micronesia group of the Pacific Islands. a fish. Pork. or rice. or a mixture of taro root. fresh fruit. shellfish (many kinds). green leaves. Taro leaves wrapped around a filling (coconut cream. deep seabed minerals. coconuts. rice. U. salmon). Germans. tourism. breadfruit. taro root and leaves. they were administered by the United States from 1947 until they became independent in 1986. marine products. salt. peanuts. lime and lemon juice. coffee. limes. eggplant. Chicken or pork roasted or stewed with vegetables. is traditionally cooked in a stone-lined pit over coals along with other foods. poultry. is now an important food. pigs Natural resources coconut products. roasted. noodles. and cooked greens or seaweed. papaya. seaweed. eggs. Germany purchased them from Spain in 1899. with the same foods at all. plantains. garlic. soybeans. winged beans. or chicken dish. Legumes Soybeans. onions. as part of the UN Trust Territory of the Pacific. pork. Boiled or steamed rice. wheat. The Marshall Islands joined the UN in 1991. litchis. melons. guavas. cabbage. soy sauce. melons. chicken pieces. chickens. taro. shellfish. or sweet potato with coconut cream and seasonings) and steamed or cooked in a pit. especially for feasts. fruit. Foods cooked in a pit: whole pig. taro.

octopus). Although slavery has been abolished repeatedly. France. Mauritania annexed the south of former Spanish Sahara (now Western Sahara) in 1976 and signed a peace treaty renouncing its claim in 1979. especially between blacks who dominate southern regions and the Moorish-Arabic people in the north. The north is arid and extends into the Sahara. The fertile Senegal River valley is in the south. mi. camel. pigeons. meat may be grilled on open fires. Chilies and tomatoes are used in many dishes. It gained independence in 1960. Meat.700 died.5% Arable land 0. rice.000 people tried to emigrate in handmade boats to Spain’s Canary Islands. corn. Mauritania’s food customs are influenced by North Africa. more than 1. porridge. and livestock. fish and seafood (e. is mostly desert and sparsely populated. as in West Africa. The wide central region is sandy plains and scrub trees. Bread and cereals Millet. game (e. baguette bread.The Food and Culture around the World – Mauritania 199 MAURITANIA Islamic Republic of Mauritania Geography Mauritania is in northern Africa. dates. camels.g. antelope.g. France gained control by the 19th century. The Atlantic Ocean and Senegal River provide fish. For example. guinea fowl.. dates. In rural areas.2% Agriculture sorghum. 8. In a coup in 1984 Taya took control of the government. rice. . diamonds. fish including octopus Industries fish processing. forbidden to consume pork or alcohol. foods brought from the New World (e. Influences on food Mauritania. millet. West Africa. rock rabbit). fish Lamb and mutton. bordering the Atlantic Ocean. Major Languages Arabic (official and national) Pulaar (all are Soninke national) Wolof French Population density per sq. and ovens are uncommon. Legislation mandating prison terms for slaveholders was enacted in 2007.3 female Per capita GDP $2.000 live births 66. Mauritania became a French protectorate in 1903 and part of French West Africa in 1904.8% Unemployment rate 32. eggs. chicken. gypsum. poultry. iron ore and gypsum mining History Berbers inhabited this land in ancient times.6 male. sorghum.. rice dishes. Conflicts have occurred. In 2006 up to 10. oil. gold. Arab tribes and the Portuguese arrived in the area in the 15th century. Baguette bread is common in towns. Meat and fish are often combined in dishes.. sheep. Red meat is a luxury. 56. copper. In 2007 Mauritania’s first truly democratic presidential election since independence was held. noodles. a New World influence. he was overthrown in a bloodless coup in 2005. like the other countries immediately south of the Sahara. millet couscous (tiny balls of grain dough steamed and served like rice). corn. cattle Natural resources iron ore.7 HIV rate 0.8% Life expectancy 51. and religion. Almost all the people are Muslim. the Mauritanian dish michoui (stuffed leg of lamb with dates and raisins) resembles Moroccan dishes. Meat and fish are often dried. beef. goat. Herders live in the northern part of the country. wheat. phosphate. Its land allows raising grains. however. Mauritania was a center for the Berber movement spreading Islam through western Africa in the 11th and 12th centuries. a French influence. thousands continue to live in servitude.g. the traditional wood-burning hearth of three stones is still used.000 Labor force in agriculture 50% Ethnic Groups Mixed Moor/Black Moor (Maur) Black 40% 30% 30% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Other 99% 1% Urban 40. Major oil discoveries have recently been developed. goats. the government was accused of being soft on terrorism and was overthrown by a military coup in 2008.5 Literacy rate 55. sweet potatoes).4% Infant mortality rate per 1. wild grains. corn. chickens.

Street food Kabobs.4 female Per capita GDP $11. curds. watermelon seeds. 1. Dishes Boiled millet grains and cassava mush. with a central plateau encircled by mountain peaks. greens. potatoes. deep-fried sweetened dough balls. sweet pastries. MAURITIUS Republic of Mauritius Geography Mauritius is in the Indian Ocean 500 miles east of Madagascar. It is a volcanic island surrounded by coral reefs. Fats and oils Shea oil and butter (from the seeds of the African shea tree). boiled rice with a thin stew of lamb or mutton and tomatoes. tea. Meat and fish sauce. sweet pastries. sheep Natural resources fish Industries food processing (largely sugar milling). baked bananas. Britain ruled from 1810 to 1968 and brought Indians to work on the sugarcane plantations. Boiled rice. tomatoes. raisins. coconut. bean fritters. tomatoes. tomatoes. Nuts and seeds Kola nuts. sugar.200 Labor force in agriculture and fishing 9% Urban 42.9% Arable land 49% Agriculture sugarcane. Meatball and peanut sauce. Fruit Dates. and diced meat and tomatoes) mixed before serving. Seasonings Chilies. or wild grains. lentils.000 live births 12. bananas. and dried okra powder. cattle. okra. dried fish. Major Languages English (official) Creole Bhojpuri French Ethnic Groups Indo-Mauritian Creole Other 68% 27% 5% Major Religions Hindu Roman Catholic Muslim Other 48% 24% 17% 11% Population density per sq. Stews: cassava leaves with dried fish and palm oil.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. Stuffed camel stomach (similar to haggis). chickens. cowpeas. In the late 19th century competition from beet sugar and the opening of the Suez Canal caused economic . 77. watermelon. coffee. Boiled or steamed couscous. peanut candy. A popular dish. fish. sesame seeds. In 1721 France took control and brought African slaves. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). palm oil. Corn porridge. shea nuts.200 The Food and Culture around the World – Mauritius Dairy products Milk. sweet potatoes. Chilies. whey. onions. pigs. goats. Vegetables Cassava.6 HIV rate 1. tomatoes. onions. millet. A common dish. okra. sour milk. Red meat stewed with okra. Nuts and seeds thicken sauces/stews. Festive occasion dishes Millet grain and cassava mush served with two sauces (minced meat. bananas. Mauritius was uninhabited when Dutch settlers came in 1638 and introduced sugarcane. yams. corn. textiles.4% Life expectancy 70. greens. chemicals History Portuguese visited the island in the early 16th century. Beverages Beer.7% Unemployment rate 8. grilled sweet corn. mi.625. shawerma (rotisserie lamb). buttermilk. mangoes. plantains. Legumes are important in the diet. peanut oil. garlic. cheese.7 Literacy rate 87. clothing. and other vegetables. pulses. Jollof rice (rice with tomato or palm oil).3 male. beans. and tomatoes. Sweets Honey. dried cassava porridge with smoked fish.

French. always served hot. lentils. hearts of palm (palmiste). Fried tuna or octopus. tuna. peanuts. Chinese came mainly in the 20th century and became prominent retailers and businessmen.000 ft elevation) between mountain ranges on the east and west. potatoes. About 45% of the land is arid. sugarcane juice. coconut. sugar production and textiles. mustard. British. Vegetables Tomatoes (a small. Creole is the most common spoken language. sugar. lamb. MEXICO United Mexican States Geography Mexico is in southern North America.The Food and Culture around the World – Mexico 201 decline. Creole sauce (sauce containing tomatoes for color and flavor). boiled shrimp.000 to 8. saffron. Meat. coconut oil. Mauritius became independent in 1968. omelet. Creole cookery here is a blend of black African. Brèdes (simmered leafy greens). It is a high. The Dutch colonized Mauritius at the end of the 16th century and stayed for over a century. shrimp. Geographic factors allowed influences from Africa. banana flambé. goat. gourd (chayote. pork. Dairy products Yogurt. Madagascar. vegetable oil. bread. fish Chicken. Rougaille (garlic sauce dominated with tomato flavor). and Asia. Seasonings Garlic. none 4% . and Chinese cuisines. In addition to French. Fats and oils Butter. dry central plateau (5. lard. and Chinese. fish and seafood (red mullet. Legumes Beans. Náhuatl. eggs. tomatoes. or rice. flavorful variety. Africans. served on barbecued steak. poultry. Britain controlled the island for a century and a half. banana. and vinegar). coconut or rice pudding. oil. Major Languages Spanish (official) Mayan. with tropical coastal lowlands. leafy greens (brèdes). Dutch and French colonists had imported black African slaves to work in the sugar plantations. Indians. between the United States and Central America and bordering the Gulf of Mexico and the Pacific Ocean. Chilies. peas. rice. Creole cooking flourishes. oil. Indians came to work in construction and in the sugar industry. rice dishes. Boiled or steamed rice. other indigenous languages Ethnic Groups Mestizo (Amerindian-Spanish) 60% Amerindian 30% White 9% Other 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic 87% Protestant 6% Other Christian 3% Other. Bread and cereals Corn. The French succeeded them and stayed almost another century. vinegar. Dishes Vindaye (sauce containing mustard. noodles. Beverages Tea. Examples of Indian and Chinese influence on Mauritius’s food are masala (curry powder) from India and min (noodles) from the Chinese. Indian. the Arab world. ghee. curry powder (a mixture of spices). fried red mullet. It experienced political unrest during the 1990s. After a slowdown in two main industries. Mauritius is a melting pot of cuisine and language. French. or chou chou). Indian subcontinent. Influences on food Mauritius and its food have been influenced by the Dutch. lemons. in 2007 Mauritius tried to boost the economy through trade agreements with China and Pakistan. Fruit Bananas. octopus). European (Dutch. garlic. British). saffron. pomme d’amour). beef. Sweets Sugarcane. served topped with vindaye. chilies. and Indian cuisines. wheat.

It was a founding member of the UN (1945) and the Organization of American States (1948). Beans and chilies are also important. 1864 to 1867. Throughout Mexico for centuries and still now. The Mayas. one of the world’s largest cities. wheat. including California and Texas. In 2005 Hurricane Wilma caused extensive damage in Cancun. milk. The Spanish also introduced the distillation of alcohol to native Mexican beverages. resulting in tequila and mescal (made from cactus). sugar. and fruit. nutmeg. A French-supported Austrian archduke was on Mexico’s throne as Maximilian I. economic slowdown. which made frying possible). sesame seed. beans. soaked. The protein in beans supplements that of corn. drained and the skins rubbed off. 148. garlic. In 1993 Mexico entered the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA). silver.800 m) or more elevation. and cocoa. and social services. are international influences. The Spanish conquered the Aztec empire (1519–1521) and ruled Mexico until it became a republic in 1823. Drug-related violence intensified in 2008. butter. almonds. and rivers provide fish and shellfish.3% Unemployment rate 3. cinnamon. the Yucatan . and cooked on a griddle. olives. sugarcane. it took effect in 1994. and Aztec. The Toltecs were overcome by the Aztecs. lead. Turkeys and chocolate have long been eaten here. iron and steel. Thus Mexican cuisine is a blend of Indian and Spanish cuisines. motor vehicles. Mexico’s wide range of drinks reflects its geography and history: drinks are made from its produce including corn. pigs.000 feet (1. thus adding meat and fats (especially lard from pigs. Mexico extended into the present southwestern United States. 78. and its economy grew until the 1986 collapse of oil prices. Dictatorial rule from 1877 to 1911 led to rebellion. sorghum. Toltec. moved up from the Yucatan. mi.202 The Food and Culture around the World – Mexico Population density per sq.1 Literacy rate 92. as in the national dish mole poblano. Chilies provide flavor and vitamins.800 Labor force in agriculture 18% Urban 76. chickens. tomatoes. other fruits. An estimated 7 million illegal immigrants from Mexico were in the United States. corn. As of 2007 more than 29 million people of Mexican ancestry were living in the United States. chemicals.S. coffee. Spanish rule for three centuries was an important influence on food in Mexico.8 female Per capita GDP $12. industry. Also.000 years. fish. sheep Natural resources oil. ground into coarse flour (masa). copper. natural gas. a new constitution in 1917. now Mexico City. Fruits are plentiful except in the north.000 live births 19 HIV rate 0. Geographic diversity yields foods distinctive for the regions: Vera Cruz on the Gulf coast is famous for black beans. cattle. some gains were made in agriculture. lakes. Mexico had severe economic problems in the 1980s to 1995. sheep. cotton. corn is boiled with water and lime. For many. gold. clothing. pigs. oranges.4% Life expectancy 73 male. timber. tobacco. mining. The Institutional Revolutionary Party dominated politics from 1929 until 2000. goats. consumer durables. To make tortillas. and cheese to the Mexican diet. Mexico became a leading oil producer. who in 1325 founded Tenochtitlan. coffee. The Gulf of Mexico and Pacific Ocean. onions. corn is the foundation of Mexican cuisine. In 1995 an austerity plan and pledge of aid from the United States prevented collapse of Mexico’s currency. an agricultural people.-Mexican War of 1846 to 1848 resulted in Mexico’s loss of the land north of the Rio Grande. raisins. In the mid-1970s.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. The Spanish arrival in the 16th century brought rice. tourism History Inhabited for more than 20. bananas. the Maya. and strong French influence in the second half of the 19th century resulted in rolls and sweet breads. German immigrants introduced beer in the 19th century. textiles. the bread of Mexico.2% Arable land 13% Agriculture sugarcane. zinc. way of life and cuisine are Indian. oil. The U. Influences on food Most of the population lives in the high central plateau at 6. fish Industries food and beverages. they built pyramids and invented a calendar. shaped into flat circles. whereas in Mexico City. sometimes together and with chili. In 2008 remittances that immigrants sent back to Mexico from the United States fell sharply due to the U.S. shrimp. cactus. and goats. Mexico was the site of advanced civilizations from 100 to 1400 CE. cattle. In World War II Mexico declared war on the Axis Powers. and reform. wheat. Texas became a republic in 1836. mixed with water to make dough.

wheat. goat). soybeans. Chilies relleños (mildly hot chili peppers stuffed with meat. grapefruit. chorizo (spicy sausage). garlic. beef. Carne asada (grilled beef strips). Cointreau or Triple Sec. tortillas. and fried in oil with onions and tomatoes. pomelo. and wheat flour tortillas. Stews (caldos) made by sautéing onion and garlic. Vegetables Tomatoes.The Food and Culture around the World – Mexico 203 peninsula for its seasonings. Fruit. seasons. evaporated milk. dairy products. tortilla pieces. chili. aguas frescas (sweetened fruit or vegetable drink with lime juice). lettuce. Mole (a sauce made of chilies. jicama (tuber with juicy crunchy flesh). rolls. or atole with fruit and pastry. Fried tortilla chips. water is added and the sauce is simmered. on the table at all meals. and cilantro). Hearty soups: vegetables. hot chocolate. turkey. mescal. achiote (annatto). and spices. bread. pepitas (pumpkin seeds). Chicken grilled or steamed with fruit juice. Caesar salad (romaine lettuce with cheese and egg dressing). Tamales (spicy meat or chicken in corn dough. or cheese mixture. eggs. ground and fried in hot fat. then pan-fried (frijoles refritos). or cheese. avocados. menudo (tripe and hominy). Religion also influences food. Boiled rice. sesame seeds. Burrito (wheat flour tortilla folded around beans with salsa). tomato and chili sauce. garlic. and chicken or meat bits. fish Chicken. or fish dish and . adding meat. green beans. a meat. and onion sauce).m. poultry. plantains. and raisins. seeds. beans. National dish Mole poblano (Pueblan sauce). seafood. potatoes. melon. Cabrito (roasted young goat). peas. Baked red snapper in achiote sauce. covered with sauce and cheese. rice. a dry soup of rice. limes. cactus fruit. Fried eggs (huevos rancheros). notably Christmas and Easter. olive oil. and festivals for national holidays. In this mostly Roman Catholic country. onions. sugar. liquefied fruit or vegetables (licaudos). Fruit Oranges. squash seeds. Meals Early breakfast: coffee. Beverages Coffee with milk (café con leche). hot chocolate. Rice with tomatoes and chili. beer. Crystallized fruit. guavas. Taco (tortilla filled with seasoned meat). whiskey. cassava. liqueur. vegetable oil. chicken. Enchiladas (corn tortillas softened in hot oil or tomato-chili sauce. food varies with diverse incomes. and flavorings). rice dishes. five courses: soup. and hot chocolate. rolled around seasoned meat. coconut. Flan (sweetened egg custard topped with caramelized sugar). chili. water. goat. Bread and cereals Corn. fish. sweet potatoes. Casseroles (sopas secas) made with stale tortillas or rice. Puebla and Oaxaca for moles (sauces). cheese. mangoes. nuts. atole. seeds. Nuts and seeds Piñons (pine nuts).). papaya. pan dulce (sweet bread). tequila. olives. and fried). chicken. lard (manteca). pineapple. sugar. Perhaps a late (midmorning) breakfast: fried eggs. and steamed). vanilla. Plantains boiled. Salsa (tomato. cilantro. special foods are important to celebrate religious holidays and seasons. greens. lemons. and sour orange. raw brown cane sugar (panocha). nuts. pastry. prickly pear cactus. Legumes Pinto beans. chocolate. Dairy products Milk (cow. green onions. cream. almonds. Meat. pumpkin. kidney beans. Seasonings Chili peppers (fresh or dried and ground). tortillas. bacon or beans. chickpeas (garbanzo beans). Fats and oils Butter. pulque. chocolate. and cooked meat or poultry is added). Main meal (about 1 or 2 p. Beans simmered with chilies added. mashed. Sweets Sugarcane. soft drinks. fish. Dishes Atole (gruel or thick drink made from ground corn. with salt on glass rim). pork. cinnamon. Beans simmered. wrapped in corn husks or banana leaves. turkey in a sauce made of chili. Arroz con leche (rice pudding). and baked). Guacamole (mashed ripe avocado mixed with tomato. and simmering. chopped onion. bananas. and the northern states for beef. chili peppers. rum. squash. lime juice. Also. Simmered rice and beans. lamb. Margarita (tequila. sometimes bitter chocolate is added. ice cubes. black beans. wine. dipped in egg batter. atole. achiote.

0% Arable land 6% Agriculture coconuts. some animals such as cattle.000 to 40. goats Natural resources fish. fish processing. noodles. Japan occupied them in 1914 and ruled them after World War I. fried pork rind (chicarrones). It was admitted to the UN in 1991. and hot chocolate. fruit. cattle. pigs. Micronesians probably settled these islands some 3. 72.204 The Food and Culture around the World – Micronesia tortillas. deep seabed minerals Industries tourism. candied sweet potatoes. cut watermelon. Other influences on the food of Micronesia include Asian. construction. Street food and snacks Roasted ears of corn. greens. atole. The climate is tropical. bananas. Japanese. traditionally cooked with other foods in a stone-lined pit over coals. A typhoon in 2004 destroyed much of Yap’s infrastructure. black pepper. rice with meat dishes such as paella.000 live births 27 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 22. and tea. soybeans.500 years ago. milk. Asians brought rice. The climate makes it possible to grow tropical fruits and vegetables. kava. and fruit. marine products. coffee.9% Ethnic Groups Chuukese Pohnpeian Yapese Kosrean Other 49% 24% 11% 6% 10% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other 50% 47% 3% Urban 66. tamales. northeast of New Guinea. Chuuk. Another serious concern of Micronesians is the threat of rising sea levels inundating the low-lying islands. and Kosrae. despite United States funds. Micronesia consists of 607 islands in the Pacific Ocean. The islands vary from high mountainous ones to low coral atolls. MICRONESIA Federated States of Micronesia Geography Formerly the Caroline Islands. and fruit or dessert with coffee. Pork is a main meat. Spanish. German.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. beans. A tropical storm in 2002 caused deaths and damage in Chuuk. Chuuk and Kosrae experienced serious economic problems. carnitas (pork chunks cooked in their own fat).6 female Per capita GDP $2.S. especially for feasts. cassava.8 male. cheese. coconuts. wheat bread. The United States seized them during World War II. and Mexican spicy cornmeal dishes such as tamales. It includes the island states of Yap. In 2007. Evening meal: leftovers. cassava. 397. forest products. Polynesians also inhabited the islands when Europeans came in the 16th century and Spain colonized these islands in the 17th century. sweet potatoes. aguas frescas. specialized aquaculture History About 30. sweet potatoes.. after which the UN placed them in a trust territory administered by the United States Micronesia became independent in 1986. . mi. Major Languages English (official) Chuukese Kosrean Pohnpeian Yapese Population density per sq. chickens. betel nuts. Germany bought the islands in 1898. tacos.000 years ago people from Southeast Asia began to move south to the West Pacific islands and later migrated to islands further east. The Spanish brought new food plants. Influences on food The Pacific Ocean supplies of fish. Pohnpei. or a pastry.2 Literacy rate 89% Life expectancy 68. and the U. Main foods are fish.300 Labor force in agriculture 0.

haupia (coconut pudding). then seasoned with coconut cream or onions. and steppelands in the south. Beverages Coconut juice. wheat. or taro root. Taro leaves wrapped around a filling (coconut cream. coconut cream and milk. and chili peppers. melons. chicken. mi. corn. roasted.. rice dishes. green onions. a fish. Coconut milk is the usual liquid cooking medium. vegetable oil and shortening. and the evening meal the largest. Arrowroot-thickened puddings and other dishes.4% Unemployment rate 7. pineapple. 335. chicken. and cooked greens or seaweed. Boiled or steamed rice. limes. sweet rice pudding. ginger. sweet potatoes. Fruit Coconut. Fish and shellfish stewed with vegetables. shipjack tuna). Dairy products Evaporated milk (cow. seaweed. and leaf-wrapped fillings. Fats and oils Coconut oil and cream. eggs. Meat and vegetable stews.2% Life expectancy 66.8 male. breadfruit. chili pepper. Meat. yams. tea. and shredded beef. butter.g.900 Labor force in agriculture 40. 74. Vegetables Cassava.6 Literacy rate 99. Whole pig spit-roasted or cooked in pit with sweet potatoes. black beans. Meals Typical are two or three meals daily. arrowroot. lemon. mangoes. sweet potatoes. between Romania and Ukraine. immature coconut. or marinated in lime juice or vinegar. sesame oil. noodles. fish (e. eggplant. goat. with the same foods at all. or sweet potatoes or cassava with coconut cream and seasonings). fish Pork. litchis. Sweets Sugar. guavas. poultry. cabbage. winged beans. shellfish (many kinds).5 HIV rate 0. chickpeas. Seasonings Soy sauce (the basic condiment). garlic. It is mainly hilly plains. tamarind. Boiled or steamed green leaves or seaweed. lemons. onions. onions. beef. sweet potatoes. papaya. Legumes Soybeans. taro root and leaves. plantains. or pork dish. goat. steamed or cooked in a pit. Traditionally dairy products are uncommon.The Food and Culture around the World – Moldova 205 Bread and cereals Rice. bananas. spam. Nuts and seeds Cashews. red beans. coffee with milk. bread. A usual meal: boiled cassava. lard.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. peanuts. candlenuts (kukui). bitter melon. black pepper.000 live births 13. toddy (wine made from fermented coconut palm blossom sap). with rich black soil covering three quarters of the area. kava (mildly alcoholic drink make from pepper plant). daikon. or rice. MOLDOVA Republic of Moldova Geography Moldova is in Eastern Europe. water buffalo). green leaves.7% Urban 42. Dishes Boiled cassava. onions. tamarind. lentils. chicken pieces.4 female Per capita GDP $2. lime and lemon juice. ginger. macadamia nuts. whole fish. Major Languages Moldovan (official) (virtually the same as Romanian) Russian Gagauz (Turkish dialect) Ethnic Groups Moldovan/Romanian Ukrainian Russian Gagauz Other 78% 8% 6% 4% 4% Major Religions Eastern Orthodox Jewish 98% 2% Population density per sq. salt. cheese.4% Arable land 55% . Fresh fruit is eaten as snacks.

eggplant. . sunflower seed oil. sunflower seeds. In 2006 Russia. currants. tobacco. blackberries. food processing. Pastry dough stuffed with ground meat or cabbage and baked or fried. Vegetables Potatoes. It reflects influence of its neighbors and of Byzantine cookery. apricots. onions. usually lamb or mutton with vegetables and herbs). porridge. Moldova legitimized the use of the Roman rather than the Cyrillic alphabet in 1989 and adopted the Romanian spelling of Moldova. Fruit Grapes. buckwheat. During World War II. Purée of kidney beans and onion with muzhdei. Most people are Eastern Orthodox Christians. resulting in an exodus of 600. imposed an embargo on Moldovan wine. limestone Industries sugar. Cucumbers in sour cream. from Turkey in 1812. Dishes Moussaka (baked eggplant. and in a tall cylindrical shape). goat. ham. Kulich (cake made from rich sweet yeast dough. Romania. corn oil. foundry equipment History The area was the independent principality of Moldavia. poppy seeds. cherries. A traditional Christmas dish Kutia (wheat grains. Bessarabia. barley. garlic. vegetable oil. Moldova gained independence in 1991. sausage. Kasha (porridge of buckwheat. During the 1990s Moldova struggled economically and with conflict between ethnic separatist groups and the majority. or fruit and boiled. Fried patties of seasoned ground meat mixed with bread crumbs and milk or eggs. Pascha (a cheesecake with fruit and nuts). Turkey. bacon. grapes. cheese. Bread and cereals Corn. Greece. ground meat. olive oil. Russia acquired the area. Influences on food Moldova is situated between Ukraine and Romania and on what used to be a busy trade route between Western Europe and places further east. pastry. notably Easter. Chorba (soup made by boiling meat with salt). Meat cutlet lightly breaded and fried. tomatoes. Cabbage stuffed with ground meat. sour cream. founded by the Viachs in the 14th century. whose foreign trade was mostly with Russia. cabbage. honey. bread from rye or wheat flour. parsley. olives. jam.000 Moldovans. or millet). sauerkraut. beef. Legumes Kidney beans. Nuts and seeds Almonds. buttermilk. Mamaliga (cornmeal mush. The USSR recaptured it in 1944. and tomatoes). phosphorites. agricultural machinery. goats Natural resources lignite. raisins. pork. carrots. cucumbers. oats. lentils. sheep. pickles. dumplings. lamb and mutton. potatoes. Seasonings Muzhdei (concentrated mixture of garlic and beef stock). poppy seeds. split peas. In 1940 the USSR merged it with the Romanian-speaking districts of Bassarabia to form the Moldavian SSR. eggs. Boiled or fried potatoes. sugar beets. tarragon. hazelnuts. poultry. vegetables. dill. Givech. cream. in 2007 the Moldovan president negotiated with Russia to try to end the secession of Trans-Dniester. sheep). Meat. Fats and oils Butter. barley. occupied the area. the observant consume no animal products during fast days and prepare special foods for holidays. and fruit. chestnuts. gypsum. and givech as in Turkey and the Balkan countries. The Russian financial crisis in 1998 caused economic disaster in Moldova. Examples include moussaka as in Greece. pigs. plums. quinces. chickens. Easter foods Red or hand-decorated hard-boiled eggs. cattle. and Romania. fish Chicken. vegetable oil. walnuts. Meat or poultry with fruit such as braised chicken with apricot or plum sauce. beets. and stewed dried fruit). wheat. In 1918 Romania annexed it. onion. nuts. It came under Ottoman Turkish rule in the 16th century. apples.206 The Food and Culture around the World – Moldova Agriculture grain. ginger. Dumplings of flour or potatoes stuffed with meat. millet. rye. Dairy products Milk (cow. and Turkey. mushrooms. In 1924 it became the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. allied with Germany. cakes. In 2006 voters in Trans-Dniester (where much of Moldova’s industry is located) supported independence from Moldova and eventual union with Russia. mamaliga from Romania. a major customer. onions. cooked until solid and then cut into pieces). sunflower seed. lard. or gyuvech (earthenware dish with no lid or the food cooked in it. pancakes.

rice. Monaco is famous as a tourist resort due to its climate.000 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 100% Infant mortality rate per 1. food is imported. corn. fisheries production Natural resources fish. beer. and bread. Prince Rainier III ruled Monaco from 1949 until his death in 2005 and was succeeded by his son. pork. vegetable oil.6 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 76. fish Fish and shellfish. which provides fish and shellfish. Fats and oils Olive oil. rolls. pasta. Fruit compote. The Prince of Monaco was an absolute ruler until the 1911 constitution. eggs. none 89% 4% 2% 5% Population density per sq. is a tourist resort due to its climate. and Romans. Influences on food Monaco. climate. It is a tiny (0. Meals Usual is three meals a day. and the European and international tourist trade. In 1997 the 700-year rule of the Grimaldis was celebrated. MONACO Principality of Monaco Geography Monaco is in Europe on the northwest coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Spicy ginger cake. beef. lamb. Meat. cheese (Brie.559.75 square mile) hilly wedge of land. small-scale industrial and consumer products History Monaco was inhabited in prehistoric times and known to the Phoenicians. Beverages Milk. 43. croissants. a tiny hilly country on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea between France and Italy. chicken. ricotta). scenery. Carthaginians. Berry pudding (kisel). Monaco was admitted to the UN in 1993. Usual meal: soup. mi. wine. lard. lentils. It was taken by the Genoese in 1191. 84 female Per capita GDP $30.1 male. yogurt. chickpeas. Greeks. Major Languages French (official) English Italian Monegasque Ethnic Groups French Monegasque Italian Other 47% 16% 16% 21% Major Religions Roman Catholic (official) Other Christian Jewish Other. . margarine. Legumes Split peas. sugar. In 1861 Monaco came under French guardianship but continued to be independent. France annexed Monaco in 1793.6% Arable land none Agriculture some horticulture and greenhouse cultivation. French bread (baguette). poultry. It has been independent and has belonged to the House of Grimaldi since 1297. Influences on Monaco’s food include location on the Mediterranean Sea. and elegant casinos. In 2007 planning continued to build on the surface of the water in order to increase Monaco’s territory. scenery. prosciutto. kvass. butter. After Napoleon’s defeat Grimaldi rule returned and Monaco was placed under Sardinia’s protection in 1815. tea. scenery Industries tourism. except during the French Revolution. Dairy products Milk. 9 miles east of Nice. Bread and cereals Wheat.000 live births 5. kasha.2 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 3. and snacking rare.The Food and Culture around the World – Monaco 207 Sweets Honey. vodka. with magnificent scenery and a mild climate. neighbors France and Italy. Except for fish. cream. and casinos. rice dishes. camembert. construction. Albert II. with lunch the largest. France.

raspberries. hazelnuts. MONGOLIA Geography Mongolia is in north Central Asia bordering Russia and China. Fruit Grapes. strawberries.000 feet. Fruit tart. Cheesecake. olives. and sometimes hard-boiled eggs). and several types of seafood. apples. phosphates. Ratatouille (tomatoes. eggplant. lemon juice. sesame seeds.000 live births 41. oregano. zucchini. Nuts and seeds Almonds.2% Arable land 1% Agriculture hay. vanilla. horses. tea. thyme. tomatoes. garlic. oil. silver. parsley. elevation 3. Christian Muslim None 50% 6% 4% 40% Population density per sq. port. sheep. Dishes Bouillabaisse (fish stew made with tomatoes.9% Urban 56. mustard. eggplant. green peppers. pepper. seasoned with saffron). onions. Fresh fruit. green beans. lettuce. 5 Literacy rate 97. oranges. lettuce.208 The Food and Culture around the World – Mongolia Vegetables Potatoes.200 Labor force in agriculture 39. chickens. sherry. Crepes. Small groups of nomads inhabited it in Neolithic times. capers. vast grasslands. wine (red.2 HIV rate 0. hard-boiled eggs. lemons. wheat. processing of animal products History Mongolia is one of the oldest countries in the world. onions. coal. garlic. Major Languages Khalkha Mongol (official) Turkic Russian Ethnic Groups Mongol (mostly Khalkha) Turkic (mostly Kazak) 95% 5% Major Religions Buddhist Lamaist Shamanist. Mongolia is the original home of the Mongols. white. other raw vegetables. fluorspar. and much of the Gobi Desert in the south. gin. peas. 69. basil. zinc. chestnuts. champagne). camels. copper. pigs Natural resources fish. salt lakes. and whipped cream. His successors conquered the Chin dynasty of China in 1234 and established the Mongol (Yuan) dynasty in China in 1279. Turkic-speaking people dominated it in the 4th to 10th centuries CE. liqueurs. It is mostly a high plateau. The empire disintegrated and after the 14th century the Ming dynasty . Petit fours. melon. green peppers. Dishes garnished with black truffles. rivers. mi.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. mining. with mountains. tomatoes.1% Unemployment rate 3. soft drinks. truffles. Pastry. walnuts. whiskey.9 male. artichokes. olive oil. He and his successors ruled China and westward into Europe. tungsten. potatoes. molybdenum. raisins. vinegar.8 female Per capita GDP $3. food and beverages. oil. beer. saffron. French fries. Sweets Sugar. cucumbers. Salade Niçoise (salad originating in Nice made with tuna. goats. gold. and capers). olives. pears. Beverages Coffee. tarragon.000 to 5. strawberries. and zucchini cooked in olive oil). barley. salt. olive oil. bay leaf. cherries. forage crops. tin. nickel. an area specialty. iron Industries construction and construction materials. cinnamon.3% Life expectancy 64. cattle. Pan bagna (French bread sandwich made with olive oil and ingredients such as anchovies. In the 13th century Genghis Khan united the Mongol tribes and conquered Central Asia. mushrooms. olives. Seasonings Tomato. tomatoes. nomadic tribes who reached greatest power in the 13th century under Kublai Khan.

and served on sesame seed buns (Newman. Steamed or boiled noodles or rice. Mongolians consumed red foods (meat) and white foods (dairy). barley. reflecting the distinctive nomadic way of life. sheep. with the addition of some grain products and tea. Bush was the first U. millet grains. then eaten or ladled with the resulting broth into bowls as soup. sour milk (similar to yogurt).-led operations in Afghanistan and Iraq. Mongolia was deprived of Soviet aid and has had economic and political turmoil. cheese. camel meat. and imported rice and vegetables are now consumed. Large herds of goats. providing milk. and aid in tending herds and hunting. In 1911 with the Chinese revolution the Mongol princes declared independence from China. president to visit Mongolia. then vegetables. Historically. A slice of meat (usually lamb or mutton) can be cooked in it in 30 seconds. Meat. fresh cheese. Bread. This “Mongolian fire pot” is a covered metal (brass or tin) pot with a chimney in the center whose base is a brazier heated by coals. mare).S. During summer. rice dishes. nomads who migrate from summer pastures to protected river valleys for the winter. beef. dipped in sauce. Fruit Some fruits are eaten. Dairy products Milk (sheep. It became independent in 1924 and was under Soviet control for most of the 20th century. Mongols made horsemeat sausages. They furnish the main staples: meat. . transport.S. Today the cuisine remains traditional. wheat flour pancakes. Sweet Milk pie (cheese mixed with sugar and flour and then baked). poultry. noodles. noodles. cabbage. fish Lamb and mutton. potatoes. Aided by Russia. thus sour and sometimes slightly fizzy. Horses are essential to daily life. sparsely populated country is arid (including part of the Gobi Desert) in the south and mountainous. horsemeat. and sometimes noodles) are cooked. With the collapse of the USSR. eggs. fish. and many still are. which are dried in the sun and stored for winter. in the north.The Food and Culture around the World – Mongolia 209 of China confined the Mongols to homeland in the steppes. 2000b). then taken out. which were eaten raw. Seeds Sesame seeds. and sun-dried strips of meat (jerky). Bread and cereals Wheat. and butter. in a tava. and evidence suggested gold smuggling. rice. animals give ample milk. goat. and this tradition continues today. camel. and in it pieces of food (meat. sauerkraut. chicken. pork. stuffed into pancakes. Vegetables Potatoes. Fats and oils Butter (usually from cow or sheep milk). with some pastures for cattle and land where wheat is grown. fruits. dried curds. Centuries later Mongolia became a Chinese province. Millet fried or roasted until it pops. Most people were. In 1945 China agreed to give up Outer Mongolia and in 1946 recognized the Mongolian People’s Republic. Mongolia contributed troops to the U. porridge.9% in 2007 and was projected to grow significantly in 2008. Mongolia’s GDP grew 9. millet. then mixed with hot water and drunk. After making butter the buttermilk is boiled to form curds. horsemeat sausage. or in a hot pot that sits on the table. Millet porridge. clotted cream. it is also added to soups. and eaten. In 1992 a new constitution took effect and the country shortened its name to Mongolia. Minerals such as copper and gold made up two thirds of exports in 2007. Dishes Meat barbecued (broiled) on an open grill over charcoal. horses. Mongolia was incorporated into China in 1644 and became a province of China. Mongolia became independent as the Mongolian People’s Republic in 1924 and a communist regime began. This landlocked. cow. The Mongolian empire stretched from China to Europe in the 13th century. lard. In 2007 the United States agreed to a five-year aid program to Mongolia. Mare’s milk (ayrag) is favored and is drunk half fermented. In 2005 President George W. dried horsemeat (jerky). Broth can be heated in the basin. Camel meat is banned in some areas. Fat of fat-tailed sheep is rendered for cooking and eaten as a delicacy. milk. fat of fat-tailed sheep. goat. and camels are the mainstay of the economy. flatbreads steamed or baked on a hot metal plate (tava) over charcoal or dried dung fire. milk leather (made from the film skimmed off boiled milk and air-dried). Influences on food Mongolia is the homeland of the Mongols and Tatar cuisine.

a specialty. Ethnic tensions increased in the 1980s. The seacoast provides fish. The country has mountains and little cultivated land. Montenegro became a member of the UN in 2006. Croatia. 2000b). Direct foreign investment increased. Croats. agricultural processing. and Italian forces occupied part of Montenegro during World War II. Tea is drunk with meals and snacks (Cramer. in 1918. severing some 88 years of union with Serbia. MONTENEGRO Republic of Montenegro Geography Montenegro is in southeastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula.3 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 30.000 live births 10.2 male. tomatoes. Influences on food Rome.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. the budget showed a surplus. so sheep are more important than cattle. aluminum.3% Arable land 14% Agriculture potatoes. In 2007 Montenegro adopted a constitution and took steps toward attaining EU membership. Croatia and Slovenia declared independence in 1991. highly indented coastline. pockets of fertile soil yield corn and potatoes. This country was named Yugoslavia in 1929. even though it is not a member of the EU. and cheese. traditionally from a mare). the Ottoman Empire. Newman. Meals and service Three meals a day are typical. Major Languages Montenegrin (official) Serbian Bosnian Albanian Croatian Population density per sq. and olive groves. tourism History Montenegro was part of the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire. 80.210 The Food and Culture around the World – Montenegro Beverages Mongolian tea (tea made with milk and salt. It had been independent since 1389. cattle. the observant adhere to . Yugoslavia became the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1945. citrus. 2001. In 1992 Serbia and Montenegro proclaimed a new Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. and religions have also influenced the food. It is rugged and mountainous. 127. Kumys (wine distilled from fermented milk.3 female Per capita GDP $3. and Slovenes. grapes.2 Literacy rate NA Life expectancy 74. grains. butter. bordering the Adriatic Sea. mountains are circled with vineyards. olives. Yugoslavia broke up in the 1990s. Montenegro uses the euro as its official currency. After a 10-year civil war. Serbia. Bosnia and Herzegovina. Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1941. In the interior highlands. and real wages increased. consumer goods. chickens. pigs Natural resources bauxite. which was renamed Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. Turkey. Montenegro declared independence in 2006. Climate. fish Industries steelmaking. and neighboring Balkan countries have influenced Montenegro’s food. Macedonia. geography.800 Labor force in agriculture 2% Ethnic Groups Montenegrin Serbian Bosniak Albanian Other 43% 32% 8% 5% 12% Major Religions Orthodox Muslim Roman Catholic Other 70% 21% 4% 5% Urban 61. After World War I. and smoked mutton (prˆ uta) is a specialty. it was joined with the Kingdom of Serbs. sheep. citrus orchards. In summer the plentiful milk is made into clotted s cream. yogurt. Most people of Montenegro are Orthodox Christians. Along the Adriatic. and Slovenia. hydroelectricity. with fertile river valleys and a narrow. It was comprised of the republics of Montenegro. Byzantium. mi. and sometimes a little fried or roasted millet and/or a lump of raw sheep-tail fat added). Fingers are used to eat. tobacco.

sesame seeds. pistachios. lemon juice. paprika. fish. Meat and vegetable casseroles such as moussaka (baked minced lamb. the Atlas Mountains from northeast to south. meat balls (kofta). lamb and mutton. Sweets Honey. vegetables. Fruit Grapes. Seasonings Garlic. Steamed wheat kernels. cream. Fats and oils Butter. walnuts. mushrooms. cabbage. Custard. round bread with pocket). small kabobs. apples. Meals Three meals a day. eggs. ice cream. nuts. cheese (especially feta). plum brandy (sljivovica). pita bread (thin. butter. margarine. Nuts and seeds Almonds. beef and veal.The Food and Culture around the World – Morocco 211 the numerous feasting and fasting days of the church calendar. a cultivated central plateau. mint. lentils. Fruit-filled dumplings and strudels.. pies. dumplings. wine. cream. Kolijivo (wheat kernels cooked with sugar. made in a long-handled metal briki). Many people of Montenegro (21%) are Muslims. Dairy products Milk (cow. Fruit preserves. Christians may eat pork. olives. or fruit (e. and tomato sauce). sheep). cinnamon. Meat. Fruit compote. and an arid area in the east and southeast. corn. figs. dates. cheese. soaked in flavored syrup). eggplant. plums. vegetable oils. Fried fish. sour cream. other citrus. pork. Meals include bread. Snacks Pastries. Potica (sweet yeast bread rolled in walnut. Slatko (fruit cooked in heavy syrup). tomatoes. sugar. buttermilk. dill. Beverages Coffee (strong. white beans. onions. Dishes Soups often with legumes as important ingredients. Wheat or cornmeal porridge. fava beans. lemons. Dumplings and pies filled with meat. vegetable salads. Pastry filled with dried fruits or nuts. sauerkraut. thick. MOROCCO Kingdom of Morocco Geography Morocco is in North Africa. wheat flour pasta. peaches. Baklava (baked pastry of filo dough layered with nut filling. oregano. with the main meal at midday. olive oil. porridge. fish Chicken. Veal stew with paprika.g. leavened wheat loaves. pears. Milk pudding. Bread and cereals Wheat. government) Ethnic Groups Arab-Berber Other 99% 1% Major Religions Islam (official) Muslim (Sunni 97%) Other 99% 1% . often flavored with cardamom. berries. eggplant. cheese and egg pie). sweet. The Balkans are well known for their wines and distilled spirits. cucumbers. coffee. wine. who fast from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan and do not consume pork. parsley. rice dishes. eggs. cardamom. and filo dough (thin pastry). bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.. fruit juice. Major Languages Arabic (official) Berber dialects French (often used for business. plum brandy. and ground nuts). yogurt. Cabbage stuffed with meat or rice. and egg filling). onions. The land is fertile plain on the Atlantic coast. sausage. and frequent snacking is typical. poultry. Legumes Chickpeas. poppy seeds. Serbian cheese and egg pie (gibanjica). couscous. tea (sweet). pepper. mountains on the Mediterranean coast.g. Boiled rice. dried fruit. Vegetables (e. eggplant) cooked with tomatoes and sautéed onions and a small amount of water. ham. rice. cherries. Vegetables Potatoes. black beans.

Conflicts with Mauritania and Algeria over the region continued into the 1990s. but the dispute was not resolved. Western Sahara. vegetables. was the Spanish protectorate Spanish Sahara until 1976. Carthaginians. Mauritania withdrew in 1979. Spanish. fruit. its ancient section. clarified butter. These countries have similar cuisine and have influenced France by exporting foods such as couscous. In the 19th century Spain gained control of part of Morocco. In 2008 the government arrested 32 alleged terrorists. leather goods. construction. plateau. In Morocco Arab cuisine predominates. consulate and a U. when Spain withdrew. chickens. In the early 20th century France controlled the rest.S.3 Literacy rate 55. textiles. sour. a French protectorate from 1912.212 The Food and Culture around the World – Morocco Population density per sq. bounded by Morocco on the north and Mauritania on the south. and French. Arabs. Former U. and desert produce grain. lead. boiled mutton served on rice. 74 female Per capita GDP $4. grapes. In 2007 several bombings occurred in Casablanca and near the U.2 HIV rate 0. vegetables. and Tunisia occupy the northwest corner of Africa known in Arabic as Maghreb (the west).2 male. Morocco was traded with by the Phoenicians along the Mediterranean during the 12th century BCE and had settlements by Carthage along the Atlantic in the 5th century BCE. Marrakech is the chief city of central Morocco and the first of Morocco’s four imperial cities. cattle. Influences on food Morocco s fertile plain. Moroccan restaurants have opened in Paris and elsewhere. and fasting from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan is required for . mi. In 1956. dates. Morocco gained independence from France and Spain and acquired the international seaport Tangier. and coffee).100 Labor force in agriculture 40% Urban 55% Infant mortality rate per 1. fish (mostly sardines). sheep. goats. and livestock. zinc. secretary of state James A. potatoes.1% Unemployment rate 9. Terrorist attacks occurred in Casablanca in 2003. Algeria.7% Arable land 19% Agriculture wheat. cultural center. eastern spices. differentiated from the Middle East by substantial populations of nomadic Berbers. Fighting between Morocco and guerilla forces for independence fought over the area until a cease-fire was implemented in 1991. citrus. the medinah. headquarters of pirates who pillaged Mediterranean traders. and the sweet and sour combination to give the sweet.000 live births 38. Phosphates are the major resource. Morocco annexed the disputed area of Western Sahara in the mid-1970s and in 1976 Spanish troops withdrew. In the 11th and 12th centuries a Berber empire throughout northwest Africa and Spain was ruled from Morocco. iron ore. although nomads eat Bedouin food (mainly dairy products such as milk. pigs Natural resources phosphates. goats. spicy flavor that is typically Moroccan. salt Industries phosphate rock mining and processing. small game.S. locusts. Consumption of pork or alcohol is prohibited. including the leader of the Islamist party. sugar beets. and yogurt from sheep. manganese. tourism History Home of the Berbers since the second millennium BCE. In 42 CE Rome annexed Morocco as part of the province of Mauritania. merguez sausage (made from beef instead of pork to comply with Islamic dietary law and spiced with red hot chili peppers). food processing. Romans. King Hassan II reigned from 1961 until his death in 1999 and was succeeded by his eldest son. The Arabs invaded in 685 CE and converted most of the inhabitants to Islam. olives. thin unleavened bread. barley. The long coast on the Atlantic and Mediterranean provides fish and seafood.S. was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1985. During the 17th and 18th centuries Morocco was one of the Barbary states. 199. The Arabs brought thin bread (which evolved into thin pastry). An earthquake in 2004 killed at least 629 people. Morocco. Baker III served as UN envoy from 1997 to 2004. Other influences on Morocco’s food include the indigenous Berbers and the Phoenicians. high mountains. and camels. Morocco annexed most of the land and Mauritania annexed the remainder. and Arab-style pastries.6% Life expectancy 69.

poultry. merguez sausage. ras el hanout. cloves. cheese. Moroccan feast (diffa) Six to 20 or more dishes served in a certain order. sugar. rice. Mezze Olives. Couscous. fish (sardines). oranges. Grilled marinated lamb kabobs. any combination of meat. nuts. National dish Steamed couscous topped with lamb stew. olives. allspice. onions. Meat. although Muslims do not drink alcohol. millet. marjoram). Moroccan cuisine is distinctive for its lamb dishes. harissa (chili pepper and garlic paste condiment). fresh fruit and nuts. butter. baked. Sweets Honey. and saffron. offered to everyone entering a home or business). Diners sit on cushions and eat from the communal dishes using fingers of the right hand. chicken. rosewater. pickled olives. corn. rice. lentils. dates. radishes. sesame seeds. cheese cubes. and raisins. garlic. very thin pastry (warqa). cardamom. and fruits simmered slowly. pastry. pigeon. sheep. cucumbers. Dishes Harira (soup of lamb. vegetable oil. Salted. buttermilk. lemonade. Fats and oils Olive oil. saffron. grapefruit. pasta. cinnamon. coriander. sweet peppers. and sprinkled with sugar and cinnamon. and honey). Bastilla (flaky. Steamed lamb (chou) or spit-roasted lamb or kid (mechoui). spices. bananas. herbs (parsley. rice dishes. Tagines (the last one of lamb. coffee. followed with mint tea. vegetables. yogurt. pistachios. sour fresh butter (zebeda). fava beans. Fruit Lemons. spices (cinnamon. butter. greens. Orange and radish salad. strawberries. The mezze tradition (snacks with drinking) is practiced. ginger. Beverages Mint tea (very sweet. usually the first dish eaten to break fast in the evening during Ramadan. caraway. nutmeg. and thickened with egg). Bastilla (spicy pigeon or chicken pie). Briwat (almond paste. pudding. pine nuts. couscous (dried tiny pellets made from grain. poultry. barley. cumin. Snacks Sweet couscous. turmeric). goat. mint. chickpeas and/or lentils. camel). peaches. ras el hanout (a mixture of 10 to 25 herbs and spices). fish. Seasonings Salt. Marinated vegetable salad. eggs. and sweet pastries with almonds and honey. Steamed chicken stuffed with couscous. beef. hummus (chickpea dip). Mint tea. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Vegetables Potatoes. Bread and cereals Wheat. hazelnuts. and honey wrapped in a thin crust). preserved clarified butter (smen). eggplant. anise. small kabobs. basil. . bread is used to scoop stews and sop sauces. Msir (lemons salted and preserved in a tightly covered jar). pork. grapes. honey. orange blossom water. fish Lamb and mutton. and sugar). Tagine (stew). eggplant purée (ghanoush). chili peppers. lemon. fish. usually semolina wheat). Meals and service Typical is one large midday meal and snacks. spicy pigeon or chicken pie). okra. Dairy products Milk (cow. made of layers of paper-thin pastry enclosing layers of ground almonds mixed with sugar and cinnamon alternating with pigeon or chicken stewed with onions. and bread. tomatoes. salad. Ghoriba (almond-topped cookies of flour. watermelon. flatbreads. Fresh fruit. bastilla (spicy pigeon or chicken pie). bound with a lemony egg sauce. cherries. falafel (small fried bean patties). Mixed dates. Baked fish covered with almond paste. The meal usually has one main dish. Lamb or chicken simmered with lemons and olives. as follows. and raisins. cabbage. lemon juice. Legumes Chickpeas. goat. The meal is served on a low table. onions. raisins. black pepper. nuts.The Food and Culture around the World – Morocco 213 Muslims. Gab el ghzal (crescent-shaped pastries of very thin dough wrapped around an almond and sugar paste with orange blossom water). or chicken.

with the Zambezi the largest river. corn. potatoes. another Portuguese colony. spices. sunflowers. chemicals. Bantus migrated to Mozambique in about the 3rd century CE. hydropower.4% Life expectancy 41. and tropical fruits. A peace treaty was signed with the rebels in 1992. titanium. pigs. sweet potatoes. The Portuguese established a port here on the trade route to the East. on the trade route to the East.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Portuguese trade and colonization influenced Mozambique’s cuisine. Most of the whites emigrated. salt cod. aluminum. tomatoes.6 male. beverages. chickens.8 HIV rate 12. Influences on food Arab merchants and slave traders brought spices from the East to this southeastern part of Africa. and fruits of the Orient are more prominent in Mozambique than in Angola. cattle. graphite Industries food. cotton. floods killed hundreds and displaced over a million people. 70. goats. potatoes. coal. coconuts. coffee. Portuguese influence remains. tea. It is mostly coastal lowlands and low-lying plateaus rising to mountains in the west. settled in Mozambique. olives. spices. adding an Indian influence of curries and coconut dishes. A communist system developed. Major Languages Portuguese (official) Emakhuwa Xichangana Elomwe Cisena Ethnic Groups Makuana Makhuwa Tsonga Sena Lomwe Other African 15% 15% 9% 8% 7% 46% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other Christian Muslim Indigenous beliefs None 24% 18% 18% 17% 23% Population density per sq. sheep Natural resources fish. and colonized Mozambique.3 Literacy rate 44. . natural gas. From America via Angola. It has rivers and ports. lemons. Government changes occurred and a free-market economy began.5% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 5% Agriculture cassava. and tea. for example in sweet dishes containing eggs. mi. sugar. In 1999 and 2000. sugarcane. on the west coast of India. sisal. textiles. From the East they brought oranges. and probably bananas. After Portuguese colonial rule for centuries and a 10-year war. Two oil refineries were planned. oil products.000 live births 107. citrus. and cassava.4 female Per capita GDP $800 Labor force in agriculture 81% Urban 34.214 The Food and Culture around the World – Mozambique MOZAMBIQUE Republic of Mozambique Geography Mozambique is in southern Africa bordering the Indian Ocean. Immigrants from the former Portuguese province of Goa. tantalum. Arab and Swahili traders occupied the coastal area from the 14th century. Flooding and cyclones in 2007 left many people dead or homeless. In 1505 the Portuguese established a port on the coast. they introduced corn. The Portuguese brought pigs. Real GDP growth averaged nearly 8% annually during the period 2000 to 2008. In 2007 the country continued to increase food production. cashew nuts. cement History Mozambique was inhabited in prehistoric times. and donors for 2008 increased. After civil wars in the 1970s and 1980s. 40. Its yellow sand beaches became a favorite holiday playground for Europeans of the interior. pineapple. Mozambique’s long coast supplies fish and its fine harbors provide an outlet for the interior of southern Africa. In the 1980s drought and civil war caused famine and many deaths. Mozambique became independent in 1975. chili and sweet peppers. a new constitution in 1990 provided for multiparty elections. new kinds of rice and beans. chickens. Rice. tropical fruits.

fowl. fertile delta. fritters.9% Life expectancy 60. and cloves. onion. dense forests. 66. Peanuts. and coconut milk. MYANMAR Union of Myanmar (formerly Burma) Geography Myanmar is in Southeast Asia. fish. eggs. red pepper.1 Literacy rate 89. nuts. prawns marinated or basted with piri-piri and grilled. butter. oranges. powdered chilies. watermelon. plantains. and chili peppers (arroz de coco). Seasonings lime juice. Major Languages Burmese (official) Many ethnic minority languages Ethnic Groups Burman Shan Karen Chinese. Mozambique’s most famous dish. served with baked sweet potatoes or boiled rice. Matata (clams. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Milk. peanut oil. clams. Dishes with coconut milk used as the cooking liquid: fish and shrimp stew. watermelon seeds. lemon and Dishes Boiled rice. onions. prawns). sugar. tomato. pineapple. cloves. piri-piri (dish or sauce flavored with small hot chilies). usually with rice. wheat. Climate is tropical monsoon.The Food and Culture around the World – Myanmar 215 Bread and cereals Corn. coffee. fish Chicken. parsley. beef. pork. tomatoes. coriander. Fruit Coconut. Vegetables Cassava. sugar.900 Labor force in agriculture 70% Urban 30. Coconut pudding and candy. and pumpkin leaves). bordering the Bay of Bengal. Zambezi River valley chicken simmered in coconut milk with cashew nuts. in the northwest part of the Indochina Peninsula. lime juice. rice dishes. shrimp. A favorite.3 female Per capita GDP $1. sweet potatoes. rice. onions. tomatoes. It has mountains. and shellfish. and rivers with valleys.1 HIV rate 0. then topped with warmed peanut oil and eaten with rice). pumpkin. turmeric. sunflower seeds. garlic. Shrimp fritters (circles of thin pastry folded around a sautéed mixture of shrimp. mutton. Coconut butter. sesame seeds. Papaya and egg yolk pudding (puréed papaya. lemons. parsley. garlic. olive oil. 188. limes.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. other 68% 9% 7% 16% Major Religions Buddhist Protestant Muslim Other 89% 4% 4% 3% Population density per sq. olive oil. beans. Sweets Sugarcane. fish and seafood (salt cod. papaya. cooked and poured into beaten egg yolks while beating until thick). bananas.000 live births 49. Coastal seafood hotpots (filleted fish and shelled shrimp layered with sweet peppers. potatoes. Portuguese-style bread. rice cooked in coconut milk with onions. and cinnamon. green leaves. goat.7% Unemployment rate 10. simmered. coriander. chilies.2% Arable land 15% . mi. Meat. Chilies. cinnamon. olives. cinnamon. sweet peppers. other curry spices. the sauce is eaten over meat.7 male. Nuts and seeds Cashew nuts (used in many dishes). poultry. Curries such as curried mutton. water. Beverages Tea. deep-fried in peanut oil).

and renowned rowing. Burma was once the richest nation in Southeast Asia. one of Burma’s scenic attractions. green onions. sesame seeds. tamarind. as a result their curries are less smooth and sweet although just as hot as Thailand’s. pumpkin seeds. pineapple. known as Burma until 1989. oranges. peanuts. Fruit Coconut. steamed rice. water chestnuts. In 2007 soaring fuel costs led to public protests with security forces cracking down on monasteries and firing on protestors. anchovies). cooking reflects Chinese influence and is less varied than in the rest of Burma and in Thailand (e. curry powder. Nuts and seeds Almonds. timber. Influences on food China and India have influenced Burmese cooking: China contributed rice and noodle dishes. salt. . hydropower Industries agricultural processing. peanuts.216 The Food and Culture around the World – Myanmar Agriculture rice. whipping cream. precious stones. The country gained independence in 1948. and soups and fried dishes instead of curry sauces). sugarcane. shrimp. The UN granted the country less-developed status in 1987. marble. eggs. The Portugueese. when it became self-governing. plantains. Inle Lake. sesame oil. wood and wood products. turmeric. Aung San Suu Kyi. durian. floating island gardens. ginger. Rice is the main staple food. Burma was occupied by Japan and was a battleground. lotus root. pigs. has long been inhabited. garments History Myanmar. Indo-Aryans entered this area around 700 BCE. bananas. bamboo shoots. mangoes. was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. goat. lead. Dairy products Sweetened condensed milk. Dutch. fish Fish (carp. limestone. limes.. melons. soybean milk. Freshwater fish are preferred to sea fish. Burmese arrived from Tibet before the 9th century. chili peppers. Vegetables Bean sprouts. antimony.537 deaths. Burma shares a similar cuisine with neighbor Thailand. and mushrooms. squash. although Burmese prefer to cook in peanut or sesame oil (instead of coconut oil) and without many aromatic herbs. chickens. Legumes Soybeans. During World War II. cashews. tempeh (chewier curd). lemon grass. chicken.g. papaya. over 53. has semi-aquatic villages. poultry. tin. goats. beef. An opposition leader. Britain captured Burma through wars from 1824 to 1884 and ruled it as part of India until 1937. The Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 killed at least 61 people here. tungsten.000 homeless. Seasonings Garlic. In 1272 the Mongol dynasty of China conquered this land. Burma’s fertile land produces rice and other food crops and supports livestock. India provided aromatic seasonings and curry dishes. rice noodles. broad beans. green onions. but the regime from 1962 to 1988 advanced economic socialization and enforced isolation from other countries. cattle. bacon. sheep Natural resources fish. sesame. Breads and cereals Rice. and English traded in Burma in the 16th and 17th centuries. pork. soy sauce instead of fish sauces and pastes. as in hot chilies and fish sauces and pastes. catfish. lotus seeds. military opposition and ethnic conflict have continued. rowers use a leg wrapped around an oar to row to catch carp (ngapein). pulses. coal. beans. By the 11th century a Buddhist monarchy was established. shallots. pharmaceuticals. lamb and mutton. Meat. In 2008 a cyclone caused great damage: at least 84. and loss of much of the livestock and rice crop. lard. the Burma Road was the Allies’ supply line to China. Fats and oils Peanut oil. oil. cabbage. soy sauce. pumpkin. sweet potatoes. potatoes. coper. natural gas. mushrooms. Although free elections were held in 1990. which China ruled until the 16th century. mung beans. corn. whose smell is masked by using turmeric and ginger. tofu (bean curd). lemons. In Shan states of northern Burma. taro root. bordering China. ghee (clarified butter). construction materials. zinc. watermelon seeds. The long coastline supplies fish and shellfish.

nibbles eaten at any time). onion. Dishes Steamed rice. leaving a small amount of food or beverage signals satiety. ginger. and salt. limes. fluffy and just sticky enough to hold together when eaten with the fingers. Danbauk (pilaf rice cooked with ghee). Unripe mango dipped in sugar. and meat from a bacon cut. the dish htamin lethoke literally means rice mixed with the fingers). salt. seasonings. toasted sesame seeds. fried garlic. and shallots). ginger. a one-dish meal. Fruit. Snack stalls and tea houses are prevalent. Kneaded fish rice (cooked fish boned and kneaded and mixed with cooked rice and seasonings. tea. as in all Shan areas. or sticky rice. and ground chilies. beer. sugar.The Food and Culture around the World – Myanmar 217 Condiments Prepared ngapi (fish paste). sweet. Shan uplands dishes Stir-fried pork and bamboo shoots. Fried fish with soybean cake. accompanied by hard-boiled eggs. Sweets Sugarcane. turmeric. Beverage Tea (strong. garlic. and sesame oil). fried broad beans. Candy or other sweets made of beans. Fried rice. usually with tea and sometimes with fried garlic. Three-layer pork (chunks of skin. and bite-size fried patties of shrimp or mung beans. Bin lay (pork curry with pickled mango). and marigold leaves. served hot at all meals. Fried buffalo skin crisps. soup. hot water. shrimp paste. sold at five-day bazaar meets and served with hot tea and chilies on the house. Meals and service Two or more meals a day. The empty plate or cup indicates that the diner is still hungry or thirsty. with soup and rice in all meals. fruit. ngan-pya-ye (fermented liquid fish sauce). Spicy salads of unripe mango strips with shrimp or cashews. Fried fish. the traditional method of eating. Oh-no kauk-swe (chicken and noodles with coconut milk curry). Pickled tea leaf (lepet) is served after a meal (to clear the palate). sweet potatoes. Street food and snacks Mohinga. . green onions. Other dishes may be served at room temperature. Inle Lake carp stuffed with roe. and served with milk). Thayesa (food for salivary juices. and snacking is popular. soybean milk. depending on income. Fried garlicky shoots. soy sauce. homemade balachaung (paste of finely shredded dried shrimp. fat. National dish Mohinga (small rice flour noodles in a thin sauce of fish and coconut curry). is usual. fruit and bean drinks. fried in garlic. condiments.

N
NAMIBIA
Republic of Namibia
Geography Namibia is in southwestern Africa, bordering the Atlantic coast. It is a high plateau, elevation 3,000 to 4,000 feet, with woodland, savanna, four rivers, and the Namibia desert in the west and the Kalahari in the east.
Major Languages English (official) Afrikaans (most common) German Indigenous languages Population density per sq. mi. 6.6 Literacy rate 88% Life expectancy 50.4 male; 49.4 female Per capita GDP $5,200 Labor force in agriculture 47% Ethnic Groups Ovambo Other black White Mixed 49% 38% 6% 7% Major Religions Lutheran Other Christian Indigenous beliefs 50% 30% 20%

Urban 35.1% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 45.6 HIV rate 15.3% Unemployment rate 5.3% Arable land 1%

Agriculture roots and tubers, corn, millet, sorghum, peanuts, grapes, chickens, sheep, cattle, goats, pigs Natural resources fish, diamonds, copper, uranium, gold, silver, lead, tin, lithium, cadmium, salt, hydropower Industries meatpacking, fish processing, dairy products, mining History San people may have inhabited this land more than 2,000 years ago. Bantu-speaking Herero came in the 1600s; Ovambo came in the 1800s. In the late 15th century Portuguese explorer Bartholomeu Dias was the first European to visit. In 1890 the land became a German protectorate, Southwest Africa. In 1915, during World War I, South Africa took the land. The League of Nations gave South Africa a mandate over the land in 1920. The UN General Assembly named the area Namibia in 1968. After many years of war for independence starting in 1966, Namibia gained independence in 1990. In 1994 Namibia’s main deepwater port, Walvis Bay, which had remained in South Africa’s control after independence, was returned to Namibia’s control. In 2007 the government and De Biers diamond mining company agreed to establish the Namibia Trading Company as a joint venture to sell some of Namibia’s diamonds to local companies. The Rossing uranium mine announced plans for expansion. Influences on food This large country in southern Africa has a long Atlantic coastline that provides fish and a high plateau that allows grain, roots, peanuts, grapes, and livestock production. Other influences include African, European, South African, and Southeast Asian. Portuguese Bartolomeu Dias was the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa, thereb opening the sea route to India. In the 17th century the Dutch East India Company established a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope and began trading with the indigenous population and bringing goods from the East. Later European farmers came. They and their descendants, mainly Dutch and German and later known as Boers (or Afrikaners), imported slave labor from Southeast Asia. These Malaysian slaves founded the Cape Malay cuisine prominent in southern Africa. The British took control of South Africa in 1814 and sent British
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settlers, prompting the Great Trek of the Boers into the interior. Indians came to work in sugar plantations in the eastern part of the region. The Dutch and Germans brought an appreciation for jams, preserves (konfyt), and baked goods. They founded large self-sufficient estates. French Huguenots founded the wine industry. The Malays were expert at fishing and preserving fish. Spiced pickled fish and dried fish supplied provisions for ships visiting the Cape. Foods of the Great Trek were dried fish, sausages (boerewors) of mixed meats including game, biltong (dried strips of salted meat, often game), and potjiekos (food such as venison cooked in a potjie, a three-legged pot suspended over fire). The trekkers used old termite hills as ovens, first cooking a potjie food on top where a hole had been cut out and then baking sourdough bread inside after sealing the openings. Braai (barbecue), cooking on a wood fire, was used for some meats. The trekkers planted corn, a New World influence, soon cultivated by the Africans. Germany controlled the area now Namibia from 1890 to 1915 and South Africa controlled it to 1968, leaving their influences. Rural people eat much as their East African ancestors did: porridge, beans, melon, pumpkin, greens, insects, dairy products, and game; cattle were wealth and seldom eaten. Bushmen also eat desert berries, wild onions, and wild fruits. Bread and cereals Corn, millet, sorghum, wheat, rice; porridge, bread, doughnuts, tarts, cookies, rice dishes. Meat, poultry, fish Lamb and mutton, chicken, eggs, beef, goat, pork, fish, seafood, antelope (e.g., springbok), ostrich, ostrich eggs. Insects Locusts, caterpillars, termites (white ants), ant larvae. Insects are fried or roasted. Dairy products Milk, buttermilk, cream, yogurt, cheese. Fats and oils Fat of fat-tailed sheep, butter, fish oil, vegetable oil. Legumes Peanuts, beans, peas, lentils. Vegetables Green leaves, pumpkin, cabbage, potatoes, cucumbers, carrots, squash, tomatoes, onions, eggplant. Fruit Grapes, melon, quinces, dates, apples, apricots, peaches, tangerines, lemons, mangoes, desert berries. Nuts and seeds Almonds, walnuts. Seasonings Salt, pepper, vinegar, chili peppers, garlic, cinnamon, cloves, turmeric, ginger, curry powder. Dishes Simmered cornmeal (mealie) or millet porridge. Boiled rice. Scrambled ostrich egg. Simmered beans, sometimes cooked with melon or pumpkin. Fried, grilled, or stewed fish or meat. Springbok leg, rubbed with salt, pepper, ginger, and garlic, marinated in red wine and wine vinegar, browned, and braised with red wine and cloves in a tightly covered pot for two hours. Braised meat patties. Simmered or roasted stuffed chicken. Simmered or fried vegetables. Salads of raw vegetables or fruit with chilies and lemon juice or vinegar. Bredie (spicy mutton stew cooked with various vegetables), eaten with rice. Sosaties (kabobs of lamb or mutton marinated with spices, barbecued, and served with a curry sauce). Bobotie (baked spicy meatloaf with custard topping). Curries. Atjars (pickles in oil with spices). Chutney (spicy relish of pickled fruit or tomato). Sweets Honey, sugar. Dried fruit. Spicy fried doughnuts. Spice cookies. Sweet buns. Walnut and almond cake. Beverages Tea, coffee, wine.

NAURU
Republic of Nauru
Geography Nauru (pronounced NAH-oo-roo) is a small island (8 sq. mi.) in the western Pacific Ocean, east of Papua New Guinea and just south of the equator. It is a plateau surrounded by a sandy shore and coral reefs.

220 The Food and Culture around the World – Nauru
Major Languages Nauruan (official) English (widely used, including in government, business) Ethnic Groups Nauruan Other Pacific Islander Chinese Australian white, other 58% 26% 8% 8% Major Religions Protestant Roman Catholic Other 66% 33% 1%

Population density per sq. mi. 98.3 Literacy rate NA Life expectancy 60.2 male; 67.6 female Per capita GDP $5,000 Labor force in agriculture NA

Urban 100% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 9.4 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 22.7% Arable land none

Agriculture coconuts, mangoes, other tropical fruits, coffee, almonds, figs, pandanus (screw pine), chickens, pigs Natural resources phosphates, fish Industries phosphate mining, offshore banking, coconut products History Pacific Islanders inhabited the island when a British navigator, the first European to visit, arrived in 1798. In 1886 the German Empire annexed the island. Australia occupied it at the beginning of World World War I. In 1919 it became a League of Nations joint mandate of Britain, Australia, and New Zealand. During World War II Japanese occupied it. It was a UN trust territory of Australia from 1947 until it became independent in 1968. It was admitted to the UN in 1999. Phosphate exports provided Nauru with one of the highest per capita incomes in the developing world, although by 2006 phosphate reserves were nearly exhausted and damage from strip mining was severe. In the 1990s some countries paid compensation for damage from almost a century of phosphate strip mining by foreign companies. The economy collapsed in the late 1990s. In 2001 Nauru accepted some Asian refugees bound for Australia and was compensated by Australia. Nauru has become a haven for money laundering. In 2004 it defaulted on a loan payment for its real estate in Australia and was virtually bankrupt; financial reforms began. In 2008 the detention center to hold people seeking asylum in Australia was closed, an economic blow. Phosphate mining was revived, with new methods and new deposits. Influences on food Nauru is in the Micronesia group of the Pacific Islands. Influences on food include the Pacific Ocean, which provides fish, other Pacific Islanders, the Chinese, Britain, Germany, and Australia. Europeans brought new food plants, wheat bread, and certain animals. Chinese brought rice, soybeans, tea, noodles, and stir-frying. Main foods are fish, coconut, starchy roots and breadfruit, and fruit. Pork is the main meat, especially for feasts, traditionally cooked in a stone-lined pit over coals. Bread and cereals Rice, wheat; bread, noodles, rice dishes. Meat, poultry, fish Chicken, pork, fish (e.g., mullet), shellfish (e.g., crabs), eggs, beef; corned beef, spam. Dairy products Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. Fats and oils Coconut oil and cream, lard, vegetable oil and shortening, sesame oil. Legumes Soybeans, mung beans, winged beans, peas, lentils, peanuts. Vegetables Taro root and leaves, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, plantains, yams, cassava, seaweed, green leaves, arrowroot, bitter melon, cabbage, daikon, bean sprouts, eggplant, onions, green onions, mushrooms. Fruit Coconut, mangoes, figs, screw pine, bananas, lemons, limes, guavas, papaya, pineapple, melon, tamarind. Nuts and seeds Almonds, candlenuts (kukui), litchis, macadamia nuts.

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Seasonings Coconut cream and milk, lime or lemon juice, salt, soy sauce (the basic condiment), ginger, garlic, onions, red chili peppers, screw pine leaves. Dishes Boiled taro root, breadfruit, sweet potatoes, and other starchy vegetables. Boiled or steamed rice. Boiled, steamed, or stir-fried greens. Chunks of white fish marinated in lime juice and served with green onions and coconut cream. Foods cooked in a pit: whole pig, taro, sweet potatoes, crabs, whole fish, chicken pieces, taro leaves wrapped around a filling of coconut cream, lemon, onion, and shredded beef and all bound in banana leaves, and other leaf-wrapped mixtures of taro, breadfruit, or sweet potato with coconut cream and seasonings. Sweets Sugar. Immature coconut. Fresh fruit. Pudding made from coconut milk, arrowroot, and sugar. Beverages Coconut juice, tea, coffee, soy milk, toddy (wine made from coconut palm blossoms). Meals Two or three meals daily are typical, with the same foods at all, and the evening meal the largest. A usual meal is boiled taro root or rice; fish, pork, or chicken dish; and cooked greens or seaweed.

NEPAL
Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal
Geography Nepal is in south-central Asia, bordering China and India. Astride the Himalayas, it contains many mountains over 20,000 feet, including Mt. Everest (29,035 ft; 8,850 m), the world’s tallest mountain. It includes the Himalayas in the north, hills and fertile valleys in the center, and part of the Ganges Plain in the south.
Major Languages Nepali (official) Maithali English Ethnic Groups Cchettri Brahmin-Hill Magar Tharu Other 16% 13% 7% 7% 57% Major Religions Hindu Buddhist Muslim Other 81% 11% 4% 4%

Population density per sq. mi. 534 Literacy rate 56.5% Life expectancy 61.1 male; 60.8 female Per capita GDP $1,200 Labor force in agriculture 76%

Urban 15.8% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 62 HIV rate 0.5% Unemployment rate 42% Arable land 16%

Agriculture rice, sugarcane, potatoes, corn, wheat, jute, chickens, goats, cattle, buffalo, pigs, sheep Natural resources quartz, water, timber, hydropower, fish, lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore Industries tourism, carpets, textiles, small mills for rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed History Earliest civilization here was in the fertile Katmandu Valley around the 6th century BCE. Prince Gautama, born about 563 BCE, initiated Buddhism. Dynasties ruled from about the 4th century CE. As Indian influence increased, Hinduism mostly replaced Buddhism by around the 12th century. Nepal formed into a single kingdom in 1769 and fought border wars with China, Tibet, and British India in the 18th and 19th centuries. Nepal signed commercial treaties with Britain in 1792 and 1816. In 1923 Britain recognized Nepal’s independence. In 1951 the system of rule by hereditary heads of the Ranas family (1846–1951) ended, the king introduced a constitutional monarchy, and a cabinet system of government was formed. In 1963 the caste system, polygamy, and child

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marriage were officially abolished. In 1990 a new constitution restricted royal authority and adopted a democratically elected parliamentary government; political parties were legalized; and elections were held. In 1996 the Maoist Communist Party of Nepal began an armed insurgency. Nepal signed trade agreements with India in 1997. Although closed to the outside world for centuries, now Nepal is connected to India and Pakistan by roads and air service and to Tibet by road. In 2001 the king, queen, and seven other members of the royal family were fatally shot by the crown prince, who also shot himself and died later. In 2006 a peace accord signed by the government and Maoist rebels ended Nepal’s 11-year-long insurgency. In 2007, with a new constitution, the legislature agreed to Maoist demands and voted to end the monarchy, turning Nepal from a Hindu kingdom into a secular state. In 2008 legislative elections, the Maoists won the largest number of seats. In 2008 a constituent assembly voted to abolish the monarchy and make Nepal a republic. Influences on food Nepal, a mountainous country in the Himalayas between India and Tibet and almost isolated from the rest of the world until the 1950s, has peoples of Indo-European and Tibetan stock, with great diversity in cultures and religions. Cuisine reflects this diversity and traditionally relied on the ingredients available in each small locality. Main external influences on cuisine are from neighbor countries India and China. Religious wars between Muslims and the old Indian principalities caused Indian Brahmans (priests) and Kshatriyas (warriors) to escape to the Himalayas, bringing their culinary traditions. Tibetans continue to come. The Newars, whose ancestors ruled Nepal from about 700 BCE to 100 CE, live in the Katmandu Valley and are skilled in growing fruits and vegetables. The Ranas, hunters from India, during the 19th century took over the Himalayan mountain kingdom and brought pork and venison dishes. The Gurkhas were influenced by their service in the British army. The Sherpas, guides and porters in high mountains of eastern Nepal, cook many meat dishes. Butchers come from Tibet to slaughter yaks; they then dry and smoke the meat. Corn is grown almost everywhere, wheat and rice in the Katmandu Valley and in the Terai region in the south, and potatoes and other root crops further north. Citrus grows in the hills, mangoes in the Terai plain, and pineapples in the east. Rice (bhat), the main food, is usually served with legumes and vegetables. Meat is eaten when available but most people are Hindus who consider cattle to be sacred and do not eat beef. Chicken and goats are often used for sacrifice, then cooked and eaten. Rivers, lakes, and fish farming provide fish. Noodles (chau chau) and meat-stuffed dumplings (momo) show influence of Tibet and China. Hot, spicy pickles and chutneys add flavor and zest to the generally bland food. Numerous festivals and feasts feature special foods. Bread and cereals Rice, corn, wheat, millet, buckwheat; rice dishes, breads (roti, mari) made from grains and legumes, Indian breads (chapati, roti, parata, poori), steamed breads (some filled and called dumplings), noodles. Meat, poultry, fish Chicken, goat, beef, buffalo, pork, lamb, mutton, yak, venison, fish (carp, trout), eggs. Dairy products Yogurt, lassi (diluted yogurt), curds. Yogurt and curds are considered delicacies and healthful. Fats and oils Ghee (clarified butter), mustard oil, lard. Legumes Beans (mung, kidney), split peas, lentils (many kinds), chickpeas, soybeans. Vegetables Potatoes, roots (e.g., turnips), mustard greens. Fruit Oranges, tangerines, mangoes, pineapple, bael (bel in Nepali, a yellow aromatic fruit of citrus family). Nuts and seeds Almonds, betel nuts, pistachios, sesame seeds. Seasonings Ginger, garlic, onion, chives, cardamom. Dishes Steamed or boiled rice. Dal (boiled split peas or combined legumes). Boiled or fried potatoes (alu) or other vegetables. Boiled noodles. Steamed meat-stuffed dumplings. Kabafs (large pieces of meat cooked in their own juice). Fried fish. Kwati (made with many kinds of boiled beans), a special dish often eaten at festivals. Hot and spicy pickles (achars). Chutney (spicy vegetable or fruit relish).

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Sweets Sugarcane, sugar, brown sugar. Rice fritters (sel). Indian khir (milk and rice pudding with cardamom) and jalebi (deep-fried batter soaked in syrup). Yomari (steamed rice-flour dumpling filled with roasted sesame seeds and brown sugar, usually made in a conch shape), made by Newari people for certain feasts and birthdays. Beverages Tea, lassi (diluted yogurt, salted or sweet, and with flavorings), sherbats (fruit-based drinks).

NETHERLANDS
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Geography The Netherlands is in northwestern Europe, bordering the North Sea. It is mostly low, flat farmland. About half of the land is below sea level, requiring dikes for protection.

Major Languages Dutch (official) Frisian

Ethnic Groups Dutch Other (11% non-Western origin, mainly Turks, Surinamese, Moroccans, Antilleans, Indonesians) 80%

Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant, Lutheran Muslim Other Unaffiliated 30% 20% 6% 4% 40%

20%

Population density per sq. mi. 1,272.4 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 76.7 male; 82 female Per capita GDP $38,500 Labor force in agriculture 3%

Urban 80.2% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 4.8 HIV rate 0.2% Unemployment rate 6.3% Arable land 22%

Agriculture potatoes, sugar beets, wheat, flowering bulbs, cut flowers, fruits, vegetables, chickens, pigs, cattle, sheep, goats Natural resources natural gas, oil, peat, limestone, salt, sand and gravel, fish Industries agro industries, metal and engineering products, electrical machinery and equipment, chemicals, oil, construction, microelectronics, fishing History Celtic and Germanic tribes inhabited the area when Julius Caesar conquered it in 55 BCE. Germanic invasion in 406–407 CE ended Roman rule. The area was controlled by the Franks from the 4th to the 8th century, by Charlemagne’s empire in the 8th and 9th centuries, then in turn by Burgundy in the 14th century, the Austrian Hapsburgs, and Spain in the 16th century. In 1648, following the Thirty Years’ War, Spain recognized Dutch independence. In the 17th century the Dutch republic gained naval, economic, and artistic prominence, and Asian colonies. In 1795 France gained control of the land, Holland. In 1815 a kingdom of the Netherlands, including Belgium, was formed; in 1830 Belgium formed a separate kingdom. Neutral in World War I, the Netherlands was occupied by Germany from 1940 to 1945. After a four-year war, in 1949 the Netherlands granted independence to Indonesia. The Netherlands joined NATO in 1949 and was a founding member of the EU forerunner in 1958. Immigration from former Dutch colonies has been substantial. The Netherlands is heavily industrialized and has small farms. Rotterdam, at the mouth of the Rhine, is one of the world’s leading cargo ports. Canals are extensive and important for transportation. Social policies include legal prostitution, same-sex marriage (2000), and euthanasia (2002). In 2005, concerned about immigration, the country rejected the EU constitution. The economy grew in 2007. The government, expecting a budget surplus in 2008, announced plans to reemploy many of the long-term unemployed and extended the mandate to 2010 for troops in Afghanistan.

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Netherlands Dependencies: The Netherlands Antilles consists of two groups of islands: Curaçao and Bonaire in the Caribbean Sea near Venezuela; and St. Eustatius, Saba, and the southern third of St. Maarten, all southeast of Puerto Rico. Curaçao’s main industry is refining oil from Venezuela; tourism is important. Aruba was separated from Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and now has the same status; industries are oil refining and tourism. Influences on food The Netherlands’ flat farmland produces food crops and livestock, and its long coastline, canals, rivers, and lakes provide fish and seafood. The Dutch have protected their agricultural low land from the encroaching sea and enlarged it by filling land in the Zuyder Zee. The Reformation led to the great Dutch painters turning from religious to secular themes; still life paintings of food reflect food customs of the 16th and 17th centuries. The Dutch explorers, traders, and the colonial period have influenced cuisine. During the 17th century the Dutch were eminent in the world spice trade, bringing spices back from the East. Also, Dutch exploration and colonization carried Dutch influence, such as baked flour goods and the use of spices, to various parts of the world including the United States, South Africa, East Indies, and West Indies. Indonesia, a Dutch possession for centuries until 1951, influenced food in the Netherlands. Indonesian restaurants are noticeable, mostly providing a rijsttafel (rice table). Indonesian takeaway (prepared) foods, such as sambals (foods in sauce of fried hot chili and other spices), satay (broiled bits of meat, chicken, or fish on tiny skewers dipped in hot curry sauce), and loempia (chopped food in a very thin wrapper), as well as market-prepared spiced strips of beef or chicken, are regular Dutch fare. In the first half of the 20th century cooking schools for the growing middle class became prominent, using a scientific approach and emphasizing nutrition. Until after World War II most families were large and not rich; thus subsistence cooking was emphasized. The traditional diet was potatoes, vegetables, and meat, supplemented with fish. During World War II food was scarce, rationed, and sometimes was famine food such as bulbs. After the war, with the improved economic situation and the influx of people from former colonies and of workers from various countries, new foods and customs developed. In recent years a shift to seafood occurred partly due to pollution in inland waterways. Dutch food generally is seasonal, such as new herring in early May, soups and stews in winter. France, ruler of this land at different times, has also influenced its cuisine. Bread and cereals Wheat, rice, oats, semolina, rye, hops; gruels, yeast breads, rye bread, rolls, pancakes, turnovers, fritters, biscuits, cookies. Meat, poultry, fish Chicken, eggs, pork, beef, lamb, goat, fish and seafood (eel, herring); sausage, bacon. Dairy products Milk, cream, cheese (Edam, Gouda; both mild, semisoft; exported Edam has red rind). Fats and oils Butter, lard, margarine, vegetable oil, salt pork. Legumes Split green peas, brown beans, kidney beans, lentils, peanuts. Vegetables Potatoes, cabbage, carrots, onions, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, lettuce, celery, leeks, tomatoes. Fruit Apples, coconut, currants, lemons, pears, raisins, pineapple, peaches, apricots, cherries, oranges. Nuts and seeds Almonds, hazelnuts, pecans, walnuts, sesame seeds. Seasonings Salt, black pepper, cinnamon, cloves, hot red chilies, curry powder, chutney, vanilla, chocolate. Dishes Hutspot met klapstuk (beef stew with potatoes, carrots, and onions). Green pea soup (erwtensoep). Brown bean soup (bruinbonensoep). Cabbage with sausage (boerekool met worst). Fried, smoked, or stewed eels. Waterzooi (poached fish in its broth thickened with egg yolks and cream), served as a one-dish meal. Plaice (flounder) topped with bacon, bread crumbs, almonds, and Gouda cheese, and baked. Roasted Texel lamb. Boiled rice. Mashed potatoes and vegetables (stamppot). Pickled cabbage (kool sla, or coleslaw). Sweets Honey, sugar. Usual dessert, gruel (pap) of oatmeal, semolina, tapioca, or rice with milk; Sunday gruel, thicker (a pudding), perhaps with vanilla, and served with biscuits and possibly fruit

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sauce. A famous Sunday dessert, watergruwel (pear tapioca cooked in red currant juice with lemon peel, cinnamon, currants, raisins, and sugar). Appelbeignets (fried battered apple slices, sprinkled with sugar). Pancakes with syrup, rolled, and sliced. Special sweets for feast days Hot chocolate with spicy biscuits (specculaas) on Sinterklass Day. Fried raisin yeast bread (oliebollen) and apple turnovers (appelflappen) on New Year’s Eve. Beverages Hot chocolate, coffee, tea, heavy beer, Jenever (national aperitif, served cold often with smoked eel). Meals Breakfast: soft-boiled egg, cheese, roll, and hot chocolate, coffee, or tea. Lunch at a sandwich shop (broodjeswinkel): steak tartare (raw ground beef), half-om (liver and corned beef), or cheese toastie (grilled sandwich). A winter meal: soup with rye bread and bacon. Rijsttafel (rice table): rice, curry sauce with meat, chicken, or seafood, and accompaniments (tomatoes, fried onion rings, pineapple, peanuts, coconut, chutney). Snack Lightly brined herring with chopped onions, sold from pushcarts.

NEW ZEALAND
Geography New Zealand is in the South Pacific Ocean about 1,250 miles southeast of Australia. It consists of two main islands, North and South. Both are hilly and mountainous, with fertile plains on the east coast. North Island has a volcanic plateau in the center, with hot springs and geysers. South Island has the Southern Alps, with glaciers and high mountain peaks. Other inhabited islands comprising New Zealand are Stewart Island, Chatham Islands, and Great Barrier Island.

Major Languages English Maori Sign language (all are official)

Ethnic Groups New Zealand European Other European Maori Pacific Islander Asian (Chinese 4%) 70% 9% 8% 7% 6%

Major Religions Anglican Roman Catholic Presbyterian Other, unspecified None 15% 12% 11% 31–36% 26–31%

Population density per sq. mi. 40.3 Literacy rate 99% Life expectancy 78.3 male; 82.2 female Per capita GDP $26,400 Labor force in agriculture 7%

Urban 86.2% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 5 HIV rate 0.1% Unemployment rate 3.8% Arable land 6%

Agriculture apples, potatoes, kiwifruit, wheat, barley, pulses, vegetables, sheep, chickens, cattle (dairy products), pigs, goats Natural resources fish, natural gas, iron ore, sand, coal, timber, hydropower, gold, limestone Industries food processing, wood and paper products, textiles, machinery, transportation equipment, banking and insurance, tourism, mining History The first inhabitants, the Maoris, arrived from Polynesia in about 1000 CE. Dutch navigator Abel Janszoon Tasman saw the islands in 1642. In 1769–1770 British captain James Cook explored the coasts. In 1840 the British colonized the islands and started settling them. Maori Wars ensued and ended in 1870 with Britain victorious. In 1907 the colony became the Dominion of New Zealand; it participated in both world wars. New Zealand gained independence in 1947 and is a member of the Commonwealth. Native Maoris elect 7 of the 120 members of the House of Representatives. New Zealand was the world’s first country to allow women the right to vote, in

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1893. It legalized prostitution in 2003 and same-sex unions in 2004. Much of the nation was deregulated in the 1990s. In 2007 the government introduced new environmental, education, and health measures including free part-time preschool education for three- and four-year-olds. A major settlement of Maori land claims was signed in 2008. With the country in recession, Prime Minister (since 1999) Helen Clark called for elections in November 2008. In 2008 government officials signed a free trade agreement with China. Cook Islands and Overseas Territories: Cook Islands, half way between New Zealand and Hawaii, became self-governing in 1965, with New Zealand retaining responsibility for defense and foreign affairs; Niue, west of New Zealand, gained the same status in 1974; Tokelau, north of Samoa, began New Zealand administration in 1925; Ross Dependency, part of Antarctic Territory, has been administered by New Zealand since 1923. Influences on food When the Polynesians arrived here they found plenty to eat: birds, fish and seafood, and plants such as ferns. They brought food plants including taro, sweet potato (kumara), ti, and bottle gourd; sweet potato became the main crop in the pre-European period. Their descendants, the Maori, cooked in a pit dug deep into the ground and lined with stones, stone-boiled using hot stones in large wooden containers, grilled by fastening fish or birds to sticks over a fire, or cooked food such as clams in the embers. The Polynesian influence is still seen in the haangi, a communal outdoor pit steaming/roasting method similar to imu. When Captain Cook arrived here in 1769, his crew collected wild celery and boiled it with soup and oatmeal. They also ate (as did the Maori) New Zealand spinach (tetragonia), a coastal plant spinach-like in flavor but belonging to the same family as the ice plant. European settlers brought new foods including mutton (from raising sheep for wool), potatoes, and wheat bread, which the Maori accepted. The settlers sometimes ate foods of the Maori including sea anemone soup, fuchsia berry pudding, sticky brown sugar crystals processed from the cabbage tree (ti), and, in the bush, rats. They tended to reproduce customary British fare. The climate here was similar to that of Britain although milder. British colonization in the 18th and 19th centuries greatly influenced the food practices here, resulting in an emphasis on meat and baked flour products. Other influences include Italian, Greek, and Asian immigrants; the introduction of deer and deer farming (now venison is a major export); and the discovery that plants such as tamarillo and kiwifruit (Chinese gooseberry) flourished here. Bread and cereals Wheat, barley, oats, corn; wheat bread, biscuits (cookies), pancakes, oatmeal porridge. Meat, poultry, fish Lamb and mutton, beef, chicken, pork, goat, venison, fish and shellfish such as oysters, mussels, scallops, lobster, abalone, and toheroa (bivalves similar to clams), duck, pheasant, eggs; sausage. Dairy products Milk, cream, cheese. Fats and oils Butter, lard, vegetable oil. Legumes Peas, beans. Vegetables Potatoes, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, tamarillo (resembles tomato but grows on bushes at high altitudes), New Zealand spinach, wild greens, eggplant, cabbage, celery, carrots. Fruit Apples, kiwifruit, apricots, berries, cherries, melons, pears, pineapple, oranges, lemons. Seasonings Salt, pepper, onions, mint, parsley, thyme, ginger, nutmeg, cocoa. Seasonings tend to be minimal. Dishes Soup of shellfish or pumpkin. Meat pies such as bacon and egg. Fried whole small fish. Fish fritters. Fish or oyster pie. Vegemite, a popular yeast spread. Some original dishes of New Zealand: toheroa soup (made with minced and puréed toheroas; has green color from chlorophyll in toheroa’s liver due to feeding on plankton, which contains chlorophyll) and afghan (biscuit containing cornflakes and cocoa). Lamb, the centerpiece of New Zealand cuisine, roasted and served with mint sauce, roasted potatoes, and tamarillos. Roast leg of lamb stuffed with seasoned bread crumbs. Lamb chops grilled or baked in orange juice sauce. Mutton stew. Roast venison. Fried or grilled venison steaks, patties, or sausage.

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Sweets Sugar, scones, sweet pastries, cream buns (puffs), sponge cakes with cream, custard pies, ANZAC biscuits (oatmeal cookies provided by the New Zealand and Australian Army Corps during the world wars). National specialty Pavlova, a meringue cake with a soft center (due to the addition of corn flour and vinegar or lemon juice to the meringue mixture), filled with strawberries or kiwi, and topped with whipped cream; named after Anna Pavlova, the Russian ballerina who visited here in 1926. Beverages Tea, coffee. Meals Three meals a day is typical. Many people also break for morning and afternoon tea. Snacks Battered and fried sausages.

NICARAGUA
Republic of Nicaragua
Geography Nicaragua is the largest yet most sparsely populated Central American country, bordering the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. It has mountains in the west, a volcanic and fertile Pacific coast, and a swampy Caribbean coast. Mountains with volcanic peaks run northwest to southeast through the country.
Major Languages Spanish (official) English and indigenous languages on Caribbean coast Ethnic Groups Mestizo (Amerindian-white) White Black Amerindian 69% 17% 9% 5% Major Religions Roman Catholic Evangelical None Other 73% 15% 9% 3%

Population density per sq. mi. 124.6 Literacy rate 80.5% Life expectancy 69.1 male; 73.4 female Per capita GDP $2,600 Labor force in agriculture 29%

Urban 55.9% Infant mortality rate per 1,000 live births 25.9 HIV rate 0.2% Unemployment rate 5.2% Arable land 15%

Agriculture sugarcane, corn, rice, coffee, bananas, cotton, tobacco, sesame, soy, chickens, cattle, horses, pigs, goats, sheep Natural resources gold, silver, copper, tungsten, lead, zinc, timber, fish, seafood (lobster) Industries food processing, chemicals, machinery and metal products, textiles, clothing, oil refining and distribution, beverages, footwear, wood History Nicaragua has been inhabited for thousands of years, notably by the Maya. Various Indian tribes inhabited it when Columbus arrived in 1502. Spain conquered it in 1552 and ruled it until Nicaragua declared independence in 1821. Nicaragua was part of Mexico and then of the United Provinces of Central America until it became an independent republic in 1838. Political unrest and military conflicts occurred during the 1970s and 1980s. In 1998 Hurricane Mitch caused up to 2,000 deaths and extensive damage. In 2001 drought and low coffee prices brought an economic crisis. In 2004 the International Monetary Fund and World Bank forgave $4.5 billion of Nicaragua’s debt. In 2007 Nicaragua’s nearly $1 billion debt with the Inter-American Development Bank was cancelled. The government signed cooperative agreements with Venezuela, Brazil, and Iran. Influences on food Nicaragua has coasts on the Pacific and Caribbean that supply fish and seafood. Its fertile land and mountains produce sugarcane, grains, fruit, coffee, and livestock. Other influences on food are from the indigenous Indians, Spanish, and Caribbean islanders. Corn, the Maya staple, remains a staple. The Spanish brought new foods such as beef, pork and lard, and rice.

soybeans. corn bread (tortillas). nogada (praline-like candy). lamb and mutton. vanilla. breadfruit. fish Indian favorite). cinnamon. Fruit Bananas. Beverages Coffee. roselle fruit (used to make sorrel drinks and jams/jellies). rum. cassava. capers. goat. wheat Chicken. seafood. squash seeds. meat. pork. sweet peppers. Dishes Fried corn tortillas. Lent. oranges. cakes. boiled. a Christmas dish. Special occasion dishes Sopa de rosquillas (soup made with ring-shaped corn dumplings). who eat special foods during Christmas. raisins. often fried before boiling. custard. sweet pepper. Nicaraguan tripe soup. a specialty on the Caribbean coast. tomatoes. coconut. sesame oil. wrapped in corn husks or leaves. especially on its Caribbean coast. olives. Snacks Candy. chayote squash. Gallina rellena Navidena (chicken stuffed with papaya. tiste (a favorite. onions. and tomatoes). rice pudding. ice cream. kidney. plantains. honey. iguana (an Milk (evaporated). Bread and cereals breads and rolls. achiote/annatto (orange-red coloring). Meals Corn and beans are eaten at every meal by the poor. pumpkin. and fish. chicken. chili. cabbage. sugar (white. carrots. beets. grapes. tropical fruit drinks (refrescas). Vegetables Plantains. Dinner in wealthier areas typically includes soup. and steamed. chili and sweet peppers. fruit ices. cocoa. Sweets Sugarcane. Roasted meat. Beans (black. and salad. Most people are Roman Catholics. sugar. rice. fritters. diluted to make a beverage or used in other ways). Milk is not usually drunk as a Lard. and cracked ice). chicken. Nuts and seeds Palm tree nuts. cheese. capers. poultry. and drinks. Salads such as avocado. Fats and oils Legumes Corn. made with roasted corn. rice pudding. onions. cilantro. Stews of meat. avocados. white). Posole (semi-fermented corn dough.228 The Food and Culture around the World – Niger Caribbean island food customs from native Carib-speaking Indians and laborers imported from Africa and Asia influenced Nicaragua’s cuisine. vegetable oils. Rice is consumed frequently. tomatoes. “painted rooster”). lettuce. papaya. pimento. meat pie of corn dough flavored with sour orange juice around a filling of chicken or pork. tortillas or bread. cream.or rum-flavored cakes and fritters. Meat. fish. sour cream. Atole (thickened corn gruel) that can have additions of chili or beans. Seasonings Onions. chayote squash (green pear-shaped gourd). raisins. garlic. coconut. beets. potatoes. passion fruit. or carrots. poultry. pineapple. butter. onions. Rice. custard. Dairy products beverage. beef. beer. chickpeas. or breadfruit. rice dishes. ice cream. gruel. Simmered red beans and rice fried with onions (gallo pinto. or cooked with coconut milk. potatoes. fruit ices. with cheese or meat added if resources permit. or fish. rice. . and mint. eggs. or seafood and plantains or cassava in coconut milk. Coconut bread. mangoes. wheat. chocolate. shortening. Nicaragua tamales (nactamal). NIGER Republic of Niger Geography Niger is in the interior of northern Africa. juice of sour oranges mixed with sweet peppers or mint. brown). olives. cold water. fried plantains. baked bananas. It is mostly desert and mountains except for the fertile basin along the Niger River in the southwest and a narrow savanna in the south. Pickled cabbage. and Easter. and pickled vegetables plus sometimes appetizers and dessert. From the ancient Indian past. Fried potatoes. red. eaten on Fridays of Lent. sesame seeds.

1 Literacy rate 30. Meat. textiles. greens. gypsum. The Niger River provides fish. goat. iron ore. In 2005 locusts and drought ruined the grain harvest and threatened famine in Niger. cotton. coal. raisins.6% Arable land 11% Agriculture millet. sour milk. palm oil. onions. slaughterhouses History In the area now Niger is evidence of Neolithic culture. chickens. In 2007 Taureg rebel deadly raids in northern Niger brought a government counteroffensive. Nuts and seeds thicken sauces/stews. sorghum. and ovens are uncommon. coconut. Legumes Cowpeas. baguette bread is common in towns. and religion. Fats and oils Shea oil and butter (from the seeds of the African shea tree). oil. meat may be grilled on open fires. mangoes. chilies. tin. poultry. often eaten with meat and peanut sauce or stew. 44. plantains. cassava. buttermilk. one of the world’s poorest countries. phosphates. fish Industries uranium mining. although the fertile area along the Niger River and the savanna in the south support crops and livestock. Dishes Millet grains boiled with cassava to a mush. and chilies and tomatoes are used in many dishes. sweet potatoes. camels Natural resources uranium. Legumes are important. Fruit Dates. rice. is still used. In 1999 Niger’s president was assassinated.8% Unemployment rate 1. as in West Africa. beans. other 85% 5% 9% 1% 229 Population density per sq. a New World influence. rice dishes. Europeans came in the late 18th century. made of three stones on which a pot sits. Steamed or boiled millet. molybdenum. Influences on food Like most other countries of Sub-Saharan Africa immediately south of the Sahara. In rural areas the traditional wood-burning hearth. chemicals. fish Chicken. cheese. Rice with a thin stew of beef . baguette bread. wheat. It became a French overseas territory in 1946.3 male. game (antelope. goats. camel. mi. Vegetables Cassava. watermelon seeds. couscous (tiny balls of millet dough steamed and served like rice). The nomadic Tauregs and other groups established themselves in this area. pork. curds. Most people are Muslims. A Taureg rebellion began in 1990 and ended with a peace accord in 1995. porridge. cowpeas.000 live births 115. cattle. brick. Dairy products Milk. bananas. garlic. food processing. France. beef. tomatoes. Niger is a former French colony and sparsely populated. For example. a French influence. guinea fowl. Food customs are influenced by North Africa. shea nuts. whey. Cornmeal porridge. Elections and a new constitution restored civilian rule. rock rabbit). fish (perch. peanuts. meat and fish are commonly combined in sauces. sesame seeds. sorghum. cement.The Food and Culture around the World – Niger Major Languages French (official) Hausa Djerma Ethnic Groups Hausa Djerma Sonrai Peuhl (Fula) Tuareg Other 55% 21% 9% 9% 6% Major Religions Sunni Muslim Shi’a Muslim Indigenous beliefs Christian. gold. Herders such as the Fula live in northern Niger. Niger was part of ancient and medieval African empires. foods brought from the New World. yams.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. watermelon. or other grain. Bread and cereals Millet. In 1993 Niger held its first multiparty elections. lamb and mutton. onions. Nuts and seeds Kola nuts. During the 1970s the economy flourished from uranium. sheep.3 female Per capita GDP $700 Labor force in agriculture 90% Urban 16. Niger is mostly desert. wild grain. The French Colony of Niger was established in 1922. peanuts (groundnuts). eggs. lentils. tilapia). peanut oil. who do not consume pork or alcohol. rice. Niger gained independence in 1960.4% Life expectancy 44. noodles. salt. pigeons.4 HIV rate 0. 27. West Africa. rice. Meat and fish are often smoked and dried. chilies. okra. Seasonings Tomatoes. corn.

okra. iron ore.9 Literacy rate 72% Life expectancy 45. coal. columbite. semi-desert in the north. was the center of the Nok culture. cocoa. The Fulani ruled the region from the early 19th century until Britain gained control. The empire of Karrem controlled the area from late in the 11th century to the 14th century. lead. for the first time in Nigeria’s history. In the 15th and 16th centuries Portuguese and British participated in the slave trade here. tin. The most populous country in Africa. and dried okra powder. pigs Natural resources natural gas. a plateau of savanna and woodland. Nigeria has rapid population increase. chickens. Nigeria gained independence in 1960 and became a republic in 1963.8 male. creating Biafra.1% Unemployment rate 11. The Kanuri. inhabited for thousands of years. Sweets Sugar.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. Stews: red meat and okra. peanuts. cattle. and a high rate of crime. or fish. sweet pastries. the Kano lifted its ban. and Fulani came later. dried fish. corn. when Biafra surrendered after widespread starvation and civilian deaths. grilled sweet corn.000 Labor force in agriculture 70% Ethnic Groups Hausa and Fulani Yoruba Igbo (Ibo) Ijaw Other (250+) 29% 21% 18% 10% 22% Major Religions Muslim 50% Christian 40% Indigenous beliefs 10% Urban 46. textiles History Nigeria. Military and government conflicts occurred in the 1980s and 1990s. peanuts. Islam was introduced in the 13th century. 47. tin. Festive occasion dishes Millet grain and cassava mush served with two sauces (minced meat. fish Industries crude oil. In 2007. yams. coffee. Civil war began in 1967 when the eastern part seceded. palm oil. Kano region leaders banned polio immunizations in 2003. shawerma (rotisserie lamb). bean fritters. peanut candy. chicken. and tomatoes. and ended in 1970. sweet pastries. sheep. rice. baked bananas. Jollof rice (rice with tomato or palm oil). sorghum.7 HIV rate 3. coal. greens. Hausa. and diced meat and tomatoes) mixed before serving. Nigeria was a leading oil exporter in the 1970s. limestone. palm oil. Thousands of people have died in religious clashes since military rule ended in 1999. deep-fried sweet dough balls. and the Niger River in the west Major Languages English (official) Hausa Yoruba Igbo (Ibo) Fulani Population density per sq. political instability.000 live births 95. 1851 to 1903. a civilian head of state succeeded another civilian. 415. zinc. Street food Kabobs. rubber. Attacks by militants and kidnappings of foreign oil workers and state officials and their relatives occurred in 2007 and 2008.9% Arable land 33% Agriculture cassava.3 female Per capita GDP $2. bordering the Gulf of Guinea. 500 BCE to 200 CE. niobium. Dried cassava porridge with stew. . rubber. sweet potatoes. in 2004. Rebel violence in recent years led to reduced oil output and increased worldwide oil prices. mi. hides and skins. Stuffed camel stomach (similar to haggis). oil. peanuts. millet. NIGERIA Federal Republic of Nigeria Geography Nigeria is in West Africa. 79% of the polio cases worldwide were in Nigeria. honey. cassava leaves with dried fish and palm oil. goats. cotton. It has tropical swamps and rainforests. wood. Beverages Beer.230 The Food and Culture around the World – Nigeria and tomatoes. and tomatoes. slow economic growth.

Gari foto (cassava meal cooked with scrambled eggs. akee apples. chicken. the predominant cooking fat. grains. tomatoes. Rice boiled in coconut milk. Nuts and seeds Palm nuts. green leaves. spicy foods are liked. tomatoes. cocoa. tomatoes. 25% is forest. Fats and oils Palm oil. Women overweight by Western standards are admired. lemons. coconut milk. bell peppers.The Food and Culture around the World – Norway 231 Influences on food In this large. onion. mutton. watermelon. buttermilk. Thick soups or thin stews: egusi. peanut candy (kanya). fish (fresh. coffee. and chilies). plantain chips. rice dishes. potatoes. and palm trees. bordering the North Sea and the Norwegian Sea. watermelon seeds (egusi). Europe’s northernmost country. Fried plantains. cheese. a popular Nigerian specialty often eaten for breakfast. eggplant. hot red chili peppers. Vegetables Cassava. eggs. and greens. coconut oil. bananas baked with sugar. red beans. Beverages Cocoa. kola nuts. is red. tomatoes. smoked. fried dough balls. dried).” curry powder. peanut oil. baobab leaves. whey. Northern Nigeria dishes: boiled polished millet (jero) served with tausche (a stew of meat. Palm oil. as well as herding animals in the north. millet. coconut biscuits. and sometimes sugar). or coconut. fried crisp bit of sweet dough. bananas. pork. garlic. corn. Bread and cereals Sorghum. bitter leaf. peanuts. mango seeds. plantains. beef. Mountains and plateaus cover most of the land. with fish near the coast. and the varied land supports growing root crops. and peanuts). okra. sesame seeds. red zinger (herbal tea made from flower pods of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa). and fréjon (bean purée. and rivers. dates. and onions. rice. Fruit Coconut. okra. Pili-pili (sauce of chili peppers. and chili peppers has had great influence. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn). pumpkin. The Portuguese. Thick. fried dough. Daily fare is mostly starchy vegetables. Dairy products Milk. Deep fjords indent the coastline. formed into balls or bite-size scoops to eat stew. porridge. steamed in molds or leaves). yams. greens. doughnut. curds. cocoa. red chili peppers. black-eyed peas (cowpeas). game. chili peppers. and chunks are dipped in sauce and eaten by hand. red pepper. British. peanuts. lined with thousands of islands. locust beans (carob). Meat. Fried fish. and onion. and Muslims (especially in the north) have influenced food customs. honey. Insects Termites (often called white ants). Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). Sweets Honey. the Gulf of Guinea and Niger River provide fish. garlic. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. root vegetables with bits of fish. onions. palaver sauce (green leaves). Curries served with garnishes such as coconut and peanuts. and okra. watermelon. cucumbers. fried bean balls (akara). biscuits. sour milk. melokhia. taro. pineapple. all seasoned with palm oil. baobab. chicken. densely populated country. it extends from the North Sea to 300 miles (483 km) above the Arctic Circle. hot pepper. Moin moin (ground paste of black-eyed peas. onions. poultry. locusts. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. papaya. onions. and horseradish). guinea fowl. tomatoes. lamb. Seasonings Salt. pumpkin. tomatoes. deep-fried fish. Roast chicken with peanut sauce. fish Goat. or beef. usually on the table to season food. Native African foods include black-eyed peas. corn. generally credited to Nigeria. shea oil. mangoes. with glaciers. beer. sticky. sweet porridge. Street food and snacks Spicy kabobs (tsire agashe). “African nutmeg. sweet potatoes. moors. cashews. goat (served at important functions). legumes. . NORWAY Kingdom of Norway Geography Norway is in northern Europe in the western part of the Scandinavian Peninsula. sugar. Sauces: peanut (ground and pounded peanuts with seasonings).

Norway’s economy grew throughout the 1990s. shipbuilding. Influences on food Norway shares a cuisine with neighbors Denmark and Sweden because it was united with Denmark for centuries and with Sweden for most of the 19th century. natural gas. Norway has one of the highest standards of living in the world. a volcanic island west-northwest of Norway. was incorporated into Norway in 1925. was annexed in 1929. 39. came to power in 872.6 HIV rate 0. smoked. 82. iron ore. partly by investing in new offshore technology to pump carbon gas into former reservoirs of oil and gas. purites. and the long coastline.000 Labor force in agriculture 4% Urban 77. and fish. By the end of the 19th century leavened bread mostly replaced flatbread. Transport used to be difficult most of the year.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. timber.4% Arable land 3% Agriculture barley. Norway joined NATO in 1949. Between 800 and 1000. none 86% 5% 2% 7% Population density per sq. Norway was united with Denmark from 1381 to 1814 and with Sweden from 1814 to 1905. Harold. Jan Mayen. copper. pigs.2 male.232 The Food and Culture around the World – Norway Major Languages Bokmal Norwegian Nynorsk Norwegian Sami (both official) Ethnic Groups Norwegian Other 94% 6% Major Religions Evangelical Lutheran (official) Other Christian Muslim Other. lead. northern country with only small areas of arable land and a short growing season. The UN’s Human Development Index rated Norway as the world’s most livable country. Dependencies: Svalbard. hydropower Industries oil and gas. industrialization. Fish was dried. paper. Fruit and berries were made into preserves. lithium. nickel. wheat. In 1015 the first king of Norway began converting Norwegians to Christianity. Milk was fermented. mainly due to hydroelectric resources. cattle. The government promised to make Norway carbon neutral by 2050. Several kingdoms were united into the kingdom of Norway in the 11th century. fish. It is a leading producer and exporter of crude oil. Neutral during World War I. textiles. mining. timber. Vikings (Norsemen) from the area raided and occupied various parts of Europe. or pickled. an island nature reserve in the South Atlantic south-southwest of the Cape of Good Hope. which kept for months. or made into cheese. coal mining is the main economic activity. food processing. Fish are in good supply from rivers. Norway is a mountainous.6 female Per capita GDP $53. mountains and fjords for sheep and goats. came under Norway’s administration in 1928 and is uninhabited. Renewed interest in traditional foods such as lutefisk has occurred recently. . Some meat was salted and dried. pulp. Wildlife from forests and mountains provides game meat. It has one of the world’s largest merchant marines. mi. Norway’s first ruler.1 Literacy rate 100% Life expectancy 77. Wide fertile valleys in eastern Norway are used for cattle. potatoes. when it became independent. It had rapid economic growth in the new millennium. zinc. chickens. Bouvet Island. metals. Grains were made into thin crisp flatbread. a group of mountainous islands in the Arctic Ocean north of Norway. and oil.000 live births 3. oats.1% Unemployment rate 3. allowed to sour. it was occupied by Germany from 1940 to 1945. so food was preserved for later use. with extensive reserves in the North Sea. salted. chemicals. The diet consists mostly of bread. Norwegians still consume a large variety of preserved foods. with a trade surplus. fishing History Norwegians are of Teutonic origin. In 1994 its voters rejected seeking EU membership. dairy products. goats Natural resources oil. A big change in diet followed the potato’s introduction in the mid-18th century. In 2007 Norway’s strong economy continued. sheep. lakes. now most meals include potato.

Sautéed trout served with sauce of pan drippings and sour cream. Seasonings Dill. semi-hard. with sharp flavor and strong aroma). in contrast to sweet in Denmark. mors kjøttkaker. Dishes Lutefisk (dried salted cod soaked in a lye solution before boiling). rye. currants. beef. cheeses: sour milk ones such as pultost (ripened. shrimp). fruit with cheese. cherries. ham. Boiled potatoes with parsley butter. horseradish. late afternoon. strawberries. apricots. rhubarb. parsley. rhubarb soup. cloves. ginger. unpressed curd cheese with a strong flavor) and gammelost (dark brown. as ancient Norsemen used empty craniums of their enemies for drinking vessels. mushrooms. winter cod. sugared. are always considered to be the best). lima beans. eggs. oats. Sauerkraut with caraway seeds. May fried mackerel. wheat. Roast pork or ham. tea. poultry. caraway seeds. beef patties made by one’s own mother. Seasonal foods September lamb. often flavored with caraway). celery. lamb and mutton. fenaldr (salted. Legumes Split peas (yellow and green). grouse). cabbage. potato breads. buttered. Meat. Meals Three meals a day plus a coffee break at midmorning. cream. whey cheese (mysost). pickled herring (usually served at breakfasts and buffets). Open-faced sandwiches. brown. folded). Fruit Apples. sweet. herring.The Food and Culture around the World – Norway 233 Bread and cereals Barley. sour cream. goat. summer strawberries. and goat cheese (brown. ligonberries. mustard. salmon. syrup. cauliflower. venison. sheep). Vegetables Potatoes. Roast venison with sauce of cream and melted goat cheese. sometimes smoked leg of lamb). for example. Poached salmon. coffee. fruit or rhubarb soup topped with thick cream. Scandinavians say skoal. salted and dried fish (klippfisk). blueberry pancakes. Kjøttkaker (fried patties of minced beef served in a brown sauce. oatmeal or rice porridge. game meat (elk. Cod sliced and boiled in salty water. served at weddings and on Midsummer’s Day (June 24). . fish and seafood (cod. lefser (cooked on a griddle. buttermilk. salt pork. thin. Softboiled or hard-cooked eggs. sour milk. Omelet. which probably derives from skull. fish Chicken. party food Spekemat (assorted cured meat). cloudberries (like blackberries but gold color). pastries. Fats and oils Butter. dried stockfish (tørrfisk). beer. Lobster brushed with melted butter and grilled. blueberries. sausage. When toasting. leavened breads (often rye). cakes. carrots. cinnamon. National dish Rommegrot (sour cream pudding sprinkled with cinnamon and sugar). cookies. waffles. dried. Yellow split pea soup with pancakes. raspberries. goat. marzipan (sweetened almond paste). sour cream. plums. rice. a Scandinavian holiday. Dairy products Milk (cow. root vegetables. Fårikål (mutton and cabbage stew). cucumbers. Bergen fish soup (fish. or after evening meal are usual. hare. tangy. grainy. sugar. mustard. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Snack. whey. Norway lobster. ptarmigan. aquavit (liquor distilled from potatoes or grain. Cucumber salad. pork. Sweets Honey. thin crisp flatbread. rice porridge with sugar and cinnamon. cream. Arctic cloudberries and cream. French (white) bread. egg yolks). for example. trout. sweet). cardamom. onions. margarine. Sour cream is the cream type used most in Norway. lard. Beverages Milk.

limestone. In 1970 the country’s name became Sultanate of Oman. Next. Sri Lankan. alfalfa.4 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 15% Arable land 0. Oman signed a free trade agreement with the United States in 2006. vegetables. Major Languages Arabic (official) English Baluchi Urdu Indian dialects Ethnic Groups Omani Arab Baluchi South Asian (Indian.4 Literacy rate 84. Ottoman Turks ruled the land until the mid-18th century. chickens. other 75% 14% 5% 6% Population density per sq. Influences on food Arab is the dominant influence on the food of Oman. fish. tomatoes. a range of barren mountains. natural gas Industries crude oil production and refining. when forced out by Sultan Ahmad. this land was ruled by Portugal from 1508 to 1648. sheep.000 live births 17. cattle. gas. and an enclave that controls access to the Persian Gulf. a narrow coastal plain. In 2003 the sultan extended voting rights to everyone over 21.1% Agriculture dates. gypsum.000 years.700 km) coastline. bordering the Arabian Sea. when a royal dynasty was established. on the southeast corner of the Arabian Peninsula. 40. Called Muscat and Oman. Arabs migrated here from the 9th century BCE and converted to Islam in the 7th century CE. In 2007 the economy continued to grow due to high oil prices.4% Life expectancy 71. mi. cement.000-mile-long (1. a stony arid plateau. asbestos. copper. marble. In 1970 the sultan was deposed by his son. Western forces used airbases here in wars in Kuwait in 1990 and in Afghanistan in 2001. Ibadi imams ruled until 1154. Other influences include Portuguese rule for over a century and surrounding cultures: Ottoman to the north. By the early 19th century it was a major country in the region. other African 48% 15% 34% 3% Major Religions Islam (official) Ibadhi Muslim Other Muslim Christian Hindu. when the last Ibadi imam was evicted. Pakistani. bananas. a new port and aluminum facility. Religion also influences cuisine in this mostly Muslim country because Muslims do not consume pork or alcohol and fast from sunup to sundown 234 . camels Natural resources oil.O OMAN Sultanate of Oman Geography Oman is in the Middle East. chromium. It has a 1.3 female Per capita GDP $24. the Horn of Africa to the west. goats. Sultans and imams clashed during the 20th century until 1959. controlling much of the Persian and Pakistan coasts and Zanzibar.6 male. who began modernization and led Oman to join the Arab League and the UN in 1971. increased natural gas exports. whose descendants still rule today. Most of the income is from oil. and expansion of transportation and tourism services. copper History This land has been inhabited for at least 10. 76.000 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 71. Bangladeshi). limes. and Iran and India to the east. construction.5% Infant mortality rate per 1.

couscous. figs. fish Chicken. Dates are consumed in large quantities. goat. and rice spiced with baharat.g. fresh herbs. the main drink. olive oil. Eggplant fried or in casserole with tomatoes and sometimes lamb. eggplant. watermelon. Dishes Grilled or roasted lamb pieces. coriander. Meat. mint. and vegetables). honey. nutmeg. A substantial number of expatriates results in the availability of a wide variety of foods. Loomi is used in meat dishes and tea. baharat (a spice mix of black pepper. finely ground beans and usually flavored with cardamom. lamb. pancakes. or balls of ground meat. and onions). fish. beef. eggs. tomato. chicken. sugar. mangoes. Bread and cereals Wheat. Legumes Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). Possible national dish Khouzi (baked whole lamb stuffed with chicken.. parsley. on skewers (kabob mashwi). Fats and oils Sesame seed oil and paste. Salad of cucumber. labneh (strained yogurt). lentils. Sweets Date molasses (dibis). Beverages Coffee. milk. Oman’s long coastline provides fish and prawns. Boiled chickpeas or lentils. poultry. oranges. Small stuffed pancakes (ataif). pita). coriander. Baklava (pastry of filo dough layered with nuts and soaked in honey). Fresh salt pickles. ghee (clarified butter). melon.The Food and Culture around the World – Oman 235 during the month of Ramadan. cardamom. tea. especially during Ramadan. shawerma (rotisserie lamb) served in pita bread. cloves. Steamed couscous. flatbread (e. sesame seed paste (tahini). or honey. . bananas. and paprika). beer. rolls. Fruit Dates. olives. garlic. onions. Coffee. lemons. rice. cream. sesame seeds. limes. saffron. saffron. Tea is usually consumed black and very sweet. and fish. is strongly associated with the renowned Arabian hospitality. served on a bed of rice garnished with almonds and ghee. lamb kabobs. Vegetables Tomatoes. dibis. Seasonings Salt. prawns. often first cooked in oil and often with other ingredients as in pilaf. Dairy products Yogurt (laban). cucumbers. garlic. cumin. mint. cardamom. cassia. filo dough pastry. brandy. a Ramadan specialty. and greens. it is prepared from well-roasted. spinach. Boiled rice. eggs. ghee (clarified butter). Nuts and seeds Almonds. wine. feta cheese. Favorites are lamb. onion. lemon juice. dried Omani limes (loomi). yogurt drinks. Many sweet dishes contain dates. Machbous (prawns cooked with rice. fruit drinks. rice dishes. Street food and snacks Roasted chicken.

609 km) Indus River. wheat.000-mile long (1.000 years.9% Life expectancy 63.7 Literacy rate 54. the first woman to head a modern Islamic state. which became a republic in 1956. and the 1. Arabs invaded in 712 CE and introduced Islam. In 1947 the Islamic majority areas of India became self-governing as Pakistan.8 million remained. sheep Natural resources fish. Influences on food The Indus River and Arabian Sea supply fish and seafood.P PAKISTAN Islamic Republic of Pakistan Geography Pakistan is in southern Asia. 65. Violence occurred in areas bordering Afghanistan in 2005 and as of late 2008. Britain controlled the area from 1857 to 1947. 8. In 2007 she returned from exile and was assassinated. coal. food processing. Pakistan has a fertile valley. she was ousted in 1990. in 2008 most had been repatriated. Northern Pakistan’s Hindu Kush and Himalaya Mountains include the world’s second highest peak. mi. 574. Civil war between East and West Pakistan ended with victory for East Pakistan. Pakistan tested nuclear weapons in 1998. rice.250 ft. Many Afghan refugees fled to Pakistan during the Soviet-Afghan War in the 1980s. bordering the Arabian Sea. Aryan invaders from the northwest captured the region about 1500 BCE. Neighbors Afghanistan. goats. East Pakistan seceded.2 female Per capita GDP $2. chickens. copper. During recent decades Pakistan has clashed with India over the disputed area of Kashmir. plateau. paper products History One of the world’s earliest civilizations flourished in the Indus River valley from 4000 to 2500 BCE. oil. Iran. Sindhi. iron ore.1% Unemployment rate 6. Under the Mogul empire (1526–1857) Muslims ruled most of the area. cattle. Pakistan was part 236 .2% Arable land 24% Agriculture sugarcane. the present-day Pakistan was part of India. in the Indian subcontinent.000 live births 66. other 53% 13% 12% 22% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Shi’a Muslim Other 77% 20% 3% Urban 34.000 miles apart. fruits. In 1988 Pakistan elected Benazir Bhutto.600 Labor force in agriculture 42% Ethnic Groups Punjabi Pashtun Sindhi Balochi. which had a platform of defeating extremism and bringing modernity and democracy. natural gas. A Hindu civilization began that dominated the India-Pakistan subcontinent for 2. but 1. K2 (28. buffalo.9 HIV rate 0. Persians in the 6th century BCE and Alexander the Great ruled here. construction materials. forming Bangladesh in 1971. on opposite sides of India. Siraiki. Major Languages English (both official) Urdu Punjabi.1 male. and especially northern India also influence Pakistan’s cuisine. desert. cotton.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. plains. Al-Qaeda and Taliban activity increased here from 2002 until as of late 2008. salt. West and East Pakistan were nearly 1. Elections in 2008 resulted in victory for the Pakistan People’s Party.611 m). wide-scale rioting followed. limestone Industries textiles and apparel. Pashtu Population density per sq. pharmaceuticals.

To the west. mint. gur (unrefined sugar). cucumbers.. raisins. cardamom. fish Chicken. almonds. Kheer (milk-rice pudding). prepared as fritters. Nuts and seeds Almonds. Dishes Dalia (porridge of cracked whole wheat cooked with milk or water). Fruit Apples. coriander. and raisins). the Sind region’s Indus River and long coastline supply plentiful fish. Silver leaf may garnish special occasion desserts. barley. which is inserted into the dirt around a fire and hand-turned while the meat cooks. buffalo. apricots. Cholay (chickpeas or dried peas cooked with tomatoes and seasonings). e. peas. garlic. In the south. pastoral Baluchistan has korma with plums and spit-roasted meat (sajji): whole lamb or chicken skewered on a pole. meat. Klichri (simmered rice and legumes). Minced and ground meat dishes sometimes with ground legumes. parata (a fried bread sometimes stuffed with vegetable or meat). salt. poppy seeds. sugar. Shami kabob (curried meatballs). Biriani (layered meat and rice with saffron). Specialty desserts Zarda (sweet rice dish with saffron. vegetable oil. steamed. plums. rice dishes. and has rich elaborate dishes. cream. eggs. pistachios. porridge. kewra (screw pine). beef. tandoori fare (naan and spicy chicken roasted on a spit). In the far northeast. carrots. millet. usually with meat or vegetables). saffron. dates. cauliflower. beef stew). mustard greens. Rayta (yogurt with vegetables). butter. Vegetables Cabbage. pomegranates.The Food and Culture around the World – Pakistan 237 of India until 1947. Islam also influences food in this mostly Muslim country. Fats and oils Ghee (clarified butter. curds. papaya. melon. spinach. Rugged North-West Frontier emphasizes meat. corn. oranges. peas. black pepper. Curry (sauce with a blend of spices and sometimes vegetables or meat). Shish kabob (skewered grilled lamb). flat leavened white bread (naan) traditionally baked in a tandoor (clay oven). kabobs (grilled or pan-fried patties or skewered small chunks of meat). tomatoes. Regional specialties Pakistan has varied geography and climate ranging from cold mountains to very hot desert. especially lamb. pistachios. and kofta (fried meatballs). . lentils. grapes. and sweets. walnuts. buffalo). turmeric. mangoes. Bread and cereals Wheat. Baltistan has Balti cookng of its Balti people: food is cooked in a Balti pan (a heavy cast-iron rounded bottom pan with two handles). kabobs. Ras malai (rich cheesecake without a crust). poultry. ginger (ample use of the preceding distinguishes the cuisine). cornmeal bread with mustard greens. sorghum. Beef biryani (beef cubes cooked with rice and spices). ice cream.g. wok-shaped utensil). potatoes. and grain. highly spiced and served with burani (mint yogurt sauce). Nearly all meats are processed according to Islam halal guidelines. dairy foods. betel nut. and foods deep fried in the karhai (cast-iron. rosewater. sugarcane. beans. guavas. fish and shellfish. Ladoos (balls of sweetened besan with nuts). the preferred cooking fat). lamb and mutton. Legumes Chickpeas. aniseed. In the northeast. Dairy products Milk (cow. whole milk yogurt (dahi). rice. cloves. Meat. Islam prohibits consumption of pork or alcohol and requires fasting from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. legumes. Pakistan’s share of the Punjab raises fruit. chili pepper. and is home of chappli kabob (a hot minced meat cake shaped like a sandal). goat. Seasonings Onion. unleavened whole-wheat chapati (circular flatbread cooked on a griddle). Sweets Sugarcane. cashews. Pakistanis eat mostly bread. Chicken tikka (grilled chicken). pine nuts. Chickpea flour (besan) is used for breads and batters for fried foods. Pulao (pilau or pilaf: rice cooked first in oil so that grains remain separate. cinnamon. Basic meat dishes: korma (braised or stewed. cumin. pickles. Halva (wheat flour or semolina pudding sometimes with nuts or vegetables such as carrots). Condiments Chutney (spicy fruit or vegetable relish). rice. and the food is aromatic but not hot with chilies and is scooped up with bread to eat. or curried. panir (cheese).

curry. lassi (diluted yogurt).7 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 4.9% Life expectancy 67. Snacking is hearty and common. marine products. lunch and dinner. gold and other minerals. and adobo (meat stew). flatbread. American influence brought convenience and fast foods such as hamburgers and pizza. with cinnamon or cardamom). soybeans. Inhabitants arrived in successive waves from the Philippines and Polynesia. bread. sharbat (fruit juice). followed at dinner by dessert (usually kheer or carrot halva) and often paan (betel leaf and nut with paste). pastries. salads. Main foods are fish. construction. Meals Two hearty meals a day. cassava. sweet potatoes Natural resources forests. wheat. Bread and cereals Rice. fish. Street food and snacks Meat fritters or patties. traditionally cooked in a stone-lined pit over coals along with other foods. craft items. Spanish control from 1543 to 1899 left Spanish influence here as it did in the Philippines. pickles. sugarcane juice. Fresh fruit is eaten as snacks. chutney. flatbreads. cheese. noodles. cabbages. and coconuts. and tea. meat. mi. 74. Pork is the main meat. noodles. Coconut milk is the usual liquid cooking medium. southeast of the Philippines.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. corn husk–wrapped cornmeal dough. Relationships with the United States from 1944 to the present left some influence. Occupied by American troops in 1944. coconuts. Influences on food Palau is in the Melanesia group of the Pacific Islands. spicy besan batter coated fish or vegetables). corn. fish. Asians brought rice. the islands were under Spanish control until Spain sold them to Germany in 1899. PALAU Republic of Palau Geography Palau is an archipelago of 26 islands (8 permanently inhabited) and 300 islets in the Pacific Ocean. cassava. some animals such as cattle. are typical. and a favorite. Major Languages Palauan English Sonsorolese-Tobian (all are official) Ethnic Groups Palauan (Micronesian/ Malayan/ Melanesian) Filipino Other Asian. fringed with barrier reefs. rice dishes. . other 70% 15% 15% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Modekngei (indigenous) Other 42% 23% 9% 26% Population density per sq. cucumbers.000 live births 13. wheat bread. kabobs. white. cholay. The Spanish brought new food plants. sweet potatoes. deep seabed minerals Industries tourism. Each contains meat. garment making History The original settlers probably arrived from Indonesia as early as 2500 BCE.3 Literacy rate 91.2% Arable land 9% Agriculture eggs. Explored by a Spanish navigator in 1543 CE. They also brought New World foods such as tomatoes. 119.238 The Food and Culture around the World – Palau Beverages Tea (heavily sweetened and boiled with milk. In 2007 Palau agreed to join the United States and Russia in the fight against terrorism. Palau became an autonomous republic in 1981 and an independent country in 1994. they became part of the U. with dinner larger. especially for festive occasions.8 male. or poultry (if affordable).600 Labor force in agriculture 20% Urban 77. copra. and spices). rice. The United States provides financial aid to Palau and maintains a military presence in Palau. and tea.S. It has a mountainous main island and low coral atolls. In 1914 Japan seized them. paella (saffron rice and meati dish). raytas.-administered UN Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 1947. and chili peppers and Mexican dishes such as tamales (steamed. corn.4 female Per capita GDP $7. pakora (fried.

and shredded beef. goat. soy milk. water buffalo). mangoes. taro. lemon. rice. Vegetables Cabbage. goats Natural resources fish. bananas. coffee with milk. mushrooms. guavas. The Panama Canal connects the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean. cucumbers. peanuts.The Food and Culture around the World – Panama 239 Meat. Fats and oils Coconut oil. Whole pig cooked in a pit or spit-roasted. vinegar. or taro root. palm kernels. Taro leaves wrapped around a filling (coconut cream. roasted. bananas. A traditional meal: boiled cassava. sweet potatoes. coffee. interior hills. sweet potatoes. shrimp.8% Infant mortality rate per 1. It has rainforests and fertile land in the east.0% Unemployment rate 9. mahogany forests. or taro root. mi. beef. Meat and vegetables stews. cassava. and the evening meal the largest. pork. immature coconuts. sugar milling . Sweets Sugar. shellfish. poultry. sweet potatoes. chickpeas. white cheese. lime or lemon juice. independent Christian Other.8 Literacy rate 93. cement and other construction materials. litchis. melons. coconut brandy.8 female Per capita GDP $10. Fish and shellfish stewed with vegetables. chickens. copper. chicken. macadamia nuts. none 71% 14% 15% Population density per sq. Meals Two or three meals daily are typical. and cooked greens or seaweed. or taro root. black beans. sweet potato. Major Languages Spanish (official) English Ethnic Groups Mestizo (Amerindian-white) Amerindian-West Indian White Amerindian 70% 14% 10% 6% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant.1% Arable land 7% Agriculture sugarcane. lentils. limes. tamarind. kava (mildly alcoholic drink made from pepper plant). papaya. and mountains in the west. cattle. coconut cream or milk. and chili peppers. sweet rice pudding.4% Life expectancy 74. seaweed. vegetable oil. red beans. tomatoes. corn. Dairy products Evaporated milk (cow. Beverages Coconut juice. 112. lemons. candlenuts (kukui). seaweed). green leaves. ginger. or marinated in lime juice or vinegar. Dishes Boiled cassava. tamarind.4 HIV rate 1. onions. 79.300 Labor force in agriculture 15% Urban 70. then seasoned with coconut cream or onions. Nuts and seeds Cashews. Boiled or steamed greens (taro. fermented fish sauce.000 live births 13.1 male. Seasonings Soy sauce. onions. fish Fish. haupia (firm pudding made from coconut milk with sugar). pineapple. lard. tea. a fish or pork dish. horses. ginger. sweet potatoes. chili pepper. eggs. pigs. salt. spam. Boiled or steamed rice. winged beans. Legumes Soybeans. onions. with the same foods at all. hydropower Industries construction. brewing. or cassava and seasonings) and steamed or cooked in a pit. PANAMA Republic of Panama Geography Panama is Central America’s southernmost country. Fruit Coconut. toddy (fermented coconut palm blossom sap). mung beans. garlic. cocoa.

spinach. with backing by the United States. Dairy products Milk (evaporated). chili peppers. Atole (thickened corn gruel) perhaps with chili. shortening. and drinks. pumpkin. Fats and oils Lard. mangoes. chickpeas. butter. as solid food or in drinks or gruels. Corn was the staple for the Indians when the Spanish came. Mountains. and fertile land allow the production of sugarcane. Staple foods are rice. Influences on food Panama has coasts on the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea. carrots. cilantro. ham. Balboa founded the first successful Spanish settlement in 1510 and crossed the isthmus and discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513. influence while building the Panama Canal early in the 20th century and controlling it for the rest of the century and to international trade and tourism the Canal attracted. Nine years later the effort ended in bankruptcy and the United States paid the French for their rights and costs. rice. gruel. pork. sausage. and livestock. Boiled rice and beans (frijoles con arroz). and it remains so. Nuts and seeds Palm tree nuts. partly by Francis Drake. It declared independence in 1903. Meat. coffee. corn. Panama’s first female president was elected in 1999. In 1878 the Colombian government gave a construction concession to the French Canal Company. breadfruit. roselle fruit (sorrel). oranges. 1999. The Spanish brought cattle and dairy products. indictment of General Manuel Noriega for drug trafficking. or seafood .S. Panamanian fare is more international in flavor than that in most of the region. Spanish colonies were destroyed. Posole (semi-fermented corn dough diluted to make a beverage). Tamales (corn dough stuffed with spicy chicken or pork. cheese. The United States built the canal from 1904 to 1914. squash seeds. kidney. or beans added. The United States returned control of the canal to Panama on Dec. Construction to expand the canal began in 2007. squash seeds. fish Chicken. and other new foods. goat. Soups and stews of meat. cabbage. In 1978 a new treaty provided for Panama’s gradual takeover of the canal and U. corn. bananas. Coconut bread. shrimp. avocados. fish. lettuce. red. chayote squash (green pear-shaped gourd). beets. Rice often fried before boiling or cooked with coconut milk. its jurisdiction was to revert to Panama in 1999. Panama declared independence from Spain and joined Colombia in 1821. pimento. beef. In 1904 Panama granted the United States control of the Canal Zone for $10 million plus additional payment each year. corn bread (tortillas). papaya. troop withdrawal before the end of the century. sweet peppers. wheat bread and rolls. Caribbean island foodways from native Carib-speaking Indians and laborers from Africa and Asia have also influenced food customs on Panama’s Caribbean coast.240 The Food and Culture around the World – Panama History Native Indians inhabited this land when Bastidas sighted it on Columbus’s 1501 voyage. corn. onions.S. pineapple. tomatoes.S. rice dishes. from 1572 to 1595. wrapped in corn husks or banana leaves. Dishes Fried corn tortillas. Milk is not usually drunk as a beverage. coconut.S. garlic. grapes. cream. eggs. and beans. wheat. In 1989–1990 war between Panama and U. Seasonings Onions. and Columbus visited it in 1502. and steamed). passion fruit. 31. potatoes. Vegetables Plantains. cinnamon. troops resulted from U. pigs and lard. poultry. which supply fish and seafood. sour cream. chili. white). Fruit Bananas. due to the U. Some Andean food customs passed into Colombia and then into Panama. Panama Canal In 1524 the King of Spain ordered a survey across the isthmus for building a canal. vanilla. tropical rainforests. chicken. vegetable oils. Bread and cereals Rice. rice. cassava. Legumes Beans (black. a specialty on the Caribbean coast. achiote/annatto (orange-red coloring). to which it ceded the Canal Zone.

Beverages Coffee. Major Languages English (official) Melanesian pidgin Motu 820 indigenous languages Ethnic Groups Melanesian Papuan Negrito Micronesian Polynesian Major Religions Indigenous beliefs Roman Catholic Lutheran Other Christian 34% 27% 20% 19% Population density per sq. or beets. Polynesian. Melanesian. A specialty Sancocho (a stew of beef. sugar (white. Baked bananas. Pickled cabbage. and Negrito tribes were early inhabitants. which Australia captured in World War I and administered until 1949. carrots. mining History Evidence indicates human settlements in Papua New Guinea about 50. palm oil processing. or potatoes. potatoes. coffee. timber.The Food and Culture around the World – Papua New Guinea 241 and plantains or cassava in coconut milk. plywood production. pork. or fish dish. Nogada (praline-like candy). 33. called British New Guinea. Roselle fruit jam and jelly. tomatoes. The British founded the first colony here in 1793. rice. bananas. Dutch New Guinea was annexed to Indonesia in 1969.3 female Per capita GDP $2. rubber. sheep. roselle fruit drinks. chickens. Fried plantains. coconuts. brown). which was transferred to Australia in 1905. The two territories were administered jointly by Australia after 1949 . 68.000 years have been found here. and north of Australia.9 Literacy rate 57. Meals Corn and beans are eaten at every meal by the poor. It occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and about 600 nearby islands. tortillas. copper. Human remains dating back at least 10. and pickled vegetables plus sometimes appetizers and dessert. tea. custard. Sweets Sugarcane. oil. cattle.7 HIV rate 1. beer. fritters. Portuguese explorers sighted the island in 1512 and the Spanish claimed it in 1548. Ice cream. silver. fish Industries copra crushing. Fruit ices. Asian peoples probably entered the country via Indonesia. cocoa.8 male.000 live births 46. goats Natural resources gold. ice cream.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. with cheese or meat added if resources permit. Street food and snacks Candy.5% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 0.000 years ago. in the Melanesia group of the Pacific islands. In 1828 the Dutch took control of the western half of the island as part of the Dutch East Indies. fried plantains. It has thickly forested mountains and tropical coastal lowlands. Custard. Rice is consumed frequently.000 Labor force in agriculture 85% Urban 12. rice pudding. Rice pudding. pigs. Coconut. cakes. mi. and plantains). squash. ham.or rum-flavored cakes and fritters. In 1884 Britain claimed the southern half of the island. breadfruit. PAPUA NEW GUINEA Independent State of Papua New Guinea Geography This country is in the South Pacific Ocean. poultry. sweet potatoes. sausage. chicken. and Germany claimed the northern part. or bread.8% Life expectancy 63. and fish. chocolate.5% Agriculture oil palm fruit. Roasted meat. honey. fruit ices. Typical dinner in wealthier areas: soup. meat. and salad. natural gas. tropical fruit drinks (refrescas). Avocado salad. rum. sugarcane.

or other vegetables. plantains. Immature coconut. taro. Seasonings Coconut cream or milk. Lowland pitpit boiled. noodles. and fruits. Raw fish chunks marinated in lime juice and coconut cream. breadfruit. onions. Legumes Soybeans. onions. yams. and wheat bread. Screw pine fruit is boiled and the red segments scraped off the woody core yielding a thin paste (marita). yams. lemon. Foods of special interest Sago. sweet potatoes. vegetable oil and shortening. sago pancakes and bread. tamarind. seaweed. baked in bamboo sections over an open fire. Sweets Sugar. litchis. kava (alcoholic drink from pepper plant). pigs. sugarcane. and breadfruit. pineapple. cabbage. Asians brought rice. papaya. or plantains. and army mutinies in 2001 and 2002. Influences on food Evidence indicates food gardens were here about 9. macadamia nuts. butter. birds (pigeons). Beverages Coffee. crabs. banana. wheat. cattle. Foods introduced after European contact include tapioca (made from cassava). melons. served with pork. the main meat especially for feasts. and breadfruit. leaf-wrapped puddings of coconut cream and sago.000 years ago. or baked. bush rat). sometimes with greens added. winged beans. Dishes Boiled or roasted sago grub. sweet potato. Pork. coconuts. guavas. Lowland pitpit is unopened buds of a plant related to sugarcane. 1982–1985) regained the office in 2002 and was reelected in 2007. whole fish. banana. Meat. or diced meat and wrapped in leaves and cooked. Fats and oils Coconut oil or cream. Screw pine fruit cut into sections and boiled. coconut juice. spam.242 The Food and Culture around the – World Papua New Guinea and became independent in 1975. yams. palm oil. Nuts and seeds Palm kernels. fish. garlic. breadfruit. peanuts. vegetables. fruit juice. green onions. and perhaps coconut. Pudding made from sago. After migrations of people from southern Asia. salt. Sago flour moist cakes cooked on a griddle over an open fire. Baked bread made with sago. Dairy products Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. seafood. Stir-fried vegetables and/or meat. tea. Coconut milk is the usual liquid cooking medium. cocoa. eggplant. chicken. sago. in the highlands it is mixed with sago. lime or lemon juice. sago. eggs. poultry. candlenuts (kukui). chicken pieces. and sugar. coconut. corned beef. and corn from America arrived later. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. breadfruit. corn. Moist sago flour. Boiled sweet potatoes. Mainstays of the diet are fish and seafood. game (opossum. goat. tamarind. . taro. lemons. peanuts. rice dishes. is traditionally cooked in a stone-lined pit over coals along with other foods. cassava. sesame oil. taro root. many vegetables and fruits. peas. green leaves. by 4000 BCE agriculture had mostly replaced hunting and fishing. roots. wheat bread. bitter melon. limes. Britain. lentils. daikon. Immigrants brought taro. soy sauce. lard. noodles. now a staple and main agricultural crop. coconut milk. and stir-frying. and Australia have controlled or administered the area and left some influence. Sago mixed with fruit. is used to thicken puddings. the country’s first prime minister (1975–1980. soybeans. greens. Insect Large sago grub (beetle larvae). taro leaf–wrapped filling of coconut cream. Germany. breadfruit. The country’s decade-long war over the island of Bougainville with Bougainville independence fighters ended with peace negotiations in 2001. Boiled or steamed rice. arrowroot. taro root and leaves. Foods cooked in a pit: whole pig. The country suffered severe drought in 1997. a killing tsunami in 1998. Fruit Bananas. Michael Somare. and shredded beef all bound in banana leaves. green onions. or fish. sago. ginger. coconut toddy. or yams. Indigenous food crops include sago. sago. pork. mangoes. fish Chicken. steamed. beef. Bread and cereals Rice. Fresh fruit is eaten as snacks. lamb and mutton. Boiled or steamed greens. starch from pith of sago palms. The sweet potato. yam. deer.

Also on the grass plains lives the rhea (Rhea americana). and Uruguay (1865–1870). tobacco. Paraguay has tropical jungle and temperate grassland with fertile plains. then a metal straw is inserted to drink the brew. maté. farming and speaking a common language. poultry. cotton. goats Natural resources hydropower. Quinoa. politics were unstable and military rule predominated until the election of a civilian president in 1993.1% Arable land 7% Agriculture soybeans. beef. Former Catholic bishop Fernando Largo was elected president in 2008. Influences on food In South America straddling the Tropic of Capricorn. 44. lamb and mutton. The dried leaves are used to make tea. Maté tea was drunk in pre-Columbian times and continues to be popular. For example. sausage.3 female Per capita GDP $4. pigs. Mass protests over the depressed economy resulted in a proclaimed state of emergency in 2002.000 live births 25. Paraguay gained independence in 1811. called yerba. Influences include the Guarani Indians. the most common language in Paraguay today. The dried powdered leaves. defeating the candidate of the party in power since 1947. before Europeans arrived. the Spanish brought cattle. The cultivated plant is a shrub. goat. pork. eggs. are traditionally mixed with boiling water in a gourd and steeped. mi. Paraguay lost much of its land to neighbor countries in war with Brazil.6% Unemployment rate 11. is grown. rice. bread especially cornbread. cassava. quinoa. fish Chicken. limestone. beverages. . fish Industries sugar. cold cuts. cattle. Paraguay has grassy lands and fertile plains in the east. Meat. Milk is used in coffee and desserts. usually drunk without sugar. fish. the Paraguay River bisecting the country. vegetables.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. who have retained their culture. Paraguay’s food is hearty ample fare. and the Gran Chaco plain with marshes and scrub trees in the west. sheep. which was settled as a Spanish possession in 1535. Bread and cereals Corn. manganese. corn. corn pudding. guinea pig. After World War II. wheat. the Italians brought pasta. In 1526 and 1529 Cabot explored the area.5 Literacy rate 93.The Food and Culture around the World – Paraguay 243 PARAGUAY Republic of Paraguay Geography Landlocked in central South America.500 Labor force in agriculture 31% Urban 58. not a tree as grows in the wild. rhea.7% Life expectancy 73 male. Dairy products Milk (cow. timber.6 HIV rate 0. On the plains grows maté (Ilex paraguariensis). cement. Large areas were won from Bolivia in the Chaco War (1932–1935). wood products History The Guarani Indians were settled in this region. fruits. pasta. Political instability and rule by three dictators followed for a century. textiles. chickens. Paraguay suffered a financial crisis in the late 1990s. its eggs and flesh are considered delicacies. fresh and aged cheeses. a spinach-like plant with seeds used like wheat. in the holly family native to Paraguay and the country’s most distinctive product and favorite beverage. Argentina. with cassava the main food and emphasis on beef. sugarcane. rice dishes. wheat. evaporated milk. goat). and immigrants. and the Germans added sausage. iron ore. 78. Major Languages Spanish Guarani (both official) Ethnic Groups Mestizo (mixed Spanish and Amerindian) White and Amerindian 95% 5% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Other 90% 6% 4% Population density per sq.

Legumes Soybeans. pudding. high Andes Mountains cover 27% of the land. oranges. cheese. asparagus. olives. peppers. gold. It has an arid coastal strip. 72. greens. grapes. Lunch (usually the main meal): soup. pumpkin. Meals Breakfast: bread and coffee. with peaks over 20. potatoes. Vegetables Cassava.5% Unemployment rate 9.5 HIV rate 0. fruit drinks. eggs. rice. timber. Special occasion dish Sopa Paraguay (bread of cornmeal and cheese. Peanut and chili sauce.9% Life expectancy 68. O-yosopy (beef soup with bell peppers. beans.000 feet (6. which is irrigated and where most people live. plateaus. as well as parts of Colombia. Nuts and seeds Cashews. peanuts. Bolivia. plantains. Boiled or fried potatoes. onions. coconut. natural gas. and Ecuador. clothing. cotton. and dessert. and valleys. or stew. melon. greens.000 live births 29. Beverages Maté. corn. silver. Simmered greens. natural gas Industries mining minerals. coal. textiles. honey. potatoes. salad. papaya. Heavily forested slopes are in the east. oil extraction and refining. topped with Parmesan cheese). and cheese or meat). meat or stew. bordering the Pacific Ocean. coca. guavas. fish. . or pastry. and vermicelli or rice. iron. Fruit Bananas. rice. Andean civilization of 800 years provided the base on which Incas achieved a high level of skill in architecture. food processing History The Inca Empire. pigs. lemons. cashew apples.244 The Food and Culture around the World – Peru Fats and oils Butter. coffee. hydropower. salsas (tomatoes. Chili. chili. sugar.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. phosphate. oil. Afternoon break: maté and fruit. PERU Republic of Peru Geography Peru is in South America. with its capital in Cuzco.6 male. Boiled or fried cassava. Major Languages Spanish (both Quechua official) Aymara Minor Amazonian languages Ethnic Groups Amerindian Mestizo (Amerindian-white) White Other 45% 37% 15% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholicism (official) Roman Catholic Protestant Other 81% 7% 12% Population density per sq. Fresh fruit. grapes. llamas and alpacas. tomatoes. Boiled rice. tomatoes. Dishes Stews (locros) of meat and corn. Chipá-guazu (cake of cassava. Sweet custard.1 Literacy rate 90. beans (black. sandwich. squash.6% urban Arable land 3% Agriculture sugarcane. Seasonings Chili peppers. 59. mangoes. goats Natural resources copper. Boiled beans. sheep. potatoes.800 Labor force in agriculture 9% Urban 71.4 female Per capita GDP $7. onions. potash. or fish. coffee (strong and often with milk). Tapioca made from cassava. olive oil. was established about 1230 CE and covered Peru. kidney). chicken. pineapple.096 m). alfalfa. Grilled meat. oranges. dendê (palm) oil. In the center. Bori-bori (beef soup with cornmeal and cheese dumplings). pumpkin seeds. Dinner: cold cuts. mi. and Argentina. chickens. cattle. and other seasonings). fishing. plantains. sometimes with onions). Sweets Sugarcane.

and olives. Dishes Boiled potatoes or sweet potatoes. resurgent rebel activity. simmered. populated mostly by mestizo with a small minority of Europeans in the capital Lima. where potatoes are eaten at most meals and corn is grown. rabbit. oranges. annatto seeds (achiote). Milk is used in coffee. carrot like). sea bass. Seasonings Aji (chili) pepper. the pig and fat for frying. chili peppers. Crayfish chupe (soup/stew of crayfish with potatoes and cheese or cream). A strong earthquake in 2007 took hundreds of lives and homes. Meat. olive oil. Potatoes are frozen in the cold night air and then dried in the hot sunlight. Conflict between guerrillas and government troops from 1980 to 2000 killed 69. Annatto seeds and a highland herb palillo provide the favored yellow-orange color. peanuts. scallops. rice. fish Chicken. ahipa (jicama). pumpkin. when Simon Bolivar ousted Spanish forces and Peru gained independence. and social structure. although extreme disparities remained between Peru’s wealthy and poor. A scandal about oil and gas contracts led to the cabinet’s resignation in 2008. Peru is large and has regional differences. and potatoes. Ocopa (boiled potatoes topped cheese sauce. The western coastline. who brought cattle and cheese. Beyond is the jungle. garlic. Cuy fried. poultry. and steamed).000 people. onion. wrapped in banana leaves or corn husks. beans. quinoa flour bread. Llapingachos (fried patties of potato with cheese). has foodways from Spain meshed with Inca ingredients. olives. apio (white. Peru lacks large pastoral areas so large cuts of meat are uncommon. Tamales (corn dough with meat or chicken. beef. cocoa. Influences on food Peru has a heritage of the Incas. with mostly pre-Columbian foodways and Quechua spoken more often than Spanish. served with fried eggs in the sierra or with fried bananas on the coast. revolutions were frequent. bananas. aji. Shredded meat or small cuts of meat with rich sauces. chili peppers. cocoa. Chicken simmered. broiled. cilantro. corn. textiles. sweet potatoes. pork. . and aji. beans. onions. coriander. corn atole (gruel). In 2007 the economy continued strong. goat). roasted. which is thinly populated. Locro (potato soup or stew). llama. heated in a spicy sauce of onions. Dairy products Milk (cow. eggs. Peru was conquered in 1532–1533 by Spaniard Francisco Pizarro and was ruled by Spain until 1824. pineapple. home of the Incas. cherries. cream. goat. wheat. Boiled or roasted corn on the cob (choclos). and walnuts. remains predominantly Indian. Peruvian diet staples are potatoes. lard. chili pepper. A sagging economy. vanilla. Salsa de aji (chopped chili peppers. quinoa (plant with seeds of high quality protein. Cuy (guinea pig) is widely available in the mountains. Military coups in the 1960s and 1970s led to military rule for 12 years. banana bread. Food is picante with ample use of chili. Vegetables Potatoes. Fruit Grapes. fish and seafood (shrimp. Nuts and seeds Almonds. fruit drinks. cassava (yucca). chickpeas (garbanzo beans). and cut into cubes. garlic. Fats and oils Butter. The important mining industry experienced protests against low wages and environmental pollution. and puddings. boned. cornmeal and tortilla dishes. combined with slices of boiled potatoes and heated. cheese. chili peppers. corn porridge added to meat fried with onions and chili.The Food and Culture around the World – Peru 245 engineering. Annatto seeds flavor lard or oil and are ground. guinea pig. onions. asparagus. rice dishes. limes. garlic. and salt) is served at most meals. For a century thereafter. raisins. Fried fish and shellfish with sauce of onions and aji. lemons. Tamal en cazuela (tamale casserole). and boiled peanuts or olives and raisins. Pork cubes marinated. finished in orange and lemon juice sauce. In 1980 Peru returned to democratic rule but had economic problems. who depended on corn. lamb and mutton. The U. abalone). Legumes Beans. and rice. annatto oil. aniseed. and peanuts). peanut oil. or stewed with potatoes. and scandals occurred in the period 2003 to 2005. and served on slices of boiled sweet potatoes. and of the Spanish. The Andes Mountains in the center. Cuy and potatoes originated in Peru’s highlands. tortillas. Arroz con mariscos (shellfish and rice cooked in shrimp stock and flavored with fresh coriander). Bread and cereals Rice. crayfish.S. Congress approved the Peru Trade Promotion Agreement. pumpkin seeds. corn. used for flour). walnuts. plantains. tomatoes.

meat dish. then skewered and grilled.400 Labor force in agriculture 35% Urban 62. fish. potatoes. Major Languages Filipino (Tagalog) English 8 major dialects (both official) Ethnic Groups Tagalog Cebuano Ilocano Bisaya/Binisaya Hiligay Ilonggo Other 28% 13% 9% 8% 8% 34% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Muslim Other Christian. nickel. oil. Sweets Sugarcane. They were mostly hunters. and unsettled cultivators. About 95% of the land and population is on the 11 largest islands.8% Arable land 19% Agriculture sugarcane. Meals and service The colonial diet of Spanish Lima and the haciendas was rich and elaborate. honey. Beverages Coffee. and corn in layers of hot stones.g. coconuts. yerba maté. wood products. cattle. forces liberated them in 1944–1945. lemons. copper Industries electronics assembly. beer. salt.100 miles north to south. corn. sheep Natural resources timber. mi. which are mountainous except for the heavily indented coastline and central plain on Luzon. Piqueo. beer. sugar. cocoa. a preliminary buffet. pudding made with milk. PHILIPPINES Republic of the Philippines Geography The Philippines is an archipelago in Southeast Asia.4% Life expectancy 67. between the Philippine Sea and the South China Sea. The Spanish founded Manila in 1571.246 The Food and Culture around the World – Philippines Coastal specialty Ceviche (raw fish or shellfish marinated in citrus juice with olive oil and spices). Japan invaded the islands during World War II and U. cherries. pigs. garments. and sometimes ground walnuts. the islands were possessed by Spain for 350 years. guinea pigs. vanilla. In 1946 independence was achieved. rice.4 Literacy rate 93. soup. 73. colored with purple corn). chemicals. cassava.2 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 7. sugar. Named for King Philip II of Spain.000 live births 21. chicha morada (a drink of chica and fruit. Mazamorra morada (fruit compote with syrup thickened with purple corn). President Ferdinand Marcos ruled . potato dish. 834. pharmaceuticals.S.. Picarones (sweet fritters of pumpkin and sweet potatoes with aniseed). was served before either banquet or pachamanca (feast steamed in a pit oven: typically a young pig or goat. Anticuchos (chunks of beef heart marinated in vinegar with chilies and cilantro.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. Street food and snacks Anticuchos. food History Original inhabitants in ancient times migrated in various waves from the Southeast Asia mainland. ceviche. following the Spanish-American War. chickens. pisco (grape brandy that originated in Peru). and herbs). bananas.8 female Per capita GDP $3. chica (distilled corn liquor). Main (midday) meal courses: entradas (appetizers). cobalt. Andes specialties Charqui (dried strips of llama meat). and sweet dish. buffalo. It consists of over 7. the main island. footwear. pineapple. goats.000 volcanic islands stretching 1. gold. mangoes. Magellan visited these islands in 1521. pineapples. Manjar blanco (blanc mange). chickens. tamales. aromatic leaves. fishers. brown sugar. e.9 male. silver. other 81% 5% 5% 9% Population density per sq. Spain ceded them to the United States for $20 million in 1898. and brushed with chili sauce).

beef. or mung bean. lard. American control from 1898 to 1946 and influence brought convenience and fast foods such as hamburgers and pizza. Spanish. One of the oldest dishes. frying with garlic and onions. peanuts. taro. duck. milky rice gruel). sausage. winged beans. Chinese. it has Spanish-influenced cuisine. The economy benefited substantially from remittances from some 8 million Filipinos working abroad. wheat bread loaf and bun/breakfast bread pan de sal. egg rolls) from about the 11th century. sweet potatoes. pineapple. oranges. cucumbers. in control here for over 350 years. onions. goat). Fruit Coconut. onions. goat. sour. Garlic fried rice topped with bits of meat. Steamed rice. an ethnically homogeneous region that had contact with Malaysian and Polynesian cooking.000 years old. spinach. Ancient rice terraces. mushrooms. and the International Rice Research Institute in Los Baños are located here. adobo (meat stew). The shoreline of the islands. olive oil. fish Chicken. lamb. Viscayan Islands make abundant use of seafood. Mindanao. corn. vegetable oil. Influences on food The Philippines is a melting pot of cuisines. tamarind. and a fried egg. bananas. has Muslim ethnic groups that consume no pork or alcohol. and it has spicy peanut and chili sauces and curries. white cheese (kesong puti). black beans. especially coconut. the latter developed due to sugarcane plantations there. eggs. Heavy fighting occurred in 2007–2008 in southern states between terrorist groups seeking a separate Muslim state and the government. Malaysian. with Indonesian and Malaysian influences. Duck eggs often mixed with other ingredients or salted and colored red. and sweets. rice dishes. in northern Luzon. Sinigang (sour soup/stew made of fish or meat and sour fruits. green onions. Flooding and mudslides from tropical storms in 2004 and typhoons in 2006 and 2008 killed thousands and did much damage. Vegetables and fruits. Traders brought Chinese foods (noodles. There are four regions. mung beans. Bread and cereals Rice. Fats and oils Coconut oil (the Philippines is the world’s largest producer). mandarin.The Food and Culture around the World – Philippines 247 the country from 1965 to 1986. bitter melon. ginger. Lugao (thick. and flooded rice fields. and chili peppers). the many rivers. calamansi (lime-like). and fish/meat and vegetable soup/stews are typical. palm seeds (kaong). and American. 2. seaweed. In 2007 the economy grew and unemployment fell. poultry. Democratic rule followed. desserts. hundreds more died when a ferry capsized during the storm in 2008. wheat. Ginger chicken soup. coconut. Meat. red beans. Malaysians were early inhabitants. vinegar. pomelo. mangoes. lime juice. Polynesian. Mainstays of the diet are rice with fish. soy sauce. lentils. Fried leftover rice. brought foods including wheat bread. Coconut milk. chocolate. and Mexican corn dishes such as tamales. durian. and other vegetables). fish such as grouper (lapu-lapu) and milk fish (banqus). pork. then seasoned with onions. southernmost of the two main islands. limes. Nuts and seeds Cashews. cabbage. in Banaue. seafood (oysters. rice ground into flour and made into cakes. Dishes Except for rice and some fish that are fried or grilled. tomatoes. kinilaw (fish/shellfish marinated in vinegar or lime juice. and ethnically diverse. pumpkin.000 lives and ended with a 1996 treaty providing for development of an autonomous Muslim region on Mindanao. Bicolandia. has spicy food with chili peppers and coconut. Sunday dinner is important in this mostly Christian nation. The Spanish. a dictatorial rule. green beans. canals. curry powder. cream. tomatoes. buffalo (carabao). noodles of rice. are abundant. eggplant. Dairy products Evaporated milk (cow. Luzon is the northernmost and largest group of islands. Seasonings Fermented fish paste (bagoong) and sauce (patis). jackfruit. and salty tastes and spicy food are liked. prawns). Sinampalukan (fish stew made . and commercial farming provide fish and seafood. squash. Vegetables Cassava. papaya. chickpeas. A rebellion of Muslim separatist guerrillas from 1972 claimed more than 120. chili pepper. Legumes Soybeans. wheat. home of the capital Manila. buffalo milk. Cool. ginger. hearts of palm. kamis (cucumber-like). spicy sausage (embutido). and meat are used mostly in desserts. garlic. seaweed. a food is almost never cooked by itself.

Halo-halo (coconut milk. other 97% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other (mostly nonreligious) 90% 10% Population density per sq. 79. Ukrainian. Spicy vegetable/fruit pickles. silver. Lumpia (deep-fried rolls stuffed with chicken. sweet potato. Ukoy (deep-fried shrimp. ukoy. glass. cattle. Snacks Fertilized duck egg with a partially grown chick inside (balut). bordering the Baltic Sea. eggplant. pork. little (south) Poland in 1047. beer. onions. and onions). and sliced). chicken or pork. Beverages Coconut juice. sulfur. anything except rice (which is served at all meals). wheat. Bibingha (moist rice flour cake sprinkled with cheese). served with lumpia and ukoy. Adobo (stew of chicken and pork.200 feet in the south and rivers in the west. or fish and prawns. coal mining. beverages. tea. chickens.248 The Food and Culture around the World – Poland sour with tamarind leaves). oxtails. fried pigskin (sitsaron).4% Arable land 40% Agriculture sugar beets. Bitter melon and cucumber salad with salt. Fruit cooked in syrup. Poland merged with . and simmered in its broth). and vegetable). Pancit (noodles with meat or shrimp in a sauce flavored with soy and garlic). other ingredients. salt. rice. chemicals. eggplant sauce.300 Labor force in agriculture 16. tomato.1% Urban 61. and ground peanut stew). rolled. Pickled pork hocks. Immature coconut. copper. soymilk. and vinegar. potatoes. food. and squash cakes). fried in lard and garlic. and coconut milk steamed in banana leaves or corn husks). lead. cocoa. goats Natural resources fish. Garlic sauce (finely chopped garlic. Puto (fluffy cake of glutinous rice. Tiola sapi (boiled beef curry). marinated in vinegar and garlic. amber Industries machinery. Sweets Sugarcane. braised. Deep-fried sweet potato chips. sugar. POLAND Republic of Poland Geography Poland is in east central Europe. Great (north) Poland was founded in 966. coffee with milk. Goat stew (caldereta).000 live births 6. salt.9 HIV rate 0. and vinegar). fruits. and coconut milk).4 male. natural gas. Deep-fried stuffed crabs. Suman (glutinous rice. green beans. palm sugar. Bucayo (coconut cake). Major Language Polish (official) Ethnic Groups Polish German. sugar. sheep. palm sugar. halo-halo. iron and steel.7 female Per capita GDP $16. sweet potato.1% Unemployment rate 12. pork.5 Literacy rate 99.3% Life expectancy 71. Fiesta dishes Spit-roasted pig (lechon). coconut wine/brandy (tuba/lambanog). sweet fritters. shipbuilding. simmered in marinade. It is primarily lowland plains with the Carpathian Mountains rising to 8. Tsampurado (mush of sweet sticky rice and chocolate). shaved ice). sausage. textiles History Slavic tribes here converted to Christianity in the 10th century. 327. Later both Polands united.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. Morcon (flank steak stuffed with sausage and boiled eggs. coal. Sunday dinner Puchero (beef. Leche flan (custard). and chickpea stew). Kari-kari (beef. pigs. mi. Afternoon mini meal Cakes. the favorite. vegetables. Chicken rellenong (roasted whole boned chicken stuffed with boiled eggs. Stir-fried spinach.

religion. she introduced salad items. and Austria. Stanislaw Agustus Poniatowski. Poland and Russia have appetizers. dumplings. vegetable oil. In the 18th century it was divided among Prussia. losing eastern land to the USSR and gaining about half as much land on the west from Germany. white bread. sausages especially kielbasa (garlic-flavored pork sausage).S. rhubarb. After World War II. still known as wloszczyzna (Italian things). stretching from the Baltic to the Black Sea. sour cream. dark rye loaves. Austrian. lemons. and sweets. Fats and oils Butter. French influence came when the last king of Poland. The Solidarity labor movement in the 1980s achieved political reforms.The Food and Culture around the World – Poland 249 Lithuania in 1386. rye. Hungarian. starting World War I. game. curd cheese. and rivers provide fish and seafood. fresh cream. and honey are main foods. turnips. especially Christmas and Easter. war. Legumes Split peas (green and yellow). Large numbers of Jews came in the 14th century and led to Poland’s having one of the largest Jewish communities in the world and being regarded as the chief source of the Ashkenazi branch of Jewish cookery. apricots. . Butter is the preferred cooking fat. Fruit Apples. pears. forming a nation that was powerful to the 17th century. or fermented (e. berries. beef and veal. beet soup. sour cream). buckwheat cereal. Influences on food Poland changed dramatically in size from the largest country in Europe. barley. lamb. millet. plums. In 1466 it took western and eastern Prussia from the Teutonic Order. beets. pork especially sausage. holidays. Tremo. chestnuts. cauliflower. cabbage. Overrun by Austro-German troops in World War I. its troops were serving in Afghanistan. In 2007 the economy grew and unemployment dropped. dairy products. for example. onions. salt pork. canned. cherries. mushrooms (fresh and dried). antimissile interceptors in Poland. In this predominantly Catholic country. hazelnuts. asparagus. and agreement was reached to deploy U. Vegetables Potatoes. are important and include feasts and holiday foods. In 2008 Poland pulled its troops out of Iraq. lard. caraway seeds. fish Chicken. Later it was influenced by trade routes. cucumbers. who brought French refinements. Pork is the favorite meat. prunes. In early times the Polish diet depended on Poland’s soil and climate. Russia. Poland joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. Bread and cereals Wheat. In 1921 Russia took much of east Poland. buckwheat. fish and seafood (carp. ascended the throne in 1764 and employed a chef. Dairy products Milk. Italian influence came with Princess Bona Sforza of Milan who married Polish King Zygmunt the Old in 1518. bacon. noodles. Poland was reoccupied by Soviet forces in 1945 and was controlled by a Soviet-dominated government from 1947. eggs. The rich dark soil and harsh northern climate yield cereal crops and vegetables. and meat. now it is intermediate between these two extremes. Poland was shifted west. oranges. pastry. and its land eventually reached the Black Sea. food is often preserved as dried.g. and Russian.. to a small area in the 19th and early 20th century. and free elections were held in 1989. Because winters are severe. The Baltic Sea. It sent troops to Iraq in 2003. After 1815 former Polish land came under Russian control. sunflower seeds. Other Influences include German. pork. pike. poppy seeds. herring). Hearty soups. and babka in common. smoked ham. smietana (mixture of sour and fresh cream). Forests furnish abundant game. mushrooms. lakes. pickled. walnuts. pickled vegetables such as sauerkraut (pickled cabbage). Meat. green beans. game. In 1939 Germany and the USSR invaded Poland and divided it. carrots. poultry. Mushrooms have been important since the 10th century when the introduction of Roman Catholic fasts gave them prominence as a meat substitute. Poles like mushrooms. Nuts and seeds Almonds. World War II and consequent scarcities and hardships returned Polish cuisine to its basics: simple and substantial dishes. it was established as an independent nation by the Allies in 1919. and other factors. flaxseed oil. raisins. An austerity program began in 1990.

300. and cool. rainy. a side dish for meat and game. dill. small bites. forests (cork). beer. uranium. Dishes Hearty soups containing cereal and vegetables such as yellow pea soup with barley (grochowka).8 HIV rate 0. Easter painted hard-boiled eggs and babka (rich sweet yeast cake with lemon and orange peel and raisins). Barszcz Wigilijny (beet and mushroom soup). tea. and almonds. often served as a first course) Pickled herring. served with sour cream sauce. with the largest at lunch.250 The Food and Culture around the World – Portugal Seasonings Sour cream. vinegar. chemicals. can be small squares of meringue-like confection). dry.5% Unemployment rate 7. and sour cream). Pierogi (fried or baked small savory or sweet pies often filled with curd cheese). it includes islands in the Atlantic. tomatoes. Meals Three hearty meals a day are common. Pieczony schab (roast pork with applesauce glaze) and pickled spiced plums. lemon. Cheesecake made with curd cheese. Snacking is uncommon. olives. Braised beef with mushrooms. mustard. and warm. shrimp or crayfish. none 85% 7% 8% Population density per sq.6% Infant mortality rate per 1.000 live births 4. raisins. chickens. coffee. Garnish of bread crumbs fried in butter (à la Polonaise). Boiled asparagus or cauliflower à la Polonaise. sheep. mi.7% Arable land 17% Agriculture grapes. horseradish. auto parts manufacturing. Three large rivers flow across the country. Bigos (hunter’s stew). Orzechowy (walnut torte). kvass (sour beer fermented from rye bread or beets). vodka (spirit distilled from rye or potatoes). Sweets Honey. potatoes. grain. pigs. wood and cork. wine. vanilla. Honey cake frosted with chocolate. Major Languages Portuguese Mirandese (both official) Ethnic Groups Portuguese (homogeneous Mediterranean stock) Other 92% 8% Major Religions Roman Catholic Other Christian Other. The south is rolling plains. The central region is plains. chocolate. honey. on the Iberian Peninsula. hydropower Industries textiles.5 female Per capita GDP $21. Beverages Milk. tourism .9% Life expectancy 74. goats Natural resources fish. PORTUGAL Portuguese Republic Geography Portugal occupies the extreme southwest part of Europe. made with a variety of meats and vegetables always including cabbage. paper.7 Literacy rate 94. ship construction and refurbishment. marble. cork. cloves. goldwasser (vodka liqueur with flakes of pure gold). 81. Holiday foods Christmas Eve karp po zydowsku (chilled carp in sweet and sour aspic with raisins and almonds). cattle. Steamed buckwheat. iron ore. footwear. Zakaski (like Russian zakuski. tungsten. Christmas cake (makowiec) shaped like a jelly roll and filled with black poppy seeds. hot chocolate.8 male. hard-boiled eggs. Mazurka (a cake/pastry. ginger. Chloderik (cold soup of beets. Simmered tiny dumplings filled with mushrooms (uszka). Fruit soups. bordering Spain and the Atlantic Ocean. porcelain and ceramics. Jelly doughnuts (paczki). cinnamon. sugar. Honey ginger cookies.700 Labor force in agriculture 10% Urban 57. Northern Portugal is mountainous.

fava and kidney beans. pignolis (pine nuts). pineapple. lamprey). Portugal returned Macao to China on Dec. mint. cabbage. Persia. goat). figs. crusty country breads. rice. received partial autonomy in 1996. chestnuts. received partial autonomy in 1976. 20. From 1932 to 1968 it had an oppressive government led by a virtual dictator. vanilla. Portugal won independence from Moorish Spain in 1143 and became the kingdom of Portugal. hare). lettuce. Bread and cereals Corn. Asia. Generous use of herbs and spices distinguishes the cuisine. such as introducing the tempura technique in Japan and influencing Chinese cooking through its colony Macao. lupine seeds (tremocos). the Portuguese Empire extended to East and West Africa. A new constitution was adopted in 1976. in the Atlantic Ocean northwest of Africa. Indochina. cinnamon. pimentos. Fruit Grapes. Fats and oils Olive oil. kid. Meat. rice dishes. Influences on food The Portuguese have a seafaring tradition dating back to the Phoenician sailors who first touched Iberian shores around 1100 BCE. poultry. raisins. fish Chicken. lupine seeds. corn. mangoes. and many spices. including potatoes. peppers. In 2008 Parliament approved changes in the Portuguese language to reflect the spellings of the hundreds of millions of Portuguese speakers in Brazil and elsewhere. dates. Asia contributed coconuts. Azores Islands These islands. olives. and vanilla. quail. Opposition socialists won a parliamentary majority in 2005. Portugal is a charter member of NATO and a member of the UN. In 1989 Parliament approved replacing the socialist economy with a democratic one. Portugal and neighbor Spain have similar cuisines of simple fare with slow simmered foods. walnuts. cream. Economic and political upheavals followed. nutmeg. In 2007 Parliament enacted a measure to ease abortion restriction and opened the world’s largest photovoltaic generation plant. lentils. sheep. . chocolate. sweet oranges. when German tribes invaded. saffron. New World foods. hazelnuts. Portugal had a leading role in world exploration and colonization from the 15th century on. onion. pork. in the Atlantic Ocean west of Portugal. The Romans conquered the area about 140 BCE and ruled until the 5th century CE. butter. the Portuguese influenced food in other parts of the world. lamb. sweet bread. pimentos. and the Malayan Peninsula. black pepper. Muslims invaded in 711 and left only the northern part of Portugal in Christian control. cornmeal bread (broa). squash. Portuguese navigators reached the Cape of Good Hope and the west coast of India in the 15th century. denationalizing industries. when a revolution overthrew the king and proclaimed a republic. and Africa. tomatoes. coriander (cilantro). peas. Portugal’s long Atlantic coastline and rivers provide fish and shellfish. Influences on Portuguese food include Rome because Portugal was part of the Roman Empire for seven centuries. lemons. Vegetables Potatoes. which dominate the diet. revised in 1982. and America.The Food and Culture around the World – Portugal 251 History Celtic peoples settled the Iberian Peninsula in the 1st millennium BCE. eggs. The Portuguese use some foods and dishes from Africa. pineapple. tomatoes. fish and shellfish (cod. Madeira Islands These islands. kale. the Arabs and being part of Moorish Spain until 1143. cured ham (presunto) a specialty. game (partridge. In turn. Legumes Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). quinces. Dairy products Milk (cow. A conservative was elected president in 2006. parsley. notably Brazil. garlic. By the middle of the 16th century. Brazil. vinegar. Asia. bananas. cheese such as creamy sharp white Serra (mountain cheese). cumin. and the Americas. mangoes. lard. Portugal was a kingdom until 1910. oranges. although the Portuguese use more herbs and spices. wheat. have greatly influenced Portuguese cuisine. cloves. apples. lemon. squash. white beans. and civilian rule returned. dried salt cod (bacalhau). pears. Seasonings Salt. turnips. 1999. Nuts and seeds Almonds. beef and veal. rabbit. chocolate. carrots. bananas. basil. pork sausages (especially garlicflavored chouriço and linguiça). vegetable oil.

port and Madeira. Canja (chicken soup with lemon slices and mint). and post-midnight Mass buffet of finger foods such as fried cod puffs and sausages. Meals Four meals a day is typical: light and mid-morning breakfasts. saffron. Bacalhau dorado (salt cod scrambled with eggs). yams. served in cafés and bars with wine or sherry in late afternoon or evening. Salad of green leaves. Rice pudding (arroz doca). covered. and onions heated in oil. with rice served separately. and little or no flour. rice. parsley. Snacks Tapa (bits of fish or other food on a small round thin piece of bread). and often followed by fruit and cheese. carrots. and supper. Festive occasion dish Cabrito (a roasted whole kid). a fortified wine. beer. Fresh fruit with cheese. Madeira. and avocados. Tea and pastries in the late afternoon. then topped with eggs. Boiled rice. and dessert. Creamed turnip greens. has long been famous for its Madeira wine. Madeira. and vegetables). Prominent foods are tuna. slices of tomato and red onion. Sardines grilled or cooked in tomato sauce. cabbage. and lard boiled together). lunch. Cozida à portuguêsa (boiled meats. boiled potatoes. eggs. Porto pudim flan (baked caramel custard with port). Sweets Honey. Portugal is famous for its sweet rich wines. sherry. Dried figs stuffed with almonds and chocolate (figos recheados). Roast suckling pig. often drunk with dessert. papaya. Special occasion meals After bullfight family supper of codfish cakes or grilled sardines with slices of country bread and wine. Food of Madeira Islands and Azores Islands Portugal includes the islands of Madeira and the Azores. and simmered). and rice). Fried potato slices (batabas). black olives. Marmalata (quince preserves). chickpeas. garnished with black olives and hard-boiled egg slices).) Christmas Eve: dinner of bacalhau (cod) and potato casserole and meringue cookies (suspiros). The Azores has corn. . flavored sodas. cornbread. Fish and shellfish stew (caldeirada). Chocolate mousse. The main meal is lunch. chocolate. Bacalhau à Gomes de Sà (baked casserole of boiled salt cod. and a breakfast specialty açorda d’azedo (cornbread. fish or meat. Peas à portuguêsa (green peas simmered in stock with onions browned in butter. (Bullfights are family events because bullfighters remain on horseback and do not kill the bulls. vegetables. and macaroni). with tea the usual beverage. yeast bread made using eggs and extra sugar. Sopa à portuguêsa (soup of pork. and fruits and vegetables such as mangoes. fried patties of cod with parsley. liqueurs. coriander. coriander. Popular meal eaten out Broiled veal steak topped with two fried eggs. Beverages Coffee. and seafood. Tripe and bean stew. sugar. each often topped with a poached egg. pineapple. garlic. Some national dishes Caldo verde (kale and potato soup). chicken. onions.252 The Food and Culture around the World – Portugal Dishes Codfish cakes (bolinhos de bacalhau). or shellfish. Açordu (a dry soup of bread moistened with oil or vinegar and topped with meat. and mint. fried potatoes. Both have a less varied diet with milder seasoning than the mainland. Cake made with almonds. usually soup or salad. and olives. Broa (baked round loaf of yeast bread made with equal amounts of cornmeal and wheat flour). white beans. tea. wine. port. Ovos moles (egg yolk cooked with sugar). veal. vinegar. and lemon juice. bananas. Bife à portuguêsa (pan-fried with seasonings ham over beef steak). often served with fried potatoes. Boiled cabbage or potatoes. chicken. Broiled split whole quail. and sausage. with bread and red wine. a beautiful Atlantic island with a balmy climate. lettuce. Sweet bread (massa sovada).

rice dishes. A command center for the U. tomatoes.4% Infant mortality rate per 1.Q QATAR State of Qatar Geography Qatar (pronounced KAH-ter) is in the Middle East.5% Arable land 2% Agriculture dates. natural gas. pancakes..900 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 95. The Arab news network Al-Jazeera is based here. Expatriates comprise a substantial proportion of the population. goats. bringing wealth in following decades. pita). vegetables. cantaloupes. camels. Bread and cereals Wheat. 186. 1872 to 1915.000 live births 13. occupying a small peninsula on the west coast of the Persian Gulf and bordering Saudi Arabia. 77 female Per capita GDP $80. sheep. Oil and natural gas revenue provide one of the world’s highest per capita incomes. petrochemicals. and Iran and India to the east. It has been influenced by surrounding cultures. fertilizers. and Qatar National Bank again received the highest possible credit rating from world rating organizations. rice. who do not consume pork or alcohol and fast from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. as well as by Britain. couscous. 253 . chickens. the Horn of Africa to the west. flatbread (e.1 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 1. other melons. In 1971 Qatar declared independence.5 male. In 1999 women first participated as voters and candidates in municipal elections. In 1995 the king’s son deposed him and instituted reforms including democratic elections and woman suffrage. Oil was discovered here in 1939. Buddhist. In 1991 it was a base for air strikes against Iraq in the Persian Gulf War. which provides fish.g. In 1916 Qatar became a British protectorate. commercial ship repair History Bahrain partly ruled this land before Ottoman Turk control. Qatar’s land consists of desert with a coastline. Influences on food Qatar’s food resembles that of neighbors Saudi Arabia and Bahrain. Qatar’s expansion in natural gas production and its high oil revenues continued. In 2007 state-owned Qatar Airways won international awards for superior service. fish Industries crude oil production and refining.2% Life expectancy 73.S. resulting in the availability of a wide variety of foods.-led Iraq invasion is in Qatar. Ottoman to the north. Most people in Qatar are Muslims. none 73% 10% 10% 7% Population density per sq. cattle Natural resources oil. filo dough pastry.8 Literacy rate 90. Major Languages Arabic (official) English (commonly used as a second language) Ethnic Groups Arab Indian Pakistani Iranian Other 40% 18% 18% 10% 14% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Shi’a Muslim Christian (mostly Catholic) Hindu. ammonia. It is mostly a flat desert with limestone ridges and scarce vegetation. mi.

Seasonings Salt. Steamed couscous. onions. nutmeg. bananas. loomi (dried Omani limes). cream. feta cheese. Possible national dish Khouzi (baked whole lamb stuffed with chicken.254 The Food and Culture around the World – Qatar Meat. Baklava (pastry of layers of thin filo dough filled with nuts and honey or flavored syrup). cardamom. limes. saffron. coriander. Fresh salt pickles. cloves. eggplant. oranges. grilled on skewers (kebab mashwi). and rice spiced with baharat. beer. baharat (a spice mix of black pepper. Baked casserole of eggplant. and fish. where vertical spit-roasted lamb pieces are sliced and served in pita bread or roll with tomato. watermelon. ghee (clarified butter). as pieces or ground. . and tahini. milk. figs. goat. Vegetables Tomatoes. Snacks and street food Freshly roasted chicken and lamb kabobs are available from shawerma stalls. fish. Dairy products Yogurt (laban). olives. dates. fruit drinks. and onions). cumin. garlic. fresh herbs. cassia. labneh (strained yogurt). eggs. mint. and olive oil. sesame seeds. wine. honey. chicken. mint. poultry. olive oil. it is prepared from well-roasted. tea. sugar. Sweets Dibis (date molasses). a Ramadan specialty adopted from northern neighbors. Boiled rice. parsley. cucumbers. finely ground beans and usually flavored with cardamom. Tea is usually consumed black and very sweet. Machbous (prawns simmered with rice. served on a bed of rice garnished with almonds and ghee. onion. Coffee. sometimes with lamb. Favorites are lamb. coriander. Cucumber and yogurt salad. sesame seeds ground to make a paste (tahini). Ataif (small stuffed pancakes). Legumes Chickpeas (garbanzo beans). Nuts and seeds Almonds. and paprika). Fats and oils Sesame seed oil and paste (tahini). eggs. shellfish. mangoes. spinach. beef. the main drink. Dishes Lamb. tomato. is strongly associated with the renowned Arabian hospitality. saffron. brandy. Fruit Dates. Boiled chickpeas or lentils. fish Chicken. cantaloupe. garlic. cardamom. lamb. lentils. lemon juice. lemons. and vegetables). parsley. yogurt drinks. camel. onion. Beverages Coffee.

Romania became an independent kingdom in 1881. chickens. Moldova was part of Romania until World War II. Major Languages Romanian (official) Hungarian Romany Population density per sq.1% Unemployment rate 4. the 500-year Ottoman Turk period. In 1944 it joined the Allies. the Transylvanian Alps and plateau. wheat. Bukovina. goats Natural resources oil (reserves declining). Influences on food Influences from Roman rule. Soviet troops occupied Romania. From 1967 to 1989. timber. In 1941 it supported Germany against the USSR. sugar beets. cattle. from 106 to 271 CE. potatoes. organized crime. Industry. The Bulgarian Empire subjected it in the 8th to 10th centuries and brought Eastern Orthodox Christianity.2 Literacy rate 97. textiles and footwear. Much of the added land it ceded to the USSR. and Bessarabia. It comprises the Carpathian Mountains.7 male.7% Ethnic Groups Romanian Hungarian Roma (Gypsy) 90% 7% 3% Major Religions Eastern Orthodox Protestant Roman Catholic 87% 8% 5% Urban 53. and it became a satellite country of the USSR in 1948 and a socialist republic in 1965.7% Infant mortality rate per 1. hydropower. The communist regime was overthrown in 1989. it had troops in Iraq and Afghanistan. sunflower seeds. Many state-owned companies were privatized in 1996. pigs. farms. Hungary. fish Industries electric equipment and machinery. this moderately prosperous country turned into one near starvation.9 female Per capita GDP $11. who sought better financial opportunities and. The principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia united in 1859 and became Romania in 1861. Transylvania. coal. Russia. It joined the Allies during World War I and in 1918 added land. bordering the Black Sea. Rome occupied the Dacian Kingdom. and geography and climate are evident in 255 .R ROMANIA Geography Romania is in southeastern Europe. From the 3rd to the 12th century barbarians overran the population.400 Labor force in agriculture 29. In 2007 it joined the EU and the economy grew and unemployment decreased. 75. Throughout the 1990s. A Western ally. applied for joint Romanian-Moldovan citizenship. and Hungary in 1940. Romania struggled with corruption. and rivers of the Danube system. sheep. taking advantage of Romanian laws. Germany.1% Arable land 39% Agriculture corn.6% Life expectancy 68.000 live births 23. 250. Romania joined NATO in 2004. light machinery. grapes. A new constitution with a multiparty system took effect in 1991. doubling its size. mi. Bulgaria. mining. the Roman province of Dacia. Eastern Orthodox Christianity. A strain on the economy was an influx of hundreds of thousands of Moldovans. iron ore. timber History The earliest known inhabitants merged with invading Proto-Thracians centuries before the Dacian kingdom.7 HIV rate 0. and trying to stabilize the economy. natural gas. salt. auto assembly. plains in the south and east. and cooperatives were state owned.

fish (pike. Most Romanians belong to the Eastern Orthodox Church. sweet. Vegetables Potatoes. and sheep live in the hills and mountains. and bread are common. resembles Italian zabaglione. Bread or rice is eaten at most meals. Transylvania. berries. Seasonings Vinegar. sunflower seeds. Ca¸ caval. sunflower seed oil.g. black pepper. cabbage. A specialty. vegetables (may be potatoes. mamaliga. probably dates from s Roman times. Fish spitroasted. beef. sausages. and eggs. yogurt. moussaka (musaca). Cakes. baked lamb or veal. and beef is the central food in the province of Moldova in northeastern Romania. and tomatoes. which borders on Ukraine.256 The Food and Culture around the World – Romania Romanian cuisine. which has numerous fast days and special food for holidays. aniseed. dill. The premier cheese (telemea). sauerkraut. such as stews and soups. as in knideln (dumplings) and bratwurst (beef or pork frying sausage). white. Fruit Grapes. tea (both heavily sweetened). peppers. The colorful sunflower and poppy crops provide oil and seeds. rice. mamaliga. Custards (e. used in sweets. sliced and served as bread. catfish). Sarmale (stuffed cabbage rolls). Hungarian. pastrama (lamb. cabbage. allspice. . olives. lamb and mutton. Beverages Coffee. is located. poppy seed oil. Soufflés. onions. lettuce. in the mountains in the north in Romania’s largest province. water buffaloes live in the low regions of the Danube. Sunflower seed oil is replacing animal fats. Bucharest. Snacks Mititei. Fruit is important in the diet. and pilaf. tomatoes. grilled. or cauliflower instead of the traditional eggplant and tomatoes). quinces. garlic. olive oil. Cozonac (yeast cake filled with poppy seeds) baked on Good Friday to celebrate the Romanian Orthodox Easter. rose oil. Nuts and seeds Walnuts. satou. sour cream. resembles Italian polenta. Raising cattle is a long tradition. peppers. plums. pistachios. Ciorba (soup of vegetables. The Danube and other rivers provide fish. where the capital. e. Bread and cereals Corn. usually ground. ground meat. pork. wheat breads and cakes. goat. sheep. a hard yellow full-fat cheese from sheep’s milk. practically a national dish. and the national bread. nutmeg. eggs. or goose cured with seasonings and smoked). Meat. and German influences mix in Transylvania. Meals One-dish meals. fish Chicken. pork. Dairy cattle graze in pastures on the plains. wine (red. dry). Dairy products Milk (cow. Sweets Sugar. barley. eggplant.. the Sekels (who had joined the Hungarians in 896) are said to have the true indigenous Hungarian cuisine such as székely gulyás (original Hungarian goulash). sauerkraut. Russia influenced cuisine in northeastern Romania. water buffalo). Turkish influence is reflected in dishes in the Wallachia (southern) region of Romania. from sheep or goat milk. grow in higher areas. wheat. onions.. baklava (baclava in Romania). celery. geese. and wine. Wallachia. beef and veal. duck. pickles. filberts. Romania is famous for its attar of roses (rose oil). hot peppers. Ghiveciu (meat and vegetable stew). Romania is agricultural and grows corn and wheat. In southeastern Transylvania. with beet soup and grain porridge (kasha). eaten hot or cool. Romanian. leeks. cream. Grains and walnut groves grow in the southern lowland region. goat.g. tuica (plum brandy). National dish Musaca (moussaka). or cooked in soup (ciorba de pesta). or fish and then flavored with sour ingredients such as sauerkraut or vinegar). poultry. rice dishes. Mititei (grilled spicy ground beef sausages). Dishes Mamaliga (cornmeal porridge). flavored with sweet wine). German Saxon cookery retains much of its original character. cornmeal porridge and bread. resembles feta but often contains aniseed. Fruits. almonds. cherries. apples. accompanied by grilled or roasted bell peppers marinated in oil (ardei cu untdelemn). cheese (sheep and goat). sweets). and meat. especially Easter. poppy seeds (used on breads. especially grapes. Fats and oils Butter.

4 Literacy rate 99. timber. Chechen. Napoleon invaded in 1812 and after his defeat Russia received most of the grand duchy of Warsaw in 1815.1% Unemployment rate 7.8 HIV rate 1. Armenia. Catherine the Great (1762–1796) continued westernization and expanded Russia to include the Crimea. transportation equipment. Russia has varied topography. In the 11th and 12th centuries independent principalities dominated. Alexander II (1855–1881) extended Russia to the Pacific and into central Asia. In 1547 Ivan the Terrible was the first proclaimed czar. and part of Poland.8% Urban 72. resulting in the formation of the Soviet Union. The USSR fought with the Allies in World War II.000 live births 10. goats Natural resources oil. Ukraine. chickens. which freed itself by 1480. plateaus. low mountain ranges. In the 13th century the Mongols overran the country. ruled from Kiev in the 10th century. Nomadic peoples overran the area from the 8th century BCE to the 6th century CE. including Novgorod in the north. pigs. In 1941 Germany invaded Russia and the 900-day siege of Leningrad (now St. medical and scientific instruments. fish Industries coal. The world’s largest country in land area. metals. natural gas. It sold Alaska to the United States. textiles History Part of the region was inhabited from ancient times by peoples including the Slavs. forests. each 1%) 80% 4% 2% 14% Major Religions Russian Orthodox Other Christian Muslim Other None 53% 5% 8% 8% 6% Population density per sq. construction equipment. defense (including radar. communication equipment. In 1917 the revolution overthrew the czarist. a confederaton of principalities. Russia was defeated in the Crimean War. chemicals. in 1867. tension with the West led to the decades-long .5% Life expectancy 59. and Black Sea. sunflower seed. and other Caucasus areas in the 19th century. with British and U. Rus. coal. it stretches from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean and also borders the Arctic Ocean. minerals. Composed of 21 republics. gas. with all types of climate except tropical.S. Slavic tribes from the west began migrating into the area in the 5th century. 73. cattle. oil. Peter the Great (1682–1725) extended Russia’s boundary to the west.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. fruits. and in 1721 founded the Russian Empire. Caspian Sea. Russia was defeated in the Russo-Japanese War. 21. missiles). desert. The city was not taken.2% Arable land 7% Agriculture grain. Armenian.1 female Per capita GDP $14. After the war. and marshes. Chuvash. Petersburg) lasted to January 1944 and caused a million deaths. Tradition says the Viking Rurik came and founded the first Russian dynasty in Novgorod in 862.The Food and Culture around the World – Russia 257 RUSSIA Russian Federation Geography The Russian Federation occupies most of Eastern Europe and northern Asia. Russia annexed Georgia.2 male. The Romanov dynasty began in 1613. agricultural machinery. Major Languages Russian (official) Many minority languages Ethnic Groups Russian Tatar Ukrainian Other (including Bashkir. including vast plains. sheep. Russia fought against the Central Powers in World War I. The tribes were unified by the spread of Christianity in the 10th and 11th centuries. machine building. mi. potatoes. sugar beets. vegetables. consumer durables. the only principality to escape domination by the Mongols.700 Labor force in agriculture 10. made extensive reforms aimed at westernization. electric power equipment. aid the Russians drove out the German troops.

Most Russians are Orthodox Christians. a vast land with varied climate and geography. peas. oats. In 2000 Vladimir Putin was elected president. was barred from running for a third consecutive term. olive oil. The world economic crisis and a drop in oil prices led to a Russian financial crisis and an emergency rescue plan with the government loaning banks $37 billion in October 2008. cottage cheese. dill. horseradish. fungi. . produces a variety of crops and livestock. vegetable oil. inflation. dill. sheep). swede (or rutabaga. milk. and a severe economic crisis. In the 19th century French chefs came to St. from the Black and Caspian seas. poultry. peas. sour cream. cherries. whereas animal foods (eggs. and horseradish were often eaten. Also. lentils. Russia suspended crude oil delivery to Belarus in 2007 and gas deliveries to Ukraine in 2008. fish. make yogurt. cinnamon. and preserve cabbage in brine resulting in sauerkraut. lard. jam. ham. carrots. Russia’s economy and Putin’s popularity rose in 2007 due to an oil boom. fish Chicken. The Mongols invaded in the 13th century and ruled until 1480. the samovar for brewing tea. ginger. Russia. millet. the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic was renamed Russia. radishes. pastry. Seasonings Sour cream. little meat was eaten until the 19th century. onions. cabbage. Vegetables Potatoes.258 The Food and Culture around the World – Russia Cold War. It was the core of the Soviet Union for most of the 20th century and became the Russian Federation in the early 1990s. green peppers. Dairy products Milk (cow. cheese. sausage (spicy kolbase). Czar Peter the Great in the late 17th and early 18th century brought French and Scandinavian influence on food of the wealthy and the zakuski table (little bites of food usually served with vodka before the meal). onions. walnuts. a usually yellow root vegetable). parsley. lamb and mutton. butter. sour cream (smetana). The Communist Party dominated all areas of national life in the USSR. although now it is a central part of a main meal. rye. After the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. pork. vegetables) on the many fast days. Influences on food Russia was under Mongol rule and then was the czarist empire for centuries. garlic. saffron. hazelnuts. and meat) can be eaten only on the other days. South Ossetia and Abkhazia. turnips. currants. and spices from Asia. president from 2000 to 2008. poppy seeds. mushrooms.S. During the 1990s Russia struggled with economic difficulties: steps toward privatization. preserves. sunflower seeds. Putin was Time magazine’s 2007 Person of the Year. and then recognized the independence of both. they showed the Slavs how to broil meat. Petersburg and Moscow and refined food for the wealthy with dishes such as Bef Stroganov and Sharlotka (Charlotte) and service à la russe (servants serve dishes to seated guests). Fruit Apples. goat. garlic. caviar. they brought tea. parsnips. eggs. beets. Meat. onion. cheese. Russia supported the U. and there are special Easter foods. and kvass (a fermented drink made from rye bread). The 1994 to 1996 Chechnya-Russian war was followed with fighting in 1999 and terrorism incidents. Throughout this history most Russians were peasants with simple food. Putin. buckwheat porridge (kasha). grapes. chestnuts. Mushrooms. Bread and cereals Wheat. caraway seeds. corn. his protégé succeeded him and then made him prime minister. tomatoes. Russia’s land area is more than 76% of the area of the former USSR. hearty soups of vegetables or fish. buckwheat. sour dough yeast breads of rye or rye and wheat with black rye bread most common. Nuts and seeds Almonds. pasta. barley. Fats and oils Sunflower seed oil. The usual diet was rye bread. raisins. In 2008 Russia sent troops to Georgia to support secessionists in two regions. strawberries. Sour taste is liked. kumys (a mildly alcoholic drink). kasha (buckwheat porridge).-led war in Afghanistan in 2001 but not the invasion of Iraq in 2003. plums. pancakes (blini). Russia produces much of the world’s caviar (salted sturgeon eggs). cream. beef. cucumbers. pickles. It is the main producer of buckwheat (seeds of a plant of the rhubarb family). Russia adopted a new constitution in 1993. raspberries. which resembles cereals and is used as husked whole grains and flour. butter. The Russian Orthodox Church allows only Lenten foods (fish. Legumes Beans. sauerkraut. and curd cheese from soured or fermented milk.

Soups: shchi (cabbage).The Food and Culture around the World – Rwanda 259 Dishes Russia’s most renowned dish. and chekchek. small meat or fish pie. A chain of volcanoes and Africa’s highest lake. potatoes. or millet grains simmered in water. poppy seeds. 1. hills. Zakuski (appetizers) Caviar. nuts. Paskha (sweet cheesecake with candied fruits. It is mostly grassy uplands. cucumbers in sour cream. Karisimbi (14. and small round peremech. its capital. turned into a mold lined with sponge cake ladyfingers. Easter foods Kulich (tall cylindrical yeast cake with raisins and nuts and often iced). Beverages Tea.187 ft. Coulibiar (a pie of filling such as fish. Kotlety (fried patty of ground meat. chopped hard-boiled eggs. A Siberian stew (sheep’s stomach filled with milk. and letters XB for Christ is risen). and hospitality centers on the samovar and pastries. Sharlotka (Charlotte russe). Major Languages Kinyarwanda (Bantu) French English Swahili (all are official) Ethnic Groups Hutu (Bantu) Tutsi (Hamitic) Twa (Pygmy) 84% 15% 1% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Adventist Muslim Other 57% 26% 11% 5% 1% . and with sour cream added). and deep valleys. As in Russia. sheep’s blood. Tatarstan and Tatar Cuisine Formerly part of the Soviet Union. cylindrical mold). and green onions. They are known for hearty meat pies: large rectangular belish. Tatar baklava (pekhlewe). made of alternating layers of noodle paste and sweetened nuts. is the northernmost Muslim community. kvass. Kutia (wheat grains.472 m). It lies in the Volga region. important in Russia as early as the Middle Ages. vodka (spirit distilled from potatoes). buckwheat. Stuffed cabbage or green peppers. RWANDA Republic of Rwanda Geography Rwanda is in east-central Africa. and soup. Kisel (berry pudding or puréed fruit such as apple). mixed with simmered onions and mushrooms. and boiled with the meat in a pot). and horseradish are eaten often. Tatarstan is a semi-autonomous state within the Russian Federation. Pirozhki (pirog). as is the Russian pirozhki. and raspberries or other flavoring. pickled herring. onions. Fruit compote. Kazan. and ukha (fish). Baba (rich sweet yeast bread or cake baked in a tal. honey. Rwanda’s highest point is Mt. often topped with onion soup and yogurt. popular at feasts. tied with sheep intestines. dill. fried dough balls bound with honey into a flat loaf. served before dinner with vodka. Bef Stroganov (beef filet strips stir-fried. garlic. molasses. sugar. beer. served with boiled potatoes or macaroni. such as beef or goose. Staples are bread. Roast suckling pig. Sweets Honey. kasha (thick porridge of buckwheat. eaten especially during the week leading up to Lent. borsch (beet). Strong tea is made and diluted with hot water from a samovar (brass urn heated by charcoal inserted in a vertical tube running through the center). made with puffy dough. and moistened bread). 4. Lake Kivu (4. large round gubadia. whipped cream. egg. Blini (buckwheat pancakes). and kasha cooked inside yeast dough). Kazan Tatars prepare many Near Eastern dishes such as pilafs (rice dishes) and kabobs (meat grilled on skewers) using cold-climate ingredients. Hard-boiled eggs dyed red or hand-decorated. a world-famous dish.324 m). and chilled. Other dishes include Tatar samosa. often with onions and mushrooms). a rich filling of gelatin. kasha. Meals Three hearty meals a day are typical. barley. with the largest at lunch.829 ft. and stewed dried fruit). are in the northwest.

methane. The British encouraged Asians to settle in East Africa. Meat. Dairy products Milk. poultry. and tomatoes did influence Rwanda’s food. Their difference was mainly occupational: Hutus were agricultural. Belgian troops occupied it during World War I. took office in 2000. afterward a multiparty democracy was established. not food. sweet potatoes. porridge. In 2003 Rwandans approved a new constitution that instituted a balance of political power between Hutu and Tutsi. bananas. violence in Rwanda and Burundi has increased ethnic differentiation between Hutu and Tutsi. potatoes. beef. The Germans. Insects Locusts. grasshoppers. which followed. left little European influence on food here. fish Chicken. In 1962 Rwanda gained independence. pigs Natural resources gold. the first European colonists here. in spite of abundant game and the tradition of breeding cattle. corn. pork. In 2007 many alleged war criminals were released from prison and the government abolished the death penalty. and the Masai and related people lived on milk products and blood of cattle. goats. a Tutu-led group took over the country and 2 million refugees. and often fried or roasted and eaten as snacks. In 2008 U. A 1933 Belgian requirement was that each person carry an identity card indicating ethnicity. curds. Fats and oils Butter. fish Industries cement. Influences on food Rwanda’s food customs resemble those of East African countries Kenya and Tanzania. and Belgium control. hydropower. eggs. ants. Insects are collected. Cattle were regarded as wealth. Kagama. along with Burundi.9% Arable land 46% Agriculture plantains. The lakes supply fish. worms (madora). chickens. cattle. Afterward. and eggplant. mi. in 1923. potatoes. The Tutsi conquered the Hutu and in the 15th century established a kingdom near Kigali. In 1961 a referendum abolished the monarchy. and gathered greens. sometimes dried for later use. For centuries the Tutsi (an extremely tall people) had dominated the Hutu. In 1994 a militia group and other Hutus slaughtered hundreds of thousands of Tutus. In 1990 Tutsi exiles invaded Rwanda and attempted a coup.8% Unemployment rate 0. These groups spoke the same language.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. onions. peanut oil. The diet contains little meat. president Bush visited Rwanda and President Kagama. Bread and cereals Sorghum. Since independence. a genocidal slaughter. The earliest foreign traders. pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums). cheeses (adaptations of European ones). plastic goods. Tutsi owned cattle. Rwanda has had steady economic growth in recent years. game. lamb. established colonies along the coast of East Africa from about 700 CE and introduced spices. The mandate became a UN trust territory in 1946. Hutu or Tutsi.50 Literacy rate 64. In 1959 civil war ended the Tutsi rule and many Tutsi went into exile. and tilapia and catfish are farmed. sorghum. mostly Hutu. agricultural products. Rwanda’s first Tutsi president. In 1890 it became part of German East Africa. Arabs. palm oil. goat. sheep. rice. leaving influence such as the use of curry. coffee. fled to neighboring countries. under Hutu rule. tungsten ore. Afterward. Others lived on mostly grains.S. millet. The Hutu were well established when the Tutsi came in the 14th century.057. it became a Belgian League of Nations mandate called Rwanda-Urundi. crickets. textiles History Original inhabitants were the Twa. clarified butter. a Pygmy people. game is plentiful and antelope are farmed.000 live births 83. beans. bananas. tin ore. caterpillars (harati). Although animals are protected. The diet is mostly starchy vegetables and legumes. tea.4 HIV rate 2. . European explorers first visited the area in 1854.260 The Food and Culture around the World – Rwanda Population density per sq. pancakes. The introduction of New World foods such as corn.9% Life expectancy 48. the United States has funded military training and control of HIV/AIDS and malaria in Rwanda. the latter an important source of protein. 1.6 male. soap. 51 female Per capita GDP $900 Labor force in agriculture 90% Urban 17. fish. flatbread. the latter a neighbor.

. peppers. onions. rice and coconut pancakes. Plantains boiled in their peel and mashed. mashed to a thick pulp). sesame seeds. and plantains.The Food and Culture around the World – Rwanda 261 Legumes Beans. goat kabob. lentils. cowpeas. Nuts and seeds Cashews. tomatoes. tomatoes. cassava. Dishes Ugali (thick porridge of cornmeal or millet). Plantain soup. lentils. grilled corn cobs. Seasonings Peppers. tea. and fritters. Street food Mandazi (doughnut or fritter). dried baobab leaves. papaya. green leaves. Curried chicken. potatoes. black pepper. Stew of leftover cooked meat. cloves. coconut milk. beer (often home-brewed from corn or millet). corn. Sweets Honey. Beverages Coffee. stew. Irio (boiled beans. pumpkin seeds. sweet potatoes. peanuts (groundnuts). corn. plantain custard. curry powder. tomatoes. and green leaves or other vegetables. Green leaves cooked with peanut paste. peppers. Simmered and mashed beans. Fruit Bananas. coconut. Fish fried or cooked with coconut milk. Vegetables Plantains. and potatoes or cassava.

156 m).1 Literacy rate 97. tropical fruit. 262 .1 male. for example. A volcanic mountain chain dominates the central core of both islands. and cassava bread. 1. Nevis is a single mountain. cattle. clothing. The French settled on Saint Kitts in 1627. with a lake in its forested crater. rice. footwear. chickens. goats. alleged to be in violation of the constitution. they brought cattle. 395. copra. and rice.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. Liamuiga (3. mi. 76 female Per capita GDP $13. The British settled on Saint Kitts in 1623. population 39. Nevis attempted secession in 1998 but lacked the two-thirds majority vote needed. and on Nevis in 1628. cotton. This country is the smallest in the Western Hemisphere (area 101 sq. An Anglo-French rivalry lasted until 1783. Influences also came from African slaves. Influences on food The original inhabitants of the region. a 2-mile (3-km) wide channel. sheep. Saint Kitts’s highest point is Mt. as in the use of spices in pepper pot. The French and British settled the islands and left influences such British salt cod gundy (spread). In 2007 at least four members of the National Assembly were identified as having dual citizenship. Major Language English (official) Ethnic Groups Black Mulatto Indo-Pakistani White. The Spanish explored the region and influenced food customs. the first British colony in the West Indies. yams. when Britain gained control of both islands. southeast of Puerto Rico. separates the islands. mostly disappeared following the Spanish conquest..900 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 32. and from laborers from India. salt.792 ft. coconuts. A drop in prices in the 1980s depressed the economy.817). and tea. The Narrows.8% Life expectancy 70. vegetables.S SAINT KITTS AND NEVIS Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis Geography This country is in the eastern Caribbean Sea. The country became independent in 1983. beverages History Carib Indians inhabited Saint Kitts (formerly Saint Christopher) and Nevis when Columbus reached and named them in 1493. the Arawak and Carib Indians. other 90% 5% 3% 2% Major Religions Anglican Methodist Other Protestant Roman Catholic Other 24% 23% 28% 11% 14% Population density per sq. one-pot soups or stews. Most inhabitants are descendants of African slaves. The traces of information that remain about their food practices indicate that they ate a wide range of fish and seafood. which the government tried to diversify by increasing tourism.3 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate NA Arable land 19% Agriculture sugarcane. as in the use of okra. biscuits. mi. pigs Natural resources fish Industries tourism. pigs.000 live births 14. ringed by coral reefs and beaches.

aged cheese. breadfruit. okra. crabs). or akee. guavas. Meat.The Food and Culture around the World – Saint Lucia 263 Bread and cereals Rice. Fried codfish cakes. lard. Salt cod with avocado. sweet potatoes. Snacks Fresh fruit. cassava. mineral springs. sweet peppers. condensed. Boiled or fried yams. plantains. papaya. corn. coconut oil. squeezed. Boiled rice. soft drinks. lobster. tea. sugar.000 live births 13. Legumes Kidney beans. olive oil. tropical fruits. molasses. cashew nuts. eggs. Rice cooked with beans or peas. malanga). and a tropical climate. Vegetables Yams. Boiled peas or beans. sandy beaches. green leaves (cassava. mi. vegetable oil. annatto. beer. citrus. bananas. goats Natural resources forests. Fats and oils Butter. cocoa. red beans. beef. avocados. pigeon peas. plantains. pumpkin. geothermal potential. Sweets Sugarcane. milk. mangoes. Cornmeal pudding. cream. Fruit Coconut. Stuffed crab. rice dishes. wheat. with wooded mountains running north to south. poultry. Seasonings Salt. onion. Lunch: rice and beans or starchy vegetable and salt cod. annatto seeds. vegetables. root crops.700 Labor force in agriculture 21. 682. and sometimes coconut milk and bits of salt meat or cod). Fish soup.8 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 17. Pumpkin soup. cassava bread (grated. akee. chili peppers. south of Martinique. rum. other 83% 12% 2% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Seventh-Day Adventist Pentecostal Other None 68% 9% 8% 10% 5% Population density per sq. tomatoes. and dried cassava.7% Urban 27. Pepper pot (meat stew containing boiled juice of cassava and ample pepper). lamb. fruit juices. Cornmeal and okra cake. Dinner: like lunch plus meat. Nuts and seeds Almonds. rum. chickpeas (garbanzo beans).6 male. milk. coconut. fertile valleys.1 Literacy rate 90.1% Life expectancy 73. pineapple. Major Languages English (official) French patois Ethnic Groups Black Mixed East Indian White. cattle. Meals Breakfast: coffee with milk and bread. garlic. streams. seasonings. fried cornmeal cakes. Coconut biscuits. cocoa. fried on a griddle). onions. malanga.0% Arable land 6% Agriculture bananas. black pepper. sweetened fruit juice poured over crushed ice. Lucia is an island in the eastern Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean. coffee with milk. and dessert when available. coconuts. cinnamon. chilies. oranges. evaporated). fish . pumice. SAINT LUCIA Geography St. soursop. cassava and wheat flour biscuits and bread. limes. pork. iced tea with lime. goat. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. wheat flour breads. Dishes Callaloo (soup of green leaves cooked with okra. allspice (pimento). cashew apples. chickens. sheep. Fresh fruit. It is of volcanic origin. black-eyed peas. fish and seafood (salt cod. cocoa. 79 female Per capita GDP $10. snapper. pigs. Beverages Coffee often with milk. squash.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. fish Chicken.

fried cornmeal cakes. Seasonings Salt. also salt cod. or akee. green leaves (cassava. Dishes Callaloo (malanga leaves cooked with okra). Legumes Kidney beans. British control for 165 years influenced food customs. Beverages Coffee often with milk. sea eggs also called sea urchins. Soup of crab. cashew nuts. plantains. beverages. soft drinks.6% tuna. Pepper pot (a meat stew containing boiled juice of cassava and highly seasoned with pepper). red beans. The 1999 European Union decision to end its preferential treatment of bananas from former colonies led to efforts to diversify the economy. Lucians are primarily descendants of black African slaves. crabs. raisins. Boiled rice.234 m). sweetened fruit juices poured over crushed ice. rum. beer. annatto. tomatoes. or beans. aged cheese. evaporated). breadfruit. tea with coconut biscuits or bread. cinnamon. coconut. Curried chicken. Soufrière (4. cocoa. plus foods brought to the region by the Spanish. chilies. the chief island. Lime coconut or chocolate mousse. molasses. condensed. other peas. wheat flour bread. biscuits made with wheat flour. rice.264 The Food and Culture around the World – Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Industries clothing. and tea. yams. Fried flying fish with bananas. pineapple. garlic. cassava bread (made from pressed. and grated coconut. Spain and then France explored St. annatto seeds. sea turtles. Codfish fritters. chickpeas. wheat. tea. . They are mountainous and thickly forested.048 ft. Sweets Sugarcane. rice dishes. pork. Rum fruitcake. cream. Cornmeal cake (made with cornmeal. papaya. onions. malanga). eggs. examples include salt cod. cashew apples. Roast pig. fish and seafood (33. Fruit Bananas. pigeon peas. passion fruit. plantains. cassava. avocados. akee. 800 to 1300 CE. cardboard boxes. coconut oil. The French settled it in 1650 and France ceded it to Britain in 1814. rum. km). plantain chips. and cassava bread. breadfruit. iced tea with lime. vegetables. using foods available from the sea and this tropical island. Dinner: like lunch but with more meat. Lucia. Meat. sugar. Vegetables Cassava. soursop. Snacks Fruits. Cornmeal and okra cake. which had switched recognition to China in the mid-1990s. or green turtle. A 2002 storm devastated the banana crop. lobster. sea urchin. stews. seafood. okra. biscuits. Lunch: rice and beans with meat if affordable. Coconut custard pie. wheat flour. French. sweet potatoes. Nuts and seeds Almonds. snapper. meat. or fish. black pepper. Laborers from India also influenced food customs. sweet peppers. frogs). vegetable oil. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. pepper sauce. fruit juices. is dominated by volcano Mt. and British. allspice. goat. curry powder. other citrus. ate fish. reversing the former administration’s decision. lard. north of Trinidad and Tobago. St. Baked snapper. cocoa. Arawak and Carib Indians. Boiled black-eyed peas. In 2007 the government reestablished diplomatic relations with Taiwan. Slaves from Africa also influenced food practices such as in using okra and black-eyed peas. It became independent in 1979. Boiled or fried cassava. malanga. and rum). black-eyed peas. and milk added when available. tourism. electronic components assembly. Rice cooked with beans or peas. for example in using curry powder. mangoes. The Carib Indians replaced them c. yams. SAINT VINCENT AND THE GRENADINES Geography These islands are in the eastern Caribbean Sea. grated cassava fried on a griddle). The Grenadines is a chain of 8 islands and about 600 islets. unrefined sugar. Meals Breakfast: bread and coffee with milk. Influences on food The earliest inhabitants. fruit. Saint Vincent. fish Chicken. poultry. Fats and oils Butter. flying fish. milk. squash. limes. coconut. fruit processing History Arawak Indians first inhabited the island. beef. Bread and cereals Corn. The same foods are used today. area 17 square miles (27 sq. 1. chilies. lamb.

6 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 12. annatto. stews. red beans. crabs. malanga). lard. mangoes.5 Literacy rate 96% Life expectancy 72. pigeon peas. beef. breadfruit. onions. and cassava bread using foods available from the sea and grown locally. the same year Mt. Its sustaining quality is so valued that the men on Saint Vincent have a saying.The Food and Culture around the World – Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Major Languages English (official) French patois Ethnic Groups Black Mixed East Indian Other Population density per sq. flying fish. 788.000 live births 13. In 2007 the prime minister defended the increasing assistance from Cuba and Venezuela. papaya.0% Arable land 18% Agriculture bananas. Fruit Bananas. fried cornbread. In 1999 the European Union decision to end its preferential treatment of bananas from former colonies led to efforts to diversify the economy. cashew fruit. and curry powder. when France ceded them to Britain. biscuits or bread made from wheat flour.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. Portuguese and East Indian laborers. Meat. aged cheese. starch History The Carib Indians inhabited St. Vincent’s Day). causing mass evacuation. The tall tree has spread from Jamaica to virtually all the islands. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. which began to rebound by the 1990s.800 Labor force in agriculture 26% 66% 19% 6% 9% Major Religions Anglican Methodist Roman Catholic Other 47% 28% 13% 12% 265 Urban 45. clothing. 1498. French. Influences on food Carib Indians ate a wide variety of fish and seafood. later. snapper. coconuts. hot pepper sauce. 22 (St. 76. rum. poultry. shrimp. eggs. cassava. sea eggs also called sea urchins. garlic. vegetable oil. mi. pork. pigs. Nuts and seeds Almonds. spices. cassava bread (pressed. black pepper. rice dishes. Bread and cereals Corn. passion fruit. coconut. Dairy products Cow’s milk (fresh. limes. black-eyed peas. chilies. most were deported. squash. chickens. wheat bread. goats. malanga. pineapple. goat. annatto seeds. British. Vincent before Columbus’s arrival there on Jan. Britain and France alternately claimed Saint Vincent and the Grenadines in the 17th and 18th centuries until 1763. chilies. fish Chicken. . cocoa. spices including allspice. cattle Natural resources fish. sheep. lamb. akee. cashew nuts. frogs). The eruption and a 1980 hurricane seriously damaged the banana crop and the economy. grated cassava fried on a griddle). wheat. plantains. Fats and oils Butter. sugarcane. coconut. condensed. tomatoes. hydropower Industries food processing. Seasonings Salt. lobster. For example. slaves from Africa. and laborers from India influenced food practices in this country. “Give me a good working woman and a breadfruit tree and I never need work again. breadfruit trees were brought to the Caribbean area from the South Seas by Englishman captain William Bligh in 1793. green leaves (cassava. coconut oil. Independence was achieved in 1979.” British control for more than two centuries. and others. evaporated). cinnamon. cream. oranges. fish and seafood (salt cod. mango chutney (hot spicy preserves). soursop. The same foods are used today on this tropical island plus foods brought to the region by the Spanish. furniture. okra. cement. pumpkin. cassava. Sugarcane cultivation brought African slaves and. Legumes Kidney beans.3 female Per capita GDP $9. Soufrière erupted. sweet peppers. rice. yams. and many who remained died in volcanic eruptions in 1812 and 1902. starchy roots and tubers. avocados. and grated coconut.4 male. chickpeas. The Caribs revolted in 1795.

In 2007 the economy grew and the UN Economic and Social Council removed Samoa from its list of least developed countries. plantains. rum. Codfish fritters. Stewed shark. mi. Chicken. sugar. Fruit. In 1990 most women gained the right to vote.7% Life expectancy 68. tea with coconut biscuits. beer.400 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 22. Cornmeal and okra cake. Lunch: rice and beans with meat if affordable. cattle Natural resources hardwood forests. Tree-tree cake (fritters of fresh tiny fish).5 female Per capita GDP $5. although the government remained dependent on remittances from some 200. akee. Most cultivation is in the small amount of level land in coastal areas. or chickpea balls. Meals Breakfast: bread and coffee with milk. Samoa is increasing its tourism. Boiled black-eyed peas. plantain chips. or akee. Roast pig. or shrimp curry. yams. unrefined sugar. Beverages Coffee with milk. cocoa. chickens. hydropower Industries food processing. molasses.000 to 40. coffee. pigs. yams. Breadfruit pudding. Fried sweet potatoes. or beans. 191. conflicting interests of the United States. in 1945.266 The Food and Culture around the World – Samoa Dishes Callaloo (malanga leaves cooked with okra). New Zealand received it as a League of Nations mandate in 1920 and. and Germany were settled in a 1899 treaty that recognized U. The main islands. Boiled or grilled lobster. iced tea with lime. Pepper pot (a meat stew containing boiled juice of cassava and pepper). Influences on food Samoa is in the Polynesia group of the Pacific Islands. lamb. Simmered cassava. milk. bananas. Crab soup made with coconut milk. sweetened fruit juices poured over crushed ice. it became a UN Trustee administered by New Zealand. perhaps from Tonga. breadfruit. The small islands are Manono and Apolima. Major Languages Samoan (Polynesian) (both English official) Ethnic Groups Samoan Euronesian (European-Polynesian) 93% 7% Major Religions Congregationalist Roman Catholic Methodist Latter-Day Saints Other 35% 20% 15% 13% 17% Population density per sq. beef. near the International Date Line and about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand. About 30.8 male. building materials. Rice cooked with beans or peas. interest for American Eastern Samoa and German interest for Western Samoa.000 live births 25 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate NA Arable land 21% Agriculture coconuts. It gained independence in 1962. In 1997 the word “western” was dropped from the country’s name. vegetables. tea. Snacks Fruits. Sweets Sugarcane. Western Samoa was a German colony from 1899 to 1914. taro. Cyclones regularly damage the mainly agrarian economy. Coconut pie with meringue. soft drinks. 74. SAMOA (FORMERLY WESTERN SAMOA) Independent State of Samoa Geography Samoa is in the South Pacific Ocean. inhabited the islands of the Samoan archipelago for thousands of years. Boiled rice. are ruggedly mountainous and of volcanic origin.4% Infant mortality rate per 1. goat. Dinner: like lunch but with more meat. plantains. In the late 19th century. fruit juices. Dutch and French traders explored the islands in the 18th century. auto parts History Polynesians. and milk added when available. .S. Savaii and Upolu.000 Samoans living abroad. coffee. fish.000 years ago people from Southeast Asia began to move south to the western Pacific islands and Australia.6 Literacy rate 98. other peas. Britain.

It is in central north Italy. It is considered rude to eat in front of someone without sharing. Fats and oils Coconut oil and cream. breadfruit. Dutch and French traders. arrowroot. cocoa (koko Samoa: ground cacao beans mixed with water). especially for feasts (held nearly every Sunday). coffee. taro leaves wrapped around a filling of coconut cream. in the Apennines. and when coals are hot. ginger. fruit juice. Bread and cereals Rice. and near the Adriatic Sea. on the slopes of Mt. Fruit Coconut. yams. chicken pieces. lemon. Many foods in some Samoa markets are from the United States. litchis. or breadfruit with coconut cream and seasonings. and the food cooks for hours. bread. SAN MARINO Republic of San Marino Geography This tiny country (area 24 sq. lemons. soybeans. Boiled or steamed greens or seaweed. 61 sq. and papaya.The Food and Culture around the World – San Marino 267 and they later migrated to islands further east. Sweets Sugar. Coconut is eaten at every meal: in soup for breakfast. much as cow’s milk. and grated coconut in a sweet biscuit at almost any time. garlic. Beverages Coconut juice. and some animals. spam. vegetable oil and shortening. tamarind. Arrowroot-thickened puddings and other dishes. onions. perhaps from Tonga. fish. The Europeans brought new food plants. who first settled Samoa. Dishes Most dishes are cooked in coconut milk or cream. Asians brought rice. wheat. soy sauce. lime and lemon juice. bananas. Boiled taro root or yams. or hima’a. bitter melon. poultry. Seasonings Coconut cream and milk. Fresh fruit is eaten as snacks or added to dishes. seaweed. taro. squash. Foods cooked in a pit: whole pig.. plantains. Boiled or steamed rice. Cheese-like chunks of fermented coconut. and other leafwrapped mixtures of taro. Ti leaf–wrapped packets of fish steamed or cooked in umu. A delicacy. taro. Titano. lard. and shredded beef and all bound in banana leaves. and Australia. Deep-fried dumplings filled with bananas or pineapple (pani keki). Immature coconut. Coconut milk has many uses. corned beef. the United States. onions. Stewed or roasted fish and shellfish. whole fish. sesame oil. pig and foods such as yams and breadfruit are added and covered with more leaves. and teas. tea. tamarind. Legumes Soybeans. breadfruit. mi. daikon. cabbage. Nuts and seeds Candlenuts (kukui). Meals Typical are two or three meals daily. yams. Papaya and coconut cream soup (supo ‘esi). with the same foods at all. Samoa’s main foods are fish. onions. Haupia (pudding made from coconut milk. fish Chicken. yams. sweet potatoes. fried Samoan caviar (palolo fish eggs). butter. and arrowroot). salt. pork. fish (mullet. and chicken. traditionally cooked in a pit (umu. grated coconut. Pork is the main meat. green onions. coconuts. winged beans. and New Zealand. Dairy products Milk and other dairy products are uncommon. and the evening meal the largest. Meat. eggs. Oka (chunks of raw white fish marinated in lemon juice and coconut cream). or breadfruit for main meals. kava (mildly alcoholic drink made from pepper plant). macadamia nuts. in Samoa). the cream with fruit. km. noodles. Sweet biscuit made with flour. A fire is built on stones lining the pit. melons. lentils. peas. Steamed banana leaf–wrapped packets of fruit. layers of banana leaves or palm fronds are added. green leaves. sweet potatoes. beef. eggplant. pineapple. Britain. yams. shellfish. surrounded by Italy. population 23. pork. Influences on food in Samoa include Polynesians. wheat bread. . Germany. peanuts. palolo eggs “caviar of the South Pacific. guavas. limes. the pit is sealed with dirt.973) is in southern Europe. New Zealand. mangoes. papaya. A kava ceremony often precedes a feast. cassava. others). Vegetables Taro root and leaves. shellfish (giant crabs.” others). sugar. noodles. rice dishes.

Nuts and seeds Almonds. Pickled vegetables. ricotta.4 male. surviving the Renaissance as a selfgoverning city-state. It remained independent. ceramics. Meat. kidney beans. and eggs. lamb. tomatoes. cherries. vinegar. lard. Gorgonzola. Braised veal scallop rolls stuffed with chicken liver.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. black pepper. Green salad. corn. asparagus. banking. olives. onions. Parma ham (proscuitto). pigs. rice dishes. olive oil. and cheeses from Parma. Boiled lasagna. peanuts. Dairy products Milk. It is very densely populated. mi. It has had a treaty of friendship with Italy since 1862. figs. poultry. fish and seafood. whose capital is Bologna. Tortellini (circles of dough stuffed with meat. sheep. and baked. and served with butter. hazelnuts. Fruit Grapes. celery. boiled. cream. This area has robust cuisine and the richest style of cooking in Italy. basil. mozzarella. barley. and sage (involtini alla cacciatora). San Marino is one of the smallest republics in the world and may be the oldest one in Europe. Bread and cereals Wheat. Dishes Boiled pasta served with meat sauce. Fats and oils Butter. onions. potatoes. parsley. Legumes Chickpeas. lasagna). . Polenta (cornmeal porridge). textiles. white wheat bread. oregano. cocoa. garlic. peaches. Marinus. carrots. pork (ham and sausages). and grated cheese). walnuts. celery. corn. By the 12th century it had developed into a commune. Risotto (rice sautéed in butter. margarine.6 female Per capita GDP $34. pork. sprinkled with Parmesan cheese. cement. spinach. lemons. apricots. carrots. It is best known for pasta. Pickled eels. onions. 1. and tomatoes. and butter and grated Parmesan cheese added). Baked chicken breasts topped with proscuitto and cheese slices.3% Arable land 17% Agriculture wheat.268 The Food and Culture around the World – San Marino Major Language Italian (official) Ethnic Groups Sammarinese Italian Major Religion Roman Catholic Population density per sq. proscuitto. provolone. bell peppers. cheese.4 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 3. melon. sausages. electronics. fish Beef and veal. nutmeg. pasta (tortellini. lentils. apples. Fish chowder (brodetto). San Marino is in the southern part of the Italian province Emilia-Romagna. or stew (ragù). then layered with meat and cream sauces.2% Urban 94. wine History San Marino claims to have been founded about 350 CE by St. tangerines.000 live births 5. eggplant. lettuce. eggs. vanilla. white beans. oranges. Bel Paese).100 Labor force in agriculture 0. then simmered with stock.268. In 2007 the economy was reported to be strong. Pickled pig’s foot (zampone).5 Literacy rate 96% Life expectancy 78. and remained an independent republic after the unification of Italy in 1861. grapes. Seasonings Salt. barley. lemon. pears. of pork and beef. corn dishes. rice. sage. Influences on food Italy surrounds this tiny country and influences its food. pignolis (pine nuts). the gastronomic center of northern Italy. Persons born in San Marino remain citizens and can vote no matter where they live. horses Natural resources building stone Industries tourism. lupine seeds. chicken. raisins. Lasagne verdi al forno (like the previous dish except with spinachflavored lasagna noodles). cattle. 85. San Marino joined the UN in 1992. vegetable oil. rolls. cheese (Parmesan. fava beans. Vegetables Olives. and sprinkled with Parmesan cheese. cream.

. hydropower Industries light construction. fish processing.000 live births 38. Fresh fruit and cheese. beans.1% Infant mortality rate per 1. locust beans (carob). Pampeto (a sweet yeast roll with cocoa. coconut oil. Bread and cereals Corn. chilies. Although no oil has been pumped from the country’s waters. sheep. For good governance and stable economy. wheat.7 female Per capita GDP $1.600 Labor force in agriculture subsistence agric. cornbread. using slave labor.The Food and Culture around the World – São Tomé and Príncipe 269 Sweets Honey. cattle. the food is West African with Portuguese influence. the International Monetary Fund offered debt relief in 2008 under its Heavily Indebted Poor Countries initiatives. olive oil. eggs. Portuguese bread. textiles. SÃO TOMÉ AND PRÍNCIPE Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe Geography These tiny volcanic islands are about 125 miles (240 km) off the west coast of central Africa in the Gulf of Guinea. Sugarcane was replaced by the slave trade as a more important economic activity. Fats and oils Palm oil. and most of it has been invested in interest-bearing securities. cocoa. chocolate. Beverages Coffee. peanuts (groundnuts). for example. citrus. . rice dishes. black-eyed peas. potatoes. sugar. cinnamon. soap. Ice cream. Influences on food These islands are off the coast of Equatorial Guinea. papayas. Portugal. tea. In general. wine (Chianti. The islands were a major sugar producer. and chocolate from the New World. and spices from Asia and corn. covered by dense mountainous jungle and large plantations. Coffee and cocoa were introduced in the 19th century and replaced sugar as major crops. Other islands are Pedras Tinhosas and Rolas. bananas. other 80% 10% 8% 2% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant Muslim Other 80% 15% 3% 2% Population density per sq. 533. taro. pigs Natural resources fish. São Tomé. coconuts. goats. goat. Independence came in 1975.9% Life expectancy 66. millions of dollars had been received from investors. beef. fishing Urban 58. fish and shellfish. guinea fowl. chickens. mostly from their possession Brazil.5 Literacy rate 87. tomatoes. This poor country is expected to gain billions of dollars from oil in the Gulf of Guinea. lamb and mutton. a leader in world exploration and colonization from the 15th century. Zabaglione (wine custard). poultry. believed to have been uninhabited. pork. Marsala). Major Language Portuguese (official) Ethnic Groups Black-white mixture Fang Angolan slave descendants Portuguese. lard. is where 95% of the population lives. rice. fish Chicken. millet. butter. Jam.4 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 30% Arable land 8% Agriculture oil palm fruit. during the 17th century. pepper. copra. peanut oil. Legumes Red beans. beer. The Portuguese colonized São Tomé and Príncipe in the 16th century and used them in the slave trade. Dairy products Milk. 69. cream. spices. Príncipe consists of jagged mountains. mi.3 male. The Portuguese brought foods such as sugarcane. porridge. During recent decades the country’s economy depended heavily on international assistance. controlled these islands for five centuries. timber History In 1471 Portuguese navigators visited these islands. almonds. coffee. Cheesecake. Meat. Gorgonzola or Bel Paese. and lemon peel).

Marinated and fried pork. papaya. brown sugar. or okra. bell pepper. Spicy peanut sauce with chili and palm oil served with chicken or meat stew and boiled rice. Stews of ground peanuts. Black-eyed pea fritters. ginger. chilies. Filipino 3%. lemons. and spices. other 84% 10% 3% 3% 26% Population density per sq. wine (ordinary Portuguese. garlic. bell peppers. iron ore. Dishes Porridge of corn. fish . turmeric. bordering the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf. Goat soup. port. chicken. raw onion. Fish stew. Jollof rice (rice first sautéed in oil. or sweet potatoes. barley. plus small amounts of fish. and peppers. millet. then boiled with water or broth. alfalfa. other) 74% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Shi’a Muslim Roman Catholic Hindu. guavas. tomatoes. goats. okra with fermented locust beans). Its oil region is mainly in the east along the Persian Gulf. Accompaniments: hardboiled eggs. gold.9 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 6.g. potatoes.3% Arable land 2% Agriculture wheat. Major Language Arabic (official) Ethnic Groups Saudi Arab Expatriates (Indian 5%. eggplant. or beef. Fréjon (purée of black-eyed peas. Fried plantains. sugar. onion. coconut milk. chicken. then simmered with coconut milk. coconut milk. citrus. tomatoes. 78. 33. It occupies most of the Arabian Peninsula. Prawns browned with onions in oil and butter. dates. formed into scoops to eat stew.. shellfish. shellfish.000 feet in the west and the world’s largest continuous sand desert. Egyptian 3%. mangoes. baobab. root vegetables. Fufu (starchy paste of boiled and mashed yams. Fried cornbread. or of corn flour). and Madeira). copper. tomatoes. cattle. the Rub Al-Khali. onion. Boiled vegetables (e. red chilies. Fish and shrimp salad (simmered fish and shrimp mixed with tomatoes. Yassa (chicken and fish marinated in lemon or lime juice. fish. Sweet porridge. and hot pepper. with chilies.200 Labor force in agriculture 12% Urban 81% Infant mortality rate per 1. Kid stew with chili potatoes. melons. Gari (cassava meal) cooked with eggs. yams. greens. plantains. watermelon seeds (egusi). vegetables. SAUDI ARABIA Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Geography Saudi Arabia is in the Middle East. grilled on a barbecue. cassava. Fruit Bananas. Nuts and seeds Kola nuts. chickens. black pepper. honey. pumpkin.270 The Food and Culture around the World – Saudi Arabia Vegetables Taro. camels Natural resources oil. and vinegar). onions. natural gas. and Madeira wine added before serving. pineapple. oranges. garlic. okra. vanilla.2 female Per capita GDP $23. chili pepper. and meat. Coconut biscuits. sheep. tomatoes. coconut. and herbs. palm oil and/or tomatoes are used to give a red color). Seasonings Cocoa. cassava. Pakistani 4%. Sauce of pounded green leaves. plantains. onions. Steamed paste of black-eyed peas. legumes. and other spices. Fried yams. Sweets Sugarcane.000 live births 11. or cassava. Beverages Coffee. mango seeds. tomatoes. watermelon. Banana or pineapple fritters. mi. oil. limes. and then fried with onions and simmered with the marinade). Bangladeshi 4%. It has mountains up to 9.9 Literacy rate 86% Life expectancy 74 male. cocoa. and sometimes carob or cocoa). Fried fish. tomatoes. cinnamon. sesame seeds.

The British held Saudi lands as a protectorate from 1915 to 1927 and then acknowledged the sovereignty of the Kingdom of the Hejaz and Najd. . Arabian food has been influenced by Islam and by surrounding cultures: Ottoman to the north. and of Islam. Muhammad united the area in the early 7th century and founded Islam in 622 CE. petrochemicals. believed to have originated here. metals. the other half continues to be appointed. Numerous warring tribes and small kingdoms inhabited this land. Bread. Syrian. results in a wide range of foods. Central Arabia came under Turkish rule. revealed to Muhammad by the messenger of God. or North African deserts. God is most great. The two kingdoms were united in 1932 to form the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. the Horn of Africa to the west. It is the home of Islam. Alcohol and public entertainment are restricted. The Koran. The basic diet is milk. Kuwait. fertilizers. even in cooking. in keeping with the previous Saudi system.The Food and Culture around the World – Saudi Arabia 271 Industries oil production and refining. pig meat. the largest country of the region. Oil revenues soared from 2004 to 2008. In 2005. Camels. any animal that has not been purposefully slaughtered for food. yogurt. In the middle of the 18th century it was divided into two principalities. and dates. and Iran and India to the east. goats. fasting is practiced from sunup to sundown. providing investment funding for plans including diversifying the economy and redeveloping Mecca. terrorist attacks on the United States included Saudis among the Al-Qaeda hijackers. Alcohol is forbidden. Influences on food Arabian food is common to Saudi Arabia. plastics. The indigenous Bedouin tribes (desert dwellers) have a basic Bedouin food culture. then heated with a little flour and occasionally coriander or cumin). Suicide bombers who attempted to attack a huge oil and gas facility in 2006 were arrested in 2007. Women have an inferior legal status. small game are thrown on a fire to cook. During the month of Ramadan. Saudi Arabia held its first election. The Islamic religious code is the law of the land. Saudi Arabia. transforming Arabia into a wealthy country that provided free health care and education while not collecting taxes from the people. 2001. lawful. 11. Saudi Arabia is a UN charter member. construction History Saudi Arabia is the homeland of the Arabs. is thin unleavened bread cooked on a metal sheet over the fire. Muhammad’s birthplace. cement. sometimes only camel milk and a few dates. The Sept. including a substantial population of expatriates. reigned until his death in 1953.’ Such meat is halal. any living creature intended as food for human beings must be slaughtered while conscious and after the slaughterer has spoken the words: ‘In the name of God. Meat from a large animal is cooked in a large metal stew pot for a feast. bringing Islam and the Arabic language. and sheep provide meat and milk. the United Arab Emirates. to choose half of the new council members in Riyadh. and samn (butter made from churned milk. founder of the Saudi dynasty. Qatar. various invaders sought to control the Arabian Peninsula and by 1517 the Ottoman Empire dominated. and Yemen. There is no constitution or parliament. Muslims and food Islam is the faith of most Arabs and of nearly 15% of the world’s population. A usual dish is boiled mutton on a bed of wheat or rice. In 2008 the Saudis disclosed a program to retrain Muslim clerics. Since World War II. Samn flavors rice and wheat. Much of Saudi Arabia’s influential religious establishment has supported anti-Americanism and Islamic militancy. His successors conquered the Near East and North Africa. and any food slaughtered in the name of a pagan deity. Women were not allowed to vote. Food presentation and meal format are similar in Lebanon and Syria. and Medina. Relative to these last two prohibitions. Each year more than 2 million Muslims make pilgrimage to Mecca. Bedouin food Bedouins are nomads of the Arabian. Ibn Saud. the staple. One meal a day is usual. although in 1993 the king established a Consultative Council. Bahrain. location of his tomb. has a long coast that supplies fish and prawns. Oil was discovered in 1936 and production began during World War II. praises food as one of God’s gifts to humanity and states that all food is permitted to the faithful with four exceptions: blood. During medieval times. In 1913 Ibn Saud overthrew the Turks. bread. Yogurt is also drained and sun-dried to make a traveler’s food to gnaw or to reconstitute with water. succeeding kings have been his sons. Oman. Important milk products are buttermilk. The large area and population. Saudi Arabia has supported the Palestinian cause in the Middle East and maintained close relations with the United States Saudi Arabia is the home of Islam and contains Islam’s holy cities: Mecca.

sesame oil. vertical spit-roasted lamb pieces. nutmeg. Honey is consumed in large quantities. camel). hazelnuts.. chicken. a casserole of layered flatbread with meat stew. Moussaka (baked eggplant. and later reconstituted with water to use in pita filling or soup). Nuts and seeds Almonds. Loomi.g. especially during Ramadan. the main drink. lemons. ground. chickpeas. sold at stalls (Obeidat and Brittin. Baklava (thin sheets of dough layered with nuts and soaked in flavored syrup. ghee (clarified butter). cardamom. thick. onions. Fats and oils Butter. Ataif (small stuffed pancakes). sweet. olives. and forests. Sweets Dates. and coriander). in pieces or meatballs (kabob mashwi). cheese) are consumed. yogurt (labia). Possible national dish Khouzi (baked whole lamb stuffed with chicken. Mostly fermented products (yogurt. eggs. Tea is usually consumed black and very sweet. is used in meat dishes and sweet tea. 2004). Seasonings Onions. mint. goat. Legumes Fava beans. parsley. Meat. barley. . Roasted chicken. Dates are consumed in large quantities. Dairy products Milk (goat. thin round bread with hollow center). coriander. Machbous (prawns cooked with rice. samn. cracked wheat (bulgur). prawns. poultry. is strongly associated with the renowned Arabian hospitality and is strong. and rice spiced with baharat. Bread and cereals Wheat. fish. mangoes. swamps. vegetables. fresh herbs. feta cheese (white). a festive food. and often flavored with cardamom. pistachios. fish. strained yogurt (labneh). rice. eggs. and olive oil). cow. cassia. tea. eggplant. Dates and dibis are used in many sweet dishes. Lamb cooked on skewers. wheat flatbread (e. Fresh salt pickles. beef. with semi-desert in the north and northeast. Tahini (sesame seed paste) is eaten often and used as a cooking ingredient and in a sweet dessert paste halvah. lentils. melons. flatbread. yogurt. dates. spinach. turmeric. sheep. Snacks and fast food Shawerma. dibis (date molasses). onions. chicken. Falafel (fried small balls of ground chickpeas or fava beans). onions. Juice of unripe lemons (verjuice) is used to provide sour taste to dishes. A whole roasted lamb or sheep. and jungles in the southwest. Hummus (cooked puréed chickpeas). Beverages Coffee. Tabouli (salad of fresh vegetables. saffron or turmeric may be added. oranges. sesame seed. Vegetables Tomatoes. bananas. olive oil. Favorites are lamb. often cut into diamond shapes). fish Lamb and mutton. Dishes Pilaf (rice sautéed in butter or oil in which chopped onions have been browned. sliced thin and served in pita bread. legumes. Tharid. dried.272 The Food and Culture around the World – Senegal Main foods Lamb. and vegetables). fresh herbs (parsley. rice dishes. tomato. baharat (a mixture of black pepper. reputedly Muhammad’s favorite dish. and onions). Fruit Dates. limes. honey. dried Omani limes. Kish’ka (an Arab specialty of bulgur and yogurt. Simmered vegetables or legumes. and wheat kernels). saffron. rice. cloves. and rice is steamed). pita. pomegranates. Low rolling plains cover most of the land. SENEGAL Republic of Senegal Geography Senegal is the westernmost country in Africa and borders the Atlantic Ocean. cumin. pine nuts. saffron. and paprika). mint. served on rice and garnished with almonds and ghee. cucumbers. cardamom. Coffee. then broth is added. a Ramadan specialty adopted from northern neighbors. walnuts.

Native African foods included watermelon. The Atlantic Ocean and rivers provide fish. taro. ‘Bush meat’ (such as antelope. and potato greatly influenced food customs. Fats and oils Palm oil. peanuts. Senegambia. In the 15th century Portuguese settlers arrived. The diet of most people is starchy vegetables. peanuts. curds. Meat. 173. cheese. The first French settlement was in 1659. In 2007 Senegal increased its number of troops in the African Union peacekeeping force in the Darfur region of the Sudan. cattle. French control grew from the 17th century. shea oil. lamb and mutton. red beans. Independence came in 1960. Influences on food Portuguese influence came with settlers in the 15th century.4 Literacy rate 42. corn. goats. In 1982 Senegal and Gambia joined to form a confederation.7 male. Insects Termites (often called white ants).000 live births 58. iron ore Industries agriculture and fish processing. the predominant cooking fat. whey. In 2002 a state-owned ferry sank and at least 1. French bread. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). or dried). locusts. sweet potatoes.700 Labor force in agriculture 77.863 passengers died. corn. French political and economic influence has remained strong. pumpkin. Palm oil. sorghum. phosphates. Spicy. rice. chickens. and okra. bell peppers. Most people are Muslims and do not eat pork. A peace accord was signed with separatists in southern Senegal in 2004 seeking to end a 22-year-old insurgency. green leaves. fish Chicken. Animals are herded in the semi-desert area in the north and are eventually eaten. phosphate mining. early inhabitants. The French gained possession of the area in 1840 and made it part of French West Africa in 1895. chili peppers. oil refining History The peoples of Senegal and North Africa had established links in the 10th century CE. salted. melokhia (crain crain). rabbits. Insects are sometimes dried and usually roasted or fried. pigs Natural resources fish. black-eyed peas. buttermilk. Vegetables Tomatoes.5 female Per capita GDP $1. eggplant (green). . tomato. sour milk. goat. The Toucouleur people. 58. guinea fowl. okra. mi. corn. sticky foods are liked. peanut oil. beef. pumpkin. fertilizer production. he was reelected in 2007.9 HIV rate 1% Unemployment rate 40% Arable land 13% Agriculture sugarcane. Chicken is popular and prestigious. coconut oil. yams. bitter leaf.6% Life expectancy 55. rice. The introduction of New World foods such as cassava. pork. and gold from Senegal. is red. sheep. millet. locust beans (carob).5% Ethnic Groups Wolof Pular Serer Mandinka Other 43% 24% 15% 10% 8% Major Religions Sunni Muslim Shi’a Muslim Christian (mostly Roman Catholic) Indigenous beliefs 89% 5% 5% 1% 273 Urban 41. rice dishes. seafood. sorghum. converted to Islam in the 11th century. plantains. onions.The Food and Culture around the World – Senegal Major Languages French (official) Wolof Pular Jola Mandinka Population density per sq. ivory. Bread and cereals Millet.6% Infant mortality rate per 1. black-eyed peas (a variety of cowpeas). and greens. Forty years of Socialist Party rule ended with the election of a Democratic Party leader as president in 2000. Dakar became the capital. poultry. wheat. chili pepper. cotton. ducks. cucumbers. wild pig). Senegal has been a bridge between the Islamic and black African worlds. tomatoes. potatoes. thick. legumes. Dairy products Milk. In 2001 a new constitution granted women equal property rights with men. Throughout the 17th and 18th centuries Europeans exported slaves. fish (fresh. smoked. cassava. which was dissolved in 1898. French influence grew from the 17th century and remains strong. green vegetables. eggs.

sugar beets. okra. Fufu (a paste of boiled and pounded starchy vegetables or corn flour). with the men served first.9 HIV rate 0. Meals and service Two meals a day. sunflowers.400 Labor force in agriculture 30% Urban 51. “African nutmeg. Sweets Sugarcane. plantain chips. Gari (roasted cassava meal). and spices plus tomatoes or palm oil). kola nuts (contain caffeine. fertile Danube Plain drained by the Danube River in the north. wheat. hot red chili peppers. or beef. and chunks are dipped in a sauce and eaten by hand. tomatoes. limestone. guavas. pineapple. thyme. fried fish. pigs. Nuts and seeds Cashews. Seasonings Salt. chicken. Yassa (chicken. futu. or eggplant). mi. 297. coconut milk. It has mountains in the southeast and limestone basins in the east. Beverages Beer. zinc. grilled. sweet porridge. and perhaps potatoes. It is part of the rich. baobab. baobab seeds. pyrite. dried baobab leaves. These thicken and flavor sauces and stews. Fish and meat stew (e.” ginger. ginger beer. or chep-bu-jen (fish and rice). it is formed into bite-size scoops to eat stew. gold. a stew with twice as much meat as dried fish). chicken. and simmered in the marinade). vanilla.g. extract was used in original Coca-Cola recipe). onions.. or fish marinated in lemon juice. fried with onions and chilies. Major Languages Serbian (official) Hungarian Ethnic Groups Serb Hungarian Romany Other 83% 4% 1% 12% Major Religions Orthodox Roman Catholic Muslim Protestant. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried. Jollof rice (rice and bits of meat. limes. gas. Possibly the best-known African dish outside of Africa. bananas. Fried dough balls. fish . cocoa. Grilled or roasted fish.4% (including Montenegro) Life expectancy 72. 78. Kanya (peanut candy). mint. akee apples. copper. Vanilla custard. mango seeds. or mixtures of them. SERBIA Republic of Serbia Geography Serbia is in southeast Europe on the Balkan Peninsula. Fréjon (pea or bean purée. Palaver sauce (pounded green leaves). and sometimes carob or cocoa). Baked chicken. tomatoes. Peanut stew (peanuts. and the women served last. Adalu (simmered and mashed vegetables).000 live births 11. or fish. National dish Thieboudienne.9% Arable land NA Agriculture corn. honey. beans. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. Steamed rice balls. Stews of okra or root vegetables with bits of fish. meat. olives. sugar. Gari foto (gari cooked with scrambled eggs). shawerma (rotisserie lamb). mangoes. chickens. usually served with vegetables.7 male. papaya. tobacco. bissap rouge (sweet drink made from hibiscus). one late morning and one evening. vegetables. chilies. then the girls. and perhaps meat. Service is family style or more formal.1% Unemployment rate 20. lemons. sesame seeds.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. marble. Baked bananas. antimony. Boiled rice. coal. egusi (watermelon seeds). and peanut sauce. cattle.274 The Food and Culture around the World – Serbia Fruit Coconut. goats Natural resources oil. herbs. other 85% 6% 3% 6% Population density per sq. sweet mint tea. is typical. watermelon. then the boys. Peanut sauce.1 female Per capita GDP $10.8 Literacy rate 96. sheep. tomatoes.

Most meals include bread. the province north of Belgrade. Serbian cheese and egg pie (gibanjica). dill. poultry. Montenegro voted to separate from Serbia and Serbia declared independence in 2006. dumplings. fava beans. parsley. which was renamed Serbia and Montenegro in 2003. round bread with pocket). The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was established in 1945. and fresh-water fish. paprika. plums. wheat flour pasta. pistachios. Macedonia. paper and pulp History Serbia had been a Turkish principality from 1389 until it became an independent kingdom in 1878. pies. Boiled rice. lemons. and Slovenes. a province in southern Serbia. The many Christians frequently eat pork. mint. vegetable oils. Special occasion food Serbian Krsna Slava (Patron Saint’s Day) Krsni kolac (ritual bread decorated with the religious Serbian emblem and other designs made in dough). beef and veal. Dumplings and pies filled with meat. and filo dough (paper-thin pastry). and tomato sauce). olive oil. other Slavs. . leavened wheat bread. The Kingdom of the Serbs. and Slovaks. its independence was recognized by the United States and most European countries but not by Serbia and Russia. Dishes Soups often with legumes as important ingredients. In 1998–1999 Serbia repressed and expulsed ethnic populations in Kosovo. It included the republics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Legumes Chickpeas. After a 10-year civil war. black beans. goat.The Food and Culture around the World – Serbia 275 Industries sugar. Montenegro. Fruit Apples. beef. Serbia. yogurt. oregano. Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008. cucumbers. Ethnic violence continued. tomatoes. Veal stew with paprika. Germany invaded Yugoslavia in 1941. margarine. berries. Bread and cereals Corn. cardamom. Romanians. especially in Hungarian. Meat and vegetable casseroles such as moussaka (baked minced lamb. peaches. nuts. Fruit juice is important. wheat. eggs. cherries. fish. Settled by Serbs. lamb and mutton. This country was named Yugoslavia in 1929 and divided into regions without regard to ethnic boundaries. fish Chicken. sesame seeds. shares a border with Hungary and Romania and supplies grain. rice dishes. and Slovenia. Cabbage stuffed with meat or rice. eggplant. Usual foods are kajmak (clotted cream). Meat. Croats. and Vojvodina) was created after Austria-Hungary collapsed at the end of World War I. sour cream. and Turkey. goat). Dairy products Milk (cow. Hungarians. cream. sheep. Croatia and Slovenia declared independence in 1991. lentils. Byzantium. onions. Fried fish. Herzegovina. offered with water and Serbian (Turkish) coffee to the afternoon visitor. yogurts (from cow’s milk and luxury c kiselo mleko from sheep’s milk). eggs. Vegetables Potatoes. Vojvodina. sauerkraut. Croatia. Dalmatia. Seasonings Garlic.or Viennese-like cakes and pastries. and Slovenes (formerly the provinces of Croatia. Neighboring Balkan countries have also influenced food here. sausage. poppy seeds. electrical and commercial and transportation equipment. Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence in 1991–1992. white beans. agricultural machinery. pears. Bosnia. buttermilk. Nuts and seeds Almonds. pork. pepper. porridge. grapes. Steamed wheat kernels. Wheat or cornmeal porridge. Croats. or fruit. cheese. cinnamon. Influences on food Serbian cuisine is based on Slavic traditions with influences during centuries of domination by Rome. vegetables. cabbage. olives. onions. it has varied cuisine with Central European influence. lemon juice. ham. it broke up in the 1990s. and slatko (syrupy fruit conserve). cheese. Muslims do not consume pork. rice. Yugoslavia was formed in 1918 from Montenegro and the Kingdom of Serbs. Fats and oils Butter. mushrooms. Slovenia. sir and kaˇkavalj (sheep’s milk cheeses). eggplant. It annexed Old Serbia and Macedonia in 1913 after the Balkan wars. In 2004 ethnic violence erupted again in Kosovo. pork. walnuts. In 1992 Serbia and Montenegro proclaimed the new Republic of Yugoslavia (containing roughly 45% of the population and 40% of the area of its predecessor). pita bread (thin. sugar.

78. tea (sweet). Influences on food in Seychelles include African.9% Infant mortality rate per 1. Influences on food A group of islands in the Indian Ocean east of the African mainland and near the equator. one of the strongest in Africa. wine. rope. small kabobs. British. French. SEYCHELLES Republic of Seychelles Geography Seychelles is a group of 86 islands in the Indian Ocean northeast of Madagascar. Slatko (fruit cooked in heavy syrup). Fruit compote. pigs. wine. starchy vegetables. often flavored with cardamom. including one with China that cancelled a debt and pledged United States $12 million in aid. and frequent snacking is typical. Meals Three meals a day. In 2007 Seychelles continued efforts to strengthen its economy. vanilla. Seychelles. Baklava (baked pastry of filo dough layered with nut filling. wheat. They were ruled as part of Mauritius until 1903. They gained independence in 1976. plum brandy (sljivovica).000. cattle Natural resources fish.4 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 2. bananas. butter. adopted a new constitution in 1993 that provided for a multiparty state. tea. and tropical fruits. Indian. by making foreign trade agreements. cinnamon. Bread and cereals Rice. and egg filling). sugar. other Major Religions Roman Catholic Anglican Other Christian Other 82% 6% 5% 7% 93% 7% Population density per sq. The Balkans are well known for their wines and distilled spirits. Malay. 468. tourism. Seychelles has a diet based on seafood plus rice. French. the other half are of granite and are mountainous.3 male. mi. ice cream. vegetable salads. Snacks Pastries. cassava. Indian. made in a long-handled metal briki). rice dishes.2 Literacy rate 91.6% Arable land 2% Agriculture coconuts. meat balls (kofta).276 The Food and Culture around the World – Seychelles Sweets Honey.600 Labor force in agriculture 3% Urban 52. Chinese.000 live births 14. To gain revenue. breadfruit. a one-party socialist state since 1979. and ground nuts). with the main meal at midday. and Chinese. African. Fruit preserves. Major Languages English (both Creole official) French Ethnic Groups Seychellois Creole (mixed French. in 1996 the government initiated a program whereby foreigners can obtain a Seychelles passport for $25. copra. coconut. Potica (sweet yeast bread rolled in walnut. soaked in flavored syrup). Arab) British. coconut and vanilla processing. boat building History The islands were uninhabited when the British first visited in 1609. when they became a separate colony. About half of the islands are of coral. coffee. Fruitfilled dumplings and strudels. sweet potatoes.8% Life expectancy 67. thick. sweet. cream. Beverages Coffee (strong. coir (coconut fiber). cinnamon trees Industries fishing. bread. chickens. Serbian kolijivo (wheat kernels cooked with sugar. plum brandy. They were claimed by France in 1756 and surrendered to Britain in 1810.1 female Per capita GDP $16. In 1995 a new law granted amnesty from prosecution to anyone investing $10 million in the country. dried fruit. fruit juice. . goats.

followed by the Mende and Temne in the 15th century. sometimes puréed and fried. 43. bordering the Atlantic Ocean. bananas. chickens. breadfruit. pigs Natural resources diamonds. Fats and oils Coconut oil. Fried cassava and jackfruit flour bread. Legumes Beans. butter. jackfruit seeds. has green exterior covered with spikes and interior with seeds resembling chestnuts and yellow. cocoa. skewered.” in the 15th century and by 1495 established a fort on the site of . mi. coffee. peas. snapper. and jackfruit. cassava. Fish. poultry. fruiteating bats. and mountains in the east. plantains. and grilled meat. plantains. or chicken curries using coconut cream. Fresh fruit. SIERRA LEONE Republic of Sierra Leone Geography Sierra Leone is in West Africa. the largest of tree fruits. tuna). Fried banana dessert with coconut cream. tea. goats. eggs. Major Languages English (official) Mende (principal vernacular in south) Temne (principal vernacular in north) Krio (English Creole) Ethnic Groups Mende Temne Other tribes Creole (Krio) 30% 30% 30% 10% Major Religions Muslim Indigenous beliefs Christian 60% 30% 10% Population density per sq. Fruit Coconut. pork.1% Life expectancy 38. Fried sweet potatoes. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. breadfruit. and fish. has creamy. Marinated. Beverages Coffee. meat. cassava. Nuts and Seeds Almonds. sheep. fish (many species. breadfruit. gold. The latter are boiled and made into flour or are candied.The Food and Culture around the World – Sierra Leone 277 Meat. the flesh is used as a starchy vegetable. cattle. oil palm fruit. textiles). chromite. Boiled legumes. papaya. and jackfruit. banana-pineapple-flavored flesh. Dishes Fish fried. Jackfruit. Fresh fruit salads with mango a main ingredient and dusted with cinnamon. goat. vanilla.7% Unemployment rate NA Arable land 8% Agriculture rice. chicken.5 HIV rate 1. “lion mountains.8% Infant mortality rate per 1.g. Boiled sweet potatoes. coconut cream. Sweets Sugar. Dairy products Milk. jackfruit. e. fish Chicken. fish Industries diamonds. or poached and often including a sauce.. bauxite. custard-tasting pulp. small-scale manufacturing (beverages.3 female Per capita GDP $700 Labor force in agriculture NA Urban 36. peanuts. lard. onion. curry. plantains (including giant red ones). beef. Seasonings Cinnamon. baked. 227. and later the Fulani.000 live births 156. Custard apple. Candied jackfruit. lentils.6 Literacy rate 38. custard apple (zat). mangoes. chili pepper. It has swamps along the heavily indented coastline. wooded hills and a plateau in the interior. titanium. fruit juices.6 male. oil refining History The Bulom people were probably the first inhabitants. Boiled rice. iron ore. not related to true apple. Fried fruit-eating bat. cassava. The Portuguese explored the land and named it Sierra Leone.

Fish and meat stew. Native African foods include watermelon. The area became a British colony in 1808. cheese. or mixtures of them. Their descendants are Creoles. baobab. Influences on food The Atlantic Ocean provides fish and shellfish. bitter leaf. Adalu (boiled and mashed starchy vegetables). or fish. Palaver sauce (pounded green leaves with seasonings). locusts. based on its poverty and poor quality of life. Dishes Most foods are boiled or fried and small chunks or balls are dipped in a sauce and eaten by hand. coconut oil. The hills. onions. or beef. Bread and cereals Rice. beans. shea oil. Palm oil. black-eyed peas (a variety of cowpeas). akee apples. In 2008. is red and colors food. under an anticorruption law. rabbits. British abolitionists and philanthropists founded Freetown in 1780 for freed and runaway slaves. plus fish in coastal areas. pumpkin. prawns. the main cooking fat. lamb and mutton. dried baobab leaves. sesame seeds. tomatoes. a British protectorate in 1896. kola nuts. Insects Termites (often called white ants). and mountains support some crops and animal herds. Fats and oils Palm oil. and tomatoes in a small amount of palm oil. green leaves. Legumes Peanuts (groundnuts). Stew of okra or root vegetables and fish. bell peppers. guavas. sweet potatoes. perhaps beef. mango seeds. corn. palm kernels. and sometimes potatoes. British control for more than 150 years left some influence. bananas. pineapple. and the British built trading posts on offshore islands in the 17th century. papaya. biscuits. Seasonings Salt. Food habits were influenced by the introduction of New World foods such as cassava. thyme. rice dishes. onions. chicken. lemons. porridges. hot red chili peppers. pastes. millet. buttermilk. corn. chili peppers. chilies. eggplant. spicy dishes are liked. formed into balls or scoops to eat stew. chicken. curds. eggs. Fréjon (boiled and puréed black-eyed peas or beans with coconut milk and perhaps carob or cocoa). This poor though mineralrich country ranked last out of 177 countries in the UN Development Program’s human development index for 2007–2008. fish (fresh. tomatoes. served with boiled rice. tomatoes. okra. or eggplant). beef. potato. black-eyed peas. mangoes. beans. melokhia (crain crain). sour milk. poultry. Mismanagement and corruption have plagued the economy. Chicken and peanut stew. and herbs. Nuts and seeds Cashews. Chicken is the most popular flesh food and a special dish for guests. In the 1990s civil war killed thousands as rebels sought political power and control of the diamond fields. plateau. smoked. or dried). sticky. watermelon seeds (egusi). Daily fare is mostly cereals and starchy vegetables with legumes and greens. potatoes. sorghum. “African nutmeg. locust beans (carob). Sierra Leone has been listed by the UN as the world’s least livable country. Fufu (a paste of boiled starchy vegetables or corn flour). game. tomato. . and cocoa. fish Chicken. yams. Rebellion continued in 2001 and was declared over in 2002. Prawns cooked with sweet peppers. and independent in 1961. Fruit Coconut. European ships visited the coast to trade for slaves and ivory. watermelon. pork. guinea fowl.” cocoa. onions. peanuts. For the past several years. whey. and okra. Meat. Dairy products Milk. Vegetables Cassava. chili pepper. Fried plantains. Insects are sometimes dried and usually fried or roasted. Gari (roasted cassava meal). cucumbers. Peanut sauce or stew (ground and pounded peanuts. taro. the new president became the first president to declare all his assets. goat. Roast chicken with peanut sauce. plantains. Major priorities of the president inaugurated in 2007 included restoring electricity and continuing the crackdown on the “blood diamond” trade.278 The Food and Culture around the World – Sierra Leone present-day Freetown. peanut oil. Thick.

Cantonese. Fried sweet dough balls. The country consists of the main island. Pineapple fritters. rice browned in a small amount of the oil and simmered in the stock. and crushed red peppers sautéed in the same oil. Singapore is a flat. Singapore developed into one of the cleanest. and most prosperous cities in Asia. Street food and snacks Spiced kabobs. oil drilling equipment. British and Dutch interest in the area grew with the spice trade. Singapore.2 Literacy rate 94. cocoa. . pigs. Hibiscus sabdariffa). sugar. other. fruit. fried fish.8%. chickens. It was part of the Malacca Empire in the 15th century. the other ingredients added to the rice and all covered and simmered for a few minutes). SINGAPORE Republic of Singapore Geography Singapore is in Southeast Asia off the tip of the Malayan Peninsula. beer. copra. oil refining.7 female Per capita GDP $49. housing. onions. shawerma (rotisserie lamb). mi. Teochew Population density per sq. while demand for Singapore’s exports declined. cattle Natural resources fish Industries electronics. The Japanese occupied the islands from 1942 to 1945. Standards in health. rubber. Long inhabited by fishers and pirates.700 Labor force in agriculture NA Ethnic Groups Chinese Malay Indian Other 77% 14% 8% 1% Major Religions Buddhist Christian Muslim Taoist Hindu. formerly swampy island. It is one of the world’s largest ports and a major center of manufacturing. 17.4% Life expectancy 79. education.2% Unemployment rate 3. tomatoes. Ceded to the British East India Company in 1819. rubber processing and rubber products. ornamental fish. goats. and the overall economy grew by 7. as did inflation. and 40 nearby islets. Singapore became a British crown colony in 1948 and gained independence in 1965. processed food and beverages.3 male. Major Languages Chinese (all Malay four Tamil are English official) Hokkien. and housing are generally high.6% Arable land 1% Agriculture vegetables. offshore platform construction. none 43% 15% 15% 9% 18% Urban 100% Infant mortality rate per 1. Kanya (peanut candy). safest. Sweets Honey. orchids. It was controlled by the Portuguese in the 16th century and by the Dutch in the 17th century. bean balls. banking. In 2007 the property market and inflation surged.The Food and Culture around the World – Singapore 279 Native dish Jollof rice (chicken or meat or both simmered in water then browned in oil. Beverages Coffee. and transportation soared. coconut biscuits. Singapore became the center of the British colonial activity in Southeast Asia. life sciences History Inhabitants first migrated to the area between 2500 and 1500 BCE.3 HIV rate 0. In 2008 prices for food. red zinger (herbal tea made from flower pods of roselle. financial services. chemicals. 84. and commerce. when it passed to Java and then Siam.482. Singapore was an outpost of the Sumatran Empire until the 14th century. Area is 264 square miles.000 live births 2.

kava (alcoholic drink made from pepper plant). Desserts based on thick brown palm sugar syrup with coconut milk. and noodles from its Chinese tradition. laos (Malay plant of ginger root family).” cumin. fish sauce. mung beans. cassava. daikon (white radish). shrimp paste. onions. Fats and oils Legumes peanuts. lemons. tofu). Chinese and Indian influence is strong due to mass movement of labor during the colonial period. coconut milk. Soybeans and soy products (e. Bread and cereals Rice. ginger root. dried anchovy. and achar (pickles). eggs. shrimp paste. vegetable oil. Prawn sambal (prawns fried in a hot. and coconut). Naga sari (pudding of mung beans. Beverages Tea. greens. leaving an influence. Baked rice rolls in banana leaves. gelatin. coconut milk and cream. wheat. pineapple. Hot curries. It values hotness and sourness. Rice is the staple food. ti plant. and Indian. Rempah (spice mixture. limes. papaya. turmeric. chicken. sugar. lard. prawn/shrimp pastes (blacang). seaweed. curries. winged beans. is the religion of 15% of Singapore’s population. green beans. Singapore’s three main cuisines are Malay. palm oil. duck. cinnamon. Sweetened condensed milk (used in coffee). Stir-fried greens. Singapore is one of the world’s greatest entrepôts for spices. Sambal (hot. Gulai (curry. cream (used as whipped cream in Coconut oil and cream. water chestnuts. macadamia nuts. bananas. lemon grass. arrowroot. Singapore delicacy River oysters fried with eggs and sweet potatoes. lime juice. tamarind. Dairy products pastries). Britain established Singapore as a trading post in 1819 and controlled it until 1965. fish Fish and seafood. Nonya (Chinese Straits) cooking. glutinous rice in sweets. Indian influence includes spices. . Chinese. often fried before use). or fish/seafood on thin bamboo skewers. associated with Chinese who settled in the area in the 15th century and in Singapore up to World War II. Satay (small strips of meat. sweet potatoes. cooked in coconut milk and retaining its sauce).g. Islam. lard. Fruit Coconut. yams. Fried rice. sugar. Vegetables Taro. for example. oranges. spicy side dishes or chilies and spices fried together and used in a main dish). and grilled). with roots in southern China). Seasonings Chilies. Rendang. gelatin (used in sweets). Indian peppery soup. water buffalo. as well as immigrant elites from East and South Asia.” (cubed beef or water buffalo meat simmered with seasonings in coconut milk). garlic. coffee. Meat. spicy mixture). soy milk. kuey lapis (has many different colored layers of gelatin). eggplant. soy sauce. black mushroom-like “cloud ears. and aromatic roots and leaves as in Malaysian cuisine but retains the use of pork. or “dry beef curry. Muslims do not consume pork or lard. fruit juice. and glutinous rice..280 The Food and Culture around the World – Singapore Influences on food Singapore shares geography and cuisine with neighbor Malaysia. Sweets Palm sugar. mangoes. coriander. aromatic roots and leaves. Seafood is the secondary staple. Nuts Litchis. Fried noodles (kway teow). tamarind. Boiled rice. beef. melons. poultry. marinated with soy sauce and flavorings. durian. squash. pork. Dishes Coconut milk is often used as a cooking liquid. breadfruit. uses chilies. fish sauce. soy sauce. Chinese roast pork. dominant in the Malay Peninsula and coastal towns of Borneo since the 15th century. Immature coconut. rice dishes. coconut juice. grated coconut. goat. noodles. bean drinks. The vast majority of the people are Chinese (Straits Chinese. Dutch traders influenced the area. chicken.

dumplings. with emphasis on bread. After World War I it separated from Hungary and joined the Czechs of Bohemia to form Czechoslovakia in 1918. and dairy products. iron ore. In the 9th century Slovakia became part of the Moravia North Empire. Slovakia’s economy grew at its record pace in 2007 and inflation fell.6% Life expectancy 71.8% Urban 56. People love to eat outdoors. It was under Hungarian (Magyar) control from the 10th century until 1918. potatoes. Slovakia was a part of Hungary for centuries and has accepted dishes from this southern neighbor. salt.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. coke. gas. One of Europe’s fastest growing economies.1% Unemployment rate 10.5 Literacy rate 99. In 1993 Czechoslovakia split into two nations. and all with hot sauce of chilies. Major Languages Slovak (official) Hungarian Ethnic Groups Slovak Hungarian Roma (Gypsy) Other 86% 10% 2% 2% Major Religions Roman Catholic Protestant (Lutheran 7%) Other None 69% 11% 7% 13% Population density per sq. machinery. chicken for both and for Malays. goat meat for Muslims. neighbor on the west. satay (the favorite snack: pork for Chinese. and peanuts). goats Natural resources brown coal and lignite. laos. Slovakia with Czechoslovakia came under Soviet domination in 1948 and became the Slovak Socialist Republic of Czechoslovakia in 1969. German and Slavic were . corn. cabbage. mi. The Carpathian Mountains. although Slovakia recorded the highest unemployment rate in the EU. Celtic. copper. SLOVAKIA Slovak Republic Geography Slovakia is in east central Europe. Influences on food Slovakia and the Czech Republic. pigs. a parking lot by day is transformed in the evening into a ring of food stalls with a communal eating area in the middle. fruit. fish Industries metal and metal products. soups/stews. rich in mineral resources and with vast forests and pastures. were Czechoslovakia for most of the 20th century and share a culinary history. Slovakia joined NATO and the EU in 2004 and ratified the EU constitution in 2005. 79. root vegetables. oil. the Czech Republic and Slovakia. Communist rule ended in 1989 when Václav Havel became president and democratic reform began. In Singapore.300 Labor force in agriculture 5.000 live births 7 HIV rate <0. notably goulash (meat stew with paprika).The Food and Culture around the World – Slovakia 281 Street food and snacks Fried noodles. onion. The fertile Danube plain is in the south. manganese.0% Arable land 29% Agriculture sugar beets. nuclear fuels. hops. 289.2 male. Slovakia rejoined Czechoslovakia in 1945. food and beverages. Slovaks settled it in about the 6th century. electricity. garlic. paper and printing History Slovakia was inhabited in the first 11 centuries CE by Illyrian. Street food is sold by street vendors and in market stalls and night stores. chemicals and manmade fibers. sheep. meat. except in the 15th century when overrun by Czech Hussites and then restored to Hungarian rule in 1526.3 female Per capita GDP $20. The cuisine is robust. In 1939 Germany invaded Czechoslovakia and declared Slovakia independent. wheat. chickens. and Germanic tribes. cattle. are in the north.

Beverages Meals Coffee. horseradish. poppy seeds (often used in cakes and pastries). cabbage. grapes. mustard. split peas. strudel. a sponge cake with fruit baked in it. fish (trout. caraway seeds. milk. rice dishes. Almonds. cream. navy beans. and rolled in poppy seeds with sugar or honey). and honey). raisins. Onions. Simmered dumplings. sauerkraut. hot chocolate. Jam. Easter foods: ham. Dumplings filled with fruit or jam. Sweets Honey. and decorated with a cross). vinegar. yeast pies. duck. made with vegetable stock instead of meat stock. Potato and mushroom soup. meat pieces coated with paprika and seared in fat. a Christmas dessert. Bread and cereals Wheat. cream. Special occasion foods Roast duck or goose. Most Slovakians are Christians. SLOVENIA Republic of Slovenia Geography Slovenia is in southeastern Europe. wine.282 The Food and Culture around the World – Slovenia early influences. Stewed red or white cabbage with caraway seeds. rice. pork. Yeast buns. rye. with forest covering 42% of the land and hilly plains in the central and eastern regions. Vegetables Potatoes. eel). cinnamon. Lungenbraten (roast fillet of beef). mushrooms. lamb. prunes. Mehlspeisen (foods made with flour). Streuselkuchen (crumb-topped cake). wheat and rye bread (served at most meals). and candied fruits. and paska (pyramidshaped dessert containing cheese. Topfenpalatshcinken (thick pancakes with curdled sweet cream). lard. pancakes. olive oil. other spices. ham. bacon. goat. Mashed potatoes. Bulblanina (bubble cake). poppy seeds. Three meals a day with snacks is typical. poultry. apricots. Meat is often extended by grinding or stewing. pickles. cherries. Svíˇ ková na sonetanˇ (beef roast with c e sour cream sauce). eggs. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Milk (cow. cottage cheese. bordering the Adriatic Sea and Italy. beef. eaten to break the Advent fast on Christmas Eve. sultanas (large grapes). butter. beer. an important food category that includes some savory and many sweet items (dumplings. Kidney beans. fish Chicken. Fruit Apples. Potato dumplings. sour cream. and a small amount of liquid are covered and simmered. drained. Duˇené telecí na kminˇ (veal. “Hungarian goulash” (pïrkïlt). . sour cream. and babalky (bread slices scalded. or soft cheese and cream. sausages (klobása) such as jaternice (pork) and jelita (a blood sausage). lentils. onions. Falsche (false) soups. fruit. It is mostly hilly and mountainous. Christmas foods: oplatky (small communion wafer spread with honey). paprika. Cabbage leaves stuffed with seasoned ground meat. often apple pieces). noodles. Meat. sugar. who observe Christmas and Easter with special foods. imitation cheese ball made from eggs (brudka). with paprika added again just before the dish is finished. goose. bacon. sugar. butter. Butter. yeast buns. onions. and mushrooms) s e served with noodles. corn. including ones with savory or sweet fillings). Easter cheese (syrek). ˇ Skubánky (potato dumplings baked in butter and served with cinnamon sugar). vegetable oil. cucumbers. sheep). dumplings (large loaf-sized ones to tiny ones. caraway seeds. Strudel (pastry of thin sheets of dough around a soft filling. Nuts and seeds Seasonings Dishes Párky (steamed or boiled sausage). plums. cheese. other root vegetables. and doughs and pastes combined with vegetables. Makovy kolac (poppy seed cake with sultanas). cakes. eggs. jam.

wheat. German domination.The Food and Culture around the World – Slovenia Major Languages Slovenian (official) Serbo-Croatian Ethnic Groups Slovene Croat Serb Bosniac Other 91% 2% 2% 2% 3% Major Religions Roman Catholic Orthodox Muslim Other and unspecified None 58% 2% 2% 28% 10% 283 Population density per sq. pies. Yugoslavia. buttermilk. The Slovenes. Hungary. it produces grains. timber. oats. textiles. barley. 258. trucks.1% Unemployment rate 5. In the 8th century the area was taken into the Frankish empire of Charlemagne.200 Labor force in agriculture 2. goat. began struggling to unify.000 live births 4. or large intestine and poached. sugar beets. occupied by Germany in World War II. millet. pork. they like buckwheat. cattle. Many dishes. potatoes. potatoes. in 1945 became communist Yugoslavia.7% Life expectancy 73 male. sugar beets. cream.5% Infant mortality rate per 1. became part of the Roman Empire in the 1st century BCE. renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. buckwheat thick porridge). chickens. Fats and oils Butter.7 female Per capita GDP $27. sausages such as ded and vratnik (chopped pork packed into pig stomach. is an essential part of meals. margarine. grapes. filo dough (paper-thin pastry sheets). goats Natural resources lignite. Influences on food Formerly the northernmost province of Yugoslavia. as part of the Holy Roman Empire. . mercury. Bread and cereals Corn. Austria. Another ancient dish. a plant of the same family as rhubarb and grown for its seeds. turnovers. bladder.3 HIV rate <0. goat). for example. 80. Many Slovenes continue to use traditional ingredients and dishes. can be round. first settled by Illyrian and Celtic peoples. lamb. It adopted the euro currency in 2007. Slovenia declared independence in 1991. buckwheat. The oldest Slavonic ritual leavened bread. sheep. grapes. juba. whipped cream. wood products. followed by a millennium of Austrian domination. Dairy products Milk (cow. divided among several Austrian provinces. Like the Russians and Poles. and Croatia. and Slovenes. kashkaval (hard tangy ewe’s milk cheese. Meat. fish Industries ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products. Except for the period 1809 to 1814. electric power equipment. Croats.1 Literacy rate 99. eggs. Following AustriaHungary’s defeat in World War I. Early Slovenes were under Roman influence. uranium. which are used as husked whole grains and as flour. rice dishes. beef and veal. began in the 9th and 10th centuries. fish Chicken. rice. settled here in the 6th century CE. Slovenia assumed the (rotating) presidency of the EU in 2008. After 1848 the Slovenes. smoked. or air dried). pigs. Slovenia and Croatia became part of the Austro-Hungarian kingdom when it was established in 1867. Slovenia became a constituent republic of Yugoslavia in 1946 and received a section of the former Italian Adriatic coastline in 1947. poultry. It joined the UN in 1992 and the EU and NATO in 2004. Slovenia gained independence in 1918 and became part of the Kingdom of Serbs. hydropower. zinc. electronics (including military). silver. sour cream. when Napoleon ruled the area. vegetable oils. kolaˇ. a south Slavic group. mi. such as kaˇa (kasha. Mostly mountainous. hops. Most Slovenes are Roman Catholic and frequently consume pork. cheese. most of the land belonged to Austria until 1918. rye.6% Arable land 9% Agriculture corn. hops. called the cheddar of the Balkans). lead. Fresh dairy items are widely consumed. Slovenia borders Italy. The Slovenes appear to be the only Europeans still using millet in traditional cooking.5% Urban 49. olive oil. and often c elaborately decorated. chemicals. and livestock. leavened wheat bread (consumed at most meals). a meat and vegetable soup. porridge. ring shaped. wheat. fish. sheep. tools History Slovenia. from ancient Slavonic times s have survived.

lentils. garlic. lemon juice. Specialty Struklji. It is an archipelago of ten large. Baklava (filo dough layered with nut filling. cabbage. Seasonings Dill. eggs. Vegetables Potatoes. and egg filling). and plum brandy. Dumplings filled with meat (cmoki) or fruit. walnuts. Meat and vegetable casseroles such as moussaka (baked minced lamb. rice. Street food and snacks In urban areas vendors sell pastries and ice cream throughout the day. rice. fava beans.or fruit-filled dumplings and strudels. pepper. a Balkan specialty.1 female Per capita GDP $1.000 live births 19. white beans. pears.2% Arable land 1% Agriculture coconuts. east of Papua New Guinea.900 Labor force in agriculture 75% Urban 17% Infant mortality rate per 1. nuts. Sweets Honey. burek (a fried meat.9 male. beans. oil palm fruit. Major Languages English (official) Melanesian pidgin 120 indigenous languages Ethnic Groups Melanesian Polynesian Micronesian Other 95% 3% 1% 1% Major Religions Anglican Roman Catholic Evangelical Adventist Other 33% 19% 17% 11% 20% Population density per sq. cardamom. vegetable salads. olives. potatoes. oregano. sweet).. Dishes Soups. 54. pickles. vegetables. berries. cattle Natural resources fish. Fruit compote. sugar. bauxite. pickles.284 The Food and Culture around the World – Solomon Islands Legumes Chickpeas. kaˆa. pistachios. wine (e. parsley. Legumes are important ingredients. black beans. nickel . Cabbage or grape leaves stuffed with meat or rice. eggplant. mint. apples. coffee. meat or pork. or dried fruits. and soaked in flavored syrup). cucumbers. Fruit juice is popular. fruit juice. slatko (fruit simmered in thick syrup). cracklings. phosphates. poppy seeds. sauerkraut. zinc. cherries. beans. Meals Three meals a day. sesame seeds. fruit. cocoa. paprika. low-lying ones. for example. mi. plums. sweet potatoes. Cheese. lead. cinnamon. A northern Balkan treat. onions. or millet). tea. cherries. rugged. cream. Beverages Coffee (strong. a rosé). eggs. civek. walnuts.7 Literacy rate NA Life expectancy 70. eggplant. wine. Fruit Grapes. 76. A Balkan specialty.7 HIV rate NA Unemployment rate 15. Baked or fried pies and turnovers filled with meat.g. apricots. mountainous islands and four groups of smaller. volcanic. chickens. mushrooms. buttermilk. and frequent snacking is typical. made from dough of wheat or buckwheat flour and mashed potatoes with fillings savory (cheese. tomatoes. in Melanesia. lemons. cheese. and tomato sauce). plum brandy (sljivovica). peaches. Fruit preserves. vegetables. s poppy seed. onions. pigs. gold. butter. SOLOMON ISLANDS Geography The Solomon Islands is in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. with the main meal at midday. and pig’s blood) or sweet (apples. Evening snacks in cafés and coffeehouses: small kabobs. potica (sweet yeast bread rolled in a walnut. Nuts and seeds Almonds.or cheese-filled pastry). forests. meat balls. from strudel but made with stretched or rolled pastry. baked. plums.

which had been growing rapidly and at unsustainable levels. sesame oil.) A coup attempt in 2000 led to three years of violence. which includes Bougainville. wheat. papaya. sweet potato. and cooked greens or seaweed. British control for nearly a century left some influence. and they later migrated to islands further east. sesame seeds. Meat.The Food and Culture around the World – Solomon Islands 285 Industries fish (tuna). seafood (crabs. spam. and some animals to the area. breadfruit. coconut milk or cream. sweet potato. yam. (Another island group named Solomon Islands. including the Battle of Guadalcanal. wheat bread. Fats and oils Coconut oil and cream. winged beans. In 1945 the British regained control of the islands. many others). macadamia nuts. fish or pork dish. or marinated in lemon or lime juice and coconut cream. Fish and seafood stewed. or plantain. cocoa. and leaf-wrapped fillings of taro. coffee. Traditional meal: boiled taro root. lemons. melons. peanuts. cocoa. troops led by Australia began arriving in 2003 and in mid-2005 nearly all had left. green leaves. noodles. yam. garlic. and stir-frying. beef. is part of Papua New Guinea. whole fish. the British Solomon Islands. eggs. Legumes Soybeans and soybean products. litchis. noodles. Haupia (firm pudding made from coconut milk. teas. the Japanese invaded the islands and major battles occurred here. lemon. ti. timber History Austronesian people probably settled here c. chicken pieces. Melanesians inhabited the Solomon Islands when they became a British protectorate. salt. In World War II. mining. cabbage. breadfruit.000 to 40. Fruit Coconut. and British. ginger. with the same foods at all. onions. yams. or plantains with coconut cream and seasonings. bananas. taro leaves wrapped around a filling of coconut cream. Vegetables Sweet potatoes. Pork is the main meat. Boiled or steamed rice. Dairy products Milk and milk products are uncommon. cassava. Arrowroot-thickened puddings and other dishes. yam. limes. fruit juice. Europeans brought new food plants. Asians brought rice. and the evening meal the largest. crabs. Immature coconut. In 2007 an earthquake and tsunami left at least 52 people dead. and arrowroot). kava (mildly alcoholic drink made from pepper plant). breadfruit. tea. fish (mullet). bread. Stir-fried or steamed greens (taro. poultry. plantains. green onions. A Spanish explorer visited the islands in 1565. Fruits and nuts. sweet potato). roasted. Dishes Coconut milk is the usual liquid cooking medium. are also important. daikon. and shredded beef and all bound in banana leaves. green onions. Beverages Coconut juice. Mainstays of the diet are fish and seafood. cassava. palm kernels. especially coconut. The economy was growing rapidly but was heavily dependent on logging. Dishes cooked in a pit: whole pig. The islands were inhabited by Melanesians in the 1890s when they became a British protectorate. French. palm oil. 2000 BCE. soybeans. The islands were explored by the Dutch. sugar. taro. Independence was attained in 1978. pineapple. Meals Typical are two or three meals daily. . Influences on food About 30. taro root and leaves. traditionally cooked in a stone-lined pit over coals along with other foods. Boiled taro root. onions. butter. and breadfruit. pigeon peas. tamarind. lentils. Seasonings Soy sauce. Bread and cereals Rice. corned beef. pork. mangoes. Fresh fruits are eaten as snacks. breadfruit. lime or lemon juice. bitter melon. yams. or sweet potato.000 years ago people from Southeast Asia began to move south to the western Pacific islands and Australia. especially for festive occasions. yams. To restore order. rice dishes. guavas. vegetable oil and shortening. Sweets Sugar. Nuts and seeds Candlenuts (kukui). roots and tubers. lard. fish Chicken. eggplant. arrowroot. seaweed.

4 male. and Zanzibar sultans controlled the south. goat. inhabited mostly by Somalis. Italian. bauxite. textiles. and other spices). pork. salt. fish and seafood. tree/bush products (kat. mi. beef. sorghum. pasta. sorghum. frankincense. wireless communication History From the 7th to 10th centuries. and flat. By the 10th century nomadic tribes occupied the interior. eggs. rice. Pirates in coastal waters hijacked 25 ships in 2008. flatbread (cooked like a huge pancake on a griddle. sheep.286 The Food and Culture around the World – Somalia SOMALIA Geography Somalia occupies the eastern horn of Africa. mangoes. chickens. Britain and Italy set up protectorates. Influences on food The mostly desert land and 1. and pastoral Oromo peoples inhabited the south and west. Mogadishu. coconuts. iron ore.5 million people with starvation in 1992. Civil war starting in 1977 and drought produced a famine that threatened over 1. bananas. goat. Meat. fish Dairy products Fats and oils vegetable oil. especially in the south. barley. camels. cattle. Other influences include Arab. myrrh). chicken. bordering the Indian Ocean.000 were refugees in neighboring countries. sheep. the Italians introduced spaghetti and expresso coffee. and much of the country. tin. beans. and Islam.2% Infant mortality rate per 1. rice dishes. rice. camel). gypsum. wheat. poultry. Traditional Somali foods are rice (brees) with meat (hibbib) and chili. In the 16th century Turks ruled the northern coast. covered. In 1960 the two parts of Somaliland united and became the independent Somalia.8% Life expectancy 47. . It has a 1.000. natural gas. For example. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami killed at least 150 Somalis and displaced about 5.4% Arable land 2% Agriculture sugarcane. Almost all Somalis are Muslims. Butter (often clarified and flavored with onions. millet. cheese. From 1992 to 1994 a multinational force tried unsuccessfully to stabilize the region. 51. copper. Lamb and mutton. Turkish. garlic. barren. oil a few light industries including sugar refining. Milk (cow. Violence and food shortages have continued. sesame seeds. who do not consume pork or alcohol and fast from sunup to sundown during the month of Ramadan. Major Languages Somali Arabic Italian English (both official) Ethnic Groups Somali Bantu and other 85% 15% Major Religions Islam (official) Sunni Muslim Other 99% 1% Population density per sq. Arabs and Persians established trading posts along the coast.1 female Per capita GDP $600 Labor force in agriculture 71% Urban 35. The land is generally arid.5 Literacy rate 37. Violence escalated in 2007 and reached the worst level in more than a decade. goats. In 2008 more than a million people were internally displaced and more than 400.700-mile coastline and two main rivers. British Somaliland in the north and Italian Somaliland in the center and south. Bread and cereals Corn. It claimed eastern Ethiopia. British. 39. corn. The Indian Ocean provides fish and seafood. Ethiopian. uranium. In the late 19th century. As in neighboring Ethiopia. ginger. with hills in the north. In 2006 Islamist militia took over the capital.5% Unemployment rate 47. pigs Natural resources Industries fish.000 live births 111 HIV rate 0. flatbread and spicy stew are popular. camel. making a large circular loaf).700-mile coastline influence the food of Somalia. Italy lost its African colonies in World War II.

Xhosa. vanadium. ginger. Vegetables Plantains. uranium. Pedi. 48. Food is often served on or picked up with pieces of flatbread. Beverages Beer (home-brewed from millet or corn). Boiled spaghetti with meat sauce. Boiled or steamed rice with meat and chili. In the 1830s the Dutch settlers began the Great Trek north and founded the independent Boer republics of Orange Free State and the South African Republic (later Transvaal). garlic. chemicals. fenugreek seeds. Ndebele. copper. Sweets Sugarcane. Rainfall is sparse in the west and more plentiful in the east. Nuts and seeds Almonds. peanuts. fertilizer. vegetables. It is mostly a large plateau with a 1. Called Boers. corn. chickens. coffee (especially espresso). salt. and black pepper). Afrikaans. garlic.The Food and Culture around the World – South Africa 287 Legumes Beans. camel. sesame seeds. honey.3% Infant mortality rate per 1. Zulu. platinum. Stews of legumes. bordering the Atlantic Ocean and the Indian Ocean. coal. Tswana. mangoes. Tsonga. followed. cinnamon. A usual meal includes rice or flatbread and spicy stew. coconut. Swazi. who roamed the area as hunters and gatherers in the Stone Age. Sotho.6 male. gem diamonds. auto assembly. Hindu.800 Labor force in agriculture 9% Ethnic Groups Black African White Colored (mixed) Asian 79% 10% 9% 2% Major Religions Independent Christian Protestant Traditional beliefs Roman Catholic Muslim. Major Languages Afrikaans. nutmeg. kale. onions. natural gas Industries mining (especially gold. Seasonings Hot red chili peppers. cumin. cayenne. coriander. root vegetables. honey wine. clarified butter with spices. nickel.0% Arable land 12% Agriculture sugarcane. textiles. iron ore. red chili peppers. goats. dates. chili peppers. chromium. SOUTH AFRICA Republic of South Africa Geography South Africa comprises the southern tip of Africa. ginger. wheat. machinery. chromium). sheep. with snacking throughout the day.739-mile coastline. hot red spice mixture (allspice.1% Unemployment rate 23. antimony. a traditional dish. tin. they spoke a Dutch dialect.6 Literacy rate 88% Life expectancy 49. Boiled lentils in a salad. 103. fenugreek. pigs Natural resources gold. Britain took control in 1806 and freed slaves in 1833. Xhosa. The Khoikhoi had developed a pastoral culture by the time of European contact. chicken. platinum. Bantus. lentils. Meals and service Typical is one meal in the early evening. metalworking. foodstuffs History Original inhabitants were the San and Khoikhoi peoples. Venda (all 11 are official Population density per sq. sugar.000 live births 45. or fish. cattle. and lamb. fish. including Zulu. Dishes Anan geil (millet gruel with camel milk and honey). Dutch began settling the Cape of Good Hope area in 1652. Swazi. cloves. chickpeas. English. Fruit Bananas. mi. and Sotho. other 37% 26% 9% 7% 21% Urban 59. manganese. phosphates. potatoes. fruits. eggplant. beef. onions. or Afrikaners.1 HIV rate 18. goat. In 1867 diamonds were discovered in . cardamom.1 female Per capita GDP $9.

In 1652 the Dutch established a settlement at the Cape of Good Hope to produce food for Dutch ships sailing between Europe and the East. wheat. eggs. fish oil. lentils. cabbage. termites (white ants). These slaves spoke Malay. Dairy products Fats and oils Legumes Vegetables turnips. or cornmeal porridge (mealie pap). imported slaves from Southeast Asia. who preserved fish by frying them in oil and adding vinegar and spices. incorporating Cape and Natal with Transvaal and Orange Free State. The Malays were expert fishers. and livestock.288 The Food and Culture around the World – South Africa this land. In 1991 President de Klerk announced plans to end apartheid laws. and potjiekos (food such as venison cooked in a potjie. later known as Boers (Dutch word for farmers). coconut oil. French Huguenots founded the wine industry. Britain won the Anglo-Boer (Dutch) War (1899–1902) and in 1910 created the Union of South Africa. rice dishes. green peas. The Dutch and Germans brought an appreciation for jams. In 1990 the government lifted its ban on the African National Congress and released Black Nationalist leader Nelson Mandela after 27 years in prison. The trekkers planted corn. In 2007 the economy grew. pasta. cream. Fat of fat-tailed sheep. tomatoes. oats. oatmeal. biltong. They began trading with the indigenous nomads. Many dishes show Indonesian influence. or rock lobster (fresh. In 1986. A post-apartheid constitution became law in 1996. apartheid. ostrich. salted. Bread and cereals Corn. vegetable oil. Insects Locusts. pastry. opening the sea route to India. boerewors (sausage made from mixed meats including game). and vegetables supplied provisions for ships visiting the Cape. mullet and herring were salted and dried. which was soon cultivated by the Africans. Milk. butter. caterpillars. springbok. Cattle were wealth and seldom eaten. dairy products were used. became official. cookies. breads of wheat flour or cornmeal. fruits and vegetables. ant larvae. a New World food. and in 1886 gold was discovered. potatoes. Indians came to work in sugarcane plantations. For the 2006–2007 financial year there was an unprecedented budget surplus. In 2006 South Africa became the first country in Africa to legalize same-sex marriage. They and their descendants. millet. buttermilk. bacon. peanuts. grains. Spiced pickled fish. first cooking a potjie food on top where a hole had been cut out and then baking sourdough bread inside after sealing the openings. biltong (dried strips of salted meat). dried). preserves (konfyt). Beans. Some meat was cooked on a wood fire and called braai (barbecue). These are usually fried or roasted. The Union of South Africa became the independent Republic of South Africa in 1961 and left the Commonwealth. ostrich eggs. In 1488 Portuguese Bartolomeu Dias was the first European to sail around the southern tip of Africa. ice cream. Violence ensued for almost three decades. . they founded large self-sufficient estates. pork. The diet of rural people remains like that of their East African ancestors except that corn often replaces millet in porridge. sugarcane plantations. Greens. carrots. pickled. dried fish. goat. pumpkin. antelope. with limited rights and opportunities to all but whites. The British took control of the area and sent British settlers. fruits. a three-legged pot over fire). In 1994 Mandela was elected the country’s first black president and the country rejoined the Commonwealth. Nobel Peace Prize winner Bishop Desmond Tutu called for sanctions against South Africa to force an end to apartheid. for example. rice. beef. millet. fish and shellfish such as crayfish. European farmers. Influences on food South Africa’s temperate and subtropical climate and fertile land allow the production of sugarcane. mainly Dutch and German. and baked goods. fish Chicken. In 1948 the policy of separate development of the races. yogurt. although strikes were a problem. who herded cattle. British control influenced the food. Foods of the Great Trek were dried fish. lamb and mutton. poultry. cheese. Meat. and founded the Cape Malay cuisine prominent in South Africa. The trekkers used old termite hills to cook. peanut oil. sweet potatoes. Early settlers diced large fish and simmered them in onions. cucumbers. were Muslims. In 2004 Mandela retired from public life. prompting the Boers’ Great Trek into the interior. sausage. immigrated. Also. ready-to-eat cereals.

or fruit curry (kerry). saffron. nutmeg. blanched dates and onion slices dressed with brown sugar. Catalonian 28%.4% Life expectancy 76. apricots. papaya. brown sugar. SPAIN Kingdom of Spain Geography Spain is in southwestern Europe. the Pyrenees Mountains separate Spain from France. honey. sherry. tomatoes. citrus. boiled potatoes.100 Labor force in agriculture 5. Baked packet of thin. strawberries. coffee. sheep. chili peppers. Deep-fried braided crullers dipped in cinnamon sugar (koesisters).6% Arable land 27% Agriculture cattle. Tameletjie (brown sugar candy). Sosaties (skewered marinated spicy lamb. Galacian 8%. such as mango atjar. pigs. cinnamon. 83. Simmered beans. garlic. Date and onion salad (dadel-slaai). Major Languages Castilian Spanish (official) Catalan (each Galician official Basque regionally) Population density per sq. green pea). stewed or baked. Bredie (spicy stew of mutton and/or vegetables). crisp dough enclosing antelope stew. The interior is a high. bay leaf. In northern Spain. pineapple. wine. Pickled fish (Ingelegde Vis).7% Infant mortality rate per 1. 209. chili. coconut. cloves. Springbok leg marinated and braised with red wine and spices. olives. ginger. Malva (pudding). covered. onions. Basque 6%. Ostrich egg omelet. citrus. arid plateau.3 HIV rate 0.9 Literacy rate 97. curry powder. walnuts. such as dried apples. and served with curry sauce). Beverages Tea. Meat. perhaps with melon or pumpkin. vegetable. vegetables. marula. apples. Steamed rice. lemon juice. fish fried in oil and soaked in vinegar and spices.5% Unemployment rate 9. sugar. prunes. and vinegar or lemon juice. melons. chickens. raisins. turmeric. dates. and borde