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Shantha Biotechnics Limited

3rd & 4th floors, Vasantha Chambers, Feteh Maidan Road, Basheerbagh, Hyderabad-500 004. Tel: +91-40-66301000, Fax:+91-40-23234103.


Advisors Narne Prabhakar Kaza Krishna Rao Dr. N. Harinath Prof. Umapathi Varma Dr. V. Haraprasad

Advisory Board M. Gopala Krishna, IAS (Retd.) M. Kamal Naidu I.F.S, (Retd) C.S. Ramalakshmi, I.F.S, Dr. N. Bhaskara Rao Prof. P Sastry .G. Er. G.Prabhakar Prof. D.N. Reddy S. Raghupathy Prof. I.V. Muralikrishna


This year World Environment Day Theme "Nature At Your Service" reflects western way of thinking - man as the conqueror of nature not as a follower of laws of nature. Eastern philosophies have taught us to revere nature because can take revenge against man if he violates the laws of nature. The nature's bounty is best experienced when one visits forests and wild life and their immense potential to provide livelihood for millions of forest dwellers and give joy to the visitors. For centuries indigenous people used traditionalforest based medicinal plants for the cure of many diseases. .Ayurveda emerged out of such practices and it is to be resurrected to enhance our people's health in the context of rising health care costs and adverse effects of over use of antibiotics. Medicinal plant cultivation has to be encouraged on large scale by the government even to export herbal medicines so that farmers will be benefited. Nauture's fury is witnessed several times by way of cyclones and floods causing immense damage to the life and property of the people in many parts of the world. Now it is an undeniable fact that there is a strong relation between ma made climate change and the disasters that are taking place today. Deforestation and desertification have cause famines in several parts of Africa ,the recent example being Somalia suffering from extremehunger. It is the collective responsibility of the respective governments and the citizen to take a serious view of the writing on the wall and accelerate the measures necessary to protect the forests and wild life. This is possible only when we respect and trust the nature..
June 2011 1 Environment & people

Editor Dr. P Narayana Rao .

Edited, Printed & Published by P Narayana Rao on behalf of . society for environment and education, hyderabad.

Address for communication 501, Kamala Towers, Street No.14, Himayatnagar, Hyderabad-29. email: contact: 9247385331

(The views expressed by authors may not be necessarily be the same as those of magazine)


Toxic Trespass Mineral mining surge threatens India's forests Climate Injustice : The rich are hiding behind the poor Eco Tourism - Kerala Eco Quotes Coastal regulations: Exigent, not principled Middle India: Towns versus cities Areca leaf chappals seek market lift Surya devta is on his side Tribal activist takes on steel giant Eco IQ Eco cartoons

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Environment & people

June 2011

ic x o T

ss a sp re T
By Sharyle Patton

he right to bear a family and the right of all women to control all aspects of their health, particularly their own fertility, are being seriously compromised by exposure to toxic chemicals. Unlike our great-grandmothers - who lived out their lives before the chemical revolution began to unfold in the mid-1950s - we have taken in hundreds of toxic substances. Many take up residence in our body fat, where they may remain for decades; others are absorbed into the body and quickly metabolised and excreted. Biomonitoring provides a snapshot of these body burdens and constitutes ultimate proof of our exposure. The data it provides have profound implications for women everywhere. The 1994 United Nations International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo and the United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing the following year both upheld women's rights to enjoy the highest attainable standards of physical and mental health. These fundamental rights - including the right to security of the person, the right to bear a family and the right of all women to control all aspects of their health, particularly their own fertility are being seriously compromised by exposure to toxic chemicals. Winds and air currents can carry persistent chemicals thousands of miles. Snow on the Swiss Alps holds DDT used for malaria control in the tropics. Indigenous
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communities living near the Arctic Circle carry in their bodies high levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) used primarily as flame-retardants far to the south. Whether we live in Johannesburg or Juneau, Rome or Rio de Janeiro, we all carry a sampling of the chemical soup created by an industrialising world. Women's bodies also carry chemicals found in products and processes they use or to which they are exposed. Have they grown food with chlorpyrifos or DDT? Do they live next to a polluting factory, incinerator or busy traffic intersection? Have they washed their children's hair with products containing lindane? Have they used a particular solvent in cleaning, or a particular cosmetic containing phthalates and other chemicals? The answers are documented in their bodies, which become chemical diaries of their lives. Genetic expression is mediated by a panoply of hormones, neurotransmitters and growth factors. Our neurological, immune, reproductive and endocrine systems all function by using these chemical messengers to trigger biological events. Many man-made chemicals resemble these naturally occurring sub-

the placental barrier during pregnancy and disrupt the development of the foetus during critical times of growth and cell differentiation. The effects may not be evident until puberty or even later. Traditionally, epidemiologists have focused on the effects of high levels of chemical exposure on small populations. Now a revolution in toxicological research tells us that we need to be concerned about low-level doses to large populations and that we need to consider the effects of chemicals in combinations which may interact in unsuspected and untested ways. It demands that we also need to consider especially vulnerable populations such as children (who, kilo for kilo, are more exposed to chemicals than adults), the elderly (whose bodies may be less capable of metabolising and excreting some chemicals) and women (whose monthly flux of hormonal activity and extra layer of epidermal fat may create particular vulnerability). Thus classic regulatory toxicology is insufficient to guide public health standards, especially for women and their children, who worldwide are experiencing an increasing incidence of a number of diseases, including some cancers and developmental disabilities.

to high levels of one form of it after the 1976 industrial explosion in Seveso, Italy have an increased risk of breast cancer. Infertility may also be increasing in many regions, though difficulties in data collection prevent a definitive analysis. The cause of approximately one-third of all cases of infertility from the late teens to the early 30s is unknown. Recent science indicates that toxic chemicals may play a role. Bisphenol A - used in polycarbamate and other plastics, the lining in

Breast cancer rates appear to be increasing in many regions, although mortality is declining or stabilising in some countries. The linkage between breast cancer and chemical toxicants is unclear, but a number of studies indicate the need for precautionary action. It appears, for example, to be linked to lifetime exposure to oestrogen
Breast cancer rates appear to be increasing in many regions, although mortality is declining or stabilising in some countries. The linkage between breast cancer and chemical toxicants is unclear, but a number of studies indicate the need for precautionary action. It appears, for example, to be linked to lifetime exposure to oestrogen. The body recognises many man-made chemicals as having oestrogenic properties, so exposure to them may be linked to breast cancer. The ubiquitous dioxin is one such chemical. A new study has found that women exposed tin cans, floorings, enamels and varnishes, adhesives, nail polish, compact discs, electric and electrical appliances has been measured in the blood of pregnant women, in umbilical blood at birth and in placental tissue, at levels within the range shown to alter development. Recent research on mice has associated it with aneuploidy, the chromosomal error that in humans causes many spontaneous miscarriages and birth defects, including Down's Syndrome. The mechanisms of cell division in mice are similar across a very broad range of living organisms, so the results are like-

stances. They may initiate a cascade of deleterious events when the body mistakenly accepts and uses them as part of its messaging system. Many of the chemicals now found in women's blood, urine, bone, breast milk, adipose tissue or other biospecimens can deliver such unintentional messages, potentially changing how the body's intricate and fragile systems function. Such chemical hijacking can occur at very low levels of exposure, previously considered below standard safety thresholds. Many chemicals can pass through
Environment & people 4 June 2011

ly to be relevant to human health. Other studies indicate that exposure to the pesticide DDT also increases risks of premature birth and possibly miscarriage. Meanwhile low sperm count and quality are associated with exposure to chemicals, including commonly used pesticides, such as alachlor, atrazine and diazinon. Although the studies are not scientifically definitive, the weight of evidence indicates that our rights to reproductive health and to bear children successfully may be threatened by expo-

sure to a wide range of chemicals. Our right to reach our highest potential, and to fulfil our human genetic legacy, is threatened by exposures in the womb to many chemicals including PCBs and the plasticiser DEHP - which seem to alter how we think and behave. For example, children born with higher levels of PCBs (but still within the range considered 'normal') to women living around the Great Lakes who consumed two or three meals of game fish a month in the years leading up to and during pregnancy were found to have smaller head circumferences,

lower IQs, shorter attention spans and weaker reflexes. Meanwhile Dutch scientists have reported that boys with higher PCB exposures are more likely to engage in feminine patterns of play, while similarly exposed girls are more likely to engage in masculine play; more feminised behaviour was found in both boys and girls prenatally exposed to higher levels of dioxin. The study parallels findings from animal studies. Such studies are troubling in their implications for women's physical and emotional health, and for the health of their families. Yet very few of the thousands of chemicals now in use - or being produced as unintentional by-products of industrial processes - have been tested for their impacts on human health. So we do not know the full impact chemical exposure may have on our health and basic human rights. Recent agreements - especially the Stockholm Convention which mandates phasing out 12 of the most damaging persistent organic pollutants and includes a mechanism for adding further chemicals for action, and the proposed EU REACH legislative initiative are solid first steps to ensuring that women's rights will not continue to be threatened by toxic trespass. Women around the world need to become better informed about these threats to their - and their families' health, so that they may become part of a process that will find safer alternatives, support pre-market testing of all chemicals and integrate the precautionary principle into chemicals management policies. This will protect women's health and the health of future generations. And it will also help maintain what we have struggled for in the past decade, the ability of all women to live to their fullest potential. - Third World Network Features. (Sharyle Patton is Director of the Health and Environment Programme of Commonwealth, a nonprofit health and environment research institute in Bolinas, California, USA )

Eco Vocabulary

Carbon Footprint: The measure of the impact human activities on the environment. Carbon Offset: When you fly or participate in some activity that puts more carbon into the atmosphere, you offset the damages by purchasing certificates or credits that help companies plant trees or invest in alternative energy. Greenhouse Gases: Gases in the earth's lower atmosphere that cause the greenhouse effect. Examples include: carbon dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons, ozone, methane, water vapour and nitrous oxide.

Biodegradable: Any substance or products that is non-toxic and will decompose into a relatively short time span.

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Environment & people

By Manipadma Jena India faces a tough choice between preserving its forests and digging up the valuable minerals that lie beneath them. Nowhere is this more obvious than in Orissa State - home to 35 percent of Indias iron ore resources, which it is exploiting fast. Orissas production of iron ore alone increased seven times in the decade to 2009, topping 77 million tonnes as global demand, particularly from China, drove export prices higher. The state is also rich in bauxite, chromites and coal, holding 55 percent, 95 percent and 24 percent of India's total deposits respectively. Orissa has close to 600 mine leases, covering around 97,000 hectares. During a mineral rush from 2002 to 2008, the state signed 49 investment deals worth around $44 billion dollars (1,981 billion rupees). Last year, mining operations produced minerals worth $3.8 billion (171 billion rupees), according to the Federal Ministry of Mines. This represents a rich haul for one of Indias poorest states. The problem is that the most valuable mineral reserves are found beneath and around the edge of Orissas ecologically sensitive forests, which cover nearly a third of its land

area. Some 40 percent of the states population depend partly or fully on these forests for their livelihood, subsisting on less than $2 a day. Around half that group are tribal communities who live in the forests, putting their way of life at risk from mining activities. Launching an analysis of draft mining legislation this month, the Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a New Delhi-based research and advocacy organisation, said mining generates wealth, but at a substantial cost to development, the environment and marginalised groups, who find themselves excluded from its economic benefits. A clear illustration of this can be seen in Indias major mining districts - some of which are in Orissa - which rank among its poorest and most polluted,

But the aggressive pursuit of energyintensive mining, together with Orissas ambition to become a major coal-fired energy supplier to the national grid, is putting great pressure on the environment through changes in land use and forest degradation. It is a sad irony that tribal people who for centuries preserved forests and have contributed least to greenhouse gas (emissions) will bear some of the worst effects of not just loss of livelihoods, but with forests gone, that of climate change too, said Badal Tah of Ankuran, an NGO that supports community rights in Rayagada, which has experienced prolonged conflict over bauxite mining. In the past decade, Orissa has suffered extreme heat waves, unpredictable rainfall patterns, floods and cyclonic systems sweeping in from the Bay of Bengal which scientists increasingly link to global warming.

it said.

Economic Ambitions
India aims to grow its GDP by around 9 percent year, meaning it needs to create 10 million job opportunities annually, including in the mining sector.

The climate impact aspect of mining has until now been swept under the carpet, to be dealt with later, Indias Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh told journalists at a media workshop in Delhi organised by the U.N. Environment

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June 2011

Programme (UNEP) to mark World Environment Day earlier this month. There is however no magic bullet to effect the balance between development, the aspiration of rural communities to a better lifestyle and growth of the mining industry in Orissa. Ramesh said decisions should be made on a case-by-case basis, but the biggest challenge is to transform the way people look at forests. If 250 million people in India who depend on forests are not made partners conserving our forests will become difficult, he added. Achim Steiner, UNEP executive director, said the world has yet to fully recognise the importance of forests, relying too heavily on technology to overcome economic constraints. Green growth should not be regarded as anti-industrial, but as a way to minimise industrys harmful impacts, he added. Forests are at the centre of Indias rural economy, yet in terms of development we see no expansion of ecological infrastructure, he told reporters at the workshop, which focused on the ecosystem services forests provide.

Compensation Payments
The battle to save Indias forests, particularly those sitting atop minerals, is becoming more intense. Judicial interventions have been used increasingly to prevent corporate exploitation through mining. In a landmark 2002 ruling that ordered the closure of one of India largest mining entities, the Kudremukh Iron Ore Company Ltd in Karnataka, for violation of

having in a way killed Mother Earth. The court had faced a choice between an ecofriendly approach and a dollar-friendly approach, he said. The federal government has since taken steps to make industrial growth in India greener, particularly the mining sector. They include the introduction of a system to collect money from industrial user agencies, which mainly comprise mining companies that operate on forested land.

Forests store one quarter of all terrestrial carbon. Globally, deforestation accounts for 15 to 17 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, according to UNEP studies.

forest and wildlife laws, Supreme Court Justice Arijit Pasayat said that by destroying nature we are committing matricide,

They must pay compensation to the government based on the value of the standing forests, which is then used to replant trees of an equivalent value in a different area. The funds - gathered centrally - should be disbursed to states on timely basis. But

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Environment & people

Forest loss could spell the end for Orissa's primitive tribes like the Dongria Kondhs.

by January 2010, the 15.6 billion rupees ($347 million) deposited by user agencies in Orissa, the second highest amount among all states, had yet to translate into commensurate greening on the ground.

New versus old forests

While Indias forest cover has increased by more than 3 million hectares in the last decade, minister Ramesh admitted that quality and not quantity is Indias biggest challenge,

adding that new plantations generate fewer ecological benefits than natural forest and should not be seen as the solution. This is because monoculture and fast-growing species - which have lower ecological value and contribute less to offsetting climate change - remain the norm for industrial compensatory plantations and compulsory green belts. The carbon pools are largest in old primary forests; man-made forests can-

not absorb as much carbon since they lack adequate biomass, Niklas Hegelberg, a UNEP programme officer, told journalists at the workshop. Forests store one quarter of all terrestrial carbon. Globally, deforestation accounts for 15 to 17 percent of carbon dioxide emissions, according to UNEP studies. Brij Mohan Singh Rathore, joint secretary at the Ministry of Environment and Forests for the National Mission for a Green India, said that introducing strategic Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) for sensitive industries and geographical areas could be the key to making mining more sustainable. Larger, downstream and long-term implications must be factored inbefore a forest-linked project begins, he said. The main focus of the Green India Mission should be on improving density of forest cover, biodiversity, water and improved biomass, he added. Meanwhile India is making an effort to ensure that benefits from mining activities trickle down to the local level. The draft Mines and Minerals (Development and Regulation) Act, which is ready to be presented to parliament, includes a provision that 26 percent of the net profits from mining must be shared with local communities. But environmentalists question how far the proposed legislation will help preserve forests and limit climatic changes, because it does not set curbs on the amount of forested land that can be exploited for mining activities.

Grimsvotn, an active volcano in Iceland erupted on 20th May, Saturday where smoke belched as high as 20 km (12 miles) into the sky. The eruption was recorded the most powerful after 1873 . The wind blowing on that Saturday evening turned out to be a big problem for people living near the Grimsvotn volcano as 20,000 tons of ash- per was second was erupted into the air. Satellite images show eruptions of ash and vapor forming a huge column, 20 kilometers high, topped by a ballooning cloud. Each eruption was accompanied by lightning and thunder, as the energy was discharged in the ash cloud. This site was the most unusual and an unexpected one seen by the people of Iceland in the last 60 years. The latest episode forced 500 flight cancellations, with Scotland especially hit hard. Northern Europe also bore the brunt of air traffic disruption from Iceland's volcanic ash.
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June 2011


Environment & people

In India, 150 million people who belong to the upper-income groups already emit more than 2.5 tonnes of CO2 per annum. A new Greenpeace report states that Indias rich consuming class is hiding its significant carbon footprint behind legions of poor. Shouldnt the government, which demands differentiated responsibility in the international arena, establish the same within India?

Climate change is today accepted as the largest threat to humanity. It has brought to focus critical questions of linkages between development and environmental sustainability. In December 2007, the worlds governments will meet in Bali, Indonesia, to kick-start the process leading up to the second commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. This meeting is extremely crucial to ensure that governments commit to larger emission cuts that will keep global temperature rise to below 2 degrees. While this international meeting sets the debate for climate justice at a global level this study aims at raising the same debate within the country. It asks the question is there climate injustice happening in India? It presents a case for the government to implement the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities amongst the various socio-economic groups in the country. The report is based on a first of its kind face-to-face

survey across the country ranging from the metros to medium and small towns and rural areas on domestic energy consumption and transportation. Energy consumption patterns in 819 households have been converted into CO2 emissions and then assigned to seven different income classes. The findings plainly illustrate that the considerably significant carbon footprint of a relatively small wealthy class (1% of the population) in the country is camouflaged by the 823 million poor population of the country, who keep the overall per capita emissions below 2 tonnes of CO2 per year. While even the richest income class in this study, earning more than Rs 30,000 a month, produce slightly less than the global average CO2 emissions of 5 tonnes, this amount already exceeds the sustainable global average CO2 emission of 2.5 tonnes per capita that needs to be reached to limit global warming below 2 degrees Centigrade. The carbon footprint of the four highest income classes earning more than Rs 8,000 per month, representing a population of about 150 million people in the country, already exceeds sustainable levels. This report highlights how this injustice ranks in terms of international per capita emissions while at the same time showing how the average per capita emissions of the different socio-economic groups in India are quite literally worlds apart. While India has a right to demand a common but differentiated responsi-

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June 2011

bility at an international level, there is an urgent need for intra-national common but differentiated responsibility too. Developed nations need to cut their CO2 emissions not only to prevent climate change but also to give space to the developing world to catch up, without pushing the global temperatures over the tipping point. The same is true within India. If the upper and middle classes do not manage to check their CO2 emissions, they will not only contribute to global warming, but will also deny hundreds of millions of poor Indians access to development. This study clearly illustrates the growing schism of carbon emissions between the two Indias; the poor bearing the biggest climate impact burden and camouflaging the other Indias lifestyle choices. The prescription provided as a response to the results in the study is not that India should not develop or the wealthy should stop consuming, but to make a clear case for India to decarbonise its development. The path of the 11th and 12th Five Year Plans proposed by the Indian government continues to base the future of energy production in the country mainly on coal power plants, thus further increasing CO2 emissions. A major revision of the future of the power sector is needed, shifting investments from coal and nuclear to renewables and energy efficiency, to create the carbon space for the poor to develop. In short, an Energy Revolution is needed in India as well as the rest of

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the world.

Climate change is man-made

Globally, temperatures have already increased by 0.7 degrees Centigrade over the past century. Temperatures are expected to further increase by a minimum of 1.8 degrees Centigrade to a maximum of 4 degrees Centigrade until the end of this century depending on our ability (or inability) to check climate change by undertaking drastic reductions in emissions of Greenhouse Gases

located in tropical regions will have to bear the brunt of the worst impacts of climate change; countries like India which are on a high growth path will find their development jeopardised if global temperatures rise above 2 degrees Centigrade. Climate Change is man-made. The globe is heating up due to the emission of GHGs, the most prominent being carbon dioxide produced by burning fossil fuels. Historically, developed countries are the biggest contributors to excessive GHG emissions, making them the most

(GHGs). Apart from a few positive impacts on tourism and agriculture in northern Europe, increase in global temperatures will have detrimental effects in most parts of the world. Changing rainfall patterns will result in intense flooding and severe droughts, melting glaciers will aggravate the problem of freshwater shortage. The intensity and frequency of cyclones and other storms will increase, vector-borne diseases will spread and rising sea-levels will eventually drown coastal low-lying megacities like Mumbai and Kolkata. Developing economies
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responsible for climate change. However over the last few decades, emissions of rapidly developing economies like India and China have surged. In fact, rankings by the WRI of top GHG emitters has USA on top, and developing countries such as China and India are ranked at no 2 and 5 respectively, making them amongst the worlds biggest emitters. The next round of negotiations for the second phase of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the period after 2012 should start in December 2007 in Bali.

Governments are busy debating about who to blame and who must commit to drastic emission cuts to save the world from climate change. Until now, the Indian government has maintained that the average per capita CO2 emission of India is low (below 2 tonnes per person) compared to that of the EU-25 states (10.5 tonnes) and the US (23 tonnes). This is the basis for their argument to continue on a fossil fuel-driven economic development pathway. Referring to the principle of common but differentiated responsibilities, India claims its right to development and thus its right to consume more energy from fossil fuels, asking developed nations to create the carbon space. Implicit in this is the notion that the developed countries need to decrease their CO2 emissions drastically, so that developing countries can still increase theirs without pushing the planet in the direction of climate chaos. But India at this point of time is faced by two sharply contradictory realities. On the one hand there is a rapidly growing rich consumer class which has made the country the 12th largest luxury market in the world; on the other hand India is home to more than 800 million poor people on the planet who are extremely vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. This study seeks to expose the lack of climate justice within India. Who is behind the average 1.67 tonnes of per capita CO2 emission in India? Who really contributes to these emissions? Is the rich consumer class hiding their CO2 emissions behind the legions of poor, most of whom do not even have access to electricity? Is it not the obligation of the government which demands differentiated responsibility in the international arena to establish the same within India?

To assess C02 emission levels amongst different income classes in India, quantitative structured interviews were conducted. These interviews were conducted in the four metros (Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, Chennai), 500,000+ population towns (Patna, Ludhiana), 100,000 to 500,000 population towns (Kolhapur, Hubli), towns with a population less that 100,000 (Chatra, Bhadravati, Baghpat, Medak) and about

200 interviews were conducted in rural areas. Interviews were conducted with people who spent a maximum amount of their time at home so as to obtain accurate assessment of energy consumption in the house. A total of 819 interviews were conducted across various income classes. The assessment in this report is restricted to direct energy consumption from household appliances and transportation and does not include outsourcing of services.

from the analysis Appliance analysis was also used to assess contribution of different appliances to the total electricity consumption.

The assessment of CO2 emissions from personal transportation was done in the following manner:
Step 1: Calculating annual bill amount for personal transportation Respondents were asked to provide their estimated bill amounts on travel expenses on a monthly and annual basis Respondents were asked to provide their estimates of the different modes of transport they used and the distance traversed in each mode of transport Respondents were also asked to provide information on leisure travel (by air alone) Step 2: Converting distance to fuel Distances were converted depending on the mode of transport, to fuel consumed In this study people were categorised into 9 socio-economic classes as well as in 7 income groups. For each economic class the proportion of economic group was determined. Taking the population of various economic classes in India from

The assessment was done in the fol lowing manner:

Step 1: Calculating annual bill amount for electricity Respondents were asked to provide their estimated bill amounts for winter months, summer months and the rest of the year They were asked to provide their estimates of how many months they would classify as winter months, summer months and the rest of the year Weighted average of seasonal bill with length (no of months) of season was taken to arrive at the annual electricity bill amount of the household Step 2: Converting bill to units Annual bill amount was converted to units using the billing structure for the city This gave an estimate of number of units of electricity consumed per household per annum Step 3: Validating the calculations For validating this estimate at a household level, appliances used, in what numbers, and for how many months, for the number of days used in a month, and for the number of hours used per day were assessed. Using wattage estimates for all appliances, total electricity consumption was calculated Comparison of this with estimated electricity consumption showed that the two estimates were in line; in a few cases where these two had a wide variance, these cases were rejected

Research Institute, by the population size given by the CIA Factbook. The average annual per capita CO2 emission in India as assessed by this survey is 501 kg. The average CO2 emissions per income group range from 335 kg for the income class below 3,000 rupees per month to an average of 1,494 kg for the income classes above 30,000 rupees per month. The richest consumer classes produce 4.5 times more CO2 than the poorest class, and almost 3 times more than the average (501 kgs). Multiplying the average per capita CO2 emissions per income group with the respective population size gives the absolute CO2 emissions for each income group. While only 14% of the population earns more than 8,000 rupees a month, they contribute 24% of the CO2 emissions of the country. By dividing the absolute CO2 share of each income group by their share of the overall population, one can calculate a Climate Injustice Quotient (CIQ). This clearly shows that when it comes to CO2 emissions, a relatively small wealthy class of 1% of the population in the country is hiding behind a huge proportion of 823 million poor people. It is the countrys poor, with an income of less than Rs 5,000 a month, who keep the average CO2 emissions really low.

The average CO2 emissions per income group range from 335 kg for the income class below 3,000 rupees per month to an average of 1,494 kg for the income classes above 30,000 rupees per month. The richest consumer classes produce 4.5 times more CO2 than the poorest class, and almost 3 times more than the average (501 kgs).

the Business World Marketing Book 2006, these were re-distributed to income classes. Then the income classes were added up from the various socioeconomic classes to arrive at the population.

Lifestyles that heat the planet

While CO2 emissions from cooking fuel increases only slightly with rising income, the increase in CO2 emissions from household electricity consumption (factor 5.5) and personal transport (factor 7.1) with rising incomes is very pronounced. An increasing use of electricity for lighting is already starting at low income levels and stabilises for income classes

Fair ways to fight climate change

Indias overall average per capita CO2 emission is 1.67 tonnes. The figure has been arrived at dividing the overall CO2 emissions of India given by the World

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Environment & people

above Rs 5,000. A far sharper increase of CO2 emission from lighting between the lower and the higher income classes has been mitigated by the use of more efficient lighting systems like tube lights and CFLs, which are not accessible for the poor because of their relatively high price. Therefore CO2 emissions deriving from lighting only increase by a factor of 1.6 from the below Rs 3,000 to the Rs 5,000-8,000 income class and then stabilises. The considerably low rate of increase in CO2 emissions from household lighting clearly shows that lifestyle-induced increase in electricity consumption is buffered by the use of more efficient appliances. The use of inefficient lighting is responsible for 126 million tonnes of CO2 emissions per year (7% of Indias overall emissions). Making CFLs, tubelights and other efficient lighting systems accessible to the poor by massive price reduction and prohibiting the sale of inefficient lights like incandescent bulbs, could cut these emissions by 95 million tonnes, achieving a 5% reduction of overall annual emissions. The CO2 emissions from fans, like that of lighting products, reaches a plateau in the 5-8,000 income class while that of electric geysers (water heaters) hits a plateau at the 8-10,000 income class. Washing machines only start to appear in the 5-8,000 class and peak at the 15-30,000 class indicating that the upper income class prefers using washing services/laundries. The outsourcing of services is not factored in this assessment as it is only based on the household electricity bill, signifying that this study underestimates the CO2 emissions of the upper income classes. Air conditioning today only makes up a small proportion of the overall household electricity consumption. Due to its high price it only starts to be used by income classes over 10,000 rupees but remarkably enough increases steeply by 6.5 times up to the Rs 30,000 class. But by far the most pronounced increase in electricity consumption and thus CO2 emissions from lower income groups to higher income groups is in the use of Other appliances. Other appliances constitutes all the small electronic devices that make living more comfort-

able for those who can afford it. They range from DVD players to kitchen equipment and from mobile phones to computers. None of these products account for a really significant share of the CO2 emissions, but together they add up to 49% of the overall household emissions of the >30k income class. The CO2 emissions of these other appliances increases from 4 kg per person in the <3,000 income class to 534 kg of CO2 per person in the >30,000 income class

Reducing our energy consumption is just one way we can help reduce CO2 emissions. Photo Credit: Stock.Xchng by a factor of 136. With increasing income, consumption changes from only essentials like food and clothing to a variety of lifestyle goods including electronics. Even with an increase in efficiency of all these products, the constant addition of new goods that consume electricity would drive the lifestyle of the >30,000 class over the limits of sustainability. Individual CO2 emissions from transport were split into two-wheelers, cars, buses, flights and other forms of transportation. Overall the increase in CO2 from the lowest to the richest income class increased by a factor of 7.1, far higher than the increase of 4.5 times for all uses. The increase is due to 3 factors. There is a gradual increase in the use of two-wheelers resulting in an increase from 11 kg of CO2 to 98 kg

of CO2 per person The use of cars is starting at an income of more than Rs 10,000 per month There is a massive increase in air travel for the income class above Rs 30,000 per month The share of transport contributes only 7.2% of the overall personal emissions assessed by this study. WRI attributes a 4.9% share of transport to the overall CO2 emission of the country. This is low in comparison with an average global share of 14.6%. The transportation sector in India is witnessing a boom. A study done by TERI shows that from the 1980s to 2003, the number of vehicles on the road increased by almost 15 times. The study further predicts that the number of vehicles in India will increase from todays figure of 60 million to approximately 537 million by 2030, resulting in a 9-13-fold increase of CO2 emissions from this sector. In the absence of good fast-train connectivity between cities, according to Civil Aviation Minister Praful Patel, the country will need 1,500 to 2,000 passenger planes in 10 years, up from 260 now. A study by DIFID predicts that the overall CO2 emissions of transportation in India could increase to 1,200 million tonnes in 2030, which is comparable to 70% of Indias total CO2 emissions today. Three developments are crucial to limit the massive increase of CO2 emissions from the transport sector. Mandatory fuel efficiency standards need to be put in place swiftly so that the new cars entering the market use as little petrol or diesel as possible. This also helps the country to reduce its increasing dependency on oil imports. Public transport systems like metros and efficient bus networks need to be built at least in all metros, also enabling these cities to handle the growing traffic burden. Last but not least, a high-speed train network between big cities needs to be established to curb the dependency on air travel within the country.

International climate injustice

Though all the Indian income classes

Environment & people


June 2011

Manufactures of
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June 2011


Environment & people

stay below the world average per capita CO2 emission, unfortunately such a view misses out the third dimension of climate justice. Namely that the global distribution of CO2 emissions needs to be not only equitable, but also sustainable. Todays CO2 emissions already lead to a steady increase of global temperature, and with a global population still rising, an average CO2 emission of 5 tonnes would drive the planet into a state of climate crisis. To achieve the needed reduction of global CO2 emissions to check climate change, average world CO2 emissions need to be brought down to 2.5 tonnes per capita by 2030. In India 150 million people who today earn more than 8,000 rupees per month already emit more than 2.5 tonnes CO2 per annum (sustainable global average per capita CO2 emission). To create the space for the remaining 980 million people in the country to develop without heating the

planet above 2 degrees Centigrade, India needs to find ways to reduce the CO2 emissions of the upper 150 million people.

This study clearly shows that Indian climate politics fall short if it only refers to national per capita CO2 levels. As at the international level, where there is common but differentiated responsibility, there needs to be an intra-national common but differentiated responsibility too. Developed nations need to cut their CO2 emissions not only to prevent climate change but also to give space to the developing world to catch up, without cooking the planet. The same is true within India; if the upper and the middle class do not manage to check their CO2 emissions, they will not only contribute to global warming, they will also deny the hundreds of millions of poor in the

country, those who will be the most severely impacted by climate change, access to development. As long as economic growth is not decarbonised, the simplistic view that economic growth will automatically result in an increase in prosperity for all stands disproved. It is now accepted by scientists and economists that increasing CO2 emissions due to economic development will destroy the foundation of millions of livelihoods on this planet. In order to build social justice in the country, India not only has to put pressure on the developed world to cut their CO2 emissions, it also needs to do its share to mitigate climate change. So does India need to stay poor and should the burgeoning middle class stop consumption and abandon the newfound upward mobility? Not necessarily, if it manages to decarbonise its development.

Eco Vocabulary
Really means that it came from something that was alive, like a plant or insect or even a human. If a cleaner comes from 100% organic ingredients, it's plant-based, not synthetic. If a fertilizer is organic it is derives its nutrients from decomposition, not a laboratory. However, these plants may have been grown with pesticides, herbicides, or in unsustainable conditions. There is no government regulation on the use of this word, and it is often abused.

Certified Organic
The USDA certifies production methods that are free from chemical pesticides, herbicides, fertilizers, run-off, and other environmentally dangerous chemicals.

Well Run Dry For a growing proportion of the world population, access to fresh water is becoming a utopia.

Environment & people


June 2011

Eco Tourism

India's most loved tropical paradise, Kerala boasts of some of the richest biodiversity in the World. Popularly known as the God's Own Country, Kerala is today one of the most sought after tourist destinations in Asia. Located at the southern most tip of India, Kerala is a 560 km long, narrow stretch of land. The land blessed by the God, is higher in diversity with the climate more humid and wetter. Kerala represents one of India's three richest tropical moist forest areas. This part of the country with wet evergreen forest has the most complex and species rich vegetation assemblage in the country. Endemism is very high especially in flowering plants, small mammals and amphibians. Kerala is also home to a kaleidoscope of people and cultures.

Kerala Backwaters
Lush Backwaters of Kerala along the 600 km long coastline of dazzling beaches are unique to Kerala. These Backwaters of Kerala are the basis of a unique lifestyle and mesmerizing sights. The boats cross shallow, palm-fringed lakes and travel along narrow shady canals, where Coir, Copra, and Cashews are loaded into the boats.

Kerala Beaches
The 600 km long shoreline of Kerala dotted with some of the most charming and most enticing beaches of the world. The beaches of Kerala are all in splendour with coconut groves, natural harbors, lagoons and sheltered coves. The palmlined beaches of Kerala are most visited for the gentle surf and the soothing azure waters. Some of the beaches in Kerala where you can sit amidst tranquil and healthy ambience along with some Yoga,

Kerala Wildlife Resources

Settled in the luxuriant forests of the Western Ghats in Kerala are some of the finest Wildlife sanctuaries and National Parks. Each one home to rare animals, birds, reptiles, insects and plants. You will come across endangered Nilgiri tahr, lion-tailes macaque, atlas moth, Travancore evening brown, rarest of butterflies in the world. Kerala is home to the Neelakurinji that blooms once every twelve years, podocarpus wallichianus (the only south Indian conifer), and skirting. These exotic locations are some of the most refreshing and revitalizing trekking trails in the country. Some most visited wildlife sanctuaries in Kerala are Wynad Wildlife Sanctuary, Eravikulam National Park, Periyar National Park, Silent Valley National Park. A visit to these parks should be regarded as a memorable experience, as this part of India is the last representative virgin tract of tropical evergreen forests in India.

Location: Kerala is a south Indian state, located in the extreme southern tip of India. Time to Visit: Any Time of the year. Weather: Salubrious and Pleasant. Known For: The Rich Biological Resource. Kerala

Meditation and Ayurveda practice are Alappuzha Beach, Kovalam Beach, Pthiramanal Beach, Sankhumugham Beach, Thirumullavaram Beach and Varkala Beach Kerala.

Kerala Hill Stations

Kerala's highland area rising to an average height of 1520 m covers the tropical forests of the Western Ghats, housing rich flora and fauna. The hill station of Munnar and Nelliyampathy in Kerala are an ideal spot for trekking.

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Environment & people

Eco Vocabulary

Raw: Uncooked. The tricky thing is a lot of what we consume is cooked without our realizing it. Prepared beverages like teas, smoothies, juices, and even soy milk are often pasteurized to make them shelf stable. Pasteurization kills the living organisms, both the dangerous and the good. Cooking also degrades enzymes, protein catalysts our bodies use in digestion, growth, and waste removal. Even flash pasteurization (high temperature for a short period of time) is enough to destroy probiotics. Raw sugar, raw juices, raw cheeses, and raw nuts are all great

Nature provides a free lunch, but only if we control our appetites. ~William Ruckelshaus, Business Week, 18 June 1990 When a man throws an empty cigarette package from an automobile, he is liable to a fine of $50. When a man throws a billboard across a view, he is richly rewarded. ~Pat Brown, quoted in David Ogilvy, Ogilvy on Advertising, 1985 Because we don't think about future generations, they will never forget us. ~Henrik Tikkanen I'm not an environmentalist. I'm an Earth warrior. ~Darryl Cherney, quoted in Smithsonian, April 1990 I think the environment should be put in the category of our national security. Defense of our resources is just as important as defense abroad. Otherwise what is there to defend? ~Robert Redford, Yosemite National Park dedication, 1985 Let us a little permit Nature to take her own way; she better understands her own affairs than we. ~Michel de Montaigne, translated We never know the worth of water till the well is dry. ~Thomas Fuller, Gnomologia, 1732 Your grandchildren will likely find it incredible - or even sinful - that you burned up a gallon of gasoline to fetch a pack of cigarettes! ~Paul MacCready, Jr. We do not inherit the earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children. ~Native American Proverb There are no passengers on Spaceship Earth. We are all crew. ~Marshall McLuhan, 1964


Environment & people


June 2011

Best Compliments from

Kesoram Cement Works:Post: Basantnagar - 505 187, Dist: Karimnagar (A.P.) Tel: 08728-228125, 228252, Fax: 08728-228126, E-mail: Vasavadatta Cement Post: Sedam-585222, Dist: Gulbarga (Karnataka) Tel: 08441-276277, 277402, Fax: 08441-276139, email:

he Minister of Environment and Forests, Jairam Ramesh, takes pride in the high standards of transparency maintained by his ministry and the quality of its website. He will have less reason to be proud of a key document produced by his ministry, however - the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification 2011, one of the four pivotal laws that form the mainstay of the environment ministries functions. As a legal document specifying the rules governing use of coastal spaces, the 2011 regulation is a shoddy piece of work. Here are some examples: The area of the coast to be regulated - the coastal regulation zone (CRZ) is classified into four categories, namely CRZ-I, CRZ-II, CRZ-III and CRZ-IV, which are defined in Section 7 of the document. However, Annexure 1, which provides guidelines for the preparation of coastal zone management plans, refers to a fifth undefined category, CRZ V! Section 3 lists activities prohibited in the CRZ. Section 4, dealing with regulation of permissible activities in the CRZ, states that "(t)he following

activities shall be regulated except those prohibited in Para 3 above". What could this mean? A case of bad English or a loophole (for activities that are neither prohibited nor regulated) waiting to be exploited? Sections of the document (referred to internally as paragraphs) are not numbered sequentially. The document starts with Section 2. There is no section 4.1, but there is a 4.2, and Section 8.(i).V.1.(i) is followed by 8.(i).V.1.(iii)! All of this may just be an annoyance, but this purports to be a legal document and the context of a subsection is obtained from the section to which it belongs. This shoddiness is especially difficult to understand when it is common knowledge that impreciseness and ambiguities in the earlier CRZ rules were exploited to the hilt and that enormous time of the courts has been taken up to dissect the earlier rules threadbare and interpret their meaning.

The history of Coastal Zone regulations

Turning to the substantive issues, in

order to appreciate the changes brought about through the new regulation, a recap is necessary of what existed earlier. Rules prescribing land use along the coast were first imposed in 1991 with the stated purpose of preserving the coastal environment and, in particular, the ecologically fragile areas. The area of the coast to be regulated - labeled the Coastal Regulation Zone (CRZ) - was a strip of land along the coast extending 500m landward from the high tide line and the shore exposed at low tide. Land next to bays, estuaries, rivers and other water bodies influenced by tidal action was also part of the CRZ. The CRZ was broken up into different categories based on the level of protection required and practicable. Ecologically sensitive areas such as mangroves, coral reefs, sand dunes, salt marshes, breeding and spawning areas for marine life, and heritage sites were to be provided maximum protection and categorized as CRZ-I. The shorefront between the low and high tide lines was also included in this category. CRZ-I zones were to be kept free of any new developmental activity. Coastal areas

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June 2011

that were already urbanized and substantially built up were categorized as CRZ-II. Urban communities falling in CRZ-II were prohibited from expanding on the seaward side of their existing limits and from increasing the density of

shore such as tourism and ports and harbors, and required a clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forests (MOEF). Island territories such as Andaman & Nicobar fell in a distinct category, CRZ-IV.

The restrictions imposed on coastal development however expectedly did not go well with industrial lobbies - tourism, shrimp industry, mining, power, oil and gas, and real estate, to name a few - that were keen to utilize coastal resources

habitats within the zone. The mainland coast not falling in CRZ-I or II was categorized as CRZ-III and this included the coast adjacent to rural settlements. In CRZ-III zones, the area within 200m of the high tide line was declared a 'no development zone'. New development could take place only in the area between 200 and 500m from the high tide line, was restricted to industries requiring a waterfront or fore-

While environmental concerns were clearly the driving force, the 1991 regulations also recognised the right of coastal communities engaged in traditional occupations such as fishing and agriculture to continue to use these coastal spaces to live and work in. These were the broadly the features that the 1991 regulations started with. Environmentalists welcomed these regulations pointing out that keeping

the coast free from construction and industry and protecting its natural features such as mangroves would not only help preserve the coastal ecosystem but also safeguard coastal communities from the sea and preserve livelihoods that were dependent on this ecosystem. (The role played by mangroves in protecting coastal communities was dramatically borne out during the tsunami of 2004). The restrictions imposed on coastal development however expectedly did not go well with industrial lobbies - tourism, shrimp industry, mining, power, oil and gas, and real estate, to name a few - that were keen to utilize coastal resources. Hostile propaganda by those with vested interests combined with a lack of conviction in the bureaucracy and the political executive worked to undermine the law from its inception. As a result, the last two decades have seen, on the one hand, large-scale violation of the law condoned by the state agencies responsible for its implementation and on the other hand, numerous amendments to the regulations by the environment ministry diluting its provisions. The coast has been opened up for
June 2011 21 Environment & people

protests destruction of coastal zones

mining, oil and gas exploration and extraction, atomic energy projects, storage, bridges and sea links. Neither the 'no development zone' nor even CRZ-I areas have remained sacrosanct. Projects of the Department of Atomic Energy were permitted in the coastal zone including CRZ-I areas in 2001. An amendment in 2002 permitted Special Economic Zones (SEZs) in the CRZ spanning the 'no development zone'. These SEZs could host 'non-polluting industries', desalination plants, beach resorts and related recreational facilities. The rules were modified in 2009 to permit the Navi Mumbai airport in a part of the CRZ that included an ecologically fragile zone. In 2008, the draft of a new regulation from the Environment Ministry proposed to open up large parts of the coast for industry. State governments could declare sections of the coast to be "economically significant areas" and establish sites for mining, tourism, industrial estates, foreshore facilities for Special Economic Zones, power plants, green field airports and so on. The draft was dropped in July 2009 after facing
Environment & people 22 June 2011

sustained opposition from fish workers, environmental groups, the governments of eight coastal states and even a parliamentary committee looking into the matter.

More of the same

The present regulation continues the trend seen in the amendments made over the years. It uses the basic framework of the 1991 regulation, with some changes. One is the inclusion of coastal waters and tidal influenced water bodies, and the exclusion of the island territories such as Andaman and Nicobar from the CRZ. (The coasts of island territories will be governed by a different set of rules). A second change is the extension of the CRZ boundary to a 'hazard' line where this line lies beyond 500m of the high tide line. This line will be determined by the Survey of India "taking into account tides, waves, sea level rise and shoreline changes". The seabed and waters from the low tide line to the territorial limit of 12 nautical miles as well as the water area of tidal influenced water

bodies will now be part of the CRZ and subject to regulation. The dilution of restrictions on construction continues with roads on stilts being permitted along the coastal zone and over coastal waters. The CRZ-III 'no development zone', has been effectively reduced in width with dwelling units of 'traditional coastal communities including fisher folk' permitted between 100m and 200m from the high tide line. However, the major 'liberalisation' of the CRZ has been reserved for Greater Mumbai, something that has been the demand of most Mumbai politicians. The floor space index (FSI) applicable for redevelopment of slums and dilapidated buildings that fall in the regulated area has been increased, allowing high-rise buildings to replace the existing low-rise dwellings. Koliwadas, once the residential villages of traditional fishermen, would also see construction activity as the more liberal CRZ-III norms will apply compared to the earlier CRZ-II. Justifying these changes, the environment minister says that "(s)pecial dispensation for Mumbai has been granted after recognizing the enormous pressure on it ... Had this not been done, Mumbai would continue to bleed". The irony is that it is precisely because there is enormous pressure on the coastline and coastal waters of Mumbai that its coast needs greater protection. The new regulation reads as a compendium of the myriad exceptions to the few rules - of industries and projects that may in general or based on a case-bycase review, use the coast despite the environmental damage they will cause. It represents a further move away from managing the coastal natural resources based on principles to one based on discretion and exigency. - Kannan Kasturi

Middle India: Towns versus cities

By Rahul Srivastava According to the Government of India Census, the urban habitats which include population figures in the 10,00020,000 range are the most numerous (1,344 urban agglomerations or townships in all). This is followed by those with 20,000-50,000 people (1,151), then 5,000-10,000 (888), 50,000-99,999 (401), followed by the real towns and cities with a population of 1,00,000 and above (393) and finally with less than 5,000 (191). Thus in all there are 4,378 urban centres or townships that house the 285 million urban citizens of the country. Of these there are 35 cities that have more than 1 million people and together account for 107.88 million people. That means the remaining 177.12 million or more than half of the total urban population of the country lives in small-sized towns or urban agglomerations. Yet, when we visualise Urban India, it is largely the big cities that come to mind. Of course, if we compare them in global terms, these large urban centers are a force to reckon with. In 1991, of the 20 largest cities in the world, three were from India , and in 2001, six are from India . Even the population share of Class I cities within the country was 65% in 1991. But this once again does not mean that resource allocation should simply follow the same logic, since qualitatively these cities are very different. They are placed differently on the historical map of colonialism and demonstrate the same problems of colonial economies as a whole. That is, they are intimately tied to the depleted agrarian foundations of the nations in which they are embedded. Their populations congregate around tens of thousands of villages, interlinked into regional, national and global markets and should ideally be networked with all the 4,000-plus towns, cities and urban agglomerations. Such a network would sustain the agricultural economy regionally and globally and also become the base for the industrial, manufacturing and service sectors through providing competitive labour.In the absence of

such a network, the bigger cities become the magnet for populations that emerge from impoverished rural areas which, finding their closest towns incapable of absorbing their skills, come to depend on the informal economies of the large cities. A study, Urban Governance for Sustainable Development by Dr Alka Bharat and Chandan Chawla (1994), states that the reason for the skewed population distribution and its consequent burden on existing urban infrastructures is caused by lack of investment in the smaller towns and urban agglomerations in the first place. Given the fact that the Indian habitat shows a demonstrably large population living in rural areas, the development of smaller towns that are closer to these habitats would allow for a more balanced economic growth. Unfortunately the tendency has been to narrate a one-dimensional story which links urbanisation and globalisation and makes the larger cities compete with each other for a status that makes them part of global business flows. Thus cities like Mumbai aim to

become nodes in international economic chains and ignore the fact that its history, like that of other Indian cities, is as much tied to the hinterland as it is to the world at large. There has been a bias within urban studies against small towns, where the idea of the urban has always been seen to be ideally manifested in the big city. The scale of development in newly-developed urban centres in other parts of the world such as Shanghai has always been in favour of expensive and large-scale infrastructure. Large investments in big cities have often been justified as they are perceived to be engines of development and growth, a geographical mutation of the trickle-down effect theory. However, in reality, large-scale cities are based on a more exploitative relationship with their hinterlands for their physical survival, especially for energy and water and in India this translates into degraded rural peripheries which eventually become urbanised as slums or very jaded townships, always in the shadow of the big city. Even in cultural terms, the big city has always been glorified, as a space where conditions of modernity come together to develop art and a more sophisticated form of living. In reality, those moments of liberation, often found most concentrated in European cities in the first half of the 20th century, are long gone. From books to coffee houses to music and theatre, the forces of commercialisation in the media and the language of new economies have ensured that these spaces have become standardised. Yet, many scholars of cities still glamourise those moments and tend to influence the shape of imaging urban futures. While in reality, not only are smaller towns more manageable, they also have a more intimate relationship with their surrounding regions and more often than not, these contiguities are what sustains their economies. A country such as India with a significantly high rural population would do well to shift the focus of urban investments to these smaller townships. With new communication and transport technologies, there is no reason to believe that those spaces cannot also become important centers of art, culture and commerce and help us transform our notions of Middle India.
June 2011 23 Environment & people

Areca leaf chappals seek market lift

South Indian disposable dinner plates are now popular throughout the world. Interestingly, this is made from a palm leaf. The broad leaf sheath of areca nut (betelnut or supari) palm is an ecofriendly raw material that's well accepted by all. Commercial chappal production from the very same raw material is a recent development. "Those who are allergic to chappals made from synthetic materials like PVC (Polyvinyl chloride) and PVA (Polyvinyl Alcohol) prefer these", points out K A Joseph. His Multicare Company in Thrissur, Kerala, is producing Areca leaf chappals apart from dinner plates. Though Multicare started trials with this new product two years ago, marketing was initiated barely few months ago. Now they are selling about 4,000 pairs a month. These are priced from Rs.125375. In 'areca leaf chappal', only the top portion of the sole is made from areca leaf. Below this, depending on pattern, one or two layers of rubber will be there. Commercial utilization of arecanut leaf sheath has a history of just a decade and a half. Though arecanut farmers have been using this bye-product for many household uses, earlier most of the fallen leaves were wasted. Joseph was in Nigeria till recently. After returning his roots in Kerala, he started this industry. He is was aware that decades ago the late S R K Menon had shown the world for the first time the possibility of making
Environment & people 24 June 2011

chappals from areca leaf.

Dream of 35 years
Menon, a retired scientist from North Parur, Kerala was 70 when he came out with areca leaf chappal and other products. In 1975, he had held an exhibition of these products at Central Plantation Crops Research Institute in Vittal, Karnataka. For those who expressed doubts about the durability of areca leaf chappals, he was showing the one he was wearing. "See this, I am using this since last two years", he used to reply. Areca Palm leaf chappals made by late S R K Menon way back in 1975 . Pic: Shree Padre. Three and half decades after Menon saw various areca leaf products being used worldwide, its chappal has started realizing his dream. How is that Joseph got this idea of commercially producing areca leaf chappals? He was impressed by straw chappals that are being made at Rajasthan. It's very eco-friendly too. "On seeing these straw chappals, it occurred to me why not we make this from areca leaf sheath?" he recalls.

But once the experiments started, there were many problems. Making 'round cuts' is very difficult in areca leaf sheath due to the fiber strands. Thickness of any leaf sheath isn't uniform. It has lot of variations. With continuous trial and error, Joseph was able to pass these hurdles. Then came the question of strap. Making straps from leaf sheath isn't possible. Joseph wanted to stick to ecofriendly material. Searching or one, banana fiber came to his mind. Pleated banana fiber straps conformed to the requirement well. All said and done, finding an alternative to an inch-long plastic tube that covers the front tip of the strap still remains a question. Multicare areca leaf chappals have good demand in major cities of Tamilnadu like Chennai, Coimbatore etc. It has takers in big cities like Delhi, Jaipur etc. Recently, an exporter has sent it to Spain, Germany and US. Those with allergy to synthetic chappals, corns & cracks in feet continuously use these. "We are able to get a small section of faithful customers like this", says Joseph. Seeing the catalogue, the customer has to select from different patterns,

strap colors and strap patterns. On indent, the footwear is made and dispatched. This is by and large an indoor chappal. It can't be used outdoors especially during monsoon. "If few drops of water fall on it, not a problem. It can be dried by keeping it vertically. But the chappal can't be allowed to soak." Confesses Joseph, "The main suspicion of most of customers is about the life-span of a areca chappal." According to him, if used only indoors, this footwear will last like any rubber slippers. "Whatever care one takes for leather chappals will be good enough for this one too. If the use is less, one can even expect to wear it for a couple of years." Though Multicare makes such chappals for all sizes, Child and Gents models have very low demand. At present, womenfolk constitute the lions-share of the clientele. Joseph puts the share of ladies chappals out of the total demand at 70 percent. Custom - made Interestingly, all these chappals are custom-made. "Before pasting the cutout areca leaf sheath", explains Joseph,

"we should know which strap has to be fixed to this." In other words, gumming the areca leaf top to the rubber sole and fixing the strap has to be done in one stretch. Because of this technical bottle neck, the company can't keep chappals ready. This chappal, according to Joseph, has given very positive results for those suffering from cracking of back foot and corn problem. People who spend long hours under air-conditioned atmosphere have to take extra care about their nosetip and feet. Areca leaf sheath chappal, he claims, gives the required warmth to the feet in such a situation. Another area where this footwear has found acceptance is in Ayurveda Vaidyasalas of Kerala. In the treatment room called 'valachchil', the floor is always smeared with oil. As such, it remains slippery posing threat to the inmates. Chappals made from PVA and PVC is very dangerous in such conditions as it will slip. Strap constitutes the costliest part of these chappals. Broader the strap, chappal turns costlier. Multicare gets these straps pleated by women belonging to Kudumbashree unit. An experienced lady can make 50 sets of straps a day. As this process is completely manual, it is one more bottleneck in the production line. According to Joseph, the straps incur sixty percent costs of the chappal sets. These are mainly meant for the richer class. Though it has good encouraging response overseas, cheaper synthetic products from China, says Joseph, are offering tough competition. Since the market is not on big scale, employing the women round the year to make straps is difficult. "We are banking only on mouth to mouth publicity. The market is picking up in a very slow pace. As such, this venture, as it stands isn't remunerative", complains Joseph. There is another marketing disadvantage. Such footwear is only sold through handicrafts emporia's and not by mainstream shoe shops. But since chappals are not the only products of Multicare, the firm is pushing on despite challenges. R&D activities are continuing hoping that the market will take an upward turn in future. - D. Krishna

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Environment & people

Surya devta is on his side

By Yoshita Sengupta Seen riding his solar-powered twowheeler to Mantralaya last week, city resident Ayub Khan Pathan says the fuelfree bike will soon be available in open market Sometimes, the greatest inventions have the humblest of beginnings. Ayub Khan Pathan, son of a farmer from Ahmednagar, moved to Pune with barely Rs 250 and a Bachelor's degree in Electronics, 21 years ago. Today, the 44 year-old is the creator of a two-wheeler that runs entirely on solar energy, and is the product of decades of research in alternative energy sources. Pathan took the plunge early. As a 20 year-old, he began his own company, Alight Electronics, to manufacture and sell solar lamps. Five years later, in 1995, he began selling another invention? a solar powered inverter that provided power for eight hours flat. This, he sold to vegetable vendors and stall owners for Rs 1,200 ? about half the price of an inverter that works on electricity. "I wanted to promote eco-friendly and economical ways of obtaining power at the grass-root level," says Pathan, who has spent twenty years tinkering in his workshop, coming up with ways to do just that. Three years ago, he had a brainwave that could easily be the Next Big Thing in the auto industry ? a hybrid non-geared two wheeler that gets its juice not from a petrol pumping engine, but through a solar panel stuck to its apron (below the headlight, above the front wheel). Purchased from a junkyard, the 80cc Scooty was modified ? Pathan worked on its frame, fitted a simple 40 watt solar panel and threw in a direct current (DC) motor, which was then connected to the rear wheels of the bike. The solar panel would charge the DC motor, which in turn, would power the wheels. After three years of trials and modify-

ing, Pathan had on his hands a twowheeler that could run for between 200 to 250 km at an average speed of 45 km/h. The best part: at 25 kg, just about anyone could ride this bike. "It has no

charges the bike using regular electric supply on days the sun doesn't shine." The multi-purpose 500-watt socket, he added, has been devised so that it can supply power to electronic equipment such as televisions and computers. One can also charge a mobile phone while riding the two-wheeler. While Pathan spent Rs 27,000 on putting the invention together, he insists that when produced on a large-scale, the cost will be reduced by nearly Rs 10,000. "In a large-scale systematic production, I will be able to sell the motorcycle for Rs 16,000. Besides, there will be no additional costs to the customer, including fuel." Given the recent fuel hike across the country, this might sound like good news to most. For Pathan, however, it is a step towards negating the effects of global warming. Pathan was in Mumbai last week to exhibit his invention to ministers. "I met Ajit Pawar (Deputy Chief Minister of Maharashtra), RR Patil (Home Minister), Chhagan Bhujbal (Public Works Minister) and a few others," he claims. "I want to meet the Chief Minister," he adds. The response from ministers has been positive, Pathan claims. "They really liked the idea of using solar energy and said people should take more initiatives like I have to solve the crisis. They assured to help me develop the product and provide financial assistance." Step one over, Pathan has now set his sights on obtaining a patent for his

"I wanted to promote eco-friendly and economical ways of obtaining power at the grass-root level," says Pathan, who has spent twenty years tinkering in his workshop, coming up with ways to do just that.
kick, no starter and does not need fuel or electricity to function," Pathan says, with obvious pride. Pathan also fitted a device (called a charger controller card) between the solar panel and the motor, to ensure that the supply of power stops once the motor is charged. And Pathan's solar motorcycle is prepared for rainy days too. "There is a multi-purpose socket in the bike that invention. He then plans to sell it in the open market after making a slight modification on the existing model. "I want to integrate the solar panel that is right now attached externally, into the motorcycle. I also intend to install solar LED headlights, left and right indicators and brake indicators. This will reduce the weight of the two-wheeler by 2 to 3 kgs, which will ensure better performance," he says.

Environment & people


June 2011

Tribal activist takes on steel giant

Tribal activist and journalist Dayamani Barla, who won this year's Chingari Award for Women Against Corporate Crime in India, discusses her battle against the entry of Arcelor Mittal into Jharkhand where she says 80 lakh adivasis have been displaced by industry

By Moushumi Basu
rom the days when she used to work as a domestic help, to taking up cudgels against steel giant Arcelor Mittal, in Jharkhand, Dayamani Barla's journey has been an incredible one. For the Mundari journalist-turnedactivist, who hails from Jharkhand's tribal Gumla district, it was a rare moment of triumph when she was declared recipient of the 2008 Chingari Award for Women Against Corporate Crime in India. The award was presented by writeractivist Arundhati Roy on December 5, in New Delhi. The two founders of the Chingari Trust, Rashida Bee and Champa Devi Shukla, were there to present Barla a trophy, citation and cash prize of Rs 50,000. The award is in recognition of the important role Barla has played in the ongoing struggle by indigenous people against Arcelor Mittal, in the twin dis-

tricts of Gumla and Khunti in Jharkhand. "She was found to be the most worthy amongst the three candidates shortlisted by the jury, from several nominations received for the award this year," says Nirmala Karunan, chairperson of the Chingari Trust. Thirty-eight-year-old Dayamani Barla, who earns her livelihood running a tea shop in town, is an unassuming woman. Sitting on a wooden bench in her shop, she sips tea with her fellow comrades. "The award has once again given me a forum to espouse the cause of lakhs of villagers in nearly 40 villages in Jharkhand," were her first words on receiving news of being nominated for the prestigious award. The Mittals have proposed to set up one of the world's largest greenfield projects in the area -- a 12-million-tonnesper-annum-capacity steel plant, at an investment of Rs 40,000 crore. "They will require 12,000 acres for the plant alone. They also want to set up a 1,500 MW

power plant. If this is allowed to come up, can you imagine lakhs of people will be displaced. We will not give an inch of our land," says a determined Barla. Apart from the massive displacement, the project will destroy huge areas of local forests and water sources, putting the environment and source of sustenance of local tribes at risk. Trees are being felled in a number of villages and this is the confluence site of two local rivulets, the Karo and the Chata. "We will not allow this at any cost," Barla insists. Even if steel majors have made their presence felt across the globe it remains to be seen how they will eventually make their way into this tribal heartland. "Jaan denge, par ek inch bhi zameen na denge. Mittal ko baithne na denge. Hamare purvajon ka zameen nahin looto (We may give our lives, but will not part with an inch of our ancestral land. Mittal will not be allowed to grab our ancestral land)," say the agitating villagers led by Barla under the banner of the Adivasi

Environment & people


June 2011

Moolvaasi Asthitva Raksha Manch (AMARM). Barla's prowess with the pen has played a large part in mobilising the villagers. Ek inch bhi zameen nahi denge (We will not give an inch of our land), a booklet written by her on the anti-Mittal movement, has flooded thousands of tribal homes. At public meetings across villages she shows video clippings of documentary films like Ek aur Ulgulan (Another revolt) and Kis Ki Raksha (In whose defence?). The former film is based on the tribal agitation against the Karo hydel project in Jharkhand, while the latter captures the spirit and determination of tribals from 245 villages across Jharkhand who oppose the government's plans to extend an army firing range in the forest area of Netrahat that they have occupied for centuries. In both cases, people's movements forced the army and the government to scrap their plans. "Video is a very powerful tool in putting across the movement's message to the villagers. The two documentaries depict success stories of tribal movements in Jharkhand. These films are inspiring, re-igniting the embers within our people," says Barla. She adds: "The struggle is not just against displacement. It's also about the protection of our culture, language, identity and environment." Nearly 80 lakh adivasis have been displaced under various projects in Jharkhand; only 5-6% of them have been rehabilitated. The erstwhile landowners have today been reduced to bonded labourers who have slowly migrated from their land. The adivasi population across the state has been drastically reduced to a mere 26%, Barla explains. Barla's anti-Mittal struggle got her an audience in Europe last September when she was invited to participate in a five-day workshop of the European Social Forum (ESF), at Malmo in Sweden. She made her presentation in a public

debate on 'Rights to Indigenous Life and Worldview -- Struggles against Mining', followed by a deliberation on 'Indigenous Peoples and Planetarian Environmental Justice'. Barla was selected for a panel of 23 eminent speakers from across the world to address a workshop on 'Working for a sustainable world, food sovereignty, environmental and climate justice', and other themes. "For any tribal community, land is not an asset to be sold. It's their heritage. They do not look at the land as its master but as its protector for future genera-

degree in commerce. "Do you know why I got into journalism? It was to get out the voice of the people. If you're thinking of change, you have to deal with these issues and not run away," she says. Barla describes rural journalism as "full of sour experiences". Collecting news can be difficult because the stories she seeks out are often the ones the people who call the shots and the advertisers don't want told. Although the media in India is thriving, she says, the plight of tribals goes unheard. According to Barla,

Natural resources to us are not merely a means of livelihood; our identity, dignity, autonomy and culture centres around it and does so for generations. These communities will not survive if they are alienated from the natural resources. How is it possible to rehabilitate or compensate us
tions," observes Barla. She believes that corporate houses are ignorant of the concept of subsistence economy among tribal societies that is rooted in agriculture and forest produce. "Natural resources to us are not merely a means of livelihood; our identity, dignity, autonomy and culture centres around it and does so for generations. These communities will not survive if they are alienated from the natural resources. How is it possible to rehabilitate or compensate us," she asks. "At best, in return they will offer a job to one person can they compensate us for land that has been owned by so many generations?" Barla is equally acerbic in her comments about journalism. The first Mundari woman journalist from Jharkhand, she received the P Sainath Counter Media Award for Better Rural Journalism in 2000 and the National Foundation for India Fellowship in 2004. She recalls having spent nights in Hatia railway station studying in the light of the platform in order to get her Master's the media is largely owned by the rich, and since most journalists in India come from the middle class they are unable to identify with the issues of the poor. Her words come straight from the heart, and they make you sit up and think. It's hard to believe that Dayamani Barla, who could afford an education only by working as a domestic help in her younger years, has been invited to speak at a number of prestigious academic institutions across the US. She says: "I did not hesitate to make stinging attacks on the US; that it is basically remote-controlling the implementation of various policies in our country under the garb of globalisation and liberalisation. These may have benefited a handful in our country, but what about the rural populace? They continue to be cut off from the mainstream of development, even after 60 years of independence." As a case in point she refers to the policies related to SEZ's. "I consider them to be nothing but killers of the interests of rural farmers."

Environment covers not just fauna, but also flora

The theme for World Environment Day this year is FORESTS. Forests cover one third of the earths land mass, performing vital functions which make our planet alive with possibilities. In fact, 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihoods. They play a key role in our battle against climate change, releasing oxygen into the atmosphere while storing carbon dioxide. Mumbais green cover is alarmingly depleting. Reports say the area covered by the air-cleansing mangroves along coastlines have shrunk by 40% in the last two decades.
June 2011 29 Environment & people

1. A C 2. A B C D 3. A C 4. A C 5. A B C 6. A B C D 7. A B C 8. A C 9. A C

The major cause of global population growth in the 18th and 19th centuries was Decrease in death rates. B Decrease in birth rates. Industrial revolution. D None of the above. The major factors contributing to the decline in death rate in the 20th. Century were improved agricultural practices and increased birth rates. Improved medicine, sanitation, and nutrition. Endemic poverty, low levels of education. European colonization and improved agriculmralpractices. The world population in 2000 was around 8 billion 7.1 billion In 1960 the world population was around 2 billion 4 billion


6.1 billion 5.1 billion


3 billion 4.5 billion

Population pyramids are useful to Express the population growth rates. Express the age-sex distribution of a population. Indicate the birth rates. D

Indicate the death rates.

Population ageing is The increase in the average age of the population. The result of decreased death and birthrates. The trend where more people live to reach old age while fewer children are born. All of the above. The problem with population aging is There may come a time when there are not enough young people to finance or care the old. Population explosion. Increased birth rates. D Increased death rates. The average life expectancy around the world is currently Decreasing. B Increasing. Not changing. D Stabilizing. Which of the following isa problem not associated with population growth? Increased resource consumption B Environmental pollution Food and energy shortages D None of the above

Environment & people


June 2011

1C 5B

2B 6D

3B 7A

4B 8B



(Props: Orient Paper & Industries Limited, a CK Birla group of companies)

Manufactures of


Winner of Prestigious Awards

ISO 14001:2004

OHSAS 18001:2007


Devapur Cement Works P.O. Devapur Cement Works: 504 218, Adilabad Dist. (A.P) Phone: (08736) 240709, Fax: (08736) 240522, email: Cement Grinding Unit P.O. Nashirabad, NH-6, Jalgaon - 425 309 (M.S.) Phone: (0257) 2356383, Fax: (0257) 2356290, email: Marketing Office 7-1-54A & 54B, Near Ameerpet Muncipal Gounds, Ameerpet, Hyderabad - 500 016 (A.P.) Phone: (040) 23752350 to 53, Fax: (040) - 23752354, email:
June 2011 31 Environment & people

Saving Water In some countries in this world, water is already becoming more valuable than money

The Lumberjack The rainforests are quickly diminishing. The Earth needs to be saved. This Cartoon about killing the Earth was created based on this pitch by Phaedra.
Environment & people 32 June 2011

Environment & People

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