SPRING: Spring is a device in which the material is arranged in such a way that it can undergo a considerable change without

getting permanent distortion. A spring is used to absorbed energy. Stiffness of a spring: The load required to produce a unit deflection in spring is called stiffness of a spring. Types of spring: Depending upon the types of resilience spring are two types:   Bending spring Torsion spring

Bending spring: A spring which is subjected to bending only and the resilience is also due to it. e.g. leaf spring.

Torsion spring: A spring which is subjected to torsion of twisting moment only and the resilience is also due to it. e.g. helical spring.

Columns: Columns are the vertical members of a structure which carry axial compressive loads. The maximum axial compressive load which a column can take without failure is known as critical load, or buckling or crippling load. Slenderness ratio: The slenderness ratio of metal column is the ratio of the length of the column to the least radius of gyration of the cross sectional area of the column.

The greater the slenderness ratio the lesser the critical load or crippling load Slenderness ratio =

L K

Where, L= Effective column length K= least radius of gyration of the cross section

Radius of gyration: The radius of gyration of an area is that distance from its moment of inertia axis at which the entire area could be considered as being concentrated without changing its moment of inertia. dA A= ʃdA

Y=k = Radius of gyration

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