BUREAU OF

/NFORMAT/Off BULL ET/N
~~ ~

SEPTEMBER 1943

NUMBER 318
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REAR AD‘MIRAL RANDALL JACOBS, USN
The Chief of Naval Personnel REAR ADMIRAL L. E. DENPELD, USN T h e Assistant Chief o f Naval Personnel

Navy Department Communiques . . . . . Italian: Short List of Words andPhrases . New Books in Ships’ Libraries . . . . . . Decorations and Citations BuPers Bulletin Board
In this Section, the Bureau of Naval Personnel directs attention to matters ofparticular interest and importance to the service generally. A separate index to the contents o f the section may befound on page 71.
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Table of Contents Page Amphibians Reoccupy Kiska . . . . . . . 2 ‘Back intheFirst Line’ . . . . . . . . . . . 6 One U-Boat Sunk Each Day . . . . . . . 8 How to Abandon Ship . . . . . . . . . . . 10 U.S. S. Lafuyette Begins to RightHerself . 13 How W e Landed at Amchitka . . . . . . . 16 Kula Gulf . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Decorations andMedalsof the U. S. . . . . 22 Photo-Paintings of Naval Leaders . . . . . 24 The Navy’s Combat Artists . . . . . . . . 25 The Trials of Lifesaving Equipment . . 30 Convalescence and Education . . . . . . . 31 PublicationCheck List . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Letters tothe Editor . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 New Names in the Navy . . . . . . . . . . 32 Training Tip: Binoculars . . . . . . . . . 33 The American Navy at Sicily . . . . . . . . 34 The Month’s News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50
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56 57 59 60 71

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,This magazine published monthly in Washington, is D. C., by theBureau of NavalPersonnelfor the informationandinterest of the Naval Service as a whole. Where reference is made to regulations, orders and directives, suchreference is intended as information does comprise and not authority for action. Theauthority for actionis the regulation, order or directive upon which the Bulletin article is based. Because the magazine cannot furnished be personnelindividually, it isrequestedthatreaders pass along their copies to insure that all hands will haveopportunitytoreadeach issue. Allactivities should keep the Bureau informed how many copies of are required. Ship and station papers are authorized toreprintmaterial asdesired.Articles of general interest may be forwarded via official channels.

PASS THIS COPY AO G LN AFTER YOU HAVE READ IT

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JAPS RUN AWAY FROM FIGHT; AMPHIBIANS REOCCUPY KISKA
On 15 AugustUnited Statesand Canadian forces reoccupied Kiska. Men from a largeamphibious fleet, assembled at Adak, jumpedashore, all set for battle. They found nobody home. They found quartermaster warehousesbulgingwith clothing, food, fruit, vegetables, fish, ammunition, a sign some big guns.Theyfound from the Japanese that said, effect, in “out to lunch:” On the wall of the main Jap command hut was scrawled, ‘We shall come again and kill out sesarately Yanki jokers.” But the Japs themselves were gone. h r seven months the Japs been had pounded by U. S. bombers. More than 4,000,000 pounds of bombs had fallen upon their stronghold the last in American Aleutian Islands. Recently the campaign had been stepped up, and Naval vessels had taken a large part: 9 July, U. S. Naval vesselsshelled Kiska for the second time in a week (and shore batteries returned the 14 July, another Naval fire). On bombardment took place (thistime no fire was returned). On 20 July, a bombardment by two Naval vessels; 21 July, bombing by Liberators, shelling by surface craft; 24 July, 10 air raids; 25 July, 10; 26 July, 13; 27 July, six; and so on into August. On 13 August a large task forcebegan to slip to sea from Adak harbor. There were press correspondents along. From their reports and from official statements, article this is taken. There were battleships, cruisers, destroyers, tank carriers, oil tankers, landing craft, etc. There was a ship that saw action a t Casablanca. But there were no soldiers, no sailors. TherewereonlyAmphibians.Each man who landed wore upon each shoulder the mark of the Amphibious Forces.And the men whowore the mark came from both the Army and the Navy. When they landed, this is what the Amphibians found: Jap jeeps and trucks half buried under the earthby made-in-U. S. A. explosions. .Shattered windows. Four burned-out ships in theharbor. Practically every objecGincluding roofs of. hutspunctured with bullet holes. “Do you suppose this is a trap?” a lieutenant asked as the men landed. It was partly that: Many booby traps had been installed by the enemy, and a Canadian officer was killed by one of them. But i t was something else, too: It was the first time in the war the Japanese had fled without even attempting a defense of a conquered position. Tokyo broadcast the that with-

The Prize: Kiska has a good harbor, zcsed by the Japanese as a submarine a d seaplane base. The island also.is potentially a firze bomber base.
drawal had been “according to plan.” Tokyo said the withdrawal had been without loss, and that it was successful “without a parallel in world military history.”Not all Alliedofficers were so sure. There was a possibility some Japanese ships had been sunk in an exchange of fire in a glue-thick fog. The world‘s worst fogs come in the Aleutians, and they, apparently, were what allowed the Japs to make good their escape. It wasbelieved by some that the Japs who escapedhad crossed 70 miles of sea, in barges and submarines, to Buldir Island, where they met small ships. The barges were believed the 16 or 20 with whiCh, they had occupied Kiska, repaired by lumber from 50 buildings on the island the Japs had torndown by 2 August. The barges probably movedat about five knots, which indicated many roundtripsmighthave been made throuzh the late July to move out fogs a Japanesegarrison once estimated a t between 7,500 and 11,000men. The victory at Kiska was a triumph for bombardment, naval and for United S,tatesair power. It was a triumphfor the U. S. Amphibious Forces: PerhapstheJapanese, who had learned of their prowess in the South Pacific and a t Attu, hadno desire formore of the same. The victory was a triumph of strategy. Kiska had beensurrounded .by our conquest of Attu and our establishment of a baseat Amchitka (see pages 16-17). What the retaking of Kiska foretold for thefuture was plenty: It showed, for one thing,how tough our Amphibious Forces had become. It gave us an unbroken string of bases toward the Kuriles (bombed three times recently by the U. S.) . It gave us a vital stepping stone on the road to Japan, which lies beyond the Kuriles.

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Poised for christening.

‘Back in the First Line’
What It Means When Ships Are Built And Launched and Sent to Sea

Champagne splatters.

destroyer, Salute to a new

By JOY BRIGHT HANCOCK
Lieutenant, W-V(S),USNR
{First Naval Ofiicer T o Christem a Naval Vessel}

After it was over, and the U. S. S. Lewis Hancock wasdown the ways and in the water, I was asked, “How does it feel to christen a ship?” The sensations of the event were vivid in my mind, but they refused to be herded into words; they remained sensations. I first felt them when I received a letter from the Secretaryof the Navy saying “a destroyer, now building, will be named in honor of your husband, the late Lt. Comdr. Lewis Hancock, Jr., U. S. Navy” and “Will you please advise the Department at your earliest convenience, if you will be able to

work on the hulls on the ways conact as sponsor for this vesselwhen were she is launched.” Would I act as scious of thefactthatthey sponsor? From some recess, almost building more than ships? Did they buried since Qheday back in 1925 visualize their effort beyond the day when their finished work steamed when the U. S. S. Shenandoah had Did they Fleet? ’crashed andLewis Hancock had been away to join the killed, came to life and t o fulfillment know that every section of plate the hope that some day the Navy riveted into place, every bulkhead fitted would would pay tribute in just this manner erected, every bracing to his devotion and sacrifice. And I, enter somehow into the life of one of who had shared his and his death, the men who would fight her? life of The sign I read near the foot the was given theopportunityandthe honor to participate the in Navy’s laddertothelaunchingstandannounced thedatethe keel of the recognition of his services. 1August finally arrived and with it U. S. S. Lewis Hancock had been laid. the unfolding of the orderly ceremo- It also announced thedate of the an incredibly short nies planned, including arrival at the launching. In those and women had yard of the Federal Shipbuilding and time men service. Dry Dock Company at Kearny, N. J. readied another ship for naval On all sides the work of keel laying, I mounted the ladder andpeered over building, launching was being carried the railing of the platform. I saw the on.Were those men and women a t two steel plates on either side of the

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-British

Comhine Drawings.

Battles of the Atlantic: Armed Guards vs. U-Boats and Army Fortresses vs. U-Boat Hide-outs
The contribution of the United States Navy’s Armed Guard crews tothe fight against submarines in every ocean has been great indeed. The submarinethat manages to get close to a convoy, despite planes and surface escort craft, still has to think about the Armed Guards. Although the Rritish Government last month announced shipping loss reports would be issued monthly by the United States and Britain (to prevent the Axis from obtaining information), Londonon 2 daysannounced the arrival of large convoys without loss despite fights withpacks of 2&30 U-boats. Meanwhile, U-boat bases were high on the priority list as the RA?? and the USAAF stepped up bombing attacks on Europe. A No. 1 example, of course, was Hamburg,where theentireharborarea was reportedin ruins following the terrific Allied raids on the city. operations the and losses are only about 80,000 tons. O n the other hand, the U-boats which attempted to interfere with these operations suffered severe losses. “Our offensive operationsagainst Axis submarines continue to progress most favorably in all areas, and dur‘ing May, June, and July have sunk we at sea a total of over 90 U-boats, whichrepresents an average loss of nearlyoneU-boat a day over the period. “The decline in the effectiveness of the U-boats is illustrated by the following figures: “In the first 6 months of 1943. the number of ships sunk per U-boat operating was only half that in the last 6 months of 1942 and only a quarter of that inthe first half of 1942. “Thetonnage of shipping in the service of the United Nations continues to show a considerable netincrease. During 1943 new ships completed by the Alliesexceed all sinkingsfrom all causes by upwards of 3,000,000 tons. “In spite of this very favorable progress inthebattleagainstthe U-boat, it must be remembered that the enemy still has large U-boat reserves, completed and under construction. “It is necessary, therefore, t o prepare for intensification of the battle both at sea and in the shipyards and to use our shipping with utmosteconomy to strengthen and speed the general offensive of the United Nations. But we can expect continued success only if we do not relax our efforts in any way.
“F~OSEVELT, “CHURCHILL.”

Navy Planes Constantly Seek Out U-Boats
These are Martin Mariners,one . o f the newest planes usedby the Navy. a U-boat, One of their successeswas announced this month: they located crippled it, called in destroyers for the kill. Recent successes of planes against U-boats have been announced by the RAF (Liberators) in the Atlantic and Mediterranean, the New Zealand RAF (a Hudson bomber) in the Pacific, by the Navy (Vega Venturas, Catalinas, Mariners) in both Atlantic and Pacific, and by the Australian Air Force in the Bay of Biscay.

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Far preferable to jumping is going over the side by climbing down a line or a ladder. This is saferif the rope, hose, or ladder you climb dowrz is belayed.

If you must jump, protect your face. One method is showrz. Grabthelifejacket ulzder left arm with right hand. Take deepbreath and hold nose.

How to Abandon Ship
It’s Best to Go Over Windward Side
the side should that bec‘ome necessary. But remains there another Lieutenant Commander, USNR problem: when to startfor the jump[Condensed with pemzissiom f r o m U. S. ing-off place. Normally, that time is &Val Institute Proceedings, J U ~ V when the word is passed to abandon 19431 ship. But word may never comeBobably the first step learn the not because the skipper doesn’t try to is to ship thoroughly. The paths of travel pass it but because communications have failed. In such a case, a person from bunk to mess todutystation must be prepared%o decide for himtend take to self. It happened on a recently sunk routine patterns along the short- carrier thatsuch a decision had to be est u s u a l l y made without anyword from topside. The forward fourth of the ship was traveled routes. Woe betide a separated from the remainder by an fellow, trapped impenetrable wall of fire and explod’ On the forecastle ammunition. by fire or flood- ing and twenty-odd ing in a location deck were two officers Even an intelligent from w h i c h enlisted men. a b a n d o n i n g estimate of the ship’s general situation was impossible, for their horizon shipisnotimwas sharply circumscribed by smoke, mediately possible, if the one way out which he has flame, and a sea whose surface was by of been accustomed to follow has been intermittently covered pools closed off. Get going on the business burning oil and gasbline. The senior of learning the ship as soon after first officer exhausted everypossible means reporting as time permits. Make the of getting in touch with the bridge. investigation a thorough one, neg- Then, realizing that nothing could be done by him orhis companions t o lecting no possibilities. While exploring th8 avenues of help the ship, and appreciating that, flame-free area of ship and surtravel, take note of piping in over- as the heads. If a n y is traversed by steam rounding sea narrowed, their chances getting away became or gasoline line put that in the list of of eventually second choices. Such lines may frac- more dubious, he ordered those with proper asture with shock, and steam or burn-. himtoabandonship,a ing gasoline is not conducive to safe sumption of responsibility for which passage. I n much the same category he was later mentioned with approval by his commanding omcer. are those passageways which pass Knowing the way to get out,and close to magazines or gasoline stowbeing prepared to decide for oneself, age. Armed with complete knowledge of if necessary, when to get out, constithe ship, a person has appreciably tute a large part of the struggle for there is yet another bettered his chances of getting over survival. But

and to AvoidJumping if You Can
By WILLIAM C . CHAMBLISS
phase of the problem: what a welldressed ship-abandoner should have when he takes the plunge. The problem of whatto wear is usually settledby circumstances-you wear what you have on at the time, unless you are involved in one of those leisurely ship-leavings which admit of a choice of apparel. Such are not the rule. However, if you happento be torpedoed while partiallydisrobed, by all means try to grab a shirt and pair of trousers on your way out. Clothes will spare you much barked hide while you’re going over, whether you go down a rope, climb along a canted hull, or follow the more decorous procedure of getting into a boat. I you f have to swim (and the chances are about five-to-one that you will), dark clothes will be less likely to attract sharks than white skivvies or almost equally light skin. Of prime importance are gloves. They’re well worth carrying in the hip pocket habitually just this for emergency. You may have to tear away debris, climb over jagged or h o t wreckage, or take to a rope. One cannotafford injury to the hands, principal tools of salvation. Parenthetically, another item that will serve you well, not in the actual abandonment but in getting squared away after reaching port, is a little slip of paper tucked in your wallet on which is keptan up-to-date record of your pay account. The writer kept such a record. The first column was headed “Pate,” the second “Amount Due,” and the third “Amount Drawn,” with current allotment data on the reverse side. Entered by typewriter (pencil would do as well) on a small

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filing card, it was perfectly legible despite the fact that the wallet in which it was carried had been wet down for over threehoursinthe Coral Sea. Dead broke and with only the clothes on his back, this survivor passed it on t o t h e first available disbursing officer who, aided by that record, was able with gratifying promptness to make up“survivor’s account” a and shell out some badly-neededcash. Very useful is a knife. The Navy issue variety, with a scabbard that hitches to the trousers belt, is a fine tool. Its uses are many: cutting yourself clear of linesorotherimpedimenta with which you may become involved in the water;discouraging a stray shark;opening a can of emergency rations should you happen to get close to a raft. Handy, too, is a flashlight of a pencil type. You may,forexample, be below decks when disaster overtakes the ship. Almost invariably the lights go out. Also, it is quite possible you may get sunk at night, and a little point of light trained in the direction of a rescue ship may meanthe difference between being picked and apup pearing on the “missing” list. Of course, to be effective when you’re in the water, the flashlight must kept be dry. Manymethodshavebeendevised for accomplishing that end. The most successful this reporter has seen is to enclose the flashlight in a rubbersheath, securely closing the open end with a rubber band or by tying a knot. A bit inelegant,but elegance has no place in abandoning ship. Finally, the matter of a life jacket, whether kapok or pneumatic or none at all. The proponentsof kapok point out that it is less vulnerable to disablement due to tearing; that itgives some protection against flying fragments; that it helps avoid intern1 injury to due the effects of depthcharging while the wearer is in the

water. However, without attempting to settle the dispute, this writer’s preference is for the inflatable pneumatic jacket, primarily becauseof its greater flexibility. The carrier, a t whose impromptu decommissioning this reporter was a participating witness, was literally blowing to pieces when the timecame to go over the side. From the midships area there raineda devastating collection of missiles-parts of the ship and exploding ammunition of various calibers. For the most part, these projectiles flew straight out on a line roughly normal to the side of the ship. The water for a distance of about 250 yards was subjected to an intense barrage. The ship had some sternboard on, andthewriterwas making his getaway from the after part of the ship. Because of the ship’s movement astern, it was evident that, to avoid it coming under the barrage, would be necessary to swim acourse not directly away from thewreck but on a line abaft that normal to the ship’s side so as to hold a constant bearing o n the point of departure, which was in a missile-free area. This maneuver called for considerable swimming speed if any distance were ta be made good away from the ship. The solution, wearing an inflatable jacket, was simple:Let the air out of the jacket, thusreducing water resistance to a minimum. I t worked. Once in a safe area,it was not difficult t o pump up the jacket through the oral inflation tubes provided for this purpose. I n connection with the superior protection against depth-chargeinjury ascribed to the kapok type, it should be pointed out that the area most seriously affected by shock of that nature is the abdomen, not very completely covered by the kapok. Bearing on that same issue, it might be worth while to mention a maneuver this reporter employed to avoid

depth-charge shock. A safe distance away, a destroyer was observed heaving ash cans. This writer shifted his pneumatic jacket to the small of his back, andthereafter swam on his back with his stern sheets and midsection practically clear of the water. When ships close aboard began depthcharging, he felt only the characteristic prickling sensation on the skin of his submerged body areas, and slight shock in the well-protected regions of the lungs and skull. Whatever life jacket you chooseor are forced to accept-there is one indisputable tenet of sound abandonship doctrine: Don’t go over the side without one if that can beavoided. You may be in the water a long time, embarrassed by rough seas and deauxiliary bilitated by shock. Some means of flotation is a prime essential, at least for most persons. True, the athletic navigatorof the ill-fated Wasp galloped all over the Coral Sea for 3 hours without a life belt. But he is a far-above-average swimmer. So much, then, the for “how.” “when,” and “with what” of preparationfor leaving. The nextproblem is theactual get-away. Of course, if there is a boat available in which you have a rightful place, by all means take it. But the odds are, i n battle casualty, that you’ll have t o swim for it. And right here, before you blithely take to the water, is the time to make an estimate of the situation, upon whose accuracy your survival may well depend. By the time you get ready t o go over, the ship will usually be lying to, or with slight way on aheador astern, depending upon the direction in which the engines were last, turning over. Ships with high freeboard forward(suchasdestroyers)generally weathercock, stern to the wind. But vessels with relatively even over-all freeboard tend to lie in the troughof the sea,across the wind. Unless there

“Official

U. 8. Navy Photographs.

Upside-down breast stroke beimg used by swimmer i t There’saknack to getting ontoa life raft. Get r one this photo relieves strain of swimmilzgj offers rest arm a d one leg. up, then roll yourselfaboard rts lzeeded to remaim afloat. . shown here. Page 11

is no other possible choice, never go over the lee side. With any kind of wind, you will be unable to swim as fast as the ship drifts. Hence, if you go over the lee side, you will find yourself inexorably pressed against the hull, forcedto theexhausting task of working your way to the bow or stern to get clear. Should you work yourway aft, and the ship is down by the head, you’ll find yourself involved with the propellers. Loose gear that has gone over the lee side will still be there, trapped as you are by the drift of the ship, adding to the difficulties of your progress toward a safe place. If you can’t go, over the windward side, try to work your way to one end so as to be clear of the drifting hulk when you get into the water. While viewing the situation, make a note of the relative position of boats, rafts, or large groups of survivors alreadyinthe water. These elements, easily seen from a few feet above the water, may not be visible i n even a moderate seaonce you have assumed swimming status. Now, for getting over the side. Don’t jump, unless there’s no alternative. A leap from any appreciable height is a n invitation t o a broken neck or to getting yourselfknocked out by the slap of the life belt against your jaw. Further, you cannotbecertain thatjust below the surface there isn’t some obstruction. I f there has been time to rig cargo nets, your descent is a simple matter. Most of us, however, have had to employ other means. First choice is a fire hose, if there’s one rigged which reaches close to the surface. Because of its “squeezability,” the hose offers ’ a surer grip than a rope. But, if you use a hose, look out for that nozzle at the end. Don’t let it sneak up on you unawares during your downward progress. It can be very painful. Lacking a hose, you wilI have to take a rope. First, be certain it has been belayed! It is a fact thatwe grabbed .one young man by the nape of the neck just as he was going over side the from the flight deck on a trailing line that was secured to nothing a t all. Once on therope or hose, remember the cardinal rule: Don’t slide. Go down hand-over-hand. I you slide, f you may not be able to stop. And, if you have not provided yourself with a pair of stout gloves,your efforts to stop will result in reducing your hands to a pulpyseared mass. Bealways alert for any tendency to slide unintentionally (ropes become slippery from water, oil, and blood), and snub uppromptly before the slide develops. There’s good use, on a hose or rope, for the old station-keeping axiom, “Remember the next astern.” Only inthisinstance, it’sfor your benefit, not his. The next manon the rope after you may elect to slide. In that case, be well braced and have your head out of the way so that you take the shock on your shoulders.

immersed. Then get under way smartly on the previously determined Those Who Swam course, putting distance between yourself and the ship with a n initial Did Not Perish speed run. You want to get well clear (a couple of hundred yards) as soon Because they could swim a as you can. It is near the ship that scant 50 feet, 17 men saved their the danger of falling debris greatest. is lives when their ship was torEven though she isn’t blowing up pedoed, but 38 others o n board whenyougoover the side, she may were lost because they could not a t any moment. It is near the ship keep afloat. that the almost inevitable leaking fuel This is the story told by a Sun oil is thickest, with consequent danger Francisco ship’s doctor, who deof fire on the water. One way to described how his tanker was termine that you are beyond this latstruck by a torpedo from a Jap ter peril is to look a t t h e oil in the submarine in South Pacific water. I it isbroken up in small, f waters just at sunrise and was isolated globules instead of forming sent to the bottom amidst a an unbrokensheet, you are reasonflaming sea of gasoline and oil. ably safe from fire. Those saved swam under Upon reaching a safearea, slow water, coming up splashing and down, and thereafter swim as slowly fanning the flames as they as theexigencies of the situation perbroke water, inhaling a, fresh n i t . Save your strength; you may breath of air, then duckiqzg have a long stay in the water. Should again beneath the scattered there be a rescue ship within swimburning waves, swimming until ming distance, head for it. But not they were out of danger. withmaximum speed, for the ship The 17 all managed, with the may get under way before you can help of each other, reach one to reach it. Inthat case, a burst of of the pontoon rafts, but no speed may haveso exhausted you that trace was found of theother 35 you won’t be able to swim to the next after their ship disappeared. ship that comes along. The ability to swim or keep I there is no rescue shipwithin f little as 25 feet, afloat for as reasonable distance, steer for a raft many times, according to shipor for a large group of survivors. A wrecked seamen, had been the rescue ship’s lookoutswillbe more means of saving their lives. likely to see a large groupthan a lone ” T H B MASTRBAD NavaI Training swimmer. It’s the straggler whose Center, Treadwe Island. Calif. name turns up on the “missing” list. If you go to a raft, remember that, Should your ship be in company to help a large number of persons, a with othersat the time of destruction, raft should be hung onto, not climbed you will probably be picked up in 3 or onto. Except where there are only a few people,climbing on a raft will 4 hours, provided you have adopted a commonsensecourse of preaaration only tend to submerge the thing, may even turn it over with consequent posto favor that happy denouement. Once aboard the rescuing vessel, t r y sibility of loss of emergency rations. not to make a nuisance of yourself. YOUdon’t gain anything by climbing I you have suffered some slight hurt on board in numbers sufficient to subf (a bit of rope burn, a small cut), get merge the raft. The slight advantage hold of a first-aid kit and Ax yourself of being on board should be rationed to those in bad shape from injury or up temporarily. The ship’s medical people will be busy aiding your more exhaustion. Be on the alert at all times to take If you seriously injuredshipmates. against are picked up by a destroyer or simi- evasive measures depthcharge injury. I f YOU see a destroyer larly small vessel, get below decks which has been picking up survivors right away. A destroyer that has taken aboard 600 or 700 survivors suddenly get going, leaving someof (and individual tin cans have rescued them still in the water, you may be that many) is in a precarious state of reasonably certainshe h a s madea balance. People staying topside may sound contact and that depth charging will soon be started. Arrange your well cause the ship to turnover. so There is a large elementof that im- life jacket as to get as much as possible of your abdominal area clear of ponderable factor called luck in surviving the destruction o f one’s ship. the water, and hold that pose until depth charging has ceased. But luck alone cannot be counted upon to effect your salvation. When I you attach yourself to a raft, it’s f the time comes, you’re going to have not a bad idea to follow the picturto think your way out. And the mwe esque practice of rigging some sort of thinking you’ve done ahead of time, signal, such as a rag attached to the the more likely you are to be in a end of a vertically stepped oar. Unposition to tell your grandchildren a der a heavy overcast, on a darkened, highlyembellished account of what wind-swept sea, even a fairly numerous group of survivors may not show happened. Arriving at theend of the line, ease out well, particularly as they are most yourself into the water. Don’t jump. likely to be coated liberally with fuel Try not to let go until your feet are oil.

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" O f f i c i a l U. 8. Nary 1'hotogr:rph.

Navy Divers Worked Constdntly OH Salvage Operations
For more than a year from 600 to 800 workers and as many as 75 naval divers swarmed over the hulk of the Lafayette. Three hundred fifty-six air ports, submerged at an average of 60 feet below the surface and 8 to 10 feet in mud, had to be patched and braced withreinforced concrete. Cargo ports had to beblocked ana backed with reinforced concrete laid under water. Tons of debris and mud had to beremoved from the ship. Spun glass (used as insulation throughoxt the vessel) which, entered the divers' skin through the pores,broken glass and ragged steel edgeswhich threatened t o sever air and life lines, and gas wereamong the many hazards which confronted the divers. In spite of these handicaps, not a single fatal accident occurred during the entire operation.

Page 14

"Press Association Photograph.

Wuter Pours from the Lzfuyette

US

She Slowly Rolls Over

One of the many problems which confronted salvageofficials was the removal of >OO,OOO tons of water from the Lafayette. Undernormalconditionsthis could havebeen accomplished in 21/2 hours. I n this case, however, 93 pumps, each attended by 2 men, were placed on swivel platforms which changed their positions as the list of the ship changed.Operations were directed from acontrol house built on a swivel stage amidship. Headengineers directed pumpattendants by loudspeakers. T h e Lafayette was kepttrim at all times by notpumping some compartments,pumpingothers,oftenreturningwatertoanothersection of the vessel. Sensitiveinclinometers recordedevery degree of her rise. Salvaging and refitting have been estimated to cost $~O,OOO,OOO, with $5,000,000 going for salvaging alone. The original cost of the Lafayette has been set at $60,000,000.

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KUL- GULF

the These photogrr%phs show two night battles of 5 and 6 July 1943. At top, the U.S. S. Helena fires her :last shot at the Japs before being struck by an enemy torpedo. At bottom, flash silhoxxettes agun crew manning 1.1” antiaircraft guns aboardcruiser.

DECORATIONS AND
DeJinite, Complete Systems of Awurds for
Civil War. The first of modern United States decorations was the Navy Medal of Honor authorized by (This article is apgearing concwentlya.& Congress on 21 December 1861. the Numismatic Reuiew) The award was limited to “pettyoflandsmen, and maFrom the formation the Republic ficers, seamen, of rines” gallantry action for in and until quite recent years neither the seamanlike qualities. On 12 Navy nor the Army had a definite, other complete system of awards to cover July 1862 the Army Medal of Honor heroism and especially meritorious was authorized for “noncommissioned service. Inthepast few years the officers and privates” for gallantry in soldier-like qualities. Army arrived at a really complete action and other On 3 March 1863, the award was system, whichwasfollowed by the made available to commissioned offiNavy during the past year. The Marine Corps and Coast Guard are cov- cers of the Army, and the wording of ered by the regulations applying to the the authority was changed making it available to only those who have most Navy awards. Official decorations and medals of distinguished themselves in action. The limitation for Civil War service our government, in thesense of those intended to be worn on the uniform, was also removed, as had been done 6 began with the award for fidelity by for the Navy on 1 July 1862. It was the Congress on 3 November 1780, to not until 3 March 1915,however, that three private soldiers, John Paulding, commissioned officersof the Navy and David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, Marine Corps were made eligible for all New York State Militiamen, for the award. No further medals were authorized the apprehension of Major John until 1869 when the first Navy Good Andd. Conduct Medalwas authorized. The On 7 August 1782, GeorgeWashton issued an official order from his headquarters at Newburgh-on-theHudson, establishing a decoration to cover instances of unusual gallantry, and also of extraordinary fidelity and essential service. This decoration, worn on the left breast, consisted of a heart of purple cloth or silk, edged with narrow lace or binding, and was the forerunner of the present Purple Heart. It was provided that the facts of the act or service should be submitted to the Commander in Chief, accompanied by certificates from the commanding officers of the regiment and brigade to which the individual belonged, or other incontestibleproof, for final approval. This medal was never abolished, but so far as is now known, only three [OBVERSE] menever received thisaward, viz: Sergt. Daniel Bissel (2d Connecticut Regiment, ContinentalArmy), Sgt. Daniel Brown (5th Connecticut RegiSgt. ment,ContinentalArmy).and Elijah Churchill of the 2d Continental Dragoons, of Connecticut. The sameorderprovided a long service and good conduct badge for 3 years service withbravery, fidelity, and good conduct. It consisted of a narrow piece of white cloth, of an angular form fixed to the left sleeve of the uniform. Six years similar service was indicated by two similar pieces of cloth setparallelto each other, No other official decorations or medals were issued until during the

By ROSS F COLLINS . Captah, USNR

MEDAL OF HONOR

NAVY CROSS

DISTINGUISHED-~~RVICE MEDAL

LEGION OF MERIT

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A l l medal drawings exact size, done especially f r the INFORMATION o BaLETlN by Charles Chickering.

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[REVEFtSE]

AWARD FOR FIDELITY (First U. S. Medal, no longer awarded)
[Exactsize,photographedfrom

a cast.]

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MEDALS OF THE U.S.
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Heroism und Service is Recent Deuelobment
CertiAcate of Merit was authorized in 1847 but no medal was issued to go with it until 1905. The nextmedal was the ManilaBayMedal,familiarly known as the “DeweyMedal,” which was followed by the West Indies Campaign (“Sampson Medal Medal”), the Specially Meritorious Service Medal, and the Congressional Medal for Philippine Service. All of these medals werefor special acts or special occasions, and no medallic award had ever been available to the veterans of any of our campaigns. Principallythroughthe efforts of Lt. Gen. Adna R. Chafee for the Army, and Maj. Gen. George F. Elliott for the Marine Corps and the Navy, the deep-rooted prejudice against such awards a Republic was in overcome, questions of legality were untangled, and on 11 January 1905 it was announced in orders to the Army that campaign badges would be issued as part of the uniform. campaigns designated: were Civil War, Indian Wars, Spanish Campaign, Philippine Campaign. orders Later made members of the organized militia, and men nolonger in theservice, ‘SILVER STAReligible for the medals. On 27 June 1908 two orders were issued by the Secretary of the Navy, one for the Navy and the other for the Marine Corps, authorizing medals for the Civil War, SpanishCampaign, Philippine Campaign, and China Campaign.Medals for the Army of Cuban Occupation and Army of Cuban Pacification followed, and _wereavailable to all of the armed services participating. The medals for the Army differ in design from those for the Navy and MarineCorps, the latter twobeing identicalexceptfor the inscription on the reverse. Up to 1913, however, DISTINGUISHED- FLYING CROSS the ribbons for Army medals differed from those for the Navy and Marine Corps, so t h a t veterans of the same campaigns wore entirely different ribbon bars. Following recommendations of the joint board, effective in the Navy on 12 August 1913,both services agreed to a uniform setof ribbons. I n some casesone service adopted the ribbon of the other, and in others a n entirely new ribbon was agreed upon. The World War resulted in the institution of the Distinguished Service Cross, Silver Star, and Distinguished :ED AL Service Medal for the Army, and the NAVY Distinguished Service Medal, and Navy Crossfor the Navy. The Silver Star was originally a small silver star wornon the campaign ribbon by those.cited for gallantry in action, but was later issued as an actual medal. It was recently authorized for the Navy. Flying I n 1926 the Distinguished Crosswas instituted available to all our armed services. At the same time the Soldier’s Medal was authorized. This medal for service with the Army provided an award for thosewho distinguishthemselves by heroism not involving actual conflict with an enemy. It was paralled last year by the AIR MEDAL new Navy and MarineCorps Medal. In 1932 the Purple Heart was reestablished for the Army. It was awarded tothose who had received the Meritorious Services Citation Certificate, and to those who were wounded in action. The Army now hasa good conductmedal,andall services are eligible for the new Legion of Merit. This provides a junior award for distinguished or meritorious service. Four degrees, the highest of which becomes a signal honor,are authorized for awardsto foreign officers. It is hoped that theseadditional awards,together,with policies that (Continued on Page 32) PURPLE-HEART
On 13 August 1908 the following

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The following order of precedence of Navy decorations, and correspondingdecorations awarded by the Army to naval personnel, has been approved by SecNav for wear by naval personnel: Medal of Honor (Navy). Medal of Honor (Army). Marine Corps Brevet Medal. Navy Cross. Distinguished Service Cross (Army). DistinguishedService Medal. DistinguishedService Medal (Army.) Legion of Merit. Silver Star Medal. Distinguished Flying Cross. Navy and Marine Corps . Medal. Soldiers Medal (Army). Air Medal. Purple Heart. S p e c i a11 y Meritorious Medal. Presidential Unit Citation. Gold Life Saving Medal. Silver Life Savine: Medal. Dewey Medal. Sampson Medal. NC-4 Medal. Byrd AntarcticExpedition Medal. 2d Byrd Antarctic Expedition Medal. Navy Expeditionary Medal. Marine Corps hrpeditionary Medal. Campaign Medals in chronological order.
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ORDER OF PRECEDENCE

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ADMZRAL WZLLZAM D. LEAHY, USN (RET.)

ADMZKAL ERNEST ., KING, USN I

Photogruphs like these arebeilzg prepared for the Archives.

Photo-Paintings of Naval Leaders
Technical Improvements HaveMade Possible ,Portraits in Quantity Historical for Uses
Determined that likenesses of its leaders in this war shall be preserved for post-warpurposes inthe same way the scenes of its epic struggles are being recorded,the Navy has commissioned the noted portrait photographer, Maurice Constant, as a lieutenant in the Naval Reserve and set up a Documentary Photography unit in BuPers to insure that the lack of proper picturization of leaders of other wars wiI1 not occur again. the Naval After photographing officers in Washington responsiblefor the conduct of the war,Lieutenant Constant will leave for other areas. In addition tophotographing Naval personnel, LieutenantConstant will photograph Army leaders at the War Department’s request. Timepermitting, it is planned also to photograph leaders of Allied nations. Since historical evaluation requires study of theleaders of the period under scrutiny, likenesses are of specific use. As far back as the Revolutionary War, painters were commissioned to produce portraits of military leaders. The medium o f oiI being of necessity a long and tedious process, the output was necessarily restricted to portraits of a few men. Lieutenant Constant in civilian life produced a collection of portrait studies of distinguished personages in the fields of art, science, government, and the armed forces which has been incorporated the into Franklin D. Roosevelt Hyde Park Library. A Constant panel of the Justices hangs in the Supreme Court Building.

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“Dishing I t Out With the Navy,” a typical poster pailzting by L . Comdr. McClellalzd Barclay, USNR t

The Naw’s Combat Artists
Capturing Scenes the Camera Cannot Catch, Painters Are Helping Record War’s History
Reports during the past month that Lt. Comdr. McClelland Barclay, USNR, artist most widely known for his Navy recently in an address bg Commander E. John Long, USNR, oficer in charge of the Pictorial Section, Ofice of Public Relations, under whose cognizance the artists operate. The text of that address, delivered before the Architectural League New of York, is quoted below: Historians of World War I found a woefully inadequate pictorial record of that cocflict and particularlyof the Part played by our Navy. The picture coverage of the present war willbe much better. Every important action of the war has been reported by cameramen artists and as well as writers. In the Navy’s Ales are thousands of photographs which, for security reasons, cannot be released until the war is over. The modern camera, in spite of its great scope and versatility, however, has definite limitations. Some subjects, such as action a t night, or in
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was m a special duty, not attachedtotheregular group, his functions were similar to the others. What the purpose of the Navy combat artists is, and how they accomplish their duties, was explained

Lt.Comdr.Barclay

foul weather, or overwide expanses of sea and sky, are beyond the range of photography. But they may be depicted by an artist, who can capture the dramatic intensity of an action and put it on canvas, and by a proper use of an artist’s skill makescenes and activities more vivid and poignant, stressing and integrating essentiol elements and omitting unimportant detail. Significant naval eventsarethus being recorded today, not only by the camera but by a few carefully chosen men, who are naval officers as well as artists.Thesemen,assigned by the Navy’sOffice of Public Relations t o combat zones, paint the Navy at war in all its phases, whether aboard ship, at our furtherestoutposts, or with the bold task forces that are the spearheads of modernstrategy. I n addition to their primary job as artists,

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Battle of the,Santa Cruz Islands, by Lt. (jg)Dwight C. Shepler, USNR

Loading Mail Bags, by Lt. (jg) Mitchell Jamie-,
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USNR

The Reuben James survivors, by Lt. Comdr. Griffith B. Coale, USNR
these men have duties as junior officers of thewatch afloat, in order that they may have a thorough understanding of their subject matter. In alltheaters of war, fromthe greatnavalbattles of Guadalcanal, Savo Island, Lunga Point, and Santa Cruz, the occupation of the Aleutian Island of Amchitka, aboard convoys to Iceland and Africa and Sicily, in the perilous waters of the North Atlantic, these officer-artists have been on the spot, experiencing momentous events andrecording themso that the public and Navy alike may havea better conception of the vast andbloody conflict taking place beyond our shores. Almost a year before Pearl Harbor, the Navy commissioned Lt. Comdr. Griffith Baily Coale, USNR, to paint historical events of the turbid “emergency period” precedingthe war. His first assignment was a convoy to Iceland. stirring The events of that trip, recorded in paintings and drawings, supplemented by his log, were. published in book form by Parrar & Rinehart under the title “North Atlantic Patrol.” The book has been very well received in naval circles as well as by the public, and all profits have been donatedto theNavy Relief Society. Coale was later sent to Pearl HarNo photographs are available of bor and Midway Island. He painted the night battle off Savo Island, but in Hawaii an important historical Lieutenant Shepler depicted has it canvas, depicting the sneak attack of in a dramatic painting which shows 7 December, reconstructed from pho- the secondphase of the victorious tographs, official reports, and eyewit- actionagainst two strongJapanese ness accounts, soon after this world- surface forces on 14 November 1942. shaking event took place. The picturewas checked for accuracy In the spring of 1942, after elimi- and approved by theadmiral comnating many candidates, four young manding our forces there. artists, Lt. William F. Draper, usm, In the mud and dust and jungle of and Lt. Dwight C. Shepler, USM, both Guadalcanal, Shepler lived for 3 of Boston; Lt. Albert K. Murray, weeks, under steady Japanese bomUSNR, of New York; and Lt. (jg) bardment. His pictures interpret Mitchell Jamieson, usm, of Washing- more fully than photographs the true ton, D. C., were commiSsioned as of- character of this tropical hell and of ficer-artists to be sent on combat as- the struggles of our gallant marines. signments. Each had to pass the rig- Shepler’s water colors reveal men, orous physical examination as do malarial and wounded, being carried other naval officers. to landing boats and then to waiting Lieutenant Shepler was the first to ships, leaving comrades, dead both see battle action. He served as a and alive, who had shown American deck officer aboard several ships dur- courage a t its best. Thisartistsaw ing 6 months of the first Solomons the peak of.battle action. He porcampaign in ’42-’43, when bitter fight- trayed, with a revealing insight, the ing was at its peak. His cruiser was men behind the guns and their offiin the thick of the battle of Santa cers from first-hand knowledge, Cruz. From his battle station, Shep- gained as a trenchmate who had exler saw Jap planes dive-bomb his ship perienced their thrills, hardships,and andothers whichwere screeninga dangers. United Statescarrier. Officer-artist Lt. William F. Draper This watercolor, with the sky blotched with anti- went ashore with the forces of occuaircraft fire, and J a p planes falling, pation at lonely Amchitka Island, the is one of Shepler’s most stirring Aleutians, January in 1943. His paintings. paintings show ships stealing through

Kodiak, by Lt. William F. Draper, USNR
hazardous waters in the cold Arctic dawn, gray shadows against a grayer sky, while boatloads of anxious soldiers approach the barren shores, to nearest United States territory Tokyo, in small landing boats. A l l were tense, since they did not know what Jap resistance might develop. One of theshipsranagroundand spread oil about, a likely target for J a p planes. Fortunately, the Japs deferred their first bombing visit for some days. Lieutenant Draper’s number was almostup once, asstrafing bullets skimmedthrough the grass next to him as he crouched in his fox hole. I n several dramatic oils he shows Jap planesattackingour positions, with bombs bursting and tracer bullets and ack-ack fire as red streaks against a sullen wintry sky. While in the Aleutians, Lieutenant Draper’s workwas hampered by eccentric windswhich sometimes blew at 100 miles an hour, wrecking planes and tossing lumber about like paper. He expressed this dread wind, more destructive than enemy raids, in three paintings. These and other pictures were made under most trying circumstances, for several times his canvas sailed into the air like a kite. When he. ran out of canvas, Draper worked on pieces of masonite salvaged from Quonset huts. Whenhe ran out of paint, he borrowedhousepaintand carried on. In this series he also shows us how the Seabees, the Navy’s resourceful construction battalions, built from nothingness a Navy town. His brush reveals the ever-presenthazards of life in an Arctic wilderness, aland of savage storms enveloped by a sea whose icy swells can freeze a person in a few minutes. Through it all runs the never-failing determination of stout-hearted men and the acts of courage, heroism, and unspoken sacrifice that war’s necessities bring out of the worst of us.’ Draper’s Aleutian series was published in the August 1943 issue of the NationalGeographic Magazine. Lt. Albert K. Murray, before going t o the Caribbean area on assignment. painted portraits of six members of the Navy General Board. He also made a series of charcoal and oil portraits from life of heroes of the U. S. S. Boise, after she returned from fabulous exploits in the South Pacific and was undergoingrepairs at the Philadelphia Navy Yard. The rugged captain, keen Irish Mike Moran; the doctor, under whose expert and devoted care all men not killed outright were brought through safely; the gunner’s mate;andothers, heroes all, have been put on paper and canvas as typical examples of a gallantfightinn band. In the Caribbean, Murrayhas de- ’ picted naval activity in a theater of the war that has yieldedsome fine, though not quite so spectacular materialasthe Pacific and Aleutians.

Page 28

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Ensign Lowell E. Davis, USN,by Lt. Albert K. Murray, USNR
He has given us a vivid and accurate Picture of Navy life afloat and ashore in the closely guarded area between us and our Latin-American neighbors. Lt. (jg) Mitchell Jamieson, USNR, whose series of paintings on Embarkation appeared in Life Magazine, gives us a running picture story of a typical convoy trip to North Africa. Jamieson stood watch and performed other naval duties route. He shows en us all of the manifold activities aboard a convoyed troop s h i p weighinganchor,message signaling, gunnery practice,, men lounging in an uncomfortable aft hold, a scene in the galley as F’ilipino cooks get chow ready and sailors sit peelingspuds, men receiving mail, attending divine for service, thearmedguardready subs, etc. In North Africa, Jamieson sensed the impact of military occupation on an area that had been largely pastoral agricultural and for decades. , His impressions of Arab coal heavers \,, returning home a t midnight, soldiers \marching to the accompaniment of
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shrill-voiced Arab children begging for alms, the building of a tent city of to shelter increasing hordes troops, men learning to do things with their handsthrough necessity, longconvoys entering the harbor and troops disembarking, thetraining of amphibious forcesfor invasion, the rusting hulks of torpedoed ships-Jamieson gives us all the myriad scenesand activities of modern warfare against a fantastic background of green and brown African hills and blue sky. He has seen and brought to us those extensive preparations humdrum and routine, those preludes to action, that are as much a part of war as battles themselves. These officer-artists have not done their paintings in ivory towers, nor have they usedthe war as a test tube for new theories of art and expression. They have gone out torisk and suffer in the samedegree as the men behind the guns, to give to thepublic, in graphic media, a better appreciation and a more complete insightinto by our fighting whatisbeingdone

t h e Navy artproject is being published this fall by William Morrow & Co., New York, with text y Hanson Baldb win and a. foreword b y Admiral A. 3. Hepburn, Chairmanof the Navy General Board. Approximately 25 reproductions in color and 75 reproductions i black and white of the n artists’ work will be included.
Page 29

men on the world’s,far-flung battlefronts. S r Douglas Haig, in his introduci tion to the Western Front, t h e great collection of the drawings by Muirhead Boneon the last WorldWar, said “the portrait and the picture are invaluable aids to the right reading of history.” The collection of paintings ahd drawings by these Navy artists is a vivid and accurate picture of the many Navy at war. I n addition t o t h e photographs being made, it will provide a historical record of naval warfare such as world has never seen the before. A book on the work of the men in

Chief Needs of Survivors: Protection Against Elements

...

Means of furnishing protection against the weather are taking the form of several types of rubber and waterproof suits that double as life preservers, and portable covers that can be drawn over a liferaft as a sunshade, a raincollecting surface,and a protectionagainst cold or high seas. Thereare being studied also special sun caps and sunburncreams.

This portable water still weighs 7 Ibs. and turns out Ibs. of water from 12 1. Ib. of fuel. Chemicalmethods of precipitatingsaltsout of seawater have been perfected by naval experts.

. . . AndDrinking Water

‘l’he‘l’nalsof Lltesavlng bqulpment
New Devices Perfected Are in Tests Many Miles at Sea
rubber rafts and rubber raft equipment used largely for the rescud of Liezbtenant, USNR airmen forced down at sea. At PenThe gradual spread of war to all sacola, too, the physical condition of in oceans and climates has resulted an “survivors”exposed to varying periods ambitious program of the armed of sun, rain, and other exposure was forces and other Government and under special study. private agencies in developinglifeRations are being developed to consaving equipment to aid persons cast serve spaceand toprovide some nouradrift in any of the seven seas. ishment without promoting accoman As a means of keeping all services panying thirst.Fishing kits are inand agencies abreast of the latest de- cluded to provide a change of diet. Small first-aid kits are of assistance velopments in this field, the joint Chiefs of Staff recently directed the in case of disease, discomfort, or Coordinator of Research and Develop- accident. drinking With a supply of pure ment of the Navy Department to undertake coordination of this work, in- water and rations available, the next problem of the survivor is to be rescluding methods, techniques, evaluagadgets for attracting tion of present equipment, as well as cued. Many attention have been devised and are research on emergency equipment. either in use or under study. HandLiaison is maintained with other United Nationsin order that new res- operated short-wave radio transmitcue may ideas be adopted by all ters seem to have great possibilities friendly countries at the earliest pos- in revealing the position of a lost raft. When rescuing planes or ships are in sible moment. All branches of the armed forces the vicinity other methods of attractattention are available. Small in sea ing and other agencies dealing transportation, as well as the cogni- rafts are extremely difficult to sight zant bureaus of the Navy, Army, and at sea, and nearby craft must be atthe Office of Strategic Services, are tracted by other means. Small hand mirrors, reflecting the suntoward the involved in the coordination plan. rescuers, can be seen for 10 miles. A t The Navy Department, using its own as well as other personnel, has night rockets provide the same effect. a been directlyinvolved during the past- Various daytimemethodsinclude month in two important “proving bright-colored box kite, a brilliant dye that is thrownin thewater in the ground” tests of emergency rescue vicinity of the raft, smoke guns, and equipment. These trials were held gaudy colors on the raft and accesoff Cape Pear, N. C . , and Pensacola, Fla. Particular attention was paid. to sories.

By RICHARD L, GRIDLEY

T h e comfort of survivors has not been overlooked in the consideration of life-raft design. Sleepingaccommodations are to be improved considerably by stretching a canvasfrom side to side, therebyenablingoccupants to keep off the bottom of the raft where water usually is standing. Seating arrangements will be changed topermitthe necessary stretch of limbs without great inconvenience to other occupants.Stowage of accessories and clothes can be improved so that the raft at times can present all a trim appearance. Miscellaneous articles like rations. tooth brushes-recently found tobe a powerful morale builder-cigarettes, matches,watches, andother knickknackscan be preserved watertight within a new life-preserver bag worn on the chest. It is reinflated by the lungs. All of these rescue ideas. have been subject of intensive experimentation by the Navy and Army, both in the laboratory and in thefield. The field trials have been made under actual wartime conditions by casting volunteers adrift manymiles at sea. These trials have uncovered many bugs in equipment that looked perfect on the drafting board andinthelaboratories. It is expected that many lives will be saved in the future and the ordeals of many survivors made easier by the continuing study intothe fleld ).1 of emergency rescue equipment. /

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Convalescence and Education
Success of ExperimentalUnit in Naval Hospital Will Lead to Broadened Services
Because of the success of an experimental unit ,in Philadelphia’s United States hospital, naval educational services laboratories will be established as rapidly as possible in other naval hospitals. I n complete cooperation with medical authorities, the educational services program offers opportunities in the fields of languages, mathematics, naval customs and usage, and other subjects when needed.or requested. In the Philadelphia hospital, during the patient’s brief stay, which averages 4 weeks, he is visited often by a specially trained educational services officer, who outlines and supervises the broad educational opportunities available. These include, among other things, linguaphone instruction in many languages-of which French is currently mostpopular-and correspondence study in any one of 6,877 courses which are available, through the Armed Forces Institute, in the extension divisions of 83 colleges and universities. The mostpopularsubject at the hospital mathematics. is Courses

in other range the all way from r e v i e w sues (as is already being done arithmetic through algebra, plane naval units), and extensive guidance geometry, and trigonometry. A close work in helping naval personnel continue or round out their educational by the second i n n t e r e s h h o w n i hospital staff itself-is the course in careers or helping them plan a longnaval customs and usage, attended term series of studies which will take regularly by more than 300 members them back to the job they wantwhen of the Navy Nurse Corps. The Navy the war is won. Reception of the educational servdoctors likewise have evinced an inices opportunities by patients has terest in brushing up on their lanbeen enthusiastic and seriousguages by the linguaphonemethod. Twice each week the hospital’s minded.They look forwardtogetpublic address system is used for 15- ting back to the job of winhing the minute news summaries, and Weekly war, either in or out of the service, as Newsmaps (INFORMATION BULLETIN, soon as possible; meanwhile they welcome thechanceto occupy the July, 1943, p. 9) are used to helpvisu“thinking-and-waiting time” ofConalize for student-patient the the progress of the wars from which he valescence in worth-whilepersonal achievement. has returned. information War is This linking of the mind and body, constantly made available as supplementaryreadingmaterial,and the the intellectual and the physical, is services use of the hospital library is encour- the key totheeducational hospital program. Thecombination aged. of a creative educational opportunity Plansareunder way toemand hospitaleducational services activi- and the finest medical care available, ties by utilizing both the educational the experiment in Philadelphia has thewaron and therapeutic values of music, by demonstrated,canwin the personal, as well as the internaemploying films to acquaint patients tional, battle fronts. with war developments and war is-

New Army and Navy Staff College Opens in Washington
The Army and Navy Staff College, organizations,functions, and procelocated in the new War Department dure, and the capabilities and limitaBuilding, Twenty-First and Street tions of vessels and weapons and servVirginia Avenue NW., Washington, ices unfamiliar to him.During this D. C., was formally opened in August. phase the studentofficer will attend a The Army and Navy Staff College, 4 weeks’ course at the two associated an activity under the jurisdiction of schools he has not previously attended. the joint Chiefs of Staff, operating unThe 8 weeks’ course at the Army der the direct supervision of the joint and Navy Staff College, Washington, Deputy Chiefs of Staff, ’has been eswill give all student officers intensive tablished to instructselected qualified instruction in theapplication and use Army, Navy,and Marine Corps officers of their knowledge in joint or coorin the performanceof command staff dinated operations. The college is diduties in unified and coordinated ac- vided into four joint staff divisions: tivities of Army and Navy forces by Intelligence, Operations, Logistics, and increasing their knowledge of the Communications. The Joint Opertechnique of operations and logistics ations Division is subdivided into of land, sea, and air forces. joint air operations and amphibious The course of instruction is divided operations. into two phases. Thefirstphase is Between 30 and 40 student ofiicers, conducted at threeassociated schools, the Naval War College, Newport, R. I.; with ranks normally ranging upward the Army Command and General from lieutenant colonel in the Army and Marine Corps and commander in Staff School, Leavenworth, Kans.; and the Army Air Forces School of the Navy, respectively, will attend Applied Tactics, Orlando, Fla. The each course. Instructors have been second phase will be at the Army and selected from officers of each service experienced in each subject under Navy Staff College. given The first phase is intended to sup- study. Otherlectures will be by officers visiting orreturningto plement the student ofiicer’sknowledge of his own service or branch by a Washington from the various operavery comprehensive course the in staff tional theatres.
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PUBLICATION CHECK LIST

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Designed to call attention to published information otherwise which may be missed. Activity or publisher in parenthesis indicates where publication m q be obtained; cost, if any, as indicated. Issuing activities should furnish listings to editor.

UNICALS
0;Bicial
Personal Affatrsof Naval Personnel and Aid for Their Dependents (BuPers, NavPers 15,014). This i beinggiven general diss tribution. Summary of Ranks ‘an& Rates oy the U.S . Navy Together with Designations and Insignia. (Omcia1 copies, BuPers, Nav Pers 15,004; personal copies, Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D.C., J527,777, 5 cents.) Reprinted with minor changes from the BuPers Information Bulletin, issue of May 1943. Summary of Regulations Governing the Issuance and Wearing of Decorattom, Medals amd Ribbons Nom Designated fm Naval Personnel. (OfRcial copies,BuPers, NavPers 15,016;personalcopies, Supelintendent o Documents, Washington,D C., f . 5-538,338,5 cents.) Reprinted withcertain added material from the BuPers Information Bulletin, issue of March 1943; second printing, revised. PERIODICALS TraDiv Letter for 15 August 1943 (Training Division, BuPers)
Official

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LETTERS TO THE EDITOR
This column is open t o unofficial communications from within the Naval Service on matters of general interest. However, it is not intelzded to conflict in any way with NavyRegulations regarding the forwarding of official mail through channels, nor i s it to substitute f o r the policy of obtaining information from the local commanding officer in all possible instances. be Answers to correspondence addressed to theEditorwill through this column only.

NEW. NAMES i the Navv n
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The U. S. S. Remey, in honor of the late Rear Admiral George Collier Remey, USN. Admiral Remey held commands in the. war between the States, was in command of the naval base at Key West in the SpanishAmerican war, and was cornmanderin-chief of United Statessquadrons in the Far East during the Insurrection of the Philippines and the Boxer ington, D. C., or the United States war in China in 1900. To THE EDITOR: I’ve I hope I’m not jumping too soon, Coast Guard Academy. asked The U. S. S. Kenneth Whiting, a but the Guadalcanal Battle Blaze in- several men on the station, and none seaplane tender, in honor of the late have been able~to help me. I’d ap- Capt. Kenneth Whiting, USN (Ret.), a signia, which is now out for future dress of the Fighting First Marinesf preciate your enlightening me.O distinguished pioneer in the fields of the Solomons (INFORMATION BULLETIN, S. A. M., AS, USNR. aviation and submarine operations. Answer: United States Coast May 1943, p. 52), sure knocks the Once, as an ensign in 19098, in a hazGuard, Washington, P.C. This morale of a lot of us. Don’t weardous experiment t o demonstrate a answer could have been obNavy and Coast Guard, sailors who means of escape from a sunken subtained from yourdivision oflanded a few hours after the marines marine, he was expelled from a torficer or company commander. to establish radio and signal stations, pedo tube of the Porpoise and swam and boat crews, who worked relent- T O THE EDITOR: to the surface in safety. In 1914 lessly back and forth unloading ships We have had a great deal of discus- Captain Whiting was taught to pilot day and n i g h t r a t e consideration? sion here over the regulations of the a plane by Orville Wright.Hewas Here’s something that I believe very service stripe and who is allowed to awarded the Navy Cross for outstandfew people know: Of the original wear it. We have a number of men ing service as “commanding officer of landing force there were 20 of us left at the base who have had previous the first United States aeronautical behind, a month after the marines detachment to reach France” in the active and inactive service in the were relieved. I n all, we stood in the Army and National Guard. All these First World War, and “later in comSolomons over 6 months. And what men are drawing longevity for their mand of the important United States justice does this do the crew of three time andfeel that inasmuch as it was naval air station at Killinghouse, YP’s that carried necessary supplies the Federal service they should be England.” He helped plan the carfrom Tulagi to Guadalcanaland, I allowed to wear the stripe. We under- riers Lexington and Saratoga and might say,saved the day many times? stand thatmen in the Army, with pre- later commanded the Saratoga. My intentions aren’t t o throw this viousNavy time, and men from the Whiting Field, auxiliary air station, was also named in up at anybody and expect immediate National Guard are allowed to wear Milton, Okla., rectification on an oversight, or what- it. Would you please set us right on honor of CaptainWhiting(BUPERS BULLETIN, August 1943, p. 4 9 ) . ever i t might be called. Nor is i t for this question? glory; not the in least. I, myself, Uniform Regulations, 1941, Article am thankful to alive, but why take 8-8 (c) , fail to state“yes” or “no” on be the credit from men so deserving of the above question and leave the U. S. DECORATIONS it?-R. G., SMlc. USN. whole matter indoubt.-. A. N., Cox, {continuedfrom page 23) Answer: “Blazes” are not USNR. have been enunciated will result in a worn on Navy uniforms. HowAnswer: No. I f Army service close adherence to- the rules for the ever, you may be sure that in counted, Uniform Regulations award of each decoration. I n the due time appropriate naval recwould so state. past, in some cases, these rules have who ognition will be given all To THE EDITOR: not been followed,and medals intendparticipated honorably in all Today a question has come which ed for heroism have been awarded for naval actions. we are unable to answer, so we are meritorious services where no heroism TO THE EDITOR: turning to you for assistance. A man, was involved. I n t h e July issue there was a list WTlc, with many years’ service, came Both branches of the service have of publications on page which could in to say that he had questioned a unit citation for outstanding per66 been given about wearing a service star for his formance in action. The Navy award be had by writing to the address in the item. . son who is in the service and of whom is called the Presidential Unit Citation However, I’ve had some difficulty in and the Army award the Mstin‘understanding some of the abbrevia- he is very proud. As it was a Reserve guished Unit Badge. tions or to understand the complete officer who questioned him regarding The policy of awardingcampaign conaddress of, e. g., “U. S. Coast Guard,” it, he seeksmoreinformation medals has been continued, and the o not knowing whether to write Wash- cerning his right t wear it. Please Navy has provided the Expeditionary give us your verdict-he says he would Medal for minor campaigns, where a much rather wear the starthan cam- medal is not issued. paign ribbons, as he doesn’t cme to Where the same decoration is won tell the world where he has been, but more than once, the Army issues a Oak Leaf Cluster for each does want the world to know he has bronze “ H e y . Alberr, are you additional award. The Navy issues a son in thearmed forces.-Librarian, sure our altimeter 8 s a gold star for the same purpose. United States Naval Hospital. working?’ Thisis worn onthe ribbon of the Answer: He cannot wear such appropriate decoration. a service star; only oficial in“Flight

(NCS,Grosse Ile, Mieh.)

signia can be worn upon a uniform, and service stars have no oficial sanction.

[Attentionisinvitedto a specialsection on the subject of Navy Ribbons in the March 1943 Information Bulletin. For reprints, see page 74.1

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... .......... . .................................................. .
,.: .:,.::.:..: ,./.:....., ..;

-0Ricial

t?. S. Navy Photogrnpn.

THE GOAL: Shore line near Licutu, Sicily, as Allied invaders moue in. Thus end months
ing and meticulous plannircg on a vast scale.

of intensive train-

troops in Sicily, then helping heterogeneous was fleet navigated Cola aboard, also. That is nothing vasion tofighttheshortbattlewiththeir across theAtlantic mainly by spitshort of miraculous. warships, and afterwardkeeping the tinginto the wind. fleet of 2,000 ships that carried tremendously vital supplies and reinFewer than athird of the sailors the Allied invasion forces t o Sicily forcements flowing in steadily. on our ship were Regular Navy. And was by all oddsthe most gigantic ever most of that third hadn’t been in the assembled in the world‘s history, Younzsters of Scant Navy mans sears. Most of our crew many,manytimes the size of the were y o u n g peacetime landlubbers Exper;ence D&? the Job great Spanish Armada. (Allied headwho became sailors only because of quarters announced later that the FTER being withthemthrough the war and who were longing to get this operation, 1 must say ,my re- back to civil life. total of ships was3,266.) I n reading of this invasion you must spect for theNavy is great. The perThese .“amateurs” make a crew remember that at least half of it was sonnel for this great task had to be somewhat less efficient than you would British. The planning was done to- built as quickly as the fleet itself. We have found before the war. They gether and our figures lumped to- did not rob the Pacific of anything. just haven’t had to time become gether, but in the actual invasion we We created from whole cloth. There thoroughlyadept. Buttheir officers sailed separate fleets, landed in sep- were 1,000 officers staffing these new- say they are terribly willing. arate areas. type invasion ships, and less than 20 HE American invading force was But either section of the invasion, of them were regular Navy men. The American or British,was a gigan- rest were all erstwhile civilians trained T b r o u g h t from Africa to Sicily in tic achievement. It was originated. almostovernight into seadogs. The three immense fleets sailing sepaplanned, organized, and put into effect bulk of the assault craft came across rately.Each of thesethree was in in the !j short months since the Casa- the ocean under their own power. turn broken down into small fleets. blancaconference. The bulk of our They are flat-bottomed and not adIt had been utterly impossible to sail own invasion fleet came into existence dicted to deep-water sailing. Their themallas one fleet. That would since November. skippers were all youngsters of scant have been like trying to herd all the The United States Navy had the experience. Some of them arrived sheep in the world with one dog. The whole job of embarking, transporting, here with hardly any equipment a t ships sailed from every port in North protecting, and landing American in- all. As one Navy man this said, Africa down tothe tiniest ones, It

THE

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T H E TRlP T O SlClLYI Some

U. S. soldiers doze, British soldier studies, other U.S, soldiers eat canned ratiom
which theirmascot refuses to beg for.
landings over and over for months. A million little things to had be thought of and provided. That it all could bedone in5 months is a modern miracle. “Andyet,)’ onehighnaval officer said as we talked about the invasion details on the way over, “the public will be disappointed when they learn where we landed. They expect us to ihvade Italy, France, Greece, Norway, and all of them at once. The people just can’t realize that we must take just one step a t a time, and this step we are taking now took a half year to prepare.”
T o sail, but i t was obvious it wasn’t going to be immediately, for

” B r i t i s h Official Photoxranh.

“Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

was all worked out like a railroad schedule. Each of the three big fleets had a command shipcarrying an admiral in charge of that fleet and the Army general in command of the troops being transported. Each command ship had been especially fitted up for the purposewith extraspacefor “war rooms,” which contained huge maps, officers at desks, and scores of radio operators. It was through these command ships thatthe various land battles were directed inthe early stages of the invasionbefore corn‘munication centers couldbe setup ashore. alike. 0UR three fleets were not allAmerOne came directly from ica, stopping in Africa only long enough for the troops to stretch their legs, thenrighton again,. The big transport fleets were much easier t o get here; but once here,their difficulties began. Everything had to be unloaded into lighter craft which the big ships carried on their decks, then taken ashore. It meant a much longer process of unloading than ours. When your assault troops are being attacked by landand your waiting shipsarecatching it fromtheair, believe me, thespeed of unloading is mighty important. I n additiontothe big transports and our hundreds of oceangoing landing craft, our fleet consisted of seagoing tugs, mine sweepers, subchasers,submarines, destroyers, cruisers, mine layers, repair ships, and selfpropelled barges mounting bigguns. We had practically everything that floats. Nobody canever know until after the war just what planning this thing entailed, just what a staggering task it all was. Huge staffs worked on it in Washington until the last minute, then moved bag and baggage over here. Thousands of civilians worked daynight and for months.Troops and ships practiced

weren’t told what day we were

there was still too much going and coming, too much hustle .and bustle, about the port. Our ship, of course, was blacked-out while in port, but it wasn’t observed as strictly our as convoy black-outs from England last For one thing, the activity of invasion preparation was so seething those last few weeks that in practically every port in North Africa the harbor lights blazed throughout the bight, contemptuous of danger. There simply wasn’t time to be cautious. Theship loading hadto go on day‘andnight, so theyletthe harbor lights burn. The bunkassigned to me was in one of the big lower bunkrooms, but it w&s terrificially hot down there, so thecaptain of the ship-a serious, thoughtful veteran naval aviatorhad a cot put up for me on the deck with a mattress on it,andthere I slept with the soft fresh breezes of the Mediterranean night wafting over me. Mine was the best spot on the ship, even better than the captain’s.
fall.

Ships AIC Stripped for Actio%
the vessel that was to carryus through the invasion, I was struck with the odd bleakness of the walls and ceilings throughout the ship. At first I thought it was a new and of interior very unbecoming type Before the war, Ernie Pyle was a decoration, but then shortly I realroving cowespondent the for strange effect was ized that this Scripps-Howard newspapers and merely part of the Navy procedure United Feuture Sydicate. In the of strippingfor action. Insideour African imvasiolz he went along ship there were many other precauwith the U.S. Army, wrote colorful tions. As yougo into battle all exdescriptions of the The front. cess rags blankets taken and are Navy took him to Sicily, and his ashore’or stowed away and locked up. first artides concerning the Navy, The bunk mattresses are set on edge reprimted here, were the result. against the walls to act as absorbent
H N I cameaboard E

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WHAT THE ADMIRALS WORE: Rear Admiral Alan G. Kirk, USN, ( 1 ) watches a landing, ( 2 ) keeps vigil in foul weather 0% bridge, ( 3 ) shakes ham! of Vice Admiral N. K. Hewitt, USN.
cushions against torpedo or shell fragments. “he entire crew must be fully dressed in shoes, shirts,and pants-no working in shorts or undershirts because of the danger of burns. The Navy’s traditional white hats are left below for the durationof the action.. No white clothing is allowed to show on deck. Steel helmets, painted battleship gray, are worn duringengagement. Men who go on night watches are awakened 45 minutes ahead of time instead of the usual few minutes and ordered to be on deck half an hour before going on watch, for it takes that long for the eyes to become accustomed tothe full darkness. U souvenir Arearms are turned and the ammunition thrown overboard. There was one locker room full of German and Italianrifles and revolvers which the sailors had got from front-line soldiers. Failure was a to throw away ammunition court-martial offense. The officers didn’t want stray bullets whizzing around in case of fire. Fbod supplies were taken from their regular hampers and stored all about the shipso that our entire supply couldn’t be destroyed by one hit. A l l movie fl was taken ashore. im No flashlights, even hooded ones, were allowed. Doors opening on deck have switches just the reverse of refrigerators-when youopen the door the lights inside ga .out. A l l linoleum had been removed from the floors, all curtains taken down. Because of weightlimitations on the plane which brought me here I had to leave my Army gas mask behind, so the Navy issued me a Navy mask along with a l l the sailors before departure. They also gave one me of those bright yellow Mae West life preservers like aviators wear. ship had been lying far out in the harbor, tied a buoy, for several days. to Several timesa day “general quarters” would sound and the crew would dash to their battle stations, but always it was a photo plane or perhaps one of our own. Then wemoved into a pier. That very night the raiders came and our ship got its baptism of fire-she lost her virginity, as the sailors put it. I had got out of bed at 3 a. m. as usual to stumble sleepily up t o the radio shackto goover the news reports which the wireless had pickedup. There were several radio operators on watch, and we were sittingaround drinking coffee while we worked. of a sudden Then around 4 a. m. a13 “general quarters” sounded. It was still pitch dark. The whole ship came to lifewith a scurryand rattling, sailors dashing to stations before you’d havethought they could gettheir shoes on. Shooting had already started around the harbor, so we knew t h i s time it was real. I kept on working, and the radio operators did, too; or, rather, tried to work. So many people were going in and out the radio of shack that we were in darkness half the time, since the lights automatically go off when the door is opened.
EFORE sailing on the invasion our

”Official fJ. Y. S a v y Photographs.

raiders were dropping flares all over the sky, and the searchlights on the warships were fanning theheavens. Shrapnel raineddown on the decks, making a terrific clatter. All this went onfor an hour andhalf. When a it was over and everything was added UP we found four planes hadbeen shot down. Our casualties were negligible, and no damagewas done the ship except little holes from near-misses. our ship had been Three men on wounded. Best of all, we were credited with shooting down one of the planes! OW this raid, of course, was only one of scores of thousands that have conducted been in this war. Standingalone it wouldn’tevenbe worth mentioning. I’m mentioning it to show you what a little taste of the genuine thing can do for a bunch of young Americans. As I have said, our kids on this ship had never beenin action. The majority of them were strictly wartimesailors, still half-civilian character. in They’d never been shot at, never shot one of their own guns, exceptin practice, and becauseof this they had been very sober, a little unsure, and more than a little worried about the invasion ordeal that lay so near ahead of them. And then, all within an hour and a half,they became veterans. Their zeal went up like one of those HEN the biggest guns of our ship shootinggraphlines in the movies let loose. They made such a when business is good. Boys who had horrifying noise thought we’d been been all butterfingerswereloading we hit by a bomb every time they went shells like machinery after15minutes off. Dust and debris camedrifting when it became real. Boys who previdown from the ceiling to smear up ously had gone through their routine everything. Nearbybombsshook us lifelessly were now yelling with bitter UP, tJm. seriousness, “Dammit, can’t you pass One by one the electric light bulbs them shells faster.” were shattered from the blasts. The The gunnery officer, making his thick steel walls of the cabin shook official report to the captain, did it in and rattled as tho were tin. The these gleefully robust words: they entire vessel shivered each under “Sir, we got the s of a k ” . ’ blast. The harbor was lousy with It was worth a day’s pay to be on ships, and they were all shooting. The this ship the day after the raid. A l l

N

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“Official V. 8. Coast Guard Photograph.

THE LANDING: Coast Guard-mumzed tramport is
missed by Axis bombers.

..

,

. . while only seaagullsgflock around British Infantry l d h z craft . . .
pineapple can like Indians, we all seemed terribly pathetic to me. Even the dizziest of us knew that within less than 48 hours many of us stood a n excellent chance of being in this world no more. I don’tbelieveone of us was afraid of the physical part of dying. That isn’t the way it is. Your emotion is rather one of almost desperate reluctance to give up your future. I suppose that seems like splitting hairs and that it really all comes under the heading of fdar, yet somehow to us there a difference. is These gravely yearned-for futures of mengoing into battle include so many things-things such as seeing “the old lady” again, of going t o college, of staying in the Navy for a career, of holding on your knee just once own your kid whom you’ve never seen, of becoming again championsalesman of your territory, of driving a coal truck around the streets of Kansas City once more and, yes,even of justsitting in the sun once more on thesouthside of a house in New Mexico. When you huddle around together on tile dark decks on your last wholly secure nightit’stheselittle hopes and ambitions that make up the sum total of your worry a t leaving rather than any visualization of physical agony tomorrow. Our deck and the shelflike deck above us was dotted with littlegroups huddled around talking. Y o u couldn’t see them but you could hear them. I deliberatelylistenedaround for awhile.Every group was talking in someway about their chances of survival. A dozen times I overheard this same remark: “Well, .I don’t worry about it because I look at it this way. If your number’s up then it’s up and if it ain’t you’ll come through no matter what!” Every single person who expressed himself that way was a liar and knew it but, hell, a guy has to say some-

”British Official Photograph.

,

which they follow a distant plane in the sky. A gun has one blessing in addition to one the of protecting you: it occupies Busy you. people aren’t often afraid. UR ship had been in African waters months this many but invasion was the first violent action, its crew had ever been through. Only three o r four men, who’d been torpedoed inthe Pacific, had ever before had any close association with the probability of suddendeath. I‘ve come to know a great many of the sailors aboard and I know they went into this thing just as soldiers go intothe first battle-seemingly calm but inside frightened and sick and sailors in camps back with worry. It’s the lull in the last home now, I always visualize-and no couple of days before startingthat doubt wrongly-a draftee who is hits you so hard. In the preparation going through his training like a man, period your fate seems far away and butstill reluctantly and without in- once in action YOU are too busy to be terest. There isn’t a breath of that afraid. It’s just those last coupleof left over here. Once you are in action days when you have time to think too that’s all gone. It goes because now much. you are working. You are working The night before we sailed I sat in tostay alive, and not because some- the darknesson the forward deck, body tells you to work. helping half a dozen sailors eat a can . You should see our sailors when of stolen pineapple. Some of the general quarters sounds. They don’t men of our littlegroup were hardget to their stations in the manner of ened andmature.Others were alschool going kids in when the bell mostchildren.Theyalltalkedserirings. get They there by charging ously and their gravity was touching. -over things and, knocking things The oldersones tried to rationalize down. I have seen themarrive a t how the law of averages made it ungun stations with nothing but their likely our ship, ,out of all the hundrawers on. I’ve seen officers upset dreds in action, wouldbe hit. They their dinner and be clear out of the spoke of the inferiority of the Italian wardroom by the time the second fleet andarguedproand con over “beep!” of the alarm signal sounded. whether Germany had some hidden Whenever we had general quarters Luftwaffe upher sleeve shemight I always just froze wherever I was whisk out to destroy us. Younger for about5 minutes, to keep from get- ones spoke but little. They talked ting bowled over in the rush. to me of theirplansandhopesfor And the boys onthe guns-you going to college o r gettingmarried would hardly recognize them. Shootafterthe war, always epilogued by ing at planes isn’t a duty for them, the phrase: “If I get through this it’s an outlet. I doubt if theyhave fracas alive.” ever watched a ball game or ogled a S WE sat there on the hard deck, girl with the complete intentness with squatting in acircle around our day long the sailors wentgabble, gabble, gabble, each telling the otherhow they did it, what they saw, what they thought. After that raid a great part of their reluctance to start for the unknownvanished; theirgunshad become their pals, the enemy became real, and the war came for them, alive and they didn’t fear it so much any more. This crew of sailors had just’ gone through what hundreds thouof sands of other soldiers and sailors already had experienced-the conversion from peaceful people into fighters. There’s nothing especially remarkable about it, but it is moving to be on hand and see it happen. HEN I try to picture our soldiers

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war are &eirtg marched to Allied lamdirtg craft for shipmertt to Africa.Guards here are British Naval Commados. thing on the night. last I heard our ship slipped away from the pier. . There is no way of conveying to you oldsters offering to make bets at even A magnificent sun was far down the the enormityof that fleet. I can only money we wouldn’t get hit at all, and arc of the sky, but it was still bright say that on the horizon it resembled a 2 to 1 we wouldn’t get hit seriously. and the weather warm. We steamed distant city. I t covered half the skybomb-shattered city, past line and thedull-colored camouflaged Those were the offers but I don’t think out past the scores of shipssunkearlier inthe any bets actually were made. shipsstoodindistinctlyagainst the Somehow it seemed sort of sacri- battle for North Africa, past sailors curve of thedarkwater as a solid and soldiers on land who weren’t formation of uncountable structures legious to bet on your own life. going along and who waved a good- blending together. m e n to be part of NCE I heard somebody inthe We back with a it was frightening. I hope no Amerdarkness start cussing and give bye to us. waved this answer to some sailor critic who feeling of superiority we all felt in- ican ever has to see its counterpart side without saying it, that we were sailing against us. was proclaiming how he’d run things: historic, almost We caught up with the fleet and i n that u p part of something “Well, I figure Captain thereinthecabinhas gota little men of destiny, YOU might call us. the remaininghours of daylight it Our vessel slid along at half speed, worked slowly forward. Our ship and more in his noggin than you have or Everybody the other command ships raced he wouldn’t be Captain, so I’ll put my making almost no sound. not workingwas on deck for a last around herdingour broods into proper money on him.” And another sailor voice chimed in look at African soil. Themouth of formations, signaling by flag and sigand instructing and with, “Hell, yes, that Captain has the harbor was very narrow. Just as nal light, shooing sea slept through more watches than you we were approaching the neck a voice ordering untilthisship-strewn and and I have spent time in the Navy.” came over the ship’s loudspeaker: began to break into small globules take course in their right manner. And so it went on that last night of “Port side, attention.” All the sailors snapped upright and safety. I never heard anybody say E ON board stoodat And wwondered how much the rails and anything unpatriotic like the story- I with them, facing shoreward. the Germans there at the harbor mouth on the flat knew of us. Surely a force of this imbooks have people saying. There was roof of the bomb-shattered Customs philosophizing but it was simple and mensity could not be concealed. Reundramatic. I’m sure no man would House, stood a rigid guard of honorconnaissance planes could possibly not tars American bluehave ashore stayed if given the British and us. agentsontheshore our two flags flying missbutAxis chance, There was something bigger jackets-with had to look through binoculars to than theawful dread thatwould have over them. The buglerplayed as all see the start of the greatest armada stood at attention. The officers stood ever assembled in the history of the kept him there. With me it probably The notes died outand was an irresistible egotism in seeing a t salute. world.Allied planes flew informamyself part of the historic naval there was not a sound. No one spoke. tion far above us. Almost out of sight We slid on past on our mission into movement. With others it was, I cruisers and wicked They do dramatic great graceful think, just the application of ,plain, the , unknown. movies, but new destroyers raced on our perimeter ordinary, unspoken, even unrecog- things like that in the this one was genuine-so dearly true, to protect us. Just at dusk a whole nized, patriotism. squadron of vicious little PT boats, SO old in tradition, so vital with realism, that youcould notcontrol the theirengines roaring in onegiant The Big Day Comes; combination like a force of heavy tensed cords in your throat, and you bombers, crossed our bow and headed Salute Brilzgs Pride felt deeply proud. E SAILED on past the stone for Sicily. WAS onone of the fleet’s headOurguardwas out. Our die was with the waves beatquarters ships. We’d been lying wbreakwatcr cast. Now there was no turning back intheharborfor a week waiting ing against it and out onto the dark ever, and we moved on into the enwhile all the other ships got loaded. blue of the Mediterranean where the have a Finally, without evenbeing told, we windwas fresheningand far away veloping night that might knew the big day had come, for all the mist began to form on thewatery morningfor us or might not. Rut that day slower troop-carrying barges horizon. We suddenly were aware nobody, truly nobody, was afraid now, had filed past us in an unbroken line of a scene that will shake me every for we were on our way. time I think of it the rest of my life. HE ship’s officers were told the heading out to sea. whole invasion plan in great detail Finally around 4 o’clock in the It was our invasion fleet, formed just after we started. The crew was afternoon the harbor was empty and there farout at sea, waiting for us. Page 39

. . . a d soort prisorters of

-British

Official Photograph.

” B r i t i s h Official r h o t ~ g r a ~ ~ h .

.

British section of inuasion fleetmoues in for landing as smoke clouds from ships and bombarded land bases dot horizon given the plan a little at a time after wagering among themselves for days mess and the poor Negroboys who waited tables were at it nearly every sailing. In addition, a mjmeographed on where we would invade. You’d be surprised at the bad guesses. Many waking hour. A l l bunks had at least set of instructions and warnings was be Italy, some two occupants and many officers slept distributed about the ship before sail- thought it would Greece, some France, and one poor, on thedeck rolled up inblankets. You ing. I t ended as follows: move without stepping “This operation will be a completely benighted chap even thought we were couldn’t an somebody. offensive one. The ship will be at going to Norway. Lt. Comdr. Fritz Gleim, big ReguGeneral Quarters or Condition Two HROUGHOUT the invasion period throughout theoperation. It may extheentire crew was on one of lar Navy man with a dry good humor, tend over a long period of time. Op- two statuse-ither “General Quar- remarked one morning at breakfast: portunities for restwill not come very ters” or “Condition Two.” General “Everybody is certainly polite on this often. . You can be sure that you will Quartersisthe Navy termfor full ship. Theyalways,say ‘Excuse me’ have something to about talk when alertandmeans everybody on full when they step on you. I’ve got so I this is over. This ship must do her duty until the crisis ends. It may be sleep right ahead while being walked on, so now they shake me till I wake stuff.” 20 minutesor it may be 48 hours. Thefirstmorning out the sailors Condition Two is half alert, 4 hours up so they can say ‘Excuse me.’ ” were called on deck and told where on, 4 hours off, but the off hours are BeautifalWeather we were going, I stood with them as spent right at your battle station. It they got the news and couldn’t see merely givesyou a littlechance to The Fimt Day Oat any change of expression at all, but relax. U R first day at sea on the way to later you could sense a new enthusiinvade Sicily was truly like a Our ship was packed to the gills. , asm just merely from knowing. We were carryingextra Army and peacetime Mediterranean cruise. The That news, incidentally, was the Navy staffs and our small ship had weather w a s something you read occasion for settling up any number about, gently warm and sunny and the about 150 people above normal. Table of bets. It seems the boys had been sittings went up to four inthe officers’ sea as smooth as velvet.
MORE. ROUGH GOING:

...

T

”British Oficinl Photographs.

CONVOYS-AND MORE CONVOYS: A n early one, left; a reinforcemeet convoy, center; the landing of more Britishtroops,right.
Page 40

. . . and

-British

Official Photograph.

at any moment we could be attacked by a submarine, surface ship or airplane, and yetanykind of an att.ack-even the that fact anybody would w a n t t o attack anybody elsewas so utterly out of keeping with the benignity of the sea that it was hard totake seriously the possibility of danger. I had thought I might be afraid at sea, sailing in this great fleet that by its very presence was justification for attack, and yet I found it impossible t o be afraid. It had never occurred to me before that that might be the way in enemy waters during wartime. Why it remained that way we shall never know, but throughout our long voyage and rightup to the final dropping anchor we never had one single attack from above, from below, nor from over the horizon. USK brought a change. Not a feeling of fear at all, butsomehow an acute sense of thedrama we were

4 milessouth of Syracuse enemybombersattackBritishships craft for driue orz city. We were kept a t a sharp alert, for playing at that moment on the face

as they unloadtroops

and landing

of theseathathas knownsucha major shareof the world's great warfare. In the faint light of the dusk, forms b e c a m e indistinguishable. Nearby ships were only heavier spots against the heavy background of the night. Now YOU thought you saw something and now there was nothing. The gigantic armada was on all sides of us, there only in knowledge. Then out of nowhere a rolling little sub-chaser took on a dim shape alongside us and with its motors held itself steady about 30 yards away. You could not see the speaker, but a megaphoned voice came loudly across the water telling us of the motor breakdown of one of the troop-carrying barges farther back. to We megaphoned advice over him. His response came back. Out in the darkness the voice was young. You could picture a boyish skipper over there in his blown hair and his life

jacket and binoculars, rolling to the sea in the Mediterranean dusk. Someyoung man who had so recently been so normally unaware of any sea at all-the bookkeeper in your bank, perhaps, and now here he was a strange new man in command of a ship, suddenly transformed into a Person with awful responsibilities carrying out with great intentness his special smallpast of the enormous aggregate that is our war on all the lands and seas of the globe. I N HIS unnatural presence there in the rolling darkness of the Mediterranean you realized vividly how everybody in America has changed, how every life suddenly stopped and suddenly began again on a different course. merything in this world has stopped except war andwe are all men of new professions out in some strange night caring for each other. That's the way you felt as you heard this kid, this pleasant kid, bawl-

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and

this i s what a U.S. naval observer saw

"Official U. s. Navy Photograph. of the 3,266 ships that hit Sicily and kept our troops supplied

throughout the campaigrt. Page 41

“Official U. S. S a v p Photographs.

BOMBARDMENT FROM THE SEA: U.S. cruiser shells Licata; Licata smokes after attack. Navy bombarded many towlzs before, after inuasion ingacross thedarkwatersstrange MASS of 2,000 ships couldn’tpos- had to come upout of nowhere. It nautical words withdisciplined delibsibly move without a few acci- could conceivablyturn our whole veneration that carried in them the very dents. I haveno idea of what the ture into a disaster that would take strength of the sea itself, the strong, total was for thefleet as a whole, but thousands of lives and prolong the matured words of the captain of his forourportion i t was very small. war for months. own ship, saying: “Aye, aye, sir. If About half a dozen assault craft had IGH seas there is any change will use my own engine breakdowns and either had to Hcould cause and winds like this I many things such as: judgment and report to you again at be towed or else straggled along be1. The bulk soldiers would dawn. Good night, sir.” hind and came in late-that was all. hit the beach of ourand indifferent weak Then the whole darkness enveloped Allied planes flew over us in forma- from seasickness, two-thirds of their the American armada. Not a pin tion several times a day. We couldn’t point of light showed from those hun- see them most of the time, but I under- fighting power destroyed. 2. u dreds of ships as they surged on thru stand we had a n air convoy the whole ing O r slowest barges barely creepalong against the high waves the night toward their destiny, carry- trip. might miss the last rendezvous and ing across this ageless and indifferent with their precious arrive late too sea tens of thousands of young men of Then the Weather Almost armored equipment. new professions, fighting for-for3. High waves would make launchRuined Everything well, at least for each other. big ingtheassaultcraftfromthe HE sailors’ white hats were forbidE HAD a couple of horrible motransports next to impossible. Boats den ondeck during theoperations, wments as we went to invade Sicily. would be smashed, lives lost, and the so several sailors dyed their hats blue A t the time they both looked disas- attack vastly weakened. except that they turned out a sort of trous for us but in end they turned the There was a time when it seemed sickly purple. It was also the rule that out with such happy endings that it that to avoid complete failure the ineverybody had to wear steel helmets seemed as tho fate had deliberately vasion would have to be postponed 24 during “General Quarters.” Some- waved her wand and plucked us from hours and we’d have to turn around how I had it in my head that Navy doom. and cruise for an extra increasing day people never worelife belts, but I was The weather was the cause of the the chance of being discovered and very wrong. Everybody wearsthem first near tragedy on the morning of heavily attackedby the enemy. in the battle zone constantly. It be- the day on which we were to attack I asked our commanders about it. came one of the ship’s strictest rules Sicily. That night theweather turned They said,“God knows.” They would the moment we left that you dare not miserable. Dawn came UP gray and like to change the plans but it was get caught without a lifebelt on. misty and the, sea began to kick UP. impossible We’d now. have to go Most everybody wears the kind that Even our fairly big ship was rolling through with it, regardless. (Later I straps around the waist like a belt and wallowing and the little flat bot- learned that the Supreme High Comlanding craft were tossing about 4 inches wide. It is rubberized tomed mand did actually consider postponand lies flat. It has two littlecararound like corks. ing. ) tridges of compressed g a w x a c t l y t h e As the day wore on it grew ProANY ships inthe fleet carried same things you use in soda-water sy- gressively worse. By noon the seawas phons a t home-and when you press rough even to professional sailors. By Mbarrage balloons against an air attack. The quick, snap of the ship’s these they go off and fill your life belt mid-afternoon it was breaking clear with air. over our decks. By dusk it was abso- deckwhen it dropped into a trough flying balloon My life jacket was one of the avia- lutely mountainous. The wind howled would tearthehigh tion Mae West type. I took that be- at 40 miles an hour. You could barely loose from its cable. The freed silver cause it holds your head upif you are stand on deck and our far spread con- bag would soar up and up until finally would burst voy was a wallowing convulsive thing. in the thin, high air it unconscious and I knew that at the and disappear from view. One by one first sign of danger I’d immediately Inthe early afternoon high the we watched the balloons break loose become unconscious. Furthermore, I commandaboard o u r variousships figured there’s safety in numbers, so began to wrinkle their brows. They during the afternoon. Scores of them the sky above our convoy. I tookone of the regular life belts, were perplexed, vexed, and worried. dotted too. I am SO damn buoyant that if Damn it, here the Mediterranean had That night when the lastlight of day I’d ever jumped into the water I would been like a mill pond for a solid month failed only three balloons were left in have bounced right back out again. and now on this vital day this storm the entire fleet.

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. . . After bombardment of Licata, emPty< cases roll about deck . shell
In the early afternoon we sent a destroyer back throughthe fleet to find out how all the ships were getting along. It came back with the appalling news that 30 percent of all the soldiers were deathly seasick. One Army officer had been washed overboard from one craft but picked up by another about four ships behind. The little sub-chasers and the infantry-carryingassaultcraft would disappear completely as you watched them.Then thenext moment they would be carried so high they seemed t o leap clear out of the water. By late afternoon manyof the sailors o n our vesselweresick. Surely 50 percent of our troopsmusthavebeen flat on their backs. During the worst of the blow we hoped and prayed that the weather would moderate by dusk but it didn’t. The officers tried to make jokes about it at suppertime.Onesaid,“Think of hitting the beach tonight, seasick as hell, and with your stomachupside down andthe veryfirstthing you come face to face with an Italianwith a big garlic breath!” At 10 o’clock I lay down with my clothes on. There wasn’t anything I could do and the rolling sea was beginning to take nibbles at my stomach, too. I never have been so depressed in my life. I lay there and let the curse of a too-vivid imagination picture a violent and complete catastrophe for America’s war effort before another sun rose. The wind was howling and the ship was pounding .and falling through space. HE next thing I knew a loud voice over the ship’s loudspeaker was saying : “Stand by for gunfire. We, may have to shoot out some searchlights.” I raised up, startled. The engines were stopped. There seemed to be no wind. The entire ship was quiet as a grave. I grabbed my helmet and ran out onto the deck and stared over the

-Official

U. S. Navy Photographs.

o f hn Allied warship.

Soon destroyer lays

smoke screen for landings. rail. We were anchored and you could see dark shapes in the Sicilian hills not far away. We had arrived. The water lappedwith a gentle caressing soundagainst the sides of the motionless ship. I looked down and the green surface of. the Mediterranean was slick and smooth as a table top. The assault boats already were skimming past us toward the shore. Not a breath of air stirred. miracle The had happened.

D-Day Comes, and H-Hour
parlance the day you IN INVASIONtimecountry the called strike a new is D-day and the you hit beach is H-hour. In the invasion contingent for which I am a very biased rooter H-hour was set for 2:45 a. m., July 10. This was when the first mass assault the on beach was to begin. Actually the paratroopers and Rangers were there several hours before. The.other two large American forces which traveled from North Africa in separateunitshitthe beaches far down to ourrightaboutthesame time. You could tell when they landed by the shooting during the first hour or so of the assault. It seemed to me out on our ship that all hell was breakingloose ashore, but now that I look back upon it from a firmerfoundation, actually knowing what happened, i t doesn’t seem very so dramatic. MORE spectacular show was in, the sector to our right, some 12. or 15 milesdown the beach. There the First Infantry-Division was having stiff opposition andtheirnaval escort stood off miles from shore and threw steel at the enemy artillery in the hills. It was the first time I’d ever seen tracer shells used at night in big guns and it was fascinating. From where we satit was like watching a tennis game played with

A

red balls, except all the balls went in one direction. You would seea golden flash way off in the darkness. Out of the flash would go shootinga tiny red dot. That was the big shell. It covered the first quarter of the total distance almost instantly. Then it would uncannily begin a much slower speed as tho ithad put ona brake. There didn’t seem to be any tapering down between its high and low speeds. It went from high to low instantly. You’d think it would start arcing downward in its slowerspeed but instead it amazingly just kept on in an almost flat trajectory as tho it were on wheels being propelled along a level road. Finally after a flight so long you stood unbelieving that a thing could still be in the air itwould disappearin a little flash as it hit something on the shore. Long afterwards you’d hear the heavy explosions come rolling across the water. UR portion of the Americanassault went best of all. The First Division on our right had some bitter opposition and the Forty-fifth on beyond them had some rough seas and bad beaches. But with us everything was just about perfect. Our Navy can’t be given too much credit for putting the troops ashore the way they did. You can’t realize what a nearly impossible task it is to arrive in the dead night at exactly of the right spot with your convoy, feel darkness, your way inthroughthe pick out the very pinpoint of an utterly strange shore line which yoLi’ve been told long beforehandto hit, then put your boat safely ashore right there. I n oursectoreveryboat hit every beach just right. They tell me it is the first time in history it hasever beenaccomplished. The finest tribute to the Navy’s marksmanship came from one soldier who later told this to Major Truscott, his division commander: “Sir, I took my little black dog with

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“Official U. Y. N a v y Photographs.

U. S. STAFF OFFICERS quickly land at Licata, fimd a towm that hasbeem much softemed up by the
bombardment of naual forces.
one by one, came down with their beams our upon ship. They had found their mark. All five of them stretching out over a shore line of several miles pinioned usintheir white shafts as we sat there as naked as babies and just as scared. I would havebeenglad . to bawl like one if it would have helped, forthissearchlightbusinessmeant Fate of Ship Hangs the enemy had us on the block.We not only were discovered, we were as Spotlight Plays caught in a funnel from which there S long asthisship of ourssails was no escaping. the high seas, even after every We couldn’t possibly move fast member of the present crew has been enough to run out of their beams. transferred away, I’m sure the story We were within simple and easy gunof the searchlights will linger on in ning distance. We were a sitting the wardroom and forecastle like a duck. . We were stuck on the end of written legend. five merciless poles of light. We were It is thestory of a few minutes utterly helpless. when the fate of this ship hung upon “When that fifth searchlight the whim of the enemy. For some stopped on us all my children became reason which we probably will never orphans,” one of the officers said know the command to obliterate us later. was never given. NOTHER one said, “The straw Our great, badmomentoccurred that broke myback waswhen just as we had ended our long invawent down. Thechain sion voyage from north Africa and the anchor stopped at our designatedplace off made so much noise you could have heard it in Rome.” thesouthcoast of Sicily. Ourship A third one said, “The fellow was about 3 f/z miles from shore which was in theworld o f big guns is practically standing next to me breathing so hanging in the cannon muzzle. Two hard I couldn’t hear the anchor go or three smaller ships were in closer down. Then I realized there wasn’t than we but the bulk of our invasion anybody standing next t o me.” We got all set shoot at the lights to fleet stood far out to sea behind us. OurAdmiral had the reputation of but then we waited. Our Admiral decided there was some possibility they always getting up close where he haze could have a hand in the shooting, couldn’t see us through the slight andhe certainly rantrue t o form although he was at a loss to explain why all five lights stopped on us if throughout thisinvasion. they couldn’t see us. W E ’ D been stopped only a minute We had three alternative-to start when big searchlightsblinked shooting and thus compel return fire; on from the shore and began to search to up anchor and run for it; or to sit t h e waters. Apparently the watchers quiet like a mouse and wait in terror. ashore had heardsome sounds at sea. We did the latter. The lights swept back and forth across I don’t know howlong the five lights the dark water and after a fewexwere on us. It seemed like hours. ploratory sweeps one of them centered It mayhavebeen five minutes. A t dead upon us and stopped. Then as any rateat the end of some unbelievwe held our breaths the searchlights, ably long time one of them suddenly me inmy arms andI sure was scared standing in that assault boat. Finally we hit the beach and as we piled out into the water we were worse scared than ever. Then we waded ashore and looked aroundandthereright ahead of me was a white house just where you said it would be and after that I wasn’t scared.” blinked out. Then, one by one, seemingly erratically and with no purpose in mind, theothers went out, too. The last one held us a long time as though playing with us. Then it,too, went outand we wereonceagain alone in the blessed darkness. Not a shot had been fired. SSAULT boats had been speeding past us allthetimeanda few minutes later they hit the beach. The searchlights flashed on again, but from then on they were busy fanning the beach itself. It didn’t takeour attackingtroopslongtoshoot the lights out from close range. I’m not sure some of them weren’t just turned out and left off for good. We’ve never yet found out for sure why the Italianbig guns on the shore didn’t let us haveit.Several of us inquired around when we got ashore after daylight. We neverfound the searchlight men themselves, but from other Italian soldiers and citizens of the town we learned that the people ashore were so damn scared at whatever was about to attack them out there on the water that they were afraid to start anything. I guess I’m always going to have to love the Italians, foranybody else bethat hind those searchlights and guns night and we-of this ship wouldbe telling oursearchlightyarn t o St. Peter by now.

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Bedlam BreaksLoose as Dawn Comes
before daylight on the mornwe Sicily lay J ing fewlanded in nap, knowingdown for a minutes’ the
UST
I

predawn lull wouldn’t last long once the sun came up.And sureenough light just as the first faint was beginning t o come, bedlam broke loose all aroundusfor miles. The air. was suddenly filled with sound and danger and tension. and the gray-lighted sky becamemeasled with thousands of the dark puffs of ack-ack.

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THE VICTORY GROWS: Italian prisoners pass through Syracuse after its fall on their way to internment
"

"Brttish Official Photograph.

camps.
Enemyplanes had come to divebomb our ships. They got a hot reception from our thousands of guns, and a still hotter one from our own planes, which had anticipated them and were waiting out beyond. The scene -that emerged from the veil of night was a moving one. Our small assault craft were all up and down the beach, unloading and dashing off again. Ships of many sizes moved toward the shore, and others moved back away from it. Still other ships, so many theywere uncountable, spread out over the water as far as. youcould see. The biggest ones lay come far off, waiting theirturnto in. Theymade a solid wall on the horizon behind us. Between that wall' and the shoreline the sea writhedwithshipping. And running out at right angles from the shorethroughthis hodgepodge, like 2 bee-line highway through a forest, was a single solid line of shorebound barges, carryingtanks.They chuggedalong in Indian file, about 50 yards aparWlowly yet with such calm relentlessness that you feIt it would take some power greater than any we know to divert them. HE airplanes left, and then other thingsbeganto happen; Italian guns on the hills back of the beach opened up. The shells dropped at first the on beach, making yellow clouds of dust as they exploded. Then they started the for ships. They never didhit anyof us, but theycame so close i t made your head swim. They tried one target after another, and one of the targets happened to be us. The moment the shooting started we had got quickly under way-not to run off, but tobe in motion and consequently harder to hit. They fired at usjust once. The shell struck the water 50 yards behind us and threw up a geyser of spray. It made a terrific flat quacking sound as it burst, exactly like a mortar shell exploding At times we would be right up on the edge of pale green water, too shallow on land. to do to go any closer. Our ship wasn't supposed much firing, but that was too much URING all this action I stood on for the admiral. He ordered our guns a big steel ammunition box into action. And for next the 10 marked "Keep O f " surrounded by f, minutes we sounded like Edgewood gunson three sides, with a smokeArsenal blowing up. stack at my back. It was as safe as A few preliminary shots gave us our any place else, it kept me out of the range, and then we started pouring way, and it gave me an $8.80 view of shells into the town and into the gun everything. positions in the hills. The whole vesFinallytheItalian fire dwindled sel shook with every salvo, and off. Thenthe two destroyers went scorched wadding cameraining down in as close to shore as they could get on the deck like cinders. and resumed their methodical runs We traveled at full speed, parallel to back and forth. Only this time they a the shore and about mile out, while weren't firing but belching terrific shooting. clouds of black smoke out of their OR the first time I found out how stacks. The smoke wouldn't seem to they do something like this. Two settle, and theyhadtomakefour destroyers and ourselves were doing runs before the beach was completely the shelling, while all the other ships hidden. Then in this blinding screen ourtank-carryingbargesandmore in close were scurrying around to infantry boats made for the shore. make themselves hardtohit,just Before long you could see the tanks turning in tight circles, leaving halflet go at the town. They only had to moon wakes behindthem. Thesea actually looked funny with all those fire a couple of salvos before the town semicircularwhite wakes splattered surrendered. of over it and everything twisting around That was the end the beach flghting in oursector of the American in such deliberate confusion. We sailed a t top speed for about 3 front. Our biggest job was over. miles, firing several times a minute. Victory SoEasy For some reason I was as thrilled with t our unusual speed as with the noise I Made Them Uneasy of the steel we were pouring out. If T the end of the first day of our you watched closely you could follow Ainvasion of Sicily we Americans our shells with your naked eye almost look about us with awe and unbelief as far as the shore, and then pick up and nota little alarm. the gray smoke puffs after they hit. The assault troops had been trained A t the end of our run we would turn up tosuch a point that instead of so quickly that we would heel far being pleased with no opposition they over, and then start right back. The were thoroughly disgusted. two destroyers would do the same. It had all been so easy i t gave you We would meet them about halfway. a jumpy,insecure feeling of someI t was just like three teams of horses thing dreadfully wrong somewhere. plowing a cornfield-back and forth, We had expected a terrific slaughter back and forth-the plows taking al- on the beaches and there was none. ternate rows. Instead of thousands of casualties This constant shiftingwould put us along the 14-mile front of our special closest to shore one on run, and sector we added up a total that was farthest away a couple of runs later. astonishingly small.

“Otlicial G. S. Navy Photograph. “u. S. Army Signal Corps Radio-Telephoto. , U. S. Naval officers clamber over permamemtly SOME PRISONERS are fed umder Allied Naval gums. groulzded Messerschmidt. Meaiwhile. By sunset of the first day the Army up to powerful cruisers. The bulk coloredsymbols on them, gave the where they had taken everything we had hoped of it, of course, was made up of scores ships at sea the spot shouldland. Ontheshorepainted of newitype 1,anding craftcarrying to get during the first 5 days.Even of all wooden markers were immediately men, trucks, tanks, supplies by midafternoon the country for set up, directing various units to deskinds. miles inland was so saturated with American troops and vehicles it PERHAPS you visualize our whole ignated rendezvous areas. There were almost no traffic jams looked like Tunisia after months of force having been unloaded from or road blocking. Engineers had hit ourhabitationinstead of a hostile big boats into tiny ones, then taken the beach rightbehind the assault land attacked just that morning. ashore. That happened only tothe And the Navy, which had the job of big transports which used to be ocean troops. They laid down hundreds of bringing the vast invading forces to liners and we had noneof these in our yards of burlap and laid chicken wire up Sicily, was 3 days ahead of its sched- special fleet. Actuallyevery ship in on top of it, making a firm roadbed ule of unloading ships. our fleet, except the gunboats, was and down the beach. Convoys had startedback to Africa capable of landing right on beach. the UR whole vast organization on for new loadsbefore the first day They were flat-bottomed and could shore took form so quickly it just was over. The invadiing fleet had beachthemselvesanywhere. left you aghast. By midafternoon the escaped without losses other than When daylight came this immense normal mechanical break-downs. Re- fleet lay like a blanket out over the countryside extending far inland was ports from the other two sectors of water,extending as far out in the packed with vehicles and troops of the American assault front indicated Mediterranean as you could see. every description. There were enough theyhadmuchthesamesurprise There wasn’t room to handle them all tanks sitting on onehillside to fight a everywelcome we got. on the beach at once so. they’d comein big battle. Jeeps were dashing on the Phone wires were laid a t signals from the command ship, where. and command posts set up in HEN I went ashore on the south unload, and steam back out to wait ground coast of Sicily about 6 hours after until enough were unloaded from the orchardsand old buildings. Medical units worked under trees or in abanthe convoy to go back fora second load. our first assault troops had landed, doned stone sheds. beach already was thoroughly organLittle craft, carrying about200 solThe fields were stacked with thouized. diers, could unload in a few minutes sands of boxes of ammunition. Field It was really a n incredible scene. but the biggerones with tanks and Incredible in that we’d done so much trucksand heavy guns took much kitchens were being set up to replace in just a few hours. It actually longer. I t was not an especially good the K rations the soldiers had carried on with throughout that first day. looked as though we’dbeenworking beach for our purposes for it sloped The Americans worked grimly and there for months. Ourshoretroops off too gradually,making the boats and Navy gunboats had knocked out ground 50 yards or more from shore. with great speed. I saw a fewcases of officers being rather excited but the last of the enemy artillery on the M O S T of the men had to jump into mostly it was a calm, determined,effihillsides shortly after daylight. waist-deepwater and wade in. cient horde of men who descended on From then on t h a t first day was just a normal one of unloading ships The water was cold but a high wind this strange land. The amazed Sicilon the beach as fast as possible. The dried off your clothes in less than half ians just stood and stared in wonder at theswift precision of it all. only interruptions were a half-dozen a n hour.Your shoeskeptsquishing inside for the rest of the day. As f a r or so lightning-like dive bombings. The American invadingfleet W a s as I know not a man was lost by Nauy’s Part Not Ended; divided into separate fleets and each drowning in thewhole operation. The beach itself was immediately Bombs, cand Work T o D o invaded a certain section of the coast organized into a great metropolitanNavy’s part didn’t end the and operated entirely independently moment it got the assault troops from the others. The fleet I was with like docks, extending for miles. Huncarried infantry and was on thewest- dreds of soldiers wearingblack and ashore. In the days that followed our ern end of the invasion. Our desig- yellow arm bands with the letters Sp, headquarters vessel patrolled back for Police, directed and forth between the American secnated territory covered about 14 miles standing Shore traffic off the in-coming boats. tors, kept an eye on the shore incase of beach front. help was needed, directed the fire of 5 Big whitesilkenbannersabout Our fleet had hundreds of ships in foot square, tied to poles and with other ships, motherednew convoys by two it all the way fromtinysubchasers

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-Acme

Photograph.

TWO BIG NAVY JOBS: Takingwounded .fewer than expected) to Africa
wireless, issued‘ orders and advice throughout the area, and time to from time scurried in swift ,circles when planes appeared in thesky. For despite the enemy’s obvious air weakness, he did manage tosneak over a few planes several times a day. The day afterDDay, generalquarters was soundedonour ship 15 times. Nobody got any rest, day o r night. The sailors worked like Trojans. Bombs fell in our vicinity for several days. Theraiders wentmostly for the beaches, where barges were the unloading. The number of narrow escapes we had must have been very discouraging to the Axis fliers. The Axis radio said our beaches were littered with the wrecked and burnedout hulks of our landing ships. Actually, in our 14-mile area they hitvery few. But we had our tense moments. The enemy fliers were brave, I’ll have to say that. They wouldcome right in through the thickest hail of fire I have ever seen thrown into the sky. Dozens of our ships had escapes that were uncanny. Oncetwobombs hit the water just a good stone’s throw from the stern our vessel. And late of one afternoon a lone Italian-I really believe he must have gone mad, for what he did was desperate and senseless-dove right down into the midst of a hundred ships. He had no bombs, and was only strafing. He went over our fantail so low youcould almost have caughthim in a net. Everything in the vicinity cut loose onhim a t once. It was like throwing a bucketful of rice against a spot on the wall. He was simply smothered with steel. Yet somehow he pulled out and up to about 1,000 feet,charged at our barrage balloons like an insane bee, and shottwo of them down afire. And then at last the bullets we had put into him took effect. He burst all aflame and fell in wide circles until he hit the water. No parachute ever came out.

...

(marty

. . . and pililzg

---Official C. S. Coast Guard Photograph.

up szlpplies on beach f o r advawcing Allied groum? troops.
the airplanes had disappeared. You couldn’t believe that we were really at war.

youonly hear him. You do see the ghostly flares and the sickening bomb flashes, and hear the heavy thunder of it roll across the water. With us it was always a game of hide and seek. Sometimes wewould sit on the water as quiet as a mouse. No one would speak loudly. The engines were silent. Youcould hear the small waves lapping at our sides. A t other times we would start so suddenly the shipwould almost jump out from under us. We would run at full speed and .make terrifically sharp turnsandchurnupan alarmingly bright wake inthe phosphorescent ‘water. But we always escaped. And then all of a sudden after the third day there was never an enemy plane again. . They quit us cold. I f theystillfought,theyfought elsewhere than our front. UR first daysaboardshipafter O t h e Sicilian landings were broken by many things besides air raids. A few wounded soldiers were brought from shore for our doctors to treat before the hospital ships arrived. Important generals cameto confer on our ship. We had fresh tomatoes and watermelon at thesame meal. We took little trips up and down the coast. Repair parties back from the beaches brought souvenir Fascist banners, and stories of how poor the Sicilians were and how glad tbey were that the war was over for them. The weather remained divine. Our waters and beaches were forever changing. I think it was at daylight on the third morning when we awoke to find the Mediterranean absolutely devoid of ships, except forscatterednaval vessels. The vast convoys that brought us over had unloaded to the last one and slipped out during night. For a few hours the water was empty, the shore seemed lifeless, and all

st were more AIR raids you night seethe farenemy, nerve-racking than daylight ones. Fbr can’t the

A D thenafterlunch theyoulooked Nout again and here sea was

veritably crawlingwith new shipshundreds of them, big and little. Every one of them was coated at the top with a brown layer like the icing on a cake, which turned out, when we drew closer, to be decks crammed solidly with Army vehicles and khakiclad men. We kept pouring men and machines into Sicily as though it were a giant hopper. The schedule had all been worked out ahead of time: On D Day Plus 3, Such-and -Such Division would arrive. A few hours another later convoy bringing tanks was due. Ships unloadedand started right back for new loads. The whole thing went so fast that in at least one instanceI know of the its Army couldn’t pour men and equipment into the Africanembarkation port as fast asthereturningships arrived. Unloadingthese ceaselessconvoys in Sicily was a saga. The Navy sent salvage parties of Seabees ashore right behind the assault troops and began reclaiming harbors and fixing UP beaches for unloading. The Army worked so smoothly that material never piled up on the beaches but got immediately on its way to the front. The numberof vehicles that had to be landed early in thegame to take care Of this was almost beyond conception.
E have stevedoring regiments where made up ofNew York professional stevedores. We have naval captains who in civil life ran worldwide ship-salvaging concerns and made enormous salaries. We run some ships to upthe beaches, we unloadothers a t ports, we empty big freighters by lightering their cargoes to shore in hundreds of

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-British

Official Photograph.

SURRENDERED-IN

witheverything he could find, and other sailorshelpedwith the doctoring, but still the mange worse. got They finally clipped her hair close so they could get medicine to her skin more thoroughly,but nothing did any good. When they hit the last port before leaving Africa.my friend told me he went ashoreand searched the country for a French or American Army veterinary, but couldn’t find any.
HEN I cameaboardshipthis wbeautiful dog was frisky and alert, but thesailors had given up all hope of curing her. Somethinghad to be done. The other sailors left it up to our friend. Whatever he chose to do had their approval. He told me later that you couldn’t just put her ashore, for she had grown up aboard ship, and wouldn’t know how to take care of herself on land.

GOOD SHAPE: Coastal defense positions of Syracuse Harbor were captured intact and soon were manned by Allied coastal defeeders. So our friend solved it in his own conversation, I mentioned that it was the mange. Ourfriend doctored it
way, the morning after I came aboard. didn’t He ask anybody t o help him, or tell anybody what hewas going to do.He just tied a weight around her neck and let her down into the water. That was her endin the tradition of the sea. I heard about it a few hours later, our and stopped by the rail to tell friend I was sorry. He couldn’t talk about it. He justsaid, “Let’s go below and have a cup of coffee.” A few hours after that I saw that he had started having somethingelse. In the midafternoon I saw one of the ship’s officers talking to him very seriously. It didn’t look too good. Drinking aboard ship just doesn’t go. The next day our friend was called before the mast and given a light suspension of privileges.
HAT evening I happened to be sitTting with the officer who had sentenced our friend, and just to make

sad about the,dogbeing gone. He sat up and said, “What!” I said yes, the dog was gone. He said, “My God!” And then he said: “He’s one of the best men on the ship, and I knew something was wrong, but I tried for half a n hour to get it out of him and he wouldn’t tell me.” The ofecer satthere looking as thoughhe was sick, andagainhe said, “So that was it! MyGod!” the Sicilianinvasion there was almost no indication of warfare along our beach front. The German radio told us every night that we were getting bombed, but actually a stultifying peace had settled overus. So 4 shouldered my barracks bags and trundled myself ashore in Sicily for good.

*

Y THE end of the first week after

“u.

S.

Arms Corps Radio-Telephoto.

” B r i t i s h Official Photograph.

END OF THECAMPAIGN: Yanks moved along road where MP, left, stands, to capture Messinu and its almost circular harbor as Axis troops jled to Italy. Page 49

I

THE MONTH’S NEWS
Period of 21 July Through 20 August

Allies Capture of Sicily; All U.S . Forces Invade Another Pacific Island; Russians Drive Into Klbarkov ,

I

The War

the leaves of autumn fall.” The heavy fighting in the Mediterranean The American 7th and British 8th had cost the Axis all of its islands Italy. armies,endingtheir 38-day Sicilian between northernAfricaand campaign in a whirlwind drive that September’s leaves were turning and elsewhere was expected took them to within 2 miles Of Italy, heavy fighting a t any time by both the Axis and the stood ready for the long-awaited invasion of the European continent 5ts United Nations. The two Allied armies in Sicily the Europeanwarentered its fifth which General Eisenhower said were year. Sicily, which the British, . Amer- “ready to go at any time” had spread icans, Canadians, and French invadeda carpet of fire over northeastern 10 July,crackedon 18 August be- Sfcily in the final days of their camtween the jaws of a powerful Allied paign. Bombs and shells from planes, pincers movement and another Italian warships, and field artillery cracked the defenses around Messina on 17 island,had become a n Alliedbase. Thedefense of the big Mediter- August, and theAmerican Third Diviranean island had been costly for the sion marched triumphantly into the Axis. Gen. Dwight D. Eisenhower. islands key city, bringing the camAllied commander in chief,, reported ,paign to a climax. Twenty-four that the enemy had lost more than hours later the Battle for Sicily was entirely over. 167,000 men killed, wounded, or capAxis losses reported in addition to tured. Allied casualties from the inthe 167,000 men killed, wounded, or vasion were 25,000. captured, included 260 tanks and,502 There were indications thatthe “new phase”of the war-described by guns up to 10 August, and 1,691 planes an Allied radio as the “liberation of from 1 July to 17 August. Allied occupied countries’”a1ready was plane losses were announced as 274. Behind the victorious Allied arbeing planned. In Quebec, President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Church- mies, the United States, British, and 1 1 gathered with their military chief- Allied navies worked like beavers to 1 tains to decide on the next thrusts a t supply the ground troops. Within 48 hours the entireoriginal fleetof landthe enemy. Churchill, it was recalled, had ing vessels had made another round trip to Africa and returned loaded to promised “heavy. fighting in the Mediterranean and elsewhere before the gunwales with men and supplies.

Speed records a t unloading were set. (The Navy has responsibility for the safe disembarking of troops and the unloading of supplies topoints on shore.) Apart from the actual landing of troops and supplies, naval combat units had three major duties: protection of landing forcesfromenemy surface and undersea forces;maintenance of antiaircraft barrages; and gunfire support of advancing troops on shore. Every landinggroup had offshore a supporting force of destroyers or cruisers, or both. Naval gunfire continued last month to play an important role inthe movement of troops inland, blasting enemy positions even in the hills. With the lessons of the invasion of North Africa 8 months before well learned, operational losses of landing craft were extremely low. Special salvage andrepair units had been set up afloat and ashore in the opening stages of the invasion, and damaged craft were speedily repaired and returned to service. The invasion of Sicily resulted in significantpolitical moves in Italy. Fifteen days after the first Allied troops landed on the island,Benito Mussolini had resigned and King Vittorio Emanuele had assumed supreme command of all Italian armies. Marshal Pietro Badoglio had been named

Page 50

“Official U. S. Coast Guard Paintings.

Coast Guard Observes

153d Anniversary

Established in 1790 on the recommendation of Alexander Hamilton, first Secretary of the Treasury, the United States Coast Guardhashadalongandglorious history. I t was the newAmericannation’s only sea force at the time of its conceptionand participated in our undeclared war with France in 1798-99, capturingseveral privateers. I t made the first United States capture in the War of 1812. During the first World War it performed valuable convoy duty. In keeping with its motto, “Semper Paratus”-always prepared-itbecamea part of the Navy early in the present war and has, as always, distinguished itself. Hunter Wood, CBM,Coast Guard artist, made the twopaintings above. At the left: The Massachusetts, one of the first Coast Guard cutters, commissioned in 1791 to aid the Treasury in collecting revenues. At the right: The U. S. S. Spencer during her epic battle with a German submarine. Other cutters which have brought fame to the tough, little service in recent months are the U. S. S . Icarus and the U.S . S . Campbell, both of which sent enemy U-boats to the bottom.
successor to Mussolini and he had announced to the world that the war “continues.” The ousting of Mussolini had been by the Allied greetedwithreserve governments. President Roosevelt in a fireside chat 28 July had said “Our terms to Italy arestill the same our as terms to Germany and Japan-‘unconditional surrender.’ “We shall not settle for less than total victory. That must be, and will be, the determination of every American here a t home.” a day Prime Minister Churchill previously had warned Italy that she would be invaded and “seared, scarred, and blackened from one end to the other” unless she surrendered unconditionally immediately.
120 hours reduced the city, a submarine center, almost to ashes. I n .joint British-American raids on Hamburg, more than 7,500 tons of bombs were dropped, equalto the weight of bombs dropped on London during the blitz July between September 1940 and 1941. Panic was reported in Berlin and an estimated million persons were reported fleeing the Reich’s capital city in fear that it was next on the list of Allied airmenforsmilarmass attacks. Their fears were grounded; Berlin was raidedonasmall scale shortly thereafter.

from having thus far soundly beaten a powerful enemy in every phase of air and sea warfare.” Further “sound beatings” were being inflicted on the Japaneseas the new South Pacific offensive entered its third month. I n 3 sea battles, the Japanese, attempting to halt the fierce American blows wh;ScN were driving them from base after base in the New GeorgiaIslands,lostfrom 23 to 26 ships, including 6 or 7 cruisers, anothercruiser or largedestroyer, 15 to 17 destroyers, and 1 seaplane

b

I n August, 177 American Liberators delivered a surprise raid on the Ploesti oil fields in Rumania, dropping’ 300 tons of explosives and thousands of a incendiaries that were believed to I n Russia, meanwhile, Soviet armieshavedealt a crippling blow to the were continuing their summer offen- German air force’s gasoline and oil sive that opened on the collapse of a supplies. week-old German drive. In some of Maj. Gen. James H. (Jimmy) the most bloody fighting of the war, Doolittle, hero of the Tokyo raid, led the Germans lost Ore1 and Belgorod, a large formation of heavy and anchors of their new summer line. medium bombers in a second raid on The Red Army had driven deep into Rome, blasting vital railway lines and theGerman lines andwasnearing installations. Otherraids were carthe German central-front bastion of ried outagainstTurin, Genoa, and Bryansk. Kharkov, Russia’s fourth Naples in Italy. city, and “Pittsburgh” the of the $? Ukraine, was the scene of especially On the other side of the world, a intensive fighting as the Nazis counPromise was made that the Battle of terattacked. theSouth Pacific would be pushed $? forward until it became the Battle of All Europe shook under the hamJapan. Admiral William I. Halsey, ? mering blows of the Allied air offen- speaking on the first anniversary of sive. Hamburg, Germany’s greatest the opening of the Allied South Pacific Portand second city, was virtually offensive, said, “We view what lies wiped off the map. Seven raidsin ahead with the satisfaction that comes

a

LAST OCTOBER

-

enemy was still successfullyreinforcing his troops on the island. In a series o f battles, his transports warships and were sunk anddamaged and hissupplyline was cut off. On 26 October 1942 came the Battle of the Santa Cruz Islands,wherethe Japanese lost 100 planes and suffered heavy damage to warships. their By the end of the month if could said be the first round was ours.

As the month opened, the

we won an important round a t Guadalcanal.

5 I It 1 O 2 1 1 1 7 8 9 25 26

3

4

6 1 3 20 27

7 1 4 21 28

1 8 1 5 22 29

2 9 1 6 23 30

Page 51

Sweden announced cancellation of the transit agreement with Germany which permitted Nazi troops and war materiak to pass through Sweden e n route to Norway. Allied observers interpreted it as stiffening of Sweden’s a attitude toward Germany.

i ?
L . Gen. Millard F. Harmon, comt manding United States Army forces in the SouthPacific, Rear Admiral R.K. Turner, and Rear Admiral T. S. Wilkinson, jointly commanding amphibious operations in the South Pacific, were aboard an unidentified ship which was torpedoed and sunk near Rendova Island at the beginning of the new South Pacific offensive. None of the threeofficers was injured.

a

Gen. Henry H. Arnold, commander ‘in chief, United States Army Air Forces, said that the 2,000,000 members of the Army Air Forces had staged nearly 100,000 combat flights over enemy territory during the first 7 months of 1943.

a

“Press Association Photograph.

A
~

Study In Rank

Members of the British Small Vessels Pool, this crew of elderly Englishmen came to the United States to ferry small ships across the Atlantic. Included among them is a retired admiral, an army oficer who fought in theBoer War, a Royal Artillery colonel and a London business man. They are, from left to right (front row) : Admiral the Hon. Sir Herbert Meade-Featherstonhaugh, G. C. V. O., 68, now a lieutenant, Royal Naval Volunteer Reserve; S. B. Evitt, 66, lieutenant engineer, R. N , V . R.; and Conor OBrien, 63, sub-lieutenant, R. N. V. R. Rear row: Col. H. B. Gunn, Royal Artillery, D. S. 0. M. C., 63, now a bo’sun, Royal Navy; Lt. Col. A. E. Newland, Royal Artillery, D. S. O., 63, now an able-bodied seaman, R. N.; and Sir Richard White, Bart., 33, now an ablebodied seaman, R. N.

produced in the’ United States monthlyandthat deliveries to the United States Army Air Forces alone (4,500a month) were now more than the combined plane production of (4,000, Italy, Germany, and Japan estimated).

The War Departmentrevealed that upwards of 7,000 planes were being

a

tender. Two of the battles occurred in the Kula Gulf, north of Munda, and the third in theVella Gulf, near Vila. The fighting in the South Pacific was of the very bitterest.Japanese resistance was becoming increasingly stiffer as American forces pushed toward the more important enemy bases. Fighting was so fierce for Munda that American .and Japanese forces each were in possession of half of the airfield before it finally was captured. I n possession of virtually all of New Georgia, American troops made a surprise landingin force 15 August on Vella Lavella. Bairoko, Japan’s remaining last stronghold on New Georgia, was virtually surrounded. In New Guinea, American and Australian jungle fighters weremovingslowly toward the Japanese air base of Salamaua, below Lae.

i ?
American planes, meanwhile, were carrying raids widespread out 12 throughout Far On the East. August the Navy announced that

From Allied headquarters in North Africa Sgt. H. Old Coyote, a fullblooded Indian from Billings, Mont.. summed up his part as a waistgunner inafortressattackonFoggia: “As we American Liberators for the third time say in my country, we gave ’em a good scalping.” raided theJapanese KurileIslands lying between theJapanese island 7 2 ~ of Hokkaido and Russian KamchatThe WarDepartmentannounced ka, 700 miles northeast of Japan. “A Pocket Guide to New Guinea and These islands, raided by American the Solomons.” Maps and pidgin bombers again on10 July and 19 July, English are included inthe guide. guardthenorthernapproaches of “Friendly relations with the natives,” Japan. it points out, “have saved the lives of Also raidedwereJapanesebases many of our airmen who have been in China and others in French Indo- shot down in isolated places.” The China,Burma, andinthe Nether- history and geography of the islands, lands East Indies. In addition to the the character and customs of their destruction and damage caused t o inhabitants,and advice on what to ground installations and supply cen- eat and how to keep fit are some of tersontheground,theraids were the other subjects treated. taking a heavy toll of enemy planes with a total of 435 enemy planes destroyed in the first monthof the new Among Our Souuenirs South Pacific offensive. Late in August an additional 215 Japanese Reports from the South Paplanes were destroyed in 2 outstandcific indicate are thesethe ing raids on Wewak, New Guinea. favorites a m o n g souvenirs United States Marines are col72 lecting from the enemy: Samurai swords, sniper rifles, Rising On 15 August, U. S. Amphibious Sun and other flags, pistols, and Forces reoccupied Kiska, which the shockproof and waterproof Japs did not defend, thus forcing the watches, many German make. of enemy out of his last toehold in the Aleutians. (See Page 3).

Page 52

The Navy
A Naval Air Transport Service plane, converted from a patrol bomber, was forced down recently in the mid-Pacific. Forty-two hours later she took off under herown power and proceeded to her original destination after her crew had replaced a propeller, motor, and made other repairs.Meanwhile,nearlyeveryone had been seasick, and holes in the hull of the plane had been plugged with sharp pencils. BuMed announced that reserve commissions in the Medical Corps werebeing offered qualified women of physicians in the ranks Lieutenant (jg) , Lieutenant, Lieutenant and Commander, 200 of whom will be commissioned in each The rank. women physicians are to be assigned to medical establishments in thecontinental United States.
7%

Two unarmed Seabees-0.F.Maly, -Press Association Photograph. Slc, USNR, and A. B. Banjai, SF~C, USNR, both of St. Louis, Mo.-went Navy GeneralBoardInspects Taylor ModelBasin hunting for souvenirs on an island in the southwest Pacific and found two Lookingover the experimental work being carried out at the Navy’s model Japs, armed with rifles and a small testing basin on the PotomacRiver in the District of Columbia are, left to ax. Althoughneither had weapons, right: Admiral Claude C. Bloch, USN; Admiral Thomas C. Hart, USN; Capt. William D. Chandler, USN; Rear Admiral Walton T. Sexton, U S N ; Rear Adboth Seabeeswent intoaction,and miral Gilbert J . Rowclifl, USN; Admiral Edward C. Kalbfus, USN; and Admiral succeeded in mortally wounding one Arthur J . Hepburn, USN. Eighthmember of the board, not shown in the J a p (with the butt of his own rifle) photograph, is Capt. H. L. Pence, USN. and disarming the second before he fled into the jungle. Rear Admiral Charles Philip SnyA United States naval base in the s?T der, USN, Naval Inspector General Atlantic, confronted with the task of Navy Seabees in the South Pacific since that post was created in May obtaining a 45,000-pound shipment of last month were using discarded oil 1942, was placed on the retired list as parts and supplies within 72 hours or drumsas (1) culverts alongswamp of 1August 1943, and advanced to the suspendingoperationson an emerroads, (2) lining for drainage ditches, rank of admiral. The admiral, who gency undertaking, sent urgent call an ( 3 ) stoves and bake ovens, (4) hotcake reached the retirement age of 64 on to the Naval Air Transport Service. reinforcing grills, ( 5 ) trusses for 10 July, will continue to serve in his In short order, material the was building construction, ( 6 ) buoyants present duty. moved by truck to an east coast naval for and rafts small floating drybase. Three Douglas Skytrain transdocks, (7) tubs, (8) basins, (9) roofport planes already were at the takeing, (10) piping and (11) canoes (with The Boatswain off point;.one plane southbound from Japanese seaplane floats foroutrigNew York was directed to overfly Came Through ging) . Washingtonand proceed directly t o the continental base; two planes were fr It was Sunday aboard an called infromKansas City, where Staff Sgt. Eugene T. Card, onlyMaescortaircraftcarrier. At Dithey were being used for instruction rinerear-seatgunnerawardedthe. vine services, the chaplain was purposes; anotherpair was ordered Navy Cross, on 4 August received his reading from the Scriptures the from Miami. Within 26 hours delivpilot’s wings at the Naval Air Trainpassage wherein came Peter ery had been made. Before a day had ing Center, Pensacola, Fla. down oubof the ship and walked passed all eight planes were back on on the water to go to Jesus. their regular runs. a “. . Butwhen he saw the Formation of the first women’s a wind boisterous, he was afraid; Marine Band wasbeing undertaken The flrst patrol bombersquadron and beginning to sink, hecried, to release malemusicians at Camp entirely mannedby U. S. Coast Guard saying, ‘Lord, save me.’ ” Lejeune, New River, N. C. aviation personnel and assigned to Pausing momentarily at this duty overseas has been organized and point, the chaplain and ship’s is now in operation. I n addition to company were startled by the Ensign Riosalie Thorne, USNR, combat and reconnaisance, the squadshrillness of the boatswain’s Millbrook, N. Y . , qualified for the ron will engage in air, land, and sea pipe, followed b y the command, Navy Expert Pistol Shot Medal; the rescue work. “Away No. 2 motor whaleboat!’’ first woman to wear the blue-and.s;r Casting a gleaming eyeover green ribbon on her uniform, Ensign Nine additional officers have been the congregation, the chaplain Thorne, attached to BuAer and a advanced to the rank of commodore, said: graduate of Vassar, said she had among them Andrew Francis Carter, “Justin time. peter needed taken only a few “pot shots” with a Houston, Tex., the first Naval Reserve some help.” rifle before entering the Navy. officer to attain this rank. Commo-

.

*

Page 53

Four captains in the United States CoastGuardhave become the first officers of their service to be appointed to the rank of commodore while on active They Wilfrid duty. are N. Derby, of Wellesley, Mass.; Joseph F. Farley, ofNew Orleans, La.; Gordon T. Finlay, of Norfolk, Va., and Philip F. Roach, of San Francisco, Calif., on duty as district Coast Guard officers in the First, Eighth, Fifth, and Twelfth Naval Districts, respectively. Iver T. Onstad,Slc, a recruit at NTS, Farragut,Idaho,is among the best-paid seamen in t h e U. S. Navy. Father of 11 children,, Seaman Onstad has monthly pay totalling $206. He is striking for third-class carpenter’s mate, which will bring him $12 more monthly.

*

a

Lt. Gen.Thomas Holcomb, USMC, with the approval of the President, will continue as commandant of the U. S. Marine Corps. General Holcomb was 64 Years of age 5 August. The one hundredth Seabee battalion to complete primary military training-representinghalf theauthorized strength of construction battalions-was commissioned at the Naval Construction Training Center, Camp Peary, near Williamsburg, Va., 24 July.

*

Home Front
Secretary of the Treasury Morgenthau announced that the third war loan drive will begin 9 September. The goal-$15,000,000,000-is 2 billion dollars over that of the second war loan drive. The third differs from the second in that it is to be open only to individualsandnonbanking sources.

-Acme Photograph.

‘Bataan’ I s Launched As ‘Shangri-La’ Builds 72 On 1 August, the U. S. S. Bataan, the first carrier tobe named in honor of an Mayor W. D. Becker of St. Louis, American campaign of the present war, was launched at the Camden, N. J., Mo., and nine other persons includyards of the New York Shipbuilding Corporation. Sponsor was Mrs. GeorgeD. ing Army officers were killed 1 August Murray, wife of the Commander of the Naval Air Technical Training Center, when the wing of an Army glider in Pensacola, Fla. Representing the Philippines were Vice President Sergio which they were riding crumbled in Osmena and his daughter, Maria. I n a message to Secretary Knox, President mid-air the and craft plummeted of the Philippines said the new vessel was a “svmbol of the .2,000 feet to the ground before thouManuel Quezon inevitable defeat ofJapan.’’ Another carrier launched last month was the U. S. S. Wasp. The name Shangri-La was assigned to a carrier under con- sands of spectators. struction at Portsmouth, Va. Total food production this year is expected dore Carter, a graduate of the 1905 armed guard and volunteers who re- output byto exceed last year’s record 4 percent, the Department that she was going class of the Naval Academy, resigned mained aboard saw to remain afloat and picked UP the of Agriculture reported. Military, from the Navy in 1919, returning to other war requireother crew members, takingher safely lend-lease and active dutyinFebruary 1942. across a third of the South Atlantic ments-about double those of 1942will necessitate further decreasesin a to port. civilian supplies. Members of a Navy armedguard 72 Largestmovable floating drydock and seven volunteers amongthe merA tropical hurricane struck the of its type ever constructed-in three chant crew, headed by thecaptain, recently saved a United States mer-. steel-welded sections-was christened Texas Gulf Coast late in July, killing and injuring several score persons chant ship, torpedoed and apparently 15 July a t Newburgh, N. Y., as the property damage estilaunched. The and causing sinking. Attacked by an enemy sub- center section was mated at approximately $10,000,000. marine in the South Atlantic, the macenter and the. two ends (launched storm was centered between later were assembled and The jority. of the crew wasordered to earlier) by her master. The moved to an undisclosed destination. Houston and Port Arthur. abandon ship

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Page 54

This is the new lapel button which will be awarded to men and women who receive honorable discharges from theU.S. Army during the present war. The simple design an is eagle within a circle, the wings ext e n d t n g beyond the circle’s edges. Made of a plastic material with gold plating, the insignia uses no critical materials. As soon as the buttonsare ready for distribution, full particulars will be made public so that eligible persons may learn how to get them. Similar action is being taken by the NavyDepartment.
~ ~~

Rationing of coffee for civilian use was suspended by the OBce of Price Administration 29 July. It was the first major food commodity released from rationing.

creasing the pressure on our enemies, FOR SAZIE: Chicago’s Stevens Hoto thebuilding up andapplying of the tel, the world‘s largest, t o be put on one thing that they understand and the block 4 September by the War fear-military power i 1 the air, on theDepartment, 1 which purchased it a ground, and on the sea.’’ year ago for $5,500,000. Secretary Knox: “There are bases D E : Aged President Lin Sen of ID (in Italy) for an advance across the China on 1 August; indorsed as actAdriatic and for air attacks on south- ing President was Generalissimo ern Germany.” Chiang Kai-shek. Gen.CharlesdeGaulle: “At the ENGAGED: Youthful King Peter momentmostusefulto the Allies; of Yugoslavia to Princess Alexandria French resistance, organized at the of Greece, announced in London, cost of sacrifices, will be engaged in seat of both governments in exile. force against the enemy and her DIED: Maj. Gen. William P. Upaccomplices.” shur, CommandingGeneral of Ma“I give the rines in the Department of the PaPresident Roosevelt: Filipino people my word that theRe- cific, and his aide, Capt. Charles public of the Philippines will be estab- Paddock, formertrackstar,inan lished the moment the power of our Alaskan airplane crash. Japanese enemies is destroyed.” Gen. HenriGiraud:“Thereis no Giraud or de Gaulle Army. There is onlyone army-the French Army.’’ Gen. Douglas MacArthur: “The margin was close, but it .was conclusive. Although for many reasons our victories may have lacked in glamorous focus, they have been decisive of the final result in the Pacific. I make no prediction as to the time or detail, but Japan, on the Pacific fronts, has exhausted the fullest resources of the concentrated attack of which she was capable, has failed, and is now on a defensive which will yield just in proportion as we gather force and definition. When that will be, I do not know, but it is certain.”

Quotes of the Month

A constitutional President Roosevelt: “Our terms to amendment giving 18-year-olds votItaly are still the same as our terms-to ”Official E.S. Marine Corps Photograph. ing privileges was adopted in GeorGermany and Japan-‘unconditional gia, thefirstStateto so lower the ‘RobinsonCrusoe’ surrender’.” Prime Minister Churchill: “From suffrage age. Gets Home After 72 Days thenorthandthesouth, from the 30 BIRTHDAY: Henry on Ford Use yourheadand keep trying and land andfrom the air and amphib- July celebratedhis eightiethbirthby youcanbeatthejungle, says Staff ious descents, we shallendeavor to day. If hefeltanybetter,hesaid, S g t . William I. Coffeen,USMC, who reputtheutmost rigors of warupon “I’d have to run.” turned recently to Guadalcanal after them(theItalians).Orderstothis INDICTED: Eight Americans, all a 72-day Robinson Crusoe odyssey on effect have been given all Allied comabroad, charged with adhering to and South Pacific islands. Forced to bail manders concerned.” 0. I. Director Davis: “From Eng- aiding enemies of the United States. out of his plane whenan oil line W. Six were said to be still preaching the caught fire, he succeeded in reaching land willsome day come that great an uninhabited island despite a Axis hate gospel. invasion which will prove thatthe THIRSTY: A Treasury report re- storm thatstruck the area 30 minutes Festung Europa (European fortress) hit the water. Fighting he vealed that ‘domestic wine produc- after was nomoreinvulnerable than the storms, blistering sun, infection and tion inthe United States declined Festung of Sicily.” Secretary of War Stimson: “Now is more than 120 million gallons during living for 32 days o n a coconut diet, he finally-by traveling from island t o the time to devote every effort to in- the fiscal year ending 30 June.

Miscellany s u FF R A G E :

I

CASUALTY FIGURES
Casualties among naval personnel through 19 August totaled 28,666. The totals since 7 December 1941:
U.S. Navy U.5. Marine Corps” U. S. Coast Guard”

I

__________
5,032

9,860

Dead 7,746 1,932 182

Wounaled 2,509 2,601 22

MissingL Fr$soners 8,740 2,225 725 1,925 158 1

Total

ai, 220 7,083
363 -

9,623

-

28,666

4,151

‘A number of personnel now carried in missing status are undoubtedly prisoners of war not. yet officiallyreported assuch.
I

I

island-was rescued b y friendly natives. Finding him unconscious, the natives picked him up and when he opened his eyes asked him if he was American or Jap. He replied American and they said good, feeding him and caring for him for 40 days during which he had a siege of malaria. O n the seventy-second day a Navy rescue plane landed off shore near the native village and returned Coffeen to Guadalcanal for f i n a l recovery. Meanwhile, Coffeen acquired and had trained a pet parrot (shownin photograph).
Page 55

I

Navy,Department Communiques
No.446: 21 July 1943
and caused a large explosion on the runway. One United States plane is missing. North Pacific: 3. On 25 July Army Warhawks (Curtiss P 4 0 ) fighters carried out 10 bombing attacks on Japanese installations a t Kiska. A t North Head hits Were scored onthe runway andantiaircraft positions. The main caplp,North Head, and Little Kiska were also strafed. Fires were started a t Little Kiska, and a large explosion was observed onNorth Head. 4. On 26 Julyshortlyafter midnight, a United States Catalina (Consolidated PBY) patrol bomber attacked Gertrude camp section of Kisk& Cove and the main Fires were started in Gertrude Cove. casualty has been notified that he is missing in action. Memorandum appended communique: to The one casualty aboard the K-74 was Isadore Stessel, A " 2 c , Brooklyn, N. Y .

South Pacific (Dates East Lonyitude): 1. On 20 July, during the early morning, three Japanese bombers dropped several bombs on Funafuti, Ellice Islands. NO damage was reported, and no personnel injuries were sustained. North Pacific: 2.On 20 July, twoUnited States light surface units bombarded the Japanese main camp andtheGertrude Cove area on Kiska. The enemy did not return the fire.

No. 455: 31 July 1943
N d h Padfic: 1. On 29 July a United States Army Flying Fortress (Boeing B-17) heavy bomber attacked Ja.panese positions on Kiska. Due t o overcast weather, results were unobserved, 2. On 30 July, during the morning, United States light surfaceunits bombarded Gertrude Cove and the main camp areas on Kiska. Enemy batteries did not reply.

No. 447: 22July 1943
The United States submarine Triton has failed to return from patrol Operations and must be presumed t o belost.The next of kin of personnel in the Triton have been so informed.

No.452: 28 July 1943
. Central Pacific: 1 On 27 July Army Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers agaihattackedJapanese positions on Wake Island. Approximately 25 Zero fighters intercepted the Liberators. Seven Zeroes were destroyed, five were probably destroyed, and three others were damaged. I n spite of heavy antiaircraft fire, bombs were placed on designated targbts. All United Statesplanes returned safely. There were no casualties to United States personnel. North Pacific: 2 On 26 July flights of . Army Liberators, Lightning (Lockheed P-38), and Warhawk (Curtiss P 4 0 ) fighterscarried out 13 bombing attacks . against Japanese installations on Kiska. As a result of these bombings, fires were started and explosions were observed o n North and South Heads, the runway, the bivouac, and submarine base sections, Gertrude Cove and Little Kiska. Individual targets in these areas were also subUnited States jected t o strafing. One Warhawk fighter was forced into the sea, b u t its pilot was rescued by a Navy Catalina (Consolidated PBY) patrol bomber. 3. On 27 July various formations o Army f Liberators, Warhawks, and Lightnings carried out six bombing attacks on Kiska. Hits were made in the bivouac area. Spotty weather conditions precluded full observation of the results of the attack.

No. 456: 12 August 1943

No. 448: 23 July1943
South Pacific (DatesEastLongitude): 1. On 22 July, during the early morning, Japanese bombers attacked Funafuti, Ellice Islands. Two of the bombers were shot down. Material damage has not been reported, but some personnel casualties were sustained. NMth Pacific: 2. On 21 July, during the afternoon, Army Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers bombed the Japanese runway and the main camp, area on Kiska. Numerous hits were Scored, and several fires were started. 3. On 22 July, during the afternoon, United States heavy and light surface units bombarded Japanese positions on Kiska. Although the enemy returnedthe fire, United States ships were not damaged.

North Pacific: l. On l<August a t about 8:11 a. m., east longitude time, a formation of nine Army Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers attackedJapanese installations in the Kuril Islands. Numerous hits were scored in t h e designated target areas. About 40 enemy fighters intercepted, of which 5 were shot down and others probably destroyed or damaged. Two of the United States bombers are missing.

No. 457: 14 August 1943

Pacific and Far East: 1. United States submarines have reported the sinking of

No.449: 24 July 1943
North Pacific: 1 On 22 July prior t o . andafterthe surface bombardment O f Kiska (previously reported in Navy Department communique No. 448), Army Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers, Mitchell (North American B-25) medium bombers, with Lightning (Lockheed P-38) and Warhawk (Curtiss P 4 0 ) fighters, heavily bombed and strafed enemy coastal batteries, antiaircraft p s i tions, and building areas. Numerous fires were startedand alarge explosion observed. A number. of the Warhawks participating in the attacks were piloted by pilo'ts of the Royal Canadihn Air Force. One United States plane was shot down by antiaircraft fire, but the crew was rescued.

seven enemy vessels and the damaging of flve others in operations against the enemy in t h e waters of these areas, as follows: Sunk: One large transport. One medium-sized passenger freighter. Two small freighters. One small schooner-. One medium-sized supply ship. One medium-sized cargo vessel. Damaged : One medium-sized freighter. One medium-sized tanker. One medium-sized cargo vessel. One small freighter. One small cargo vessel. 2. These actions have not been announced in any previous Navy Department communique.

No. 453: 29 July 1943
Pacific and Far East: 1 United States . submarines have reported the following results of operations against the enemy in the waters of these areas: (a) T o large transports sunk. w ( b ) Two large cargo vessels sunk. (c) Three medium-sized cargo vessels
(d) Two medium-sized tankers sunk. (e) One small cargo vessel sunk. (9) One large cargo vessel damaged. (g) Three medium-sized cargo vessels damaged. 2. These actions have not been announced in any previous Navy Department communiques.

No.458: 15 August 1943
1 The United States submarine Pick. erel has failed to return from patrol operations, and must be presumed to be lost. The next of kin of personnel in the Pickerel have been so informed. Medtterranean: 2 The following United States naval . vessels have been lost in action against the enemy in operations in this area: (a) U. S. S. PC 496 (submarine chaser), sunk 4 June 1943, as result of underwater explosion. ( b ) U. S. S. Redwing (submarine rescue vessel), sunk 29 June 1943, as result of under-water explosion. (c) U. S. S. Sentinel(mine sweeper), sunk 11 July 1943, in landing operation off Sicily. (d) U. S. 5. Ma+dm (destroyer), sunk 10 July 1943, by aircraft off Sicily.

No.450: 26 July 1943
North Pacific: 1 On 24 July formatiOllS . of Army Warhawk (Curtiss P 4 0 ) fighters carried out 10 bombing and strafing attacks against Japanese positionson Kiska. Numerous hits were scored on the runway and among gun emplacements. One United States plane failed to return.

sunk.

No.451: 27 July 1943
Central Pacific: 1. On 24 July Army Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers attacked Wake Island. T h i r t y Zero fighters intercepted, o which nine f were destroyed, four were probably destroyed, and five others were damaged. 2 The United States . planes on closer approach to the island were met by additional flghters and heavy antiaircraft fire. In spite of this opposition, the United States bombers scored many hits

No.454: 30 July 1943

'

Atlantic: 1. The United States nonrigid airship K-74 was lost a t sea recently as the result of a gunfire attack by a surfaced enemy submarine. 2 The K-74 . waa fired on while attacking the submarine, and, as the result a hit, was farced of t o make a landing on the sea. 3. All except one member of the crew of the K-74 were rescued. Next of kin of theone

Atlantic: 3. The U. 5. 5. Plymozlth (gunboat) was sunk a short distance o f the North f Carolina coast on 5 August 1943, as result of under-water explosion. 4. The next o kin of all casualties f aboard the above-named vessels have been notified.

Page 56

I

ITALIAN:Short List of Words

and Phrases

I

The following list, fifth in aseries setting forth phrases in languages common to areas in which the Navy is operating, is prepared by the Bureau for naval personnel interested in acquiring a limited knowledge of certain phrases. In May the INFORMATION published a Japanese BULLETIN Phrase List; in June, Spanish;in July, French; inAugust, Portuguese. After exhausting the possibilities of this phrase list, personnel interested in the Navy Language Program may familiarize themselves with thearticle, “Language Program Expanded,” in the 15 March issue of the TraDiv Letter, page 35.

Note on Pronunciation
The columnindicating how to say theItalian expression is an approximation. Nevertheless, a person who pays close attention to the pronunciation here should have no trouble in being understood. Note especially the following: In making use of the column “How To Say It,” “ay” isused to indicate the sound of “ay” inEnglish word “day.”

Useful Words andPhrases
HOW TO SAY IT Grazie Grah’izee-ay or Tahn‘-tay Tante grazie grah-zee-ay h.ay‘-goh Don’t mention it Prego Understand me? Mi capite? Mee kah-pee‘-tay? Yes Si See No No Noh I want Io voglio Ee’-oh voh1’-lee-oh Cigarettes . Sigarette See-gah-rayt’-tay Cigars Sigari See’-gah-ree Accommodations Accomodamenti Ah-koh-moh-danmayn‘-tee To eat Mangiare Mahn-jah’-ray To sleep Dormire Dohr-mee’-ray Farmi un bagno To bathe Frthr‘-mee oon bahn‘-nee-oh Che e? Kay ay? What is? This Questo Kway‘-stoh That Quello Kway1‘-loh Pahr-1ah’-tay Do you speak? Parlate voi? voh’-ee? Italian Italiano Ee-tah-lee-ah‘-noh Inglese Een-g1ay’-say English Come out (of there) ! Venite fuori (di la) ! Vay-nee’-tay foo-oh’-ree(dee lah) How many men with Quanti uomini con Kwahn’-tee voi? oo-oh‘-mee-nee YOU? kohn voh”ee? Ho Hoh I have Nohn hoh I have not. Non ho Koh’-may see dee” Come si dice in HOW io”i& say in Italiano? chay een Ee-tahItalian? lee-ah’-noh? Ho fame Hoh fah’-may I am hungry Ho sete Hoh say’-tay I am thirsty Capisco Kah-pee-skoh I understand Nohn kah-pee-skoh I don’t understand Non Capisco Uomo (Signor) Oo-oh’-moh Man (Mister) (Seen-nee-ohr’) Molto Mohl’-toh Much Signorina Seen-nee-oh-ree“ Miss nah Ho bisogno di Hoh bee-soh’-neeI need oh dee un vestito Oon vay-stee’-toh a suit una coperta Oo’-nah koh-pay’a blanket tah Per piacere Payr pee-ah-chay“ Please rav Kwe;! Here a i Abbastanza Ahb-bah-stahn’Enough zah Come state? Koh’-may stah’How are you? tay? Benissimo Bay-nee’-see-mo Verywell grazie thank you grah’-zee-ay e voi? ay Voh‘-ee? and you? Buona sera! Good evening! Boo-oh’-nah sav’rah! Buon pomeriggio! Boo-ohn’ poh-mayGood afternoon! reef-joh! Buonanotte! Good night! Boo-oh’-nah noht” tay! Boo-ohn’ johr’-noh ! Hello! (Good day!) Buon giorno! Allo! (Allo!) Pronto Ahl-loh’! (Ah1’Hello! (telephone) loh!) Prohn-toh M i chlamo Mee kee-ah’-moh My name is What is your name? Come vi chiamate?Koh’-may vee keeah-mah‘-tay? ENGLISH Thank you

Im N TA

Illnesses, Accidents, Wounds
Are you hurt? My arm is brokeh
I am wounded

Siete ferito?
St&rotto il braccio

Sono ferito

in the foot in the head here Can you dress a wound? Aspirin 1 am sick

Potete medicare una ferita? Aspirina Sono ammalato Siete ammalato?
Mi fa molto male qui Mettetevf a giacere!

qui

ne1 piede nella testa

See-ay’-tay fay-re&toh? Stah roht‘-toh eel brah’-choh Soh’-noh fay-ree” toh nay1 pee-ay’-day nay1’-lah tay’-stah kwee Poh-tay’-tay maydee-cah‘-ray 00‘-nah fay-ree” Ah-spee-ree’-nah Soh’-noh ah mah]ah‘-toh See-ay’-tay ah-mah1ah’-toh? Mee fah moh1‘-loh mah”lay kwee Mayt-tay’-tay-vee ah jah-chay’-ray! Hoh bee-soh‘-nee-oh doon poor-gahn‘tah?

- -

Are you sick?
1 am in great pain here Liedown!

t need a purgative
Sive me some quinine
;Old

Ho bisogno purgante

d’un

Datemi un poco di chinino Freddure Influenza Raffreddore Febbre Malattia Indigestione Medicina

Fills mfluenza

?ever llness Lndigestion Medicine
Go straight ahead!

\

taY Dah’-tay-mee oon poh‘-koh dee keenee’-noh Fray-doo’-ray Een-Aoo-ayn’-zah Rahf -frayd-doh’-ray FayW-bray Mah-laht-tee’-ah Een-dee-jays-teeohn’-nay May-dee-chee’-nah

Location
Andate diritto avanti ! Alla sinistra Alla destra
,

Ahn-dah’-tay deeree’-toh ah-vahn‘Ah1‘-lah see-nee“ strah Ah1‘-lah day’-strah Johr‘-noh May’-say Sayt-tee-mah’-nah Doh-may’-nee-kah Loo-nay-dee’ Mahr-tay-dee’ Mayr-koh-lay-dee’ Joh-vay-dee’ Vay-nayr-dee’
tee!

ro the left
I’o the right

Giorno Mese Settimana Sunday Domenica Uonday Lunedi besday Martedf Nednesday Mercoledf rhursday Giovedi priday Venerdi Saturday Sah‘-bah-toh Sabato ranuary Jayn-nah’-ee-oh Gennaio February Febbraio darch Marzo Lpril Aprile Maggio !IaY une Giugno hly Luglio LUguSt Agosto September Settembre 3ctober Ottobre Yovember Novembre 3ecember Dicembre

ELth Neek

Days of Week, Months. of Year

Fayb-brah’-ee-oh Mahr’-zoh Ah-pree‘-lay Mah’-joh Joon’-nee-oh Loo1’-lee-oh Ah-goh’-stoh Sayt-taym’-bray Oht-toh’-bray Noh-vaym’-bray Dee-chaym’-bray

Page 57

Ammunition Sailor Marinaio Mah-ree-nah'-yoh UWciale Ofaeer Oof-fee-chee-ah'-lay Bomb Cantiere Kahn-tee-ay'-ray Dock Cannon Mah'-ray Mare Ocean Catena Kah-tay'-nah Chain Halt! Who's Partire Pahr-tee'-ray Depart Kee la? there? Pohr'-toh Port(harbor)Port0 Parachute Nah'-vay Ship Nave uniform Uniforme 00-nee-fohr'-may Plane

Nautical

Arm

Parts of Body
Braccio Schiena corpo Orecchio Occhio Dito Piede Capelli Mano Testa Gamba

Back Body Ear Eye Finger Foot Hair Hand Head k g Knife Fork Spoon A cup of coffee of tea A glass of beer Beans Bread Butter Eggs Fish Meat Milk Potatoes Rice Drinking water Food Matches

Brah'-choh Skee-ay'-nah Kohr'-poh Oh-rayk'-kee-oh Ohk"kee-Oh Dee'-toh Pee-ay'-day Kah-pay1'-lee Mah'-noh Tay'-stah Gahm'-bah

Rifle War One half 1 2
3

Moo-nee-tzeeoh'-nay Bohm'-bah I n Bomba Cannone Kahn-noh" nay Alto I&!Chi va Ah1'-toh lah! vah lah? Paracadute Pah-rah-kahdoo'-tay Aeroplano Ah-ay-rohp1ah'-noh Fm-chee'-lay Fucile Gwayr'-rah Guerra

Munizione

Military

Prepositions
nom Da In Inside Dentro Of Di On Sopra To A With Con Without Senza
Dah Een Dayn'-troh Dee Soh'-prah Ah Kohn Sayn'-zah

Conjunctions
And As But
If

4
5 6

Coltell0 Forchetta mcchiaio Una tazza, d caff6 i di t6 Un bicchiere
di birra

Food

7
8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 9 20 21 30
32
40

Fagioli Pane Burro Uova Pesce Carne Latte Patate ' Riso Acqua potabile Nutrimento Miccie or Fiammiferi

Kohl-tay1'-loh FoIir-kayt"tah Kook-kee-ah'-yOh Cb-nah tahz'zah dee kahf -fay' dee tay Oon beek-keeay'-ray dee beer'-rah Fah-joh"1ee Pah'-nay Boor'-roh
OO-Oh'-V&

Pah-tab'-tay

Pay'-shay Kahr'-nay Laht"tay

Ree'-soh Ahk'-kwah

50 .60

lay Noo-tree-mayn'toh Mee'-chay or Fee-ahm-mee'fay-ree

poh-tab'-bee-

70 80 90
100 165

1000

Un mezzo Oon mayz'-zoh Uno Oo"noh Due Doo'ay Tre Quattro g$lht'-troh Cinque Cheen'-kway Sei Say'-ee Sette Sa@-tay Otto 0ht"toh Nove Noh'-vag Dieci Dee-ay'-chee Undici Oon'-dee-chee Doh'-dee-chee Dodici Tredici Tray'-dee-chee Quattordici Kwat-tohr'dee-chee Quindici Kween'-dee-chee Sedici Say'-dee-chee Diciassette Dee-chah-saytl-tay Diciotto Dee-chee-oht'-toh Diciannove Dee-cha-noh'-vay Venti Vayn'-tee Ventuno Vayn-too'-noh Trenta Trayn'-tah Trentadue Trayn-tah-doo'-ay Quaranta Kwah-rahn'-tah Cinquanta Cheen-kwahn'-tah Sessanta Says-sahn'-tah Settanta Sayt-tahn'-tah Ottanta Oht-tahn'-tah Novanta Noh-vahn'-tah Cento Chayn'-toh Cento sessanta e Chayn'-toh sayscinque sahn'-tah ay cheen'-kway Mille Meel'-lay Church City or Town Market Post OWce Chiesa

Numbers

Come Ma

E

or

se
0

ish'-may Mah Oh
SaJT

Adjectives

Et f Red
Blue Green Yellow Black White
Good

Loon'-goh Kohr'-toh ROhS'-SOh Azzurro Ah-mor'roh Verde Vayr' -day Jah1'-loh Giallo Nero Nay'-roh BiancO Bee-ahn'Ross0

Lungo Corto

Buono Cattivo Piccolo

Bad Small

Boo-oh'noh Kaht-tee'voh Peek'-kohloh

kOh

Pronouns
YOU He Her Hers Di His She
I

I

EYTo me)

E?(Mi)

voi Egli Lei lei D lui i Essa

IO

Ee'oh Voh'-ee Ayl-lee Lay'-ee lay'ee Dee Dee loo'-ee Ays'-sah Ays'-see May (Mee)

What time is it? Che ora 6? C'e tempo? Is there time? E mezzogiorno It isnoon Midnight 1:OO A. M.
1 :00 P. M. 1:lO 3:OO 5:OO 8: 15

Time

1o:oo
7:40

9:25 11:30

Day after tomorrol Day before yesterday Evening Afternoon Night Year Now Minute Moment Today Tomorrow Yesterday Whendoes the ship sail?

Kay oh'-rah ay? Taym'-poh? Chay Ay mayz-zoh-johr'noh Mayz-zah-noht'-tay Mezzanotte Lah 00'-nah day1'-lah La una della mah-tee'-nah mattina Lah 00'-nah day1 La una del poh-may-reee'-joh pomeriggio La una e dieci Lah 00'-nah ay dee-ey'-chee Le tre Lay tray Le cinque Lay Cheen'-kway Le Otto e quarto Lay oht'-toh ay kwahr'-toh Le dieci Lay dee-ay'-chee Le sette meno venti Lay sayt'-tay may'noh vayn'-tee Le nove e venLay noh'-vay ay vaynticinque tee-cheen'-kway Le undici e memo Lay oon'-dee-chee ay mayz'-zoh Dopodomani Doh-poh-doh-mah'nee Altro ieri Ah1'-troh ee-ay'-ree Sera Pomeriggio Notte Anno Adesso Minutto Momento Domani , Ieri Quando parte la nave? Say'-rah Poh-may-re#-joh Noht'-tay Ahn'-noh Ah-days'-soh Mee-noo'-toh Moh-map'-toh Oh'-gee Doh-mah'-nee Ee-ay'-ree Kwahn'-doh pahr'-tap lah nab'-vay?

Kee-ay'-sah Cheet-tah' Mayr-kah'-toh Mercato UfRcio postale Oof-fee'-choh . poh-stah"1ay Stazione Station Stah-tzee-oh-nay Strada Street Strah'-dah Telefono Tay-lay'-foh-noh Telephone Villaggio Veel-1ah"joh Village Panettiere Baker Pah-nayt-tee-ay'-ray Barbiere Bahr-bee-ay'-ray Barber Tah-lee-ah'-tay-mee ee Give me a haircut Tagliatemi i kah-pay1'-lee capelli Dance Hall Stanza di ballo Stahn'-zah dee bah1'-loh Doctor Dottore Doht-toh'-ray Fahr-mah-chee'-ah Drug Store Farmacia Cinematografo Chee-nay-mah-toh'-grahMovie foh Garage Garage or autoGah-rah-jay or ahtohrimessa ree-mays-sah Trattoria Restaurant Traht-toh-reef-ah Shoe store Calzoleria Kahl-tzo-lay-ree'-ah Tailor Sarto Sahr'-toh
Citta

Places To Go

oggi

Wind who? what? Doh'-vay? Where? Why? How many? Who, which. that Which? Because Help !

It is hot It is cold

Fa freddo Vento Chi? Che? Dove? Perch&? . Quanti? Che Que? Perch6 AiUto!

Fa caldo

Miscellaneous

Fah kahl'-doh Fah frayd'-doh Vayn'-toh Kee? Kay?

Payr-kay'? Kwahn'-tee? Kay Kwah1'-lay? Payr-kay' Ah-yoU'-toh!

Page 58

New Books In Ships’ Libraries
The following books have been purchased for distribution to all units of the service although mt all titles 20 all units. The will be supplied practice of the Bureau is todistribute diderent titles to small units operating in the same area so that it is possible to exchunge books and to list freshtitles. I f units donot receive a desired title, request may be made to the Bureau. ADAMS. Fun with Cards. Card gakes and tricks of all varieties. BAIRNSFATHER. Jeepsand jests. Cartoons of the American soldier a t work and play in the British Isles. BAYER.Paper chase. Hero and heroine against the Nazis in United Stateswith couple of millions as the stake. BEALS. From Rio Grande t o Cape Horn. Life of the countriesfrom the Rio Grande to Cape Horn. BENCHLEY. BenchleyBesideHimself. Humorous sketches reprinted from author’s earlier works. BREBNER NEVINS. Making of ModAND ern Britain. Concise story of Britainfromearliesttimes t o 1939’, written by Americansfor Americans. BRINIC.Gambler Takes a Wife. Lusty tale of a Montana frontier town in the 1880’s. BRYAN. Spy in America. Espionage in America from theRevolutionary War to the end the World War I, of a true spy story. BUCKINCHAM. Shootinest Gent’De man. Hunting stories the with “feel of the duck-blinds, the marshes, and the fields.” CANT. America’s Navy in World War 1 . Reviews of all phases of naval 1 activity from Pearl Harbor t o t h e present. CASSIDY. Moscow Dateline. An ace reporter’s account of 2 years, 194143, in Moscow withside trips to Kuibyshev and Iran. CHILDERS. War E a g 1 es. Informal story of the senior American Eagle fighter squadron with the RAF. CoastalCommand. 200 pictures and some text illustrating Britain’s defense of her coast. COFFIN. Primer for America. Ballads on America. Combined Operations. More thrilling than fiction is this official story of the commandos from their first small beginning to the Dieppe raid. CRABB. Supper at the Maxwell House. Novel of post-Civil War in life Nashville, Tenn. DAMON. Sense Humus. Ehtertainof ing and amusing experiences of a California’s attempt to transplant her family garden and to New Hampshire,
DANIEL.Islands of the Pacific. Facts HAUGHLAND. Letter FromNew Guinea. about nearly all the Pacific Islands, Through his struggle while lost in north, south, and west o Hawaii. f the wilderness ofNew Guinea this DOWDEY. Tidewater. Adventure and American finds new faith. romance in Mississippi River town. HAWKINS. Pilebuck. Sabotage, love, DRISCOLL. Kansas Irish. Fictionized and intrigue ina huge shipbuilding biography of author’s father, a vigplant. orous, lusty, violent, Irish immiHENDRYX. Rivers Calling. Story New grant. of the North Country in World DUDLEY A N D SHERIDAN. What Dark War II. Secret. Murder in pre-war HonoHERMAN. Dynamite Cargo. A merlulu. chant sailor’s account of a trip to E ~ S T O N : Guns .Cimarron. on the Murmansk in a convoy andthe Plenty of action in the Sante Fe &day battle with Nazi planes and country in this western story. Fersubmarines. gusson. Chile. A readable book HERMANN. The Luftwaffe. Account based on first-hand observation. of German aircraft industry during FETRIDGE m. Navy Reader. Today’s Years after- 1918, the successes of Navy life ashore and in action compiled from current magazines and the Luftwaffe in World War 1 , its 1 newspaper articles. decline, and probable fall. HEYDENAU. Wrath of the Eagles. ~ E L D . Sheriff on the Spot. Western story with a detective angle. Fictionized version of guerrilla FORD. Short Cut toTokyo; the Battle fighting against the Axis in Yugofor the Aleutians. Vivid picture of slavia. our present campaign against the HINDUS. Mother Realistic, Russia. Japanese southwestof Alaska. vigorous portrait of the Russian FOREMAN. toSanJacinto. HisRoad people. torical novel of adventure in the HITTI. The Arabs. Excellent conTexas War of Independence. densation of author’s great History FOSTER. Tracks. Man Cattle ranch of the Arabs. in Arizona Territory provides the HOUGH. Snew Above Town. Robust background for this western. enjoyment of life by a family FRANK. South American Journey. stranded inWyoming. Organic portrait of a continent. IDELL. CentennialSummer. The anGARDNER. Case of the Buried Clock. tics of a Philadelphiafamily and Another Perry Mason detective their friends and relatives during story. the Centennial Exposition of 1876. GATTI. Killers All. Unique adven- IRWIN and JOHNSON. a t Y o u Wh tures and hair-breadth escapesof Should Know About Spies and an African explorer. Saboteurs. How agents of foreign powers operate in America and steps taken to stamp them out. Books for Ship’s KENT. Range Rider. Another good Library Sent Upon western. LABBERTON. Marine Engineering. Commissioning LAVENDER. One Man’s Gold West. Prospective commanding offimining and ranching in Colorado cers frequently include the foland Utah in the 1930’s. lowing titles in requests for LESUEUR. Twelve M o n t h s T h a t Bureau publications: Changedthe World. ColorfulacBluejackets’ Manual, Dutton’s count of Russia’s stand against GerNavigation and Nautical Astronmany by a C B S correspondent. omy, Willson’s Watch Officer’s LZLJEGREN. Naval Architecture. ComGuide, Knight’s Modern Seapact handbook for both beginners manship, and Webster’s Collegiand more advanced students. ate Dictionary. LIPPMANN.United States F o r e i g n These books are not Navy Policy. A survey and appraisal of Department publicationsbut are our foreign policy. a part of the ship’s library; they LORY. J a p a n ’ s Military Masters. are not on any allowance list in Valuable interpretation of the miliany other manner.One copy of tary mind and military mastery of each of these books is included in Japan., the ship’s library, issued autoMACVEAGH COSTAIN.J o h u a. and matically, by this Bureau, upon Realistic study of an Old Testament commissioning. fighter whose methods are applicaToreducepaper work, it is ble to the present time. suggested that norequests be MAISEL. Miracles of Military Medisubmitted for these titlesunless cine. New drugs, devices, and they are notreceived at the time techniques. of commissioning. (Colztilzued om page 70)

Page 59

DECORATIONS and CITATIONS
U. S. S. Alcbiba Awarded Presidential Citation
A PresidentialUnitCitationhas been awarded the 8,658-ton Navy cargoship, U. S.S. Alchiba,whose crew succeeded in refloating her and getting her to an American port after she hadbeen struck twice by Japanese torpedoes and given up as lost. En route to the Solomon Islands, the Alchiba was torpedoed by a Japanesesubmarine.Although she was exploding and aflame, the crew managed to beach her and for 9 days and nights worked to salvagecargo and extinguish fires. When the task seemed finished and the ship restored, a second torpedo tore into her engine room, striking her out power. Determinedly,the crew went to work again, saved the ship and brought her to port. Commanding officer of the vessel S. Freeman, USN, was Capt. James Jasper, Ala., whoreceived the Navy Cross for his part in saving the ship. Her executive officer, Commander . ” Howard R. Shaw, USN, wasawarded ”Press Association Photograph. the Silver Star Medal. NORTHAMPTON SKIPPER DECORATED: Capt. Willard A. KittsIII,

Two Foreign Decorations Go to Naval Personnel
Two members of the U. S. Navy, an officer and enlisted man, have been awarded decorations by f o r e i g n governments. The Cross of BoyaCa, highest decoration conferred by the Colombian government, was awarded to Capt. James R. Barry, USN, Washington, D. C., in recognition for his service as Chief of the United States Naval Mission to Colombia. Martin J. Tray. Cox, USNR, Philadelphia, Pa., received the Bronzen Kruis (Bronze Cross) from the Netherlands government for “bravely and skillfully” shooting down an enemy plane in June 1942, when the Dutch motor vessel on which he was serving was under continuous enemy air attack. Under a law approved 20 July 1942, members of the Armed Forces of the United States are authorized during the present war and 1 year afterward t o accept from cobelligerent nations or the otherAmerican republics such decorations, orders, medals, and emblems as may be tendered them, and which are conferred by such governments to members of their own military forces.

USN, Oswego,N . Y., received the NavyCross for extraordimary heroism while commandimg officer of the cruiser “Northamptom.” Sumk durimg a emgagememt with Japanese forces attemptimg reinforce their troops m to om Guadalcamal om the night of 30 November-1 December, the vessel ended a valiant career which imcluded raids om Wake amd Wotje, and the battles of Midway and the CoralSea. The “Northampton” also was a member of the task force which accompamied the “Hormet” on her missioa to bomb Tokyo. Rear AdmiralHerbert F. Leary, USN, commadamt of the Fifth Naval District, i s shown pimningom the award.
make pictures and maps of Japanese installations and dispositions in the Solomon Islands area have been cited by Admiral William F. Halsey, USN, Commander, South Pacific Area and South Pacific Force. With presentation of the awardsincluding gold stars in lieu of second Air Medals, Air Medals and letters of commendation-the group became one of the mostdecorated units in the naval service. The decorations and citationswere presented to the men recently at a United States air base in the South Pacific by Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman, USN, former commanding officerof the U. S. S. Ledngton, who declared that their efficient work represented a materialcontribution to the success of the Solomons campaign. Two members of the unit-William Hickey, PhoMlc, USNR, Bellmore, N.Y., and Harold D Hogan, PhoM2c, USNR, . Hollywood, Calif. -were killed in action. The men decorated: Gold Starin lieu of second Air Medal: Pierce Eduardo Brown, CPhoM, USN, Chula Vista, Calif.; Joseph F.Muller, PhoMac, USNR, Los Angeles, Calif. Air Medal: William WinAeld Collier, CPhoM, USN, Chicago, 111.; Paul M. King, CPhoM, USNR, Norwalk, Calif.; Jack BenjaminKemmerer, CPhoM, USNR, Compton, Calif.; Joseph Raymond Harrach, PhoMlc, USN, Grant, Nebr.; Leland Russell Kofoed, PhoMlc, USN, Eau Claire, Wis.; ValentineEdward Henn,PhoMlc, USN, New Brighton, Pa.; William Louis Kinch,PhoMlc, USM, Johnson City, Tenn.; John Robert Olsen,PhoMlc, USNR, Salt Lake City, Utah; Harold Edwin Davis, PhoMlc, USNR, Orville, Calif.: Richard USNR, Bryan Hargreaves, PhoMlc, Hollywood, Calif.; Eugene Lister Ennis, PhoMac, USN, Erwin, N. C. William Frederick Hansen, Jr., PhoMac, USN, Queens Village, N. Y.; Gerald Leonard Smith, PhoMac, USN, Great Falls,

Admiral Halsey Cites Combat Photographers
Twenty-nine members of the first Navy combat photographic unit to

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Mont.; William Arthur Blodget, Jr., PhoMac, USN, Amity, Mo.; Harry Richard Gilmour, PhoMac, USNR, Oakland, Calif.; Robert Asa Jones, PhoM ~ c .USNR, St. Louis, MO.; Robert Elwin McCracken, PhoMac, USNR, Fargo, N. Dak.; John Temple Crofton, PhoMac, USNR, Memphis, Tenn.; John J. Helmick, PhoMac, USNK, Los Angeles, Calif.; Gerard Wooters, PhoM2c, USNR,Los Angeles, Calif. Commendations for meritorious E. Boggs, achievements: Stanley PhoMlc, USN, Superior, Wis.; Robert Cecil Brown, PhoMlc, USNR, Fullerton, Calif.; Patrick William Cady, PhoMac, USN, South Boston, Mass.; LeoFrancis Flynn, PhoMac, USNR, Hollywood, Calif.; George Edward Toman, PhoMlc, USNR, CiCerO, 111.
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Lt. Lavell M. Bigelow, usm, Provo, Utah: In the face of heavy lire from a formation of Japanese cruisers, Lieutenant Bigelow dived at a light cruiser and scored a direct hit, resulting in serious damage and probable destruction of the enemy vessel. (Near Salamaua and New Guinea, Lae, 10 March 1942.)

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Ensign J o h n P. Adams, USNR,White Cloud, Kans.: Launched his from carrier t o intercept approaching Japanese torpedo planes. Ensign Adams faced a situation so critical that the 5-lnch guns of his ship were firing at the enemy by the time he left the flight deck. Despite an intense antiaircraft barrage from our own ships, he pressed home his attacks and shot down one enemy plane in flames and damaged another. (Battle of Midway, 4 June 1942.)

Rear AdmiralMahlon S. Tisdale. USN, Coronado, Calif.: Succeeding t o command of a task forre during a n engagement with Japanese forces, Rear Admiral Tisdale continued gun action until all enemy ships within range were destroyed and later conducted a bold search for enemy vessels along probable routes of retreat. (Solomon Islands Area, 30 November
1942.)

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NAVY CROSS

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InLieu

of Third Navy Cross

Lt. Comdr. Wallace C. ‘Short, Jr., urn, Malone. N. Y.: In the face of heavy antiaircraft fire, Lt. Comdr. Short dived and skillfully attacked threeJapaneseaircrafttendersor transports and obtained a direct hit on one of the enemy vessels. (Near Salamaua and Lae, New Guinea, 10 March 1942.)

Rear Admiral Carleton H. Wright, USN, Crestwood, Ky.:. As Commander of a task force during an engagement with Japanese forces in the Solomon Islandsarea, AdmiralWright, at a critical hour in the camDaign. intercepted the approaching enemyforces, inflicted severe damage to a number of enemy ships, and defeated the enemy’s persistent attempts to land troops and supplies on Guadalcanal. (1December 1942.)
Capt. Ingolf N. Kiland, WN, Chicago, Ill.: When the task unit under his command was attacked by Japanese torpedo planes, Captain Kiland maneuvered his unit with such outstanding courage and tactical ability that he not only brought his forces through without damage but successfully repelled the enemy attack. (In the Solomon Islands area.)

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Lieut. David R. Berry, USM,Owensboro, Hy.: I n the face of heavy fire from a formation Japanese cruisers of and destroyers, Lieut. Berry dived at a light cruiser and scored a direct hit resulting in severe damage and probable destruction of the enemy vessel. (Near Salamaua and h e , New Guinea. 10 March 1942.

Ensign Kendall C. Campbell, USNR, Lamar, Colo. (posthumously) : I n theface of heavy antiaircraft fire, Ensign Campbell dived and skillfully attacked one of three Japanese aircraft tenders or transports, scoring a direct hit on one of the enemy vessels. (Near Salamaua and Lae, New Guinea, 10 March 1942.)

In Lieu of Second Navy Cross
Capt. Thomas L. Gatch, USN, Annapolis, Md.: Although partially disabled and suffering acute pain from a previous wound, Captain Gatch, commanding officer of a U. S. battleship, with bold determination gallantly fought his ship througha large Japanese force, sinking a t least one enemy cruiser and damaging other Island, enemy vessels. (Off Savo 14-15 November 1942.)

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“Official U. S. Nary Photograph.

Lt. Arthur L. Downing, USNR,South Haven, Mich.: In the face of heavy antiaircraft fire, Lieutenant Downing dived and skillfully attacked three Japanese aircraft tenders or transports, scoring a direct hit on one of the enemy vessels. (Near Salamaua andLae, New Guinea, 10 March
1942.)

COMBAT PHOTOGRAPHERS DECORATED: One of the “most decorated” U.S. Navy photographic units was this combat picture-making crew of 29 members who contributed much to the success of the Solomon Islands campaign with their pictures of enemy bases and installations. Aid medals and letters of commendation were presented the men b y Rear Admiral Frederick C. Sherman, USN,former commanding officer of the U.S. S. “Lexington:’ during ceremonies at a Pacific base shown in this photograph. Page 61

Capt. Frank L. Lowe, USN, Pine, Bluff, Ark.: As commanding officer of a United States naval vessel, Captain Lowe fought his ship with skill and determination,contributing in large of all measurethe to destruction enemy vessels within range. gun (Solomon Islands area, 30 November 1942.)

8-11 November 1942.1 $ r
USN,

ing the occupation of French Morocco, Lt. Comdr. Rhodam Y .McElroy, Jr., Lebanon, Ky.:While leading a ScoutingSquadron on a mission to locate camouflaged tanks, Lieutenant Commander McElroy deliberately subjected his plane t o withering antiaircraft fire by flying at low altitude in order to ascertain the exact position of his objective. .Although his plane was hit many times, he made repeated attacks which resulted in a complete rout of the opposing tanks. (Duringoccupation of French M o rocco, 10 November 1942.) Lt. Maynard M. Furney, USNR,Manhattan, Kans.: Leading a Fighting Squadron in an .attack on a hostile airdrome, Lieutenant Furney unhesitatingly engaged enemy aircraft, sending two down in flames and insix subsequent flights during the following 2 days successfully bombed and strafedshorebatteriesand subma-. rines and patrolled the area over his carrier transports and at Fedala. (During the occupation of French Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.) Lt. (jg) Trose E. Donaldson, USNR, Seattle, (posthumously) Wash. : While attached to submarine squada ron in combat withthe Japanese during the bombardment of Cavite, P. I., Lieutenant (jg) Donaldson worked tirelessly to evacuate ships and wounded from the stricken area and in fighting fires along the water front. Although exposed to determined attacks by Japanese bombers, he unflinchingly directed theantiaircraft firefromaboard h i s ship. (December 1941.)

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Capt. Clifford H. Roper, USN, Berkeley, Calif.: As commanding officer of a United States naval vessel, Captain Roper, during an engagement with Japanese forces, fought his ship with skill and determination, contributing in large measure to the destructionof all enemy surface vessels within gun 30 range. (Solomon Islands area, November, 1942.) Commander ThomasE.F r a s e r , ' m ~ , Philadelphia, Pa. (missing) : As acting division commander of the destroyers in a task force, Commander maser, commanding the U S. S. . Walke, led his into ships action against a numerically superior force of Japanese vessels and succeeded in diverting a torpedo attack against our heavy ships while at the same time inflicting gravedamage to the Japanese forces. (Off Savo Island, 1415 November 1942.)

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-Acme

Photograph.

I EVERY MAJOR AIR BATTLE N
EXCEPT MIDWAY: Lt. Comdr. Stocktolz Strolzg, VSN, Washington, D . C., retursedt o the United States recestly after 18 molzths of continuous actiotz ilz the Pacific whereheparticipated ilz every major air battle with the exceptiolz of Midway.Holder of the Air Medal and two-time wilzner of theNavy Cross, Lt.Comdr. Strolzg amotzg his m n y exploits disabled a Japalzese aircraft carrier off Guadalcawal ilz August, 1942.

Commander Max C. Stormes, OSN, S n Diego. Calif. (missing) : Although a his ship, the U.S. S. Preston, was repeatedly hit by numerically superior Japanese forces, Commander Stormes and his valiant crew maintained a continua1 and devastating fire against the enemy vessels, inflicting serious damage. (Off Savo Island, 14-15 No- line fumes, continued his flight to an vember 1942.) airdrome, where he damaged several planes and scored a direct bomb hit a on a hangar. Subsequentlypressing Lt. Col. Robert K.Hall, USA, James72 home aerialattacksagainst hostile town, N. Dak.: When a Marine batKenneth E. Howe, CSp (A), USNR, emplacetalion was under heavy attack by troops and machine-gun Hannibal, Mo.: Preceding the assault overwhelming Japanese forces, Lieu- ments, he contributedmateriallyto onFedala, Howe skillfully maneutenant Colonel Hall ordered his troops the actionwhich forcedhostile troops vered his scout boat in complete to retire to new positions. (Occupa- darkness from the transport area to t o advance by forced march to their relief, succeeding by his ski11 and tion of French Morocco, 8-11 Novem- the beach despite treacherous rock leadership in repulsing the enemy and ber 1942.) reef and enemy batteries.Locating virtually annihilating Japanese rega his position, he guided incoming iment. (Lunga Point, Guadalcanal, waves of boats, maintaining his staLt. Comdr. Roy S. Benson, USN: 2625 October 1942.) Skillfully maneuvering his submarine tion despite heavy fire from hostile a into a previously designated area forces. (During occupation of French L . Colhdr. Ralph A. Embree, us^, LieutenantCommander Benson ac- Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.) t Laramie, Wyo. : Leading five flights of complished a difficult mine-laying a planes in vigorous dive-bombing raids operation and personally observed the Richard W. Joyce, SFlc, USNR, against hostile warships and coastal destruction of an 8,000-ton enemy Brooklyn, N. Y . : As a member of a defense batteries, Lieutenant Com- vessel resulting from contact with one demolition party attached to United a mander Embree courageously pressed of his mines. Later he executed dar- Stateswarshipparticipatinginthe home hisattacks, andaided greatlyin ing attacks on enemy ships, sinking assault on and occupation of French inflicting severe damage upon the op- 15,271 tons. Morocco, Joyce despite dangerous and posing forces. (Occupation of French treacherous obstacles succeeded with 7k Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.) his shipmates in cutting at the Lt.Comdr. John M. DeVane, USN, mouth of the Sebou River cables the so that Fayetteville, N. C.: Participating in U. S. S. Dallas could navigate up the Lt. Comdr. Arthur M. ErsNer, USN, fourdive-bombing andstrafing at- stream to land raiders near a strateHudson, N. Y.: When his plane was tacks, Lieutenant Commander Debadlydamaged by gunfireduring a Vane, despite heavy antiaircraft fire, gic airport. (8-11 November 1942.) a raid on a Convoy of hostile trucks, pressed home vigorous attacks against Ernest J. Gentile, "C I, USNR. Lieutenant CommanderErshler, al- hostile airfields, light vessels, gun emthough nauseated by escaping gasoplacements, tanks, and trucks. (Dur- Leominster, Mass.: As a member of a

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demolition party attached to United a Stateswarshipparticipating in the assault on and occupation of French Morocco, Gentile despite dangerous and treacherous obstacles succeeded with his shipmates in cutting cables at the mouth of the Sebou River so that the U. S. S. Dallas could navigate up the stream to land raiders near a strategicairport. (8-11 November 1942.)

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William B. Kincannon, PhM2c, USN, Long Beach, Calif.: When his company was almost completely surrounded by Japanese, and under attack from all directions, Kincannon, with utter disregard his for own safety, exposed himself to enemy fire to care for and evacuate the wounded. (Guadalcanal, 13-14 S e pt e mb e r 1942.) Albern M. Potter, Jr., PhM2c, USN, West Springfield, Mass.: When his company was almost completely surrounded by the Japanese, and under all directions, Potter, attack from with utter disregard for his own life, exposed himself to enemy fire to care for and evacuate the wounded. (Guadalcanal, 13-14 September 1942.)

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-Official U. S Marine Corps .

Photograph.

Rear Admiral Roland M. Brainard, New Orleans, L . As Vice Ada: miral in command of a Task Force, United States Atlantic Fleet, Rear Admiral Brainard directed escort-oftrade-convoy operations with skill andsoundjudgment. Heorganized and conducted an antisubmarine trainingprogramforbothsurface and air unitswhich is proving its excellence in the current conflict. (20 April 1942 to 30 April 1943.) 1 equipment.Havingrehabilitated the Massawa (Eritrea) Naval Base ships, ? Rear Admiral Miio I .Draemel, USN. he made possible extensive drydockSeattle, Wash.: As Chief of Staff to ing operations for the benefit of all (From 8 the Commander in Chief, PaciAc types of Allied shipping. Fleet and Pacific Ocean Areas from January 1942 to 5 April 1943.) December 1941 to June 1942,Rear Ad‘ a . miral Draemel, by his broad vision Capt. Edmund T. Wooldridge, USN, and executive ability, rendered inval- Lawrencebury, Ky.: As Assistant uable assistance in preparing the fleet Operations Officer and later Operaas for effective. and sustained action tions Oficer, Staff, Commander Supagainst the Japanese. port Force of a Task Force, United States Atlantic Fleet, Captain Wooldridge by his detailed preparations of training plans made important conLEGION tributions to theescort-of-convoy instructionsandto effective antisubOF MERIT marine tactics.
USN,
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DISTINGUISHED SERVICEMEDAL

THREE MARINE OFFICERS RECEIVE LEGION OF MERIT: Lt. Gen. Thomas Holcomb, Commandant, U.S. Marine Corps, recently awarded the Legion of Merit t o a Marine artillery general and two Marine aircraft commanders. Receiving the awards are, from left to right: B&g. Gen. Pedro A . delValle, USMC,Alexandria, Va.,who commanded artillery on Gdalcanal from 7 August to 9 December 1942; Col. John N . Hart, USMC, Portsmouth, Va., who was commanding oficer of a Marine aircraft squadron from 4 August t o 30 October 1942, and Lt. Col. Samuel S. Jack, USMC, Glendale,Ariz., who commatzded all Army, Navy and Marine Corps fighter aircraft Guadalcanal from 17 Novemon ber 1942 to 18 January 1943. Their citations said that eachhad performed “exceptiomlly meritorious9’service i n operationsagainst the Japanese.
ganization skill and steadfast devotion to dutyeffectively coordinated the Allied Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Royal New Zealand Air Forces in offensive operations against the Japanese. He participated numerous in reconnaissance flights over hostile territory.

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Commander Roger V. Mullany, USNR,Brooklyn, N. Y.:By his alert and resolute initiative, Commander Mullany, Executive Officer of the U. S. S. Blakeley, during and following a tbrpedo attack, was largely responsible for keeping hisshipunder control, maintaining her fighting ability and later expediting her readiness for sea. Lt. Col. Paul Moret, USMC, Jackson, Mich. (posthumously) : As Aircraft Operations Officer onGuadalcanal, Lieutenant Colonel Moret’s courage and unusual ability in the employment of hisaircraft caused severe

energy at a task considered in some respects as hopeless, Captain Ellsberg achievedremarkable results inthe salvaging andrepair of vital naval

Capt. Edward,E!llsberg, urn, Westfield, N. J.: Working with tireless

Commander John I . Greenslade, ? USN, Washington, D. C.: As Operations Officer on the staff of Commander Aircraft,South Pacific Force, from 23 September 1942 to 30 May 1943,CommanderGreenslade with superb or-

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losses to enemy surface vessels, air(12 Nocraft,andvitalmaterials. vember 1942, to 20 January 1943.) Charles H. Spencer, Jr., BMlc, USN, Bowling Green, Ky.: Refusing to leave his boat for rest food, Spencer, with or tenacious devotion to duty continued t o make tripsbetween ship and beach under dangerous and adverse conditionsuntilallunloading was Completed. (During occupation of French Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.)

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a torpedo attack on his ship, the U. S.S. Blakeley, Savage courageously remained at his station, securing boiler fires and personally examining the forward bulkhead and bilges for damage. (25 May 1942.)

Leo M. Savage, WTlc, USN, Maplewood, Pa.: Although the fireroom was deluged with oil and water following

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Jimmie W. Blacketer, S ~ C USN, , Corpus Christi, Tex.: Despite high surf and with only one engine, Blacketerandhisshipmates voluntarily and without relief operated their boat during theassaultmaking 51 trips until the entire unloading operation A (During occupation Llyn L. Potter, Cox, USNR, Lake was completed. Geneva, Wis.: Despite extremely high of French Morocco, 8-11 November surf and with only one engine, Potter 1942.) and his shipmates voluntarily and I I boat without relief operated their during the assault, making 51 trips SILVER STAR untilall unloadingoperations were I completed. (During occupation of I French Morocco, 8-11 November Capt. Robert M. Smith, USN, Hag1942.) erstown, Md. (missing in action) : When an enemy torpedo blasted his ship, the U. S. S.Joseph Hewes, starting fires and flooding the forecastle, Captain Smith gave orders to fight the blaze and fire distress signal fiares and by his cool manner averted a possible panic among his men, inspiring them in evacuating the wounded and encouraginghis men as he ordered them over the side. (November 1942, in the Atlanticarea.)

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Lt. Comdr. George B. Madden, USN, Oakland, Calif.: When his ship,a deat stroyer-transport, attacked was night by a far superior force Japaof nese vessels, hefoughtwithgreat courage and determination, despite his knowledge of his ship's lack of fire power.and reduction armament, inof flicting damage upon the enemy. (Solomon Islands area, 30 August
1942.)

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Lt. Comdr. John R. McKnight. Jr., USN, Kansas City, Mo.: As commanding officer of a United Statessubmarine during five war patrols, Lieutenant Commander McKnight displayed excellent judgment in his ability to take advantageof every attack opportunity, distinguishing himself by sinking asignificant amount of Japanese shipping.

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Lt. Harry B. Bass, USN, Beaumont, Tex.: Leading a 3-plane raid on a hostile airfield, Lieutenant Bass with bold determination contributed to the destruction of 6 planes and damage to 4 others. Onsubsequent occasions he led vigorous attacks againstgunemplacements, aircraft and truck columns, which resulted in the silencing of two 75-mm. guns and the destruction of 19 planes ,and 14 trucks. (Occupation of French Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.)

"Press Association Photograph.

FOR UNDERSEA BRAVERY: Carl H . Emslim, CMoMM, USN, of Lake Ariel, Pa., was awarded the Siluer Star for his efforts im the emgime room of a U. S. submarime dzc.rilzg three successful, close-rumge attacks om h e a d y screemed Japamese cruisers. Makimg the award at Pearl Harbor i s Rear Admiral C. A . Lockwood, VSN,Commamder Submarime Force, U.S. Pacific Fleet. Page 64

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Lt. Thomas E. Edwards,Jr., USN, Wichita Falls, Tex. (posthumously) : Despite a serious knee injury, Lieutenant Edwards finally gainedperatmission to rejoinhissquadron tached temporarily to a United States aircraft carrier. Leading his flight

againstJapanese fighter planes at Guadalcanal, he destroyed one enemy craft and damaged two others. After his plane had been reserviced he took off again inquest of the enemy, strafing Japanese positions west of Henderson Field. (15 November 1942.)

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Ensign Charles J. Duffy, USNR,New York, N. Y (posthumously) : Participating in a hazardous dive-bombing mission over Casablanca Harbor, EnsignDuffy,withsuperb flying skill, scored a direct hit on a hostile cruiser with a 500-pound bomb. (Occupation of FYench Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.)

Lt. Theodore A. Grell, USN, Dearborn, Mich.: While attached t o a fighting squadron duiing theoccupation of French Morocco, Lieutenant Grellcontributed to the destruction of 14 hostile aircraft on the ground and 9 out of 16 opposing fighters in the air. (8-11 November 1942.)

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squadronduringthe occupation of French Morocco, Lieutenant Higley participated in numerous flight missions, raided heavy gun emplacements, and dive-bombed a hostile battleship. (8-11 November 1942.)

City, Mo.: AS a pilot of a scouting

Lt. Robert H.Higley, USN, Kansas

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Ensign Robert E.O’Neil, USNR, St. Louis, Mo. (posthumously) : Diving, through a hail of antiaircraftfire ships and shore batteries, from hostile Ensign O’Neil delivered a successful glide-bombing attack against coastal defense gun installations near Casablanca. (During the occupation of French Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.)

--Raneohe T.H . )

Klipper

(NAS,

Kaneohe Bay,

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ice under difficult and dangerous conditions. (Guadalcanal, October 1942.)

Lt. Donald. C. Rodeen, ~ N RSan , Lt. Thomas D Keegan, USN, Staten . Island, N. Y.:As a member of tor- Francisco, Calif.: Although subjected to intense antiaircraft fire, Lieutena pedo and ship control parties aboard operated his a United States submarine, Lieuten- ant Rodeen fearlessly John R.Bradley, CBM, USN, Oak ant Keegan was instrumental in de- ‘plane a t low altitude and, with skill- Creek,Colo.:After a ful accuracy, attacked various hostile sion had damaged his terrific explolivering torpedo and gun attacks ship, Bradley, ground positions. When hostile fire despite his injuries, continued to perwhich resultedin the sinking of 61,677 crippled his plane and inflicted form the duties of his stationand tons and the damaging of an additional 30,210 tons of enemy shipping. wounds in both legs, he succeeded in assisted in the evacuation of patients bringing his plane to a safe landing trapped in the gas-filled and flooding to sick bay.(Solomon Islandsarea, 30 in friendly territory without injury a the crew. (Occupation of French November 1942.) Lt. Theophilus H. Moore, USN, Dur- Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.) ham, N. C.: While engaged in offenA sive action against hostile ground Mervale B. Birchard, CGM, TJSN, forces, Lieutenant Ivioore led a diviLt. (jg) Lester H. Gamble, USNR, sion of dive bombers through intense San Francisco, Calif.: As commander Dover, N. H.: While servingaboard Birchof a torpedo boat during an engage- a United States submarine, antiaircraft fire to bomb and strafe opposing tanks, pressing home the ment with Japanese naval forces, ard’s skill and leadership contributed against enemy attacks with such determination that Lieutenant Gamble personally scored to successful action he contributed to the complete rout two hits on a large Japanese destroyer. vessels. a of the tank force. (During the occu- (Solomon Islands area.) pation of French Morocco, 8-11 NoAudly L. Crowe,CGM, USN, Housvember 1942.) ton, Tex.: While serving aboard a Lt. (jg) Donald Kirkpatrick, Jr., United States submarine during four a Crowe, throughexpert USNR, Evanston, Ill.: As pilot of a warpatrols, duties, assisted . Lt. Waller C. Moore, Jr., USN., Ports- scout bomber of the U S. S. Hornet, Performance of his mouth, Va.: Despite dangerous and Lieutenant Kirkpatrick pressed home materially in the sinking of a signifia Persistent attack and succeeded in cant amountof Japanese shipping. persistent hostile fire, Lieutenant Moore led a sectionof planes in vigor- scoring a direct bomb hit on a large aircraft (Near ous glide-bombing attacks on anti- Japanese carrier. aircraft batteries and coastal defense Santa Cruz Islands, 26 October 1942.) guns near Casablanca and later scored a one hit and three near misses on a hostile destroyer in Casablanca HarLt. (jg) Christos E. Mikronis, USNR, bor. (During the occupation of Baton Rouge, La.: Vigorously attackFrench Morocco, 8-11 November ing hostile machine-gun emplace1942.) mentsandaircraftonthe ground, LieutenantMikronis inflicted heavy a damage to weapons, and planes durLt. Thirl E. Jarrett (MC), USN, ing an attack on the Cazes Airdrome. Brooklyn, N. Y.: On repeated occa- When his engine was knocked out by sions while the division field hospital. a hostile shell, he succeeded in landwas under tremendous bombardment, ing his plane, lapsing into unconLieutenant Jarrett worked tirelessly sciousness as his planetouched the ”Tongue Tides (NAS,Tongue Point, Oreg.) over his wounded comrades, adminis- ground. (During the occupation of “Well M y commissiolz at tering plasma, rendering first aid, and French Morocco, 8-11 November last!” performing outstandingmedical serv- 1942.)

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Gunner Charles W. Gibbo, USN, Oakland, Calif. : Discovering an unexplodedbomb in a passagewaywhile hisship, the U. S. S. Hornet, was under heavy aerialattack,Gunner Gibbo shored up the dormant explosive with boxes and rendered it harmless by bending its fuse. (Near Santa Cruz Islands, 26 October 1942.)

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Sam Matulavich, CGM, USN, Akron, Ohio: After his ship had been damaged by a terrific explosionduring an engagement with Japanese forces, Matulavich, with no thought for his own safety, entered gas-filled and floodingcompartments and worked tirelessly to save his ship. (Solomon Islands area, 30 November 1942.)

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Robert C. Daniel, CTM, USN, Sacramento, Calif.: As leading petty officer aboardUnited a States submarine during four war patrols, Daniel contributed directly to the success of his ship insinking one enemy cruiser and onedestroyer and seriously damaging another cruiser with two torpedo hits.

Jay A. Brown, PhMlc, USN, Cleveland, Ohio: On duty at the battalion aid station,Brown constantly exposed himself to enemy machine-gun, rifle, and grenade fire while caring for and evacuating the wounded, realizing thatthe roadhe musttravel was under heavy fire by the Japanesewho had infiltrated around the flank and rear of our forces. (Guadalcanal, 13-14 September 1942.)

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Alva J. Zattiero,Muslc, USN, Ellwood City, Pa.: Afterhis ship had been badly damagedby a torpedo hit, Zattiero, although isolated from the rest of the ship,gave his life jacket to an injured unable man to swim. Later, during abandonment of the vessel he assisted wounded personnel over the side and aided those without life jackets to reacha place of safety. (Off Savo Island, 30 November 1942.)

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Irving J. Sorensen, SClc, USN, Waterford, Wis.: After a terrific explosion had damaged the sick bay, dispensary, and dressing station “u. S. NavalAirStation News (Anacostia, aboard his ship engaged with JapaHarold E. Wood, CQM, USN, San nese forces, Sorensen assisted in D. C . ) Diego, Calif.: As quartermaster and rescuing patients trapped in the gaslook-out four during war patrols Alled and flooding area. (Solomon Albert H. Stegall, CRM, USN, Ukiah, Islands area, 30 November 1942.) aboardaUnitedStates submarine, Calif. : While serving aboarda United Wood ably assisted his commanding officer in the development of two States submarine in enemy-controlled a night attacks which resulted in the waters, Stegall’s cool courage contribsinking of one Japanese cruiser and uted tothe success of his vessel’s Clyde W. mans, T M ~ C , USN, Petersone destroyer and seriously damaging cruises. burg, Va.: While his ship, the U. S. S. another cruiser with two torpedo hits. Cushing, was under intense bombarda Evans, James S. Heist, C ” , USN, Somer- ment,his ownafter firing the torpedoes tube, proceeded t o man set, Pa.: While serving aboard a from after itscrew had Jim Williams, CEM, USN, Sanger, United States submarine during three another tube mount been wounded and fired the tubes Tex.: Afteraterrific explosion had war patrols, Heist, through expert Island, 12-13 Nodamaged his ship, Williams, despite performance of his duties assisted there. (Off Savo injuries, continued to perform the materially in the sinking of an im- vember 1942.) duties of his station and assisted in the evacuation of patients trapped in portant amountof Japanese shipping. George S. Hinkley, AOWc, USN, a gas-filled and flooding sick bay. a Sewickley, Pa.: When his station was (Solomon Islands Area, 30 November Dock M. d l e r , CMoMNI, USN, Titus, struck during an attack by opposing 1942.) Ga.: While serving aboard a United forces and despite severe wounds to i Statessubmarineduringthreewar the eye and face, Hinkley,a turret patrols, Eller, through expert pergunner in a Scouting Squadron conformance of his duties, assisted ma- tinued to man his weapon and mainterially in thesinking of an important tain effective fire against enemy obamount of Japanese shipping. jectives. (Duringthe occupation of FYench Morocc6, 8-11 November I 2 1942.) Delbert R.Otto, CMoMM, USN,Uipa sic, Ohio: While serving aboard a Albert F. Harvey, Cox, USN, PheUnited States submarine during four nix City, Ala.: When his vessel finally successful war patrols, Otto through had been put by enemy expert performance of his duties as- bombardment out of action preparing and sisted materially in the sinking of an to abandon ship, he was heard an Harvey important amount of Japanese shipurgent cry from overhead machine an ping. gun platform. He climbed to theboat deck above and there, in the midst of Donald 0.Vaughan, =IC, USN, raging flames and exploding ammunition, located an injured shipmate, Eureka, Calif.: As radio technician ”Dots-n-Dashes (NTS (Communications), unable to move. Lifting the helpless and sound operator aboard a United Los Angeles, Calif.) man to his shoulders, he carried him States submarine during war four “LieutelzalztHammerhead report- patrols, Vaughan assisted materially below and lowered him to a life raft ilzg Comilzg ilz om a wilzg a d in the sinking of a significant amount over the side. (U. S. S. Vincennes, 9 August 1942.) of Japanese shipping. a prayer.”

Theodore H. Larson, CTM, ,USN, Grand Rapids, Mich.: While serving aboard a United States submarine during three war patrols, Larson, through expertperformance of his duties, assisted materially in the sinking of an important amount of Japanese shipping.

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Japanese fighter planes while his seaplane was on station as rescue ship for United States Army craft assaulting Kiska, Lieutenant Rodebaugh fought his plane so skillfully that 25 attacks were repulsed with only minor damageto his ship.Later,sighting an armed enemy freighter, he maintained contact with the vessel for 4 hours until bombers appeared to sink the ship. (Aleutian Islands, 30 December 1942 and 5 January 1943.)

Lt. Gordon H. MacLane, USCG: Serving as coxswain of a powerboat engaged in rescuing personnel from a stranded United States warship, Lieutenant MacLane, with no regard for his own safety, skillfully maneuvered his boatinto dangerous watersto pick up survivors from the stricken vessel and the sea.

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Lt. (jg) Harold J. Beatty, USM, Fresno, Calif.: Seeing a man struggling in the surf and being carried to sea, Lieutenant Beatty plunged into the surf and swam through huge breakers tohisassistance,fighting desperately against a treacherous undertow. He finally succeeded in bringing the man to thebreaker line, where men both were help. given (Carmel Bay Beach, Calif., 14 February 1943.)

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Lt. (jg) R. Bull, USM, Webster Groves, Mo. (posthumously) : As pilot of a PBY on reconnaissance, Lieutenant (jg) Bullreported the position of an enemy carrier group which was of vital importance to our forces. (Near Ambon, N. E. I., 5 February 1942.)

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-Acme Photograph.

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Lt. (jg) J. M. Robertson, usm, Washington, D. C. (posthumously) : During a flight over Makassar Harbor, N. E. I., LieutenantRobertson sank an enemy transport.Laterhe r made n u m e o u s reconnaissance flights over Makassar Strait.

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Lt. (jg) Charles A. Tabberer, usm, Kansas City, Kans. (missing) : Leading a two-plane section of his squadronagainst an enemy force of 27 twin-engined bombers, Lieutenant Tabberer, despite opposition by opposing'Zeroes, gallantly pressedhome his attacks until his plane was shot down. By so doing he contributed to the destruction of at least five enemy bombers. (Solomon Islands area, 7 August 1942.)

ARMED GUARDSMAN DECORATED: Adrift in a lifeboat for 20 days and nights after his ship bad been sunk, Ernest B. Tillingbast, SM2c, USNR, Revere, Mass., rendered tireless service to other personnel in the boat. He also is credited with saving the life of the first assistant engineer of the vessel who was injuredduring the sinking. Tillihghast, showlz with his mother, was awarded the Navy and Marine Corps Medalat ceremonies at the Armed Guard Center in Brooklyn, N . Y .
Ensign Emory S. Wages, Jr., USNR, Lawrenceville, (missing-not Ga. enemyaction) : With complete disregard for his own life, Ensign Wages courageously sought out and destroyed enemy antiaircraft positions, resulting in severe loss of life and equipment to the Japanese, enabling our forces to occupy the areawithout opposition. (Guadalcanal, 7 August 1942.)

Lt. (jg) James B. Sommers, USN, San Diego, Calif. (missing) : While in charge of a boat attempting to rescueofficers and menfrom a plane wrecked on a treacherous reef, Lieutenant Sommers gamely swam a line to stricken the craft, enabling his men and an accompanyingboat to effect the rescuewithoutinjury to either thesurvivors orthe boatcrews. (New Caledonia, 30 October 1942.)
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Machinist Harold D. Floyd, USN, Dayton, Wash.: During the sinking of the U. S. S. Sturtevant, Floyd remained on the stricken vessel to set all depth charges on safe despite the fact that communication between his part of the ship and the bridge had been cut off. His action was instyumental in saving the lives of men swimming and on rafts in the vicinity. (26 April 1942.)

First Lt. Wallace L. Dinn, Jr.,USMF, Nashville, Tenn.:Whileona flight mission, LieutenantDinnsighted a Japanese convoy of transportsand destroyers, dove upon the vessels and at 500 feet released a bomb, scoringa direct hit on a troop-laden transport. (Solomon Islands Area.) .

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Ensign Newton H. Mason, USNR, NAVY and MARINE Scarsdale, N. Y. (missing) : As Pilot of a fighter plane, Ensign Mason with CORPS MEDAL utter disregard his for own safety zealously engaged Japanese aircraft, contributing materially to the defense Lt. James S. Freeman, USCG, Jasper, of our forces. (Battle of Coral Seas, Ala. (posthumously) : Answering im7-8 May 1942.) mediately the call for assistance in a rescuing a man who had fallen overboard, Lieutenant Freeman put on a Ensign Robert L. Price, US% and entered the water Wichita, Kans. (missing) : Following diver's suit man disappeared. his division leader in anassault on an where the had searching half for an hour, enemy force of 27 twin-engined bomb- After ers, Ensign Price gallantly pressed Lieutenant Freeman failed t o answer home his attacks, despite interception signals and hewas brought to the surbyZero fighters, until his plane was face, butefforts to revive him were in Of shot down. (Solomon Islands area, 7 vain. ( f Norfolk, Va., 10 August 1942.) August 1942.)

Bowmer Webb, CBM, usm, San Francisco Calif. (missing) : With no regard for his own life, Webb volunteered to act as coxswain of a boat detailed to remove personnel from a wrecked plane stranded near French Reef, New Caledonia, exercising superb seamanship the in successful accomplishment of the rescuemission. (30 October 1942.)
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Curtis E. McWaters, CGM,USN, Altoona, Ala.: I n charge of the gun and smallarms,McWaters by the thorough knowledge of his duties contributed in large measure.to the success of his submarine in sinking one enemy cruiser and one destroyer and in seriously damaging another cruiser with two torpedo hits.

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Claude I. Beck, Jr., CTM, uSN, Lubbock, Tex.: In charge of the forward torpedo room, Beck by his thorough knowledge of his dutiescontributed

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directly to the success of his submarine in sinking one enemy cruiser and one destroyer and seriously damaging another cruiser withtwo torpedo hits.

Charles E. Young, " 2 c , usm, Kenneth G. Armstrong, CEM USN, Plainfield, N. J.: When a landing boat Boston, Mass.: While serving aboard a United States submarine during four loaded with troops capsized near war patrols in Japanese-controlled Fedala, Young voluntarily plunged waters, Armstrong by his outstanding into the surf and assisted in rescuing skill contributed materially to the de- several men struggling in the water. (During occupation of French Mostruction of an important amount of -1 rocco, 81 November 1942.) enemy shipping. Carl F. Holdway, CEM, USN, New York, N. Y . : While in charge of electrical equipment aboard United a war Statessubmarineduringthree patrols, Holdway, despite extremely his plant hazardousconditionskept i n operation, contributing materfally to the success of his ship in sinking one Japanese cruiser and one destroyer and seriously damaging another cruiser with torpedo hits. two

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three war patrols, Korn contributed materiallytothe destruction of a n important amount of Japanese shipping.

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and vulnerable target, Lieutenant Malmstrom with depth charges ashis only armament launched a divebombing attack, obtaining a direct hit whichsilenced the battery.(During occupation of French Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.)

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Laurence H Turner, CMM, d ~ . San Diego, Calif.: Under extremely hazardous conditions during engagements with Jananesesurfacecraft, Turner by his skill maintained the engineeringplant of hissubmarine enabling herto sink oneenemy cruiser and one destroyer and seriously damage another cruiser withtwo torpedo hits.

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Oscar T. Edmondson, TMlc, USN, Princess Anne, Va.: I n charge of the forward torpedo room, Edmondson by the thorough knowledge of his dutiescontributedmateriallyto the success of hissubmarineinsinking one Japanese cruiser and one destrbyer ,and seriously damaging another cruiser with two torpedo hits.

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WilliamLedford, E. TMlc, USN, Leicester, N.C.: I n charge of the forward topedo room of a United States submarine during three war patrols, Ledford, through expert performance of hisduties,assistedmaterially in the sinking of a n important amount of Japanese shipping.

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Clarence L Pyle, TMlc, USN, Harco, . Ill.: In charge of the forward torpedo room of aUnited States submarine during four war patrols in Japanesecontrolled waters,Pyle through expert performance of his duties assisted materially in the destruction of an important amount of enemy shipping.

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Ralph E Korn, Ylc, u s m , Salina, . Kans.: serving While as lookout, steersman, and sound operator aboard a United States submarine during
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Robert F Edmondson. . USNR, Brighton, Iowa: In the face of heavy antiaircraft and fire enemy fighter planes, Lt. (jg) Edmond'son participated in numerous attacks , on Japanese forces, scoring a direct, Herman R. Ludwig, ARM~c,usm, heavy bomb hit on an enemy vessel. Seattle, Wash.: When his plane (Solomon Islands area, 14-15 Novemcrashed into the sea, Ludwig, after he ber 1942.) had inflated his liferaft and was 72 safelyafloat, noticed that his pilot Lt. was in distress and proceeded im- usm, (jg) Lloyd D. Hollingsworth, Jr., Wilmington, N. C. (missing) mediately to his rescue. (During oc- As pilot of a seaplane, Lieutenant : Holcupation of French Morocco, 8-11 lingsworth charged through constant November 1942.) machine gun and rifle fire to deliver a strafingattackagainst a hostile a Harold S. Decker, PhM3c, USN, truck column, rendering effective asSyracuse, N. Y.: When an Army offi- sistance to the disruption of enemy transportation facilities. (During occer and a seaman were caught in the cupation of French Morocco, 8-11 Nosurf near Medhia, Decker boarded a vember 1942.) landing boat and carried a line toward a the two struggling men. As the fury Gerald J. Sullivan, ACRM, urn, of the breakersmade it dangerous Mont. : For meritorious to approach the men with the boat, Missoula, h e jumped overboard with a life pre- achievement as a free gunner in a torpedoplaneduringaction inthe server and held them up until they Solomons on 24 August 1942. During could be takento the beach.(During occupation of French Morocco, 8- an earlier aerial torpedo attack on a n enemy aircraft carrier, Sullivan, 11 November 1942.) maintaining timely and effective fire, successfully repulsed intercepting aircraft and contributed to the disAIR MEDAL . ruption of Japanese aerial opposition. I I Clark W. Morrison, Aplc,USN, DenLt. Donald E. Smith, urn, Miami, Fla.: Although subjected to heavy ver, Colo.: Under the most severe face of ship andshore antiaircraft fire, Lieu- weather conditions and in the tenant Smith continued to furnish his persistent antiaircraft fire, Morrison pilot repeated vessel with accurate information con- as aviation made cerning the location of vessels and, flights on tactical missions and disand zeal in when attacked by four hostile planes, played determination against the enemy. (Aleusucceeded in repulsing and eluding combat Islands campaign, 1-15 June them. (During the occupation of tian French Morocco, 8-11 November 1942.) $ 3 1942.) Victor Wickman, AMMlc, USN,Baya ard, Nebr.: Attacked by four Japanese Lt.Carl R. N. Malmstrom, USNR, fighters while onstationas rescue St. Paul, Minn.: When a well-conship for UnitedStates aircraft attackcealed hostile battery opened fire on ing Kiska, Wickman and other memthe U. S. S. Dallas, then a stationary bers of the crew defended their plane Lt.

Lamar H.Loggins, MoMM~c,USN, Gainesville, Ga.: When the gasoline tanks aboardhis PT boat exploded ,as a result of an enemy torpedo hit, Loggins and all other members of the crewwere thrown violently into the sea. Disregarding hisown injured condition he swam to the assistance of a shipmate suffering from a severe leg wound and at great personal risk fought off attacks by sharks preying upon the disabled man. ( f GuadalOf canal, 1-2 February 1943.)

Lt. (jg) Floyd Brake, USNR, Downs. Kans.: Attacked by four Japanese fighters while his plane was on station as rescue ship for United States aircraft assaulting Kiska, Lieutenant Brake and othermembers of the crew fought their plane so skillfully that continuous attacks were repulsed with only minordamage.Later,sighting an armed enemy freighter, heand other crew members maintained contact for4 hours until bombers arrived and sank the vessel. (Aleutian Islands, 30 December 1942 and 5 January 1943.)
(jg)

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so skillfully that enemy attacks were repulsed only with minor damage. Later his plane sighted an enemy freighter and maintained contact for 4hoursuntil bombersarrived and sank the vessel. (Aleutian Islands, 30 December 1942 andJanuary 5 1943.)

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John F. Collins, RM3c, UsNR, Wor‘cester, Mass.: Under the most severe weather conditions and in the face of persistent antiaircraft fire, Collins, withconscientiousdevotion to duty, carriedoutthetasks assigned him during patrol missions and bombing in attacks against Japanese ships Kiska Harbor. (Aleutian Islands campaign, 1-15 June 1942.) Carl E. Creamer, AOM~C, Filer, USN, Idaho (prisoner of war) : Under the most severe weather conditions and in the face of heavy antiaircraft fire from Japanese forces, Creamer with conscientious devotionto duty carried out the duties and tasks assigned him during patrol missions and bombing attacks. (Aleutian Islands campaign, 1-15 June 1942.) Willis H. Sweeney, S ~ C , Idana, USN, Kans. (missing) : Under the most severe weather conditions and in the face of heavy antiaircraft fire, Sweeney carriedoutthetasksassigned during him patrol missions and bombing attacksagainstJapahese ships in Kiska Harbor. (Aleutian Islands campaign, 1-15 June 1942.)
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USN,

Charles R. Phillips, Jr., AFtMlc, St. Louis, Mo.: Attacked by four Japanese fighters while on station as rescue ship for United States aircraft attacking Kiska, Phillips with other members of the crew defended their plane so skillfully that onlyminor damage resulted one and enemy plane probably was damaged. Later, while engaged in a search mission near Kiska, Phillips’ plane sighted an armed enemy freighter and main4 hours, enabling tain contact for bombers to locate and sink the enemy 5 vessel. (30 December 1942 and January 1943.)

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-‘‘I’ve beem this way ever silzce Z put im that chit for ‘Lighter tham Air’ School.”
Jack P. Miller, -3c, USN, Rockaway Beach, Calif.: As radioman and gunner attached to Torpedo Squadran Eight, he took part in repeated aerial assaults and performed his duties in the face of intense enemy fire. (September, October, and November 1942, Solomon Islands area).

”Outpost (U. S. Naval Activities No. 2, Navy Number 138.)

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John L.Riley, Jr., AMMZc, USN, Chicago, Ill. (missing) : Under the most severe weather conditions and in the face of heavy antiaircraft fire, Riley carriedout the tasksassignedhim during patrol missions and bombing attacks against Japanese ships in Kiska (Aleutian Harbor. Islands campaign, l-15’tJune 1942.)

NEW BOOKS I SHIPS’ LIBRARIES N

PRATT. Barefoot Mailman. The mail(Contimued from page 59) so Little ~ i N~~ ~ man who barefoot walked twice . between Beach and York todayis thesetting of this z?3 vivid by novel theauthor of “The Miami carrying the Psychology for the Fighting Man. To Steve Cuvar, AMM2c, UsN, Granite Late George Apley.” Scheme. A topnotchaidthe service maninunderstandCity, Ill. (missing) : Under the most MARSH. colour ‘‘who-dunit” with a N~~ Zealand ing the psychological problems of severe weather conditions and in the modern warfare. face of persistent antiaircraft fire background. Private Report. Exciting from ship and shore batteries, Cuvar, mURER. Old mllow. ~n imaginative ROBERTS. account of Lao-tze whose wit and Of the underground movewithconscientious devotion to duty, severity arethestrength of China. merit in carriedout thetasks assignedhim ~ ROBERTSON.. Meadows. ~ ~ Grizzly . ~ Lively during patrol missions and bombing MCCAULEY. With Perry in J attacks on Japanese shipping in Kiska Hitherto unpublished d i m of a Western story. lieutenant on board the u. s. s. SEAGRAVE. Burma Surgeon. Humor. Harbor. (Aleutian Islands campaign, charm, and inspiration are in this 1-15 June 1942.) Powhatan in 1853. account of an American doctor’s MILTON. Abraham ~ i and the ~ ~ ~ l ~ fight against disease in the wilds fifth column.The Fifth column Of Burma* was not new in Lincoln’s time and Burdette B. Siler, AMM~c, WN, SELBY. Starbuck. Ehgaging novel gave him much trouble. Santa Ana, Calif. (missing) : Under about a gifted musician, hislife MITCHELL. ~~~~l~~~~ Wonderful athe most severeweatherconditions and his experiences in World War I. loon. Entertaining sketches of the and in the face of heavy antiaircraft strange and wonderful people to be SHEARING. Golden Violet. Terror and fire fromJapaneseshoreand ship found along the New York Bowery. bloodshed in Victorian days. A batteries, Siler, with conscientious‘deA Nevada mystery. MORGAN.Humboldt. The votion to duty, carried out the tasks river that was an important factor SMITH. Cryptography. Manual of the assigned him during patrol missions in the West’s development. fundamentals of secretcommuniand bombing attacks on Japanese NATHAN.But Gently Pay. Fantasy cation. ships in Kiska Harbor. (Aleutian Islands campaign, 1-15 June 1942.) in which present and past are STONE. They Also Ran. Story of the merged. nineteenmen who ranandwere NILES. Passengers to Mexico. F’icdefeated for the presidency. 72 tionized story of the French invasion of Mexico under Maximilian. End Of Track. William J. Glover, ARM2c, USN, western with the building of the Doctors Aweigh. The United San Pedro, Calif. (missing) : Under u. p. as background. States Naval Medical Corps in acthe mostsevereweatherconditions WINTER. War Planes of All Nations. and in the face of heavy antiaircraft tion DeSCriPtiOnS Of 300 War Planes w i t h fire fromshipandshorebatteries, PARSONS. to Light. An absorbTrain 200 ilhstratiom. Glover, conscientious with devotion ing biography Joseph Goldberger, of t o duty, carried out the tasks assigned Public Health doctor, renowned for WORDELL SEILER. AND WildcatsOver his work with pellagra;. him during patrol missions and bombCasablanca. Activities of t h e in PEATTTE. JourneyInto America. Ading attacks against Japanese ships fighter squadron which formed part Kiska (Aleutian Harbor. Islands venturing into the past of America of the umbrella over landing opby way of her unsung heroes. campaign, 1-15 June 1942.) erations at Casablanca.

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As, o 14 August 1943,the Navy Ref lief Society has announced its loan policy as follows: Loans may be made for thefollowing reasons: ( a ) Hospitalization, medical or surgical care of dependents. (b) Death of a dependent (the cost . of burial should be held to a reasonable figure). ( c ) Nonreceipt of pay accounts. ( d ) Delay in receipt of family allowance or allotment. (e) Travel in special cases such a s critical illness or death of a wife or child, where circumstances warrant. (f) Travel and subsistence expenses, not exceeding the cast of transportation plus a reasonable amount for incidentals when leave is granted to a man who has returned to the continental limitsof the United States from duty overseas o r other duty at sea, provided the loan is recommended by the man's commanding officer, who shall state that the man has inadequate funds for leave due to valid causes beyond the man'scontrol. Where it is possible to do so, auxiliaries will require the registration of an allotment to cover the repayment purpose. of a loangrantedforany In the case of loans for travel, the repaymentmustnotextend over a long period. Loans should n o t be made to active personnel or their dependents: tu) To purchase automobiles or any nonessentials. (b) To lay in the winter'ssupply of coal. ( c ) To pay taxes, or intereston mortgage or on house, or land. ( d ) To pay debts created for nonessentials. Loans shall not be granted for any purpose to men, without dependents, whose lack of funds arises from disciplinary action.

Navy Relief Society's Loan Policy

and through the mails to next of kin of naval personnel. Much valuable information concerning arrangement of personal affairs of naval personnel who are assigned sea duty or who are going to advance bases, as well as advice to their dependents, is contained in the new publication. The booklet covers a variety subof jects including suggestions on the making of wills, transportation of dependents, information on 6 months' deathgratuity,the value of safety

deposit boxes and joint checking accounts,insurance, benefits to which dependents are entitled under different laws, income-tax suggestions and information,functions of the Navy Relief Society, hospital treatment for dependents, funeral and burial data, all service men and information should know after discharge from active service. BuPers is distributing the pamphlet to commanding officers of allships andstations. Personnelmay obtain copies from commanding officers concerned. Requests refer should to NavFers 15,014.

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Rotation Plan 'Means Change of Duty and Maximum Leave at Home
BuPers' recently announced policy regarding rehabilitation leave and o r tation of duty for enlisted men who have been performing hazardousduty aboard ship and at outlying stations (INFORMATION BULLETIN, July 1943, p. 67) is designed to give men a maximum of their leave at home as well as a change of duty. Although the 30 days' leave to which such men are entitled after serving 18 months aboard ship or a t outlying bases includes travel time, men have a choice of nine receiving ships or receiving stations to which they may report upon expiration of their leave. These points are Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Norfolk, New Orleans, San Diego, San Pedro, San Francisco, and Puget Sound. Thus, regardlessof wherein the United States a man spends hisleave, he will not, a t worst, be more than 3 days from the closest reporting point. Upon expiration of the 30 days' rehabilitation leave, and after reporting to one of the receiving ships or receiving stations listed above, men are assigned to general detail. Personnel requirementsdetermine the type o f duty to which they are assigned. I n general, BuPers intends to detail themento new construction, advanced bases, or the to respective service force subordinatecommands and other administrative commands to accelerate the rotation program. Thus, if a man who has been serving in the South Pacific disembarks a t San Diego, he does not necessarily report back to San Diego (or another west coast point) and is not neces-

Booklet Available Covering Navy Men's Personal Affairs and Aid for Their
"Personal Affairs of Naval Personne1 and Aid for Their Dependents" is the titleof a new Dependentsallpamphlet being sent by BuPers to ships and stations

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Appointment of Reserves to Line of Regular Navy___________-_____"__ 7 2 Baggage Allowance 77 Billiards Exhibitions ___________-____ 79 BookletAvailableCovering Navy Men's I'ersonal Affairs and Aid for Their Dependents 71 Discontinuance of Recommendations for Permanent Appointments, Promotions-__--____-__-_-_----_-_-__-_72 Entrance Qualifications for Schools Modified 73 Exercise Suits Available for Sale to Women's Reserve 77 78 Fellowships Offered Navy Daughters-" Flight Training Selection Changes"" 76 Identifying Symbol "M" for Gunner's Mates 76 Information on Training Courses""_ -79 LeaveCannot he Granted for V. 1 W. . Encampment 76 Naturalization of Aliens in the Navy-__ 7 6 Navy Relief Society's Loan Policy-___-- 7 1 New Pro Rata Distribution 79 New Regulations for.Navy Athletes"" 74 News Magazines Light-Weight Editions- 74 .NROTC Training Open to IT-12 Men-_- 7 8 Officers Going to Sea or Overseas M a y 72 Draw 3 Months' Advance Pay PermanenL Appointment of Chiefs"" 74 Personnel Returning. From Combat 72 AreasMustGuard Securlty Plastic Ca Devices Authorized"""_ 78 Reprints o f Material on Ribbons, Ranks and Rates---__-_--___--____-_____ 74 Requests for Sea Duty from Retired Officers_-_---_______-__-__________ 73 Rotation Plan Means Chanee of Duty and Maximum Leave at Eome""_71 Slate GraysAuthorized for C. P. 0,'s" 72 Tegporary Appointments, Promotions Worms 77. The Railroads and Servicemen 73 Two New Distinguishing Marks--_"_76 Two Tips for Servicemen--_: _________ 75 U. S. Property Mailed by Personnel of Navy Confiscated by Customs"--__ 73 Women Staff Officers to Wear Corps Devices 77

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successfulcompletion of training as aviation cadets, and who have Prospects of completing on June 30 of the year in which they are appointed to the Regular Navy, not less than 18 months’ continuous active service Navy and Marine Corps officers may now draw an advance equal to next following completion of duty as aviation cadets. 3 months’ pay (provided they are not in the (b) Officers commissioned already indebted to the Government for a previous advance) upon receipt Naval Reserve ongraduation fromthe Training Corps of orders to or from duty a t sea, to Naval Reserve Officers’ or from shore duty beyond the seas, whowere less than 25 years of age from one duty at sea to another duty upon reporting for continuous active a t sea, or from duty at one shore sta- duty on board ships of the Navy, and tion beyond the seas to duty at an- who have completed not less than 1 other shore station beyond the seas. year of such duty. (Complete details appear in R1261, Prior to theadoption of the changes Bulletin Csemiin Navy Regulations (Article 1802), an Navy Department advance was limited to 1, 2, or 3, monthly], dated 1 August 1943.) No authorityexistsforanyother months’ pay, dependingon the orders Slate Grays Authorized transfers and none can beexpected received. For C. P. O.’S The changes also provide that the until peacetime needs of the Navy can Chief petty officers now are author- advance shall be liquidated by with- be established. ized to wear the new slate gray work- holding from each day’s pay an ing uniform, identical (except for inamount not less than. one-one hun- Discontinuance of Recomsignia)with that recently approved dred and eightieth of the amount adfor wear by commissioned officersand vanced, instead of a t a monthly rate mendations for Permanent warrant officers. of not less than one-sixth of the During the necessary transition pe- amountadvanced. tl?ull details ap- Appointments, Promotions riod, chief petty officers may follow pear in R-1247, Navy Department Notwithstanding the ‘ announcethe sameregulations promulgated for Bulletin kemimonthlyl, 1 August ment contained in the act Congress of commissioned officers and warrant of- 1943.) approved 30 June 1942 (Public Law ficers regarding wearing of the khaki 639, 77th Cong.), that the provisions workinguniform. That is, they may Appointment. of Reserves of law governing the permanent prowear khaki uniforms now in their inotion of officer personnel have been possession, or manufactured, until the To Line of Regular Navy suspended by statutory enactment supply of these uniforms is exhausted, until 30 June of the fiscal year followMany communications requesting or those in possession are worn out. which thepresent Until such time as gray cloth rat- consideration for appointment to the ing that in BuPers continues to war shall end, receive ing badges are available, chief petty line of the Regular Navy havebeen the permanent officers may wear the blue rating received in BuPers fromofficers of the recommendations for officers to chief badge on gray uniforms. (Full de- Naval Reserve who do not meet the promotion of warrant permanent actwarrant ranks, and of tails appear in R1327, Navy Depart- requirementsfor eligibility forsuch appointment. Applications should ing pay clerks tothegrade of pay ment Bulletin Csemimonthlyl , dated of thestatedenactcome onlyfrom the following and only clerk. I n view 15 August 1943.) when requests are made of the service ment, suchrecommendations serve no useful purpose, andthepractice of as a whole: PersonGel Returning (a) Naval Reserve aviators who submittingrecommendationsshould From Combat Areas were less than 25 years of age upon cease in the interest of conservation of paper work. Must Guard Security Similarly, by BuPers Circular Personnel returningfrom combat Letter No.84-42 ( R 7 1 Navy Departareas must exercise great caution in ment Bull. Csemimonthlyl, 1 June the discussion of naval and military 1942), since permanent appointments matters and should not participate in to warrantgrades have also been dis.a press conference, talk to reporters, continued forthe durationof the war, or talk over the radio,except after recommendations of that nature consultation with, andclearance of should also be discontinued until the subject matter by, a public relacalled for by the Bureau. tions officer of the Navy or Marine Furthermore,requestforissuance Corps. of permanentwarrants,towarrant No information concerning activiofficers serving under acting appointties of United States submarines, or actiontakenagainstenemysubmaments, as distinguished from temporines, will be released for publication rary appointments,should notbe subprior to initial release by SecNav, exmitted unless the officer concerned has cept by Fleet and Force commanders completed 1 year of dutyon board who have been authorized to release to ship. This, however, should not be the press news items concerning the interpreted to preclude submission the activities of United States subma‘of appropriate recommendation in rines in their separate commands. -Habit (NAS, Hutchinson, Kans.) event of detachment from the ship of (Full appear details in R-1302, “As u Radioman, Second Class, I the reporting officer or the officer reNavy Department CSemimonthlyl , ported on. specialize in short wuves.” dated 15 August 1943.) sarily returned to duty in the South Pacific. The policy of granting rehabilitation leave after men have served a minimum of 18 months does not establish a right, but is an entitlement only, depending upon the exigencies of the service, the enlisted personnel situation, available transportation, and the prosectuion of the war. Men entitled to rotation,particularly those who do not wish to return to the United States, may be granted the 30 days in Allied countries. .After such leave, the men begin serving a new 18 months’ rotation period. (Full details appearin R 1 2 3 9 , Navy Department BulletinCsemimonthlyl, dated 15 August 1943)

Oficers Going T o Sea Or Overseas May Draw 3 Months’ Advance Pay

Entrance Qualifications For Schools Modified
Enlisted men’s qualifications for entrance to service schools havebeen modified so that they now may enter even though they do not have 2 years remaining to serve on their current enlistment(orenlistmentextended) upon completion of the course, as heretofore provided in BuPers Manual, Article E5405 (2) (i). Thisrequirement has been suspended for the duration of the war. (Full details appear in R1320, Navy Department Bulletin [Semimonthlyl, dated 15 August 1943.)

THE RAILROADS AND SERVICEMEN
The following individual letter from the Fennsylvania Railroad’s general superintendent dining car service, J. F. Finnegan, to each of his employees, is :quoted as indicative of the attitude of American railroads toward men in uniform: “I never see a service man that I don’t feel how much he is doing for me. And when I see themon our trains, I get a big thrill out of theidea that we are their host. Nothing we can do to make themwelcome, their meals good, and their tripsomething to think about,is half good enough compared with what they’re doing for us. “NaturallyI can’t meet them all. So I’m delegating to you what I’d like to be able to do in person: to play host to theseboys o f ours in a way that they will remember with pleasure and gratitude. Some may be on their way home. Others are going back to camps, perhaps to leave for ‘over there.’ “Perhaps,for instance, they don’t knowabout that 10 percent discount t o which they’re entitled if traveling at their own expense. Even though it’s coming to them automatically, watch their faces l i g h t up when you call it to their attention. It’s as though you, personally, were doing them this favor. “Let’s treat them as honored guests. Let’s make their trip with us a real bright spot. It’s comingto them and it‘s one little thing we can do to help.” The Bureau i informed that the s New York Central Railroad. following railroads, operating princiNew York, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad. pally in eastern and northern territory, grant 10-percentreduction to New York, New Haven and Hartford all military personnel obtaining meals Railroad. Steamin dining cars when traveling on leave Norfolk and Washington a t their own expense when each meal boat Company. Norfolk and ‘Western Railroad. amounts to 50 cents or more: Pennsylvania Railroad. Baltimore and Ohio Railroad. Pere Marquette Railroad. Boston and Albany Railroad. Boston and Maine Railroad. Reading Company. Central Railroad of New Jersey. Wabash Railway. Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. I n order that there will be no misChicago and Eastern Illinois Rail- understanding when checks are preroad. sented f o r payment, it is recomChicago, Indianapolis and Louis- mended that personnel concerned deville Railroad. termine from dining car stewards in advance whether the 10-percent reDelaware and Hudson Railroad. Delaware, Lackawanna and Westduction applies in the particular car ern Railroad. in which the meals are being obtained. Erie Railroad. I n general this 10-percent reduction Grand Trunk Railway System. does not apply west of the Mississippi Lehigh Valley Railroad. River.

U.S . Property Mailed
B y Personnel of Navy Confiscated by Customs
The United States Customs Service is apprehending and confiscating large quantities of O-overnment property being sent by navalpersonnel through the mails, and by other means, to their friends and relatives. That service will continue to confiscate such Government property and will ascertain the names and addresses of the senders in order that disciplinary action may be taken. Confiscated material will be turned over to the nearest naval activity for reconditioning, if necessary, and reissue. (Full details appear in R1298, Navy Department Bulletin [Semimonthly], dated 15 August 1943.)

Repests for Sea Duty From Retired Oficers
Requests for sea duty from retired officers of the Regular Navy, who are below flag rank, under the statutory retiring age, and physically qualified, have been invited by BuPers (R1278, Navy Department Bulletin Csemimonthly1 of 1 August 1943.) It isBuPers’general intention to order such officers to duty initially in auxiliary ships. Requests areto be submitted to the Chief of Naval Personnel via official channels including the Chief of the Bureau of Medicine and Surgery; each request being accompanied by a report of physical examination (NMS Form Y) taken not more than 1 month prior to its submission. BuPers advises forwarding seniors that equivalent reliefs will not necessarily be ordered, but must be provided by fleeting upwithin the organization.

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News Magazines Offer Light-Weight Editions

THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN IDEA

-

Reprints of Material On Ribbons, Ranks, and Rates

Time and Newsweek have, respectively, developedlight-weight editions of these magazines, which reproduce the editorial content (without advertising) of their regular editions in smaller format, so that copies can be mailed outside continental United States first-class as matter rather than as the slower second-class matter. It is expected that delivery afloat or overseas will be expedited considerably by the new development. Subscription prices have beenestablished at $3.50 peryearfor the “pony” edition of Time, the same price as for the regular edition, and $3.25 for the “Battle Baby” edition of Newsweek. Interested personnel afioat or overseas may enter new subscriptions or change over their old subscriptions, by communicating directly with Circulation Manager, Time Inc., 330 East Twenty-Second street, Chicago, Ill., or Newsweek Magazine, Newsweek Building, Broadway at Forty-Second Street, New York, N. Y. The offers are not applicable to Personnel in the United States. ”BuAer News. In the interest of reducing the weight and volume of mail for overseas activities (the reduced single COPY in status from acting to permanent editions of these magazines weigh ap- appointment which cite BuPers Circlet authority. Enclosure (C), proximately 1 ounce),andin order 110-43 as to increase the availability of current paragraph 14 of BuPers Circlet 11043, prescribes the service requirereading material, it is recommended permanent appointment that commanding officers give consid- ments for eration to the increased use of Ap- but is not authority to effect permanent appointments. propriation “1740433, Welfare and Before effecting permanent apRecreation, Navy 1944” for subscrippointments under authority of BuPers tions to these and such other lightweight editions as areavailable. Such Circlet 11-42 the following items material placed in messes and reading should be checked: 1. Service requirements (par. 1 4of rooms should not onlyincrease the reading availability but reduce the enclosure (C) to BuPers Circlet 110necessity for private subscriptions. 43).* When other publications with similar desirable characteristics are available, *Nom.-Minimum reservice the service will be notified through for quirements to be eligible permathese columns. ment appointment are 12 months’

Material in theMarch 1943 issue of the INFORMATION concerning BULLETIN medals and ribbons, and material in the May 1943 issue concerning ranks, rates, and insignia, have been reprinted in separate pamphlets and a available for official purposesupon request addressed to the Bureau. The ribbon pamphlet should be identified as NAVPERS 15016, and the ranks and rates pamphlet as NAVPERS 15004. Copies desired for personal use may be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing OWce, Washington, D.C., a t 5 cents each. When communicating with the Government Printing Office, specify the ribbon pamphlet as 5-538338 and the ranks rates and pamphlet as 5-527777.

New Regulations Issued For Navy Athletes
Athletic teamsrepresenting Navy activities, with the exception of those of the United States Naval Academy engaged in intercollegiate athletics, hereafter may not engage in games of contests with professional teams unless the games are played on the reservation of the activity represented by the Navy team, SecNav has announced. Hereafter, in general, allathletic contests in which Navy teams participate willbeplayed withopponents from within the same area, delineated by the National Collegiate Athletic Association initsdistricting of the nation, asthat within which the Navy activity. is located. In no case, however, may an individual or team be permitted to participate in any contest which requires absence from the Navy activity for 48 hours or more, exclusive of air transportation. . It was explained that under the districtlimitation an example wouldbe that a team representing a Navy activity in South Carolina wouldbe limitedin selection of opponents to those within the thirdN. C. A. A. district. Navy teams will not be permitted to engage in bowl or similarcontests, and individuals in the Navy whohave been or are prominent in sports will not be permittedtoengage in contestsor sports away from their stations except as members of 5t team representing the activity. . Games between service teams shall not beplayed except on the station represented by one or the other team, and opponents shallcome from within the same N. C. A. A. district.

Permanemt Appointments Of Chiefs

BuPers Circular better No. 11-42 is the only authorityunder which commanding officers may effect permanent appointments of chief petty 2. Conduct and other marks reofficers,chiefcooks, and chief stewards without reference to theBureau. quirements(art. D-5111 (2) BuPers Change from actingto permanent ap- Manual). 3. Professional qualifications (art. pointment is a change in status and s 5 1 1 1 (3) BuPers Manual). not an advancement inrating,al4. Effective date(art EL5112 (3) though it does entail an increase in BuPers Manual). pay. 5 Entry on page9 (par. 4 of BuPers . TheBureauhas received alarge Circlet 11-42). number of pages 9 reporting change

continuous service with acting apashore pointment. Men serving who have had less than 12 months’ previous sea. service inpay grades 1-A and 2 are required t o serve longer periods establish to eligibility.Seereferencedcircularletter.

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Students enrolled in theNavy v1 -2 explained that, and also stated: “In The Chief of Naval Personnel is dehis College Training Program who partic- order that a freshman in first V-12 signated as the final authority todeobcide questions arising under the new ipate in intercollegiate athletics shall term maydevote his entire time to directive, and if any games are now do so asrepresentatives of the col- taining a good Start in the program, legeto which they are assigned, and such freshmen willnot bepermittedto scheduled which do not comply with the directive isdirected that the not as representatives of the Navy. takepartinanyextra-curricularac-The commandantsitorcommanding officers Rear u* N*9 tivityduringtheirfirstterm.” from 48-hour limitation on absence ‘ of the activities which the team represents immediately refer them to the Chief ofNaval Personnel, in an ad- an activity also applies to V-12 stuChief of Naval Personnel for decision. dress in New York on May 14, 1943, dents on intercollegiate teams.

TWO TIPS TO SERVICEMEN

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Naturalization of Aliens Serving in the Navy
Recomm’endation of approval of applications for naturalization of noncitizens serving in the United States Navy may be made by commanding 3 officers after have aliens had months’ honorable service and, in certain cases, after 1 month’s honorable service, under a policy recently announced. The requirement of at least 3 months’ honorable service ‘may be waived (and reduced to not less than 1 month) the when applicant is scheduled for, o r has been assignedto, sea duty or overseas service outside the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands of the United States, before completing 3 months’ service. Prior to recommending approval of anypetitionfornaturalization,the commanding officer must forward the name of the petitioner to BuPers for a name check through theDivision of Naval Intelligence, Military Intelligence Service and Federal Bureau of Investigation. (lWl details of the anouncement of policy on this subject may be found in R1265, Navy Department Bulletin Csemimonthlyl for 1 August 1943.

T w o N e wDistinguishzng Marks Authorized
Two new distinguishing marks have been authorized for enlisted men. Men of the OrdnanceBattalions may wear amark consisting of the block letters “0B” and men serving on PT boats may wear one consisting of the block letters “P T”. I n both cases, the marks are worn on the left sleeve halfway between the elbow and the wrist. Themarksare embroidered in silk, white on blue for blue uniforms, and blue on white for white uniforms. tl?ull details appear inR1327, Navy Department Bulletin [semimonthlyl, dated 15 August 1943.)

theseswith therating, as in these examples: GM(M)3c; CGM(M) (AA). Commanding officers of all activities engaged inthehandling of mines have been authorized and directed to apply the mine designation to all gunner’s mates whose duties are primarily with minesand mining. Qualiflcations for advancement in gunner’s mate (M) ratings will be the same as for gunner’s mates of corresponding with grades appropriate emphasis on mine subjects. tF’u11 details on the subject appear in R1274, Navy Department Bulletin Lsemimonthlyl, 1 August 1943.) ,

Flight Training Selection Changes Made

Major changes have been made in requirements and instructions for selection for flight training of all the eligible classes of naval personnel, and the current instructions and requirements have been combined into Lette R1323, Navy Department Bulletin (semimonthly), dated 15 August 1943. Identifying Symbol “M” Among the changes are these: Commanding officers (through For Gunner9sMates whom individualrequests for flight A designation has been authorized training must be submitted) are. int o identifygunner’s mates who are structed to recommendforaviation trained and qualified in the handling pilot training enlisted men whom they of mines. consider worthy to becomecommisThe identifying symbol is the letter sioned officers in the naval service. “M,” which will be written in parenA method is set up which attempts to preserve the relativeprecedence or standing on the list of those enlisted men have who been recommended for flight training. ReThe time requirement for Naval serve officers qualifying forlighterthan-air training isreduced. Provision is made for warrant officers to take flight training in grade.

Leave Cannot Be Granted For V . F. W .Encampment

“Commadm Page 76

..

-The Chaser

(Sub Chaser Tmg. Center, Miami, ma.)

I believe I’ve sighted a sub!!!”

Leave of absence cannot be granted this year, as it has been in peacetime to Navy Department enlisted and civilian personnel forthe purpose of attending the Fourty-fourth National Encampment of the Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States, SecNav Frank Knox has written t o R. B. Handy, Jr., Veterans of Foreign Wars adjutant general. The exigencies of the naval ‘service require the full-time effort of all personnel while the United States is a t war, theSecretary said. He added, however, that there will no doubt be many who can arrange to attend the encampment during such leave of absence as has beenscheduled for them.

Womenstaff Oficers T o Wyear Corps Devices
Appropriate staff corps devices will beworn by all womenofficersnow or hereafter commissioned in o r officially classified as anofficer of any of the staff corps. Devices will be of the samecolor as the sleeve strips on the uniform on which they are worn, with the acorn embroidered in appropriate contrasting color of either whiteorreserve blue on a background to match the color of the uniform, and they will be worn above the sleeve stripes. When the jacket is not the minworn, iature metal pin-on corps device will be worn on the left side of the collar of the shirt, with the corresponding rank insignia on the right side. Women medical specialist officers will wear the caduceus instead of the medicalcorps device. Women officers of the Medical Corps, while, not members of the Women’s Reserve, will wear the same uniform with appropriate staff corps insignia. Uniform Regulations changes covering the abovewillbe promulgated by BuPers soon.

Exercise Suits Available for Sale to Women’s Reserve at Ship’s Service Stores
OfficialWomen’sReserve exercise suitsare now available for sale to Women’s Reserve personnel through Ship’s Service Stores. Ship’s Service officers interested in stocking these suits may obtain them

by means of purchase orders forwarded direct to the Clothing Divi- Temporary Appointments, sion, Bureau of Supplies and Ac- . Promotions Forms counts. The cost to Ship’s Service Samples of standard forms for use Stores is $33 per dozen. in The suits are identical to those fur- notification and acknowledgmentof nished Women’s Reserve personnel at temporary appointments and promoDepartment training schools and consist of a blue tions appear in the Navy of 1 August Bulletin (semimonthly) one-piece suit with a gored skirt, tie inbelt, and other accessories. The suits 1943, on page 43 (R1268). This apcludes the modified form which are practical for all active sports, ex- peared on page 40 of the September ercises, and also for drill during the 1942 issue of the Bureauof Naval Perhot weather. sonnel INFORMATION BULLETIN.

Baggage Allowance Depends On Rank in Fact
Change of station orders are effective on the date of detachment and the amount of baggage or household goods which an officer is entitled to have transported at Government expense is theamountauthorized by regulations for the rank in fact held at the time his orders become effective, under a ruling of the Comptroller General (Decision B-34770, 15 June 1943). The decision holds that an officer whoreceives notice of a temporary or permanent appointment to higher I rank or grade subsequent to detach-Flying Jayhawk (NRAB, Olathe, Knnn ment is not entitled to the allowance “I have never beelz so ilzsulted in authorized forsuchhigherrank or grade even though the effective date all my life. Sue walked from one of appointment antedates the date of end of Harbor Road to the other detachment. and lzot olze sailor whistled!”

I

1

-Beacon

(USN Rec Sta, San Pedro, Calif.)

Chaplain: “Now, for’ once you listelz 20 M Y troubles.”

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transferred to them after completion of 2 terms ofV-12 training. The N. R. 0.T. C. curriculum will include all required naval subjects plus Webber College, Babson Park, ma., electives in engineering, commerce, offersfive scholarships of $300 each to finance and liberal arts. The course daughters of naval officers on active will cover four 16-week terms and duty, retired, or deceased. This collead to an ensign’s commission either lege was established in 1927, is nonintheregular Navy or the Naval sectarian and has an enrollment Of Reserve. 60. It accepts students who are gradApplicants will be selected on the uates of high schools, preparatory basis of the following four factors: schools; also students who have com1. Score on the V-12 entrance test. pleted 2 years of college or graduated 2. College grades for the first term from college who wish to do graduate and one-half (24 weeks). X h r n i , Fla.) rr work in business science. 3. Score on N. R. 0. T. C. compreBut, Sir, You said w e Classes consist of training in busi- could b r i w a Bet aboard!!!” hensive achievement test at the end ness and secretarial subjects and inof the first term. clude such courses typing, accountas 4. The the comN , R. 0. T . C. Training manding recommendation of rating on ing, buying and selling, household officer in termsof a finance,investment,insurance, eco- Open to V-12 Me* military aptitude and leadership. nomics, and secretarial practice. The colleges and universities havApprentlce seamen studyingat Col- ing Naval R. 0. C. units to which The regular rate is $1,200 a school T. year, whichincludestuition, room, leges under the Navy V-12 program transfers will be made areas follows: board, and participation in all sports are eligible to apply for advanced Brown University, Providence, R. I. Reserve Officers’ Training and social functions provided by the Naval University of California, Berkeley, Corps training which will qualify Calif. college. them for commissions in the regular For information, full application University of California a t Los Anblanks, and catalog address Webber Navy. Naval R. 0. T. C. is at pres- geles, Los Angeles, Calif. entthe only training leading to a College, Babson Park, ma. University of Colorado, Boulder. deck commission in the regular Navy Colo. other than successful graduation from Duke University, Durham, N. C. Plastic Cup Devices the United States Naval Academy. Georgia School of Technology. Under instructions just issued, all Atlanta, Ga. Azcthorized than Supply V-12 students other Harvard University, Cambridge, Dental Corps, Because of war demands upon Corps, Medical and Mass. silver, plastic cap devices have been Chaplain Corps, andthosepointing College of the Holy Cross, Worcestoward engineering specialist com- ter, Mass. authorized for naval personnel. They areindistinguishable in appearance missions, are eligible for enrollment Marauette University, Milwaukee. .. from metal devices. The governing in theNaval R. 0. T. C. There are 27 Wis. change in Uniform Regulations will colleges and universities wherethe University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, be promulgated, in the Navy Depart- N. R. 0.T. C. units areestablished and Mich. accepted V-12 applicants will be ment Bulletin (semimonthly). University of Minnesota, MinneapI I olis, Minn. of University New Mexico, Albuquerque, N. M. University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, N. C. Northwestern University, Evanston.

Fellowships 0ffered Navy Daughters

.

...

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I

AS OTHERS SEE US

I

Reprinted by Permission of King Features Syndicate.
~~~

“We shoulda joimed the Navy! D’ya mer see SAILORS cawyid packs!”,

University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Ind. University of Oklahoma,Norman, Okla. University of Pennsylvania, Philaa delphia, P . Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, N. Y . The Rice Institute, Houston, Tex. University of South Carolina, Columbia, s. C. University of Southern California. Los Angeles, Calif. University of Texas, Austin,Tex. Tufts College, Medford, Mass. The Tulane University Louisiana, of New Orleans, La. University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Va. University of Washington, Seattle, Wash. Yale University, New Haven, Conn.

m.

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Officers’ correspondence courses, designed to increase one’s usefulness Naval activities in the United States to the service by providing a backdesiring exhibitions by champion bilground of worth-whileinformation, liardists (Charles C. Peterson, Willie are available on the following subHoppe and Erwin Rudolph) can make jects: by arrangementsfortheattraction Navy Regulations Customs, and writing the Billiard Association of Seamanship, Naval Engineering and America, Chicago, Ill. Electricity, Diesel Engineering, GunThe three champions scheduled axe nery, Communications, Military Law, to make a tour of armed forces’ activiInternational Law, and Navigation. ties beginning immediately after LaInthelatter subject, Navigation bor Day and extending until late B-40 is the course recommended for Spring. Peterson is world’s chambeginners, whileA-39 is suggested for pion fancy trick artist; Hoppe (known a those officers who already have as the greatest billiardist of all time) working knowledge of navigation. In is three-cushion billiard champion o f addition, there are five courses in inthe world, and Rudolph has been manytimes world‘s pocket billiard -The Powder Puff (U.s. Na&wBarracks. telligence. Theseare available only to I-V(S)officers except when spechampion. Vallejo, Calif.) cial approval fortakingthe course Before the Billiard Association can “That’s famay. I , too, am a gulz- is obtained from the ViceChiefof arrange itineraries, i t willbenecesmer’s mate.” Naval Operations. sary for Naval activities to indicate All requests for enrollmentin these whether they axe interested anexin curs afew slip-ups in theaddresses of courses should be forwarded asofficial hibition which will include personal letters via one’s commanding officer instruction as well as demonstrations commissioningallowanceshipments. the Naval Reserve Educational Therefore, as a doublecheck, it is to of trick and fancy shots. There will be no expense to Naval suggested that prospective command- Center which serves the area in which ing officers request their commission- the enrollee is located. Officers loactivities; the only requisites will be cooperation in promoting attendance ing allowance of training co’urses a8 cated outside the Continental limits of the United States shouldsubmit and providinga billiard o r pocket bil- f a r i nadvance as possible. enrollment requests to the Naval ReAll back-orders Pharmacist’s for liard table. Educational located Center Mate ICand Chief that have been ac- serve Office address. cepted must nowbe cancelled since nearest their Fleet Post I f ormation on the publication form of this training The four educational centers are: Officer in Charge,NavalReserve Training Courses material is to be somewhat different. The volume andvariety of subject Educational Center,90 Church Street, An immense volume of Enlisted Officer in Charge, two TrainingCoursesis now being dis- matter for these ratings will make New York, N. Y.; Educational Center, tributed to naval activities ashore and necessary t w o separately-bound Naval Reserve afloat. DuringJuly alone, 152 tons course books andseparate progress Room 133 Custom House, New OrOffice inCharge, Naval of the manuals were issu,ed from the tests and examinations.Since there leans, La.; Center, U. S. is no way of knowing how many of Reserve Educational Naval Warehouse in Arlington, Va. However, receipted invoices ac- each rating book will be required by Naval Training Station, Great Lakes, Charge, Naval Reknowledging the arrivalof this mate- an activity, these manuals should not ’ Ill.; and Officer in Center, 105 Market rial are not being returned promptly. be ordered untilannouncements of serve Educational BuPers St., San Francisco, Calif. In certain instances, no receipt is ever their availability appear in the returned. Proper maintenance of the stockrecords a t each of the Naval Warehbuses requires that every shipment be acknowledged. An absence of receipts is particuFor BuPers Information Bulletin larly noted in commissioning allowances of enlisted training courses forB U R E A U O F NAVAL P E R S O N N E L C I R C U L A R L E T T E R warded from Washington to the proNO. 16243. spective commanding officers of DE’S PC’s, SC’s, LCI’s LST’s at theproand From:TheChief of NavalPersonnel. posed fitting-out yards of these To : All Ships Stations. and vessels. Subject : B u P e r s I n f o r m a t i o n B u l l e t i n ( N A W E R S - 0 ) DistriCommissioningallowancesfor the bution of. above-named vessels are out sent automatically 4 to 6 weeks in advance 1 Beginning with the October 1943 issued, it will be possible . of the commissioning date, and each to provide enough copies of subject publication to allow distribup r o s p e ct i v e commanding officer tion on the basis of 1 copy for each 10 officers and enlisted pershould make an effort to check with sonnel. It is directed that appropriate steps be taken to insure the Supervisor of the fitting-out yard, or other proper officer in charge, for that all hands have quick and convenient access t o each issue of the arrivalof the publications. subject publication. Last minute changes in the assign-L. E. DENFELD. ment of a particular vessel to theproposed fitting-out yard necessarily inI

Billiards Exhibitions For NavalActivities

INFORMATION or BuPers CirBULLETIN, cular Letters toall ships and stations.

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NEW PRO RATA DISTRIBUTION

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INDEX FOR SEPTEMBER
Abandon ship;Howto Advance pay for officers Aliens, naturalization of Amchitka,how we landed at-" Amphibians reoccupy Kiska-"" Appointment forms, temporary" Appointments to regular Navy" Army & Navy staff college opensArtists, Navy's combat__________ Athletes, Navy,new regulations

1943
Page Page

Landings a t Amchitka __________ 16 Navy Department communiques- 56 34 Navy part inSicilian campaign" Launching of a ship CUSS Lewis Slancock)___________________- 6. Navy Relief Society, Loan Policy O " _ f " 71 Leave, none for VFW encamp25 ment-___________--___-____-_ Navy's Combat Artists_________76 3 Mark 32 New Distinguishing for 77 Letters to the editor_________--_ Gunner's Mates 76 launched" 6 72 Lewis Hancock, USS, 0 B Members--______------ 76 30 31 Lifesaving equipment, trials of" 76 P T Crewmen _______------25 Loan policy of NavyRelief So50 ciety-_-____-___---_-__--__-- 71 News of the Month 74 "MI" for Gunners' Mates ____-_-_ News magazines, light-eyeight--76 for--__^-___^^^-^^^^^^^^-^--- 74 Magazines, light-weight news-" 74 Newsweek magazme, B a t t 1e 'Back intheFirst Line'; USS 74 Baby'' edition of ______-_-_-__ Medals and decorations of the 6 Lewis Hancock launched-""18 United States_--______-_-_-__22 Night Battle of Kula Gulf Baggage allowance_____________ 77 Month's News__-_______-_____-60 Normandie (USS Lafayette) salBarclay, Lt. Comdr. McClelland, v a g e d - ~ ~ - ~ ~ ~ - ~ ~ - ~ - ~ - 13- - ~ 25 Murray, Lieut. Albert K., commissing-: _______-___-___---_battalions, new dis25 Ordnance bat artist 18 Battle of Kula Gulf 76 tinguishing mark for 76 79 Naturalization of Navy aliens"" Billiard exhibitions Permanent appointments and Binoculars: proper use and care- 33 Navy athletes, new regulations promotion, requests for, should 59 Books, new, in ships' libraries-" for____-__-_______--___-----74 72 notbesent____-_-________---_ __________ 71 BuPers Bulletin Board Permanent appointments for BuPers Information Bulletin, dis74 Chiefs 79 tribution of _________---__--_Personal affairs of Navy Men 78 Cap devices, plastic ________---__ (Booklet) 71 THIS MONTHS COVER Chief Petty Officers: Photo-Paintings of NavalLead, permanent appointment of- 74 e r s _ - - ~ ~ _ ~ ~ ~ ~ - ~ 24 ~ ~ may wear slate gray uni78 Plastic CapDevices 72 forms"""""-"""" 77 Promotion forms,.temporary"-Coale, Lt. Comdr, Griffith Baily, Pro rata distributionforInfor25 combat artist mation Bulletin ______________ 79 College, Army & Navy open staff- 31 P T Boats, distinguishing new 56 Communiques, Navy Departmentmarks for--___-_-_--_-_-_-___ 76 Constant, Lieut. Maurice, photog31 Publication check list rapher of naval leaders_______ 24 Pyle. Ernie, articleon Sicilian 31 Convalescence and education"" campalgn 34 Corps devices for women staff 73 Railroads and Servicemen officers -_______---__-_,_-__--_ 77 Regular Navy, appointments to-- 72 Decorations and citations_______ 60 Regulations for Navy Athletes___ 74 Decorations and medals of the Reprints of Ribbons, ranks, and United States________________ 22 rates, available 74 Dependents of Navy men, aid to Requestsfor sea duty from re71 (booklet) tired officers 73 79 Distribution of BuPers Bulletin" Retired officers, requests for sea Discount of 10 per cent for servduty from 73 73 icemen in dining cars Draper, Lieut. William F., comHow Navy men marked their hel- Ribbons reprint available---__-- 74 Rotation of duty of enlisted men- 71 bat artist 25 metsfortrips ashore in Sicily i s Salvaged-USS Lufayette (Nor. Duty, rotation of, for enlisted mandie) 13 men___---__-_-___-----_-_-__ 71 shown in this loaded l a d i n g barge. Educational servicesin hospitals- 31 Some Navy men in the photograph Sea duty,requestsfromretired officers 73 Enlisted men, rotation of duty wear mottled camouflaged uni- Security, for for guarding__i___ 72 need for--,-_-_---____-__-__------- 71 forms. On the inside of the front Service schoolentrance qualificaEquipment, livesaving, trials of__ 30 tionsl modified ________________ 73 cover i s a scene that was repeated Exercise suits for Women'sRetimes: l a d i n g barges Shepler, Lt. Dwight C., combat 77 countless serve_-__-_---_----------_--artist____-____--_---__--__-__ 25 Fellowships offered by Webber running olzto Sicilian shores. Op10 78 .posite page: The Flag waves over a Ship, how to abandon ________-_ College 59 Ship's libraries, new books in"-Flight training, qualifications a 34 76 trainer and loader who go method- Sicily, American Navy a tday for_---___-----_------------8 Sinkings, U-Boat, one ically about their work durilzg one Forms, temporaryappointment, gray authorized 77 of the promotion _______-______-___-successful bombardments of Slate C uniform for . P. 0:s 72 Government property mailedby enemy positionsSicily. on This Staff college, Army and Navy 73 servicemen being confiscated" lopens___---__-_____--------_ 31 photograph shows one detail of one Gunners' mates, new designation Temporary appointment, promoinvaded 76 for-___-_____-_--___-_______- of the 3,266 ships that tion forms 77 Hancock, Lt. Joy Bright, launches Sicily and have supplied our forces "pony" edition 6 there silzce-a detail that furnishes Time Magazine, ship___-_-------"----------0"""~""" f""" """~ 74 Hospitals, educational services Training courses, information on- 79 31 in____-_--__-_-______-______- an idea of the enormous complex75 i t y of the operation. In "The Two tips to servicemen Information Bulletin, new pro 79 American Navy at Sicily," by War U-Boats, one sunk each day___-- 8 rata distribution of United States Decorations and 74 Correspodent Ernie Pyle, Insignia reprint available"""the Medals 22 Italian: Short list of words and BULLETIN presents a VFW encampment, leave for"" 76 57 INFORMATION phrases _____--_____-_-------78 graphic story of United States mval V-12 Training program Jamieson, Lt. (jg) Mitchell, com78 Webber College 25 activity bat artist____________-_-_-__- duringtheinvasion.The Women'sReserve,exercise suits 3 article Hiska,amphibians reoccupy"" 34. A l l begins on page for___--__--_______--__-_-_-_ 77 18 Kula Gulf,battle of ____--------cover photographs are oficial U.S. Women staff officers, corps deLafayette, USS,begins to right 77 vices for--____--_--__-------herself --------- 13 Navy.

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U. S.GOVERNMENT PRINTING O F F I C E : 1 9 4 3

In 1917 your Government originated low-cost life insurance for servicemen because they lost their insurability during wartime and most,insurance companies wouldnot permit them to apply a t normal rates. That’s how-and why-it began. Here’s why most Navy men, even though unmarried or with no dependents to support, are applying for National Service Life Insurance:

..

4

. !.

“Someday 11 be getting married-andI’ll ’1 have protection for her in advance.”

already

. .,
1

“After the war, I can convert it and have a financial backlog for emergencies.’.’

“I

don’t have any other insurance-and get’any asinexpensive as this again.”

I’ll never

And, on top of this, you get full protection regardless of type or location of duty, and the backing of the United States of America.
.

If you haven’t already done so, apply for$10,000 of National Service Life Insurance today. See yourInsurance Ofleer now
ADMIRALERNEST J. KING SAYS: “A man can do his job better if the future of his family is provided for. The best way a fighting man can do this is to apply for the maximum amount of National Service Life

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