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BUREAU OF

OCTOBER 1943

NUMBER 3 1 9

REAR ADMIRAL RANDALL JACOBS, USN The C i f o Naval Personnel he f REAR ADMIRAL L. E. DENFELD, USN The Assistant Chief o Naval Personnel f

Table of Contents
Page

Every Man Where He’s Best Fitted_---___ 2 First Round-Japan ___________________ 5 ItalianFleetSteamstoSurrender___“.-.” 8 “UpPeriscope”(AndDownJaps!)-_-__ 10 If You Must Jump FromPlane- _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 13 a “Pollywogs”Still Become “Shellbacks”-_ 14 The Capture of Enogai_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 16 Escort Carrier “ A ’ Blasts Japs at Attu.”__ 18 Escort Carrier “B”Blasts Wolf Packs-___- 19 Scenes of U-Boat Warfare ______________ 22 A Hospital That Meant Victory ________ 23 Blimp Barns Made of Wood ____________ 25 First Aid for the Men in the Lifeboat_____ 26 Carriers Ferry Planes to Malta, Africa-___ 31 Navy, Army British Capture Italian 32 Island . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . German: Short Listof Words and Phrases- 33 “30-Books-a-Month Club” for Navy-.”_35 New Books Libraries Ships’ in 35 . . EdltorlalPage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Letters to the Editor _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 36 The Month’s News . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. 37 Navy Department Communiques ________ 44 Five Months on the Ice Cap _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ r _ 46 ___ Navy Squadron Gets 31 Japs _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 48 NewShipsNamedinHonor of Naval 49 Heroes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CrosswordPuzzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Training Tip: Lookouts _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 53 Decorations and Citations ______________ 54 BuPers Bulletin Board _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 67 What Is Your Naval I. Q.?_____________ 7 1

This magazine is published monthly in Washington, D. C.; by the Bureau of Naval Personnel for the information and interest of the Naval Service as a whole. By BuPers Circular Letter 162-43, distribution is to be effected to allow all hands easy access to each issue. AllactivitiesshouldkeeptheBureau informed of how many copies are required. All original material herein may be reprinted as desired.

PASS THIS COPY AO G LN AFTER YOU HAVE READ IT
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Fiding out how a m m can do the best job for the Navy: enlisted mew get a private 20-minute irtterview with a Specialist ( C ) , specially trainedin perso wnel work.

”Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

Every Man Where He’s Best,Fitted
Science and Navy Join Hands in New Program To Put ‘The Right Man in the Right Billet’
ing in through-induction centers, but is being extended in application throughoutthe service, to men alJoe Martinson, fresh out of high ready in uniform and even to men school, sat in his chair at the induc- already rated. tion center and wondered about the Among the many features of the Navy he’d just been sworninto-what program is a personal 20-minute insort of job he’d land in, what he’d be terview, during which a specially doing in a few months. trained interviewer [Specialist ( C )1 Bill Stevens, apprentice seaman, assemblesall pertinentinforination lay half-awake in his bunk at trainabout the enlisted man’s background, ing station, wondered what kind of hobbies, physical characteristics, eduwhat cation and vocational experience. ship they’d assign him to, This information, examined in conchance he’d have for a rating. And far out to sea, where vessel nection with his scores on standard his hovered watchfully at the edge of a naval tests, is taken into consideration in recommending an assignment plodding convoy, Steve Bursansky, electrician’s mate, third class, stared for him. into the evening sky, wondered what Then comes the important “followchance he’d have of changing his job. up”: a complete personnel card that There was a new and exciting Navy will go with him throughout his cafield opening up, and he’d heard men reer in the Navy . a teletype plan were needed for it . . that flashes the findings to headquarFor all of them, the answer lies in ters so that quota requirements can accordingly .a a new program now under way in the be redistributed Navy-a program of scientific selec- study ofNavy rates to provide more tion and classification of enlisted specific description of each job and men, which has as its aim, “the right thereby aid in more specific assignman in the right billet.” And it not ment of men . . a study of battle bills only applies to the new recruit com- for eachtype of ship, which is already
Lieutenant (jg), USNR

By JOHN A. THOMAS

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producing interesting results (see below) . and provision for a continuing check-up on every man’s assignment, to see if he is where he can do the best job for the Navy. Right now, a great modern battleship is at sea with a “hand-tailored” crew of hundreds of men, every one of whom has been hand-picked for his appointed task andwhose record indicates that he is the best man available for that job. The entire manning program for a new-type naval vessel, involving hundreds of complete crews assembled by the same method, is saving many thousands of man-hours. Aside from the advantages of this new system to a fighting Navy, out to win this war as soon as possible, thereareotheradvantagesforthe J e Martinsons and Bill Stevenses o and Steve Bursanskys: (1) because they are all in the Navy primarily to help win the war, they will have the assurance that they are placed where they can do the mostgood; ( 2 ) becausethey do landwheretheyare best Atted, their chances of advancement are the greatest, so that their ratings and pay will be raised more

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”Official U. S. Sary Photographs.

Puttilzg the program to work: classificatiolz oficers go over the complemelzt of a modem battleship with cl ship’s officer, study its battle bill im terms of the skills Izeeded.
than any other duty; and (3) after the war,when it comes time to adjust to peacetime jobs, they will be better prepared. I n many cases, the proper naval training and experience, added to what he already has, gives a man a tremendous increase in potential his value when he returns tocivilian life. First and foremost, of course, the idea behind-such a program must be the good of the Navy. On its success may depend whether a ship wins or a battleloses an action; whether ship will be there on time and ready to fight; whether $72,000,000 aircraft a carrierandits crew down, goes or launches its planes on Tokyo. More complex a war than seagoing men have ever known before, World War I1 has brought forth vast and complicated ships, new methods and techniques, equipment that is a bewildering array of science’s latest inventions and technological gadgets. A l l this calls fora new and more precise degree of specialization inthe men who are to handle it-and a more precise method of marking their abilities. Like its ships, the Navy’s manpower has changed, too. Years ago a sailor was more or less an “all-round man.” He learned how to do a little of everything, through experience, and in his first 4 years in the Navy, he seldom got beyond seaman, 2d class. He was looking to the Navy for a career, then; right now, he wants to get his job done and get back to civilian life. Todaymen are coming intothe Navy at the rate of almost 100,000 a month. They’re green, fresh handsand there isn’t time for any .4-year shakedown cruise. The Navy must find immediately the men who can be trainedmost rapidly, most successindustry fully. And, asin modern

Gettilzg the ilzformatiolz &out every vnam is part of the job; lzext step is to have it recorded, filed, avzd tabulated, SO that data olz every mads abilities will be available.
practice soon came abQut. Commander X had been assigned as prospective executive officer for a modern super-battlewagon t h e n building. When the ship was ready for fitting out, BuPers officers advanced the suggestion that, in cooperation with him, the procedures of selection and classification now be put to their natural ultimate test, aboard a modern warship. Here was an orjportunity to start fromscratch with a complete new crew. Commander X agreed enthusiastically withplansmadeforthe program and asked BuPersto use him as a “guinea pig” for the new method, to go over his complement with a finetooth comb. There began a process of testing, questioning, interviewing-with the full crew to be picked. A special unit was set up in Philadelphia to handle the assignment, andthey consulted frequently with division officers on board. The job included complete classification t e s t s, interviews, a thorough study of requirements for each billet, special tests for telephone talkers and night lookouts (dark adaptation), and the assembly of a complete personnel file on board under a specially trained officer skilled in the use of personnel data. Result: when the crew of battleship Z went aboard, every man had a specific job ahead of him for which he was the man best fitted. The commander’s comment: “Well pleased with results.” And afterthe ship’s shakedown cruise, the captain added: “Good work; I think this would be a great thing forevery battleship.” The first great U. E.fighting ship to put ? tosea with a literally hand-picked crew, battleship Z is readying a few surprises for theenemy, and will con-

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and business, scientific selection and classification came into the picture. The size of the job was the size of the Navy. In numbers alone, that Navy washardlyrecognizable from pre-Pearl Harbor days. Even at the stage to which it had been expanded by November 1941, it had only 280,000 enlisted men in its ranks. By the end of this year enlisted men will number 2,093,000. The aims of the new program are clear enough: (1) get the right man to be trained, (2) see that he gets the right kind of training, and (3) use him accurately. Aim for a fleet which, having to put hundreds of thousands of new men into innumerablespecialized jobs, can be reasonably sure that every billet is filled by the right man, and filled in the least practicable time. The enemy allows no waiting time. One obvious need was a standardized procedure forgetting full information about every enlisted man entering the Navy, information that would aid in placing him accurately. Next, get it into his record, so that, regardless of his traditionalrating, his backgroundwas recorded where an officer could find it. Then, get it into the personnel files, where it would be available in filling demands for specialized personnel. At the same time, it was necessary tomake a thoroughstudy of Navy rates and billets, and the exact shade of skill, experience and training required for each. This analysis was carried intoa study of a ship’s “battle bill’’-analyzing the placement problems involved in filling the complement of a modern fighting ship, and the exact skills needed a t each battle station. A chance to put this approach into

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tinue to furnish reports on how the new classification system is working out. Other opportunities to put the programintoactualpracticehad also been discovered. The destroyer escort program was underway. Mass production methods werebeingused to speed up work on producingthe ships; why not in training crews for them? A “pool” arrangement was set up. Training was established at Miami for nucleus crews; training and manning at Norfolk for the balance of the crew. Experienced men from the sea were put in the spots, taught thevariakey tions in theirnew jobs,the mechanics of antisubmarine tactics. A course of instruction forDE executive officers was also added. Mechanical rates from the Miami pool were sent to the yard where the ship was building, while operating rates were sent to Norfolk. Executive officers had 4 weeks to assemble 140 menfrom the Norfolk pool to complete the crew, and then train them “on the beach.” Taking 1408 men haphazardly out of a pool of. green men would hardly do, so the new program went to work. A special unit classified every man in the Norfolk pool, and broke down the battle bill for the DE’S into 76 classifications. Once the men were correctly assigned in terms of these classifications, it became a simple “assembly job” to make up a crewso many men with this qualification, so manywith that. The result was picked crews which, by the time they gotaboardship,wereregardedas being 6 to 8 months advanced over an average crew. I n addition to their work onthe battleship and on the destroyer escorts, these special units also went to work on a Diesel manpower prob-

lem and, in 6 weeks, achieved a savBng in, man-hour time done esti-s mated as worth around $150,00O“at a cost of some $6,000. I n savings of thosetwopreciouscommodities of war-time and manpower-the program was beginning to justify itself. How does the program actually work out, step by step? And how will it widen to include the large numbers of enlisted men who are not recent recruits?There are, to begin with, three phases: (1) Every recruit now coming through a training (and station they’re coming at the rate of twenty to twenty-five thousand every week) is interviewed, tested, classified, his record put in his jacket andalso sent to BuPers files.Every enlisted man who entered the Navy since last June 15 has been so classified, with 352 interviewers steadily at work. (2) Next step is t o extend the program to all men in the continental United States, at all shore activities. A staff of 50 interviewers now at work on this task classified 15,000 men in its first 3weeks. ( 3 ) A furtherset-up at eachrebeiving station will catch allmen passing through, classifying those not already classified and noting whether others are landing in assignments for which they are best fitted. To see how it develops for a new recruit, follow inductee Joe Martinson through the works. After inducis tion recruiting and station, Joe sent to training station, where he will spend the next 7 weeks or so. Here he gets a thoroughphysicalgoingover and his Navy gear, is assigned to barracks, starts getting his “shots” and so on. In the first 3 or 4 days, he starts taking the basic Navy tests; the GCT orGeneral Classification Test,

a mechanical aptitude test, other tests on arithmetical reasoning, reading, -mechanical and electrical informatioh, spelling, and clerical aptitude. I Joe’s background f or training made him look like a good prospect forsome particular technical field, he would get other, more specialized teststo explore his knowledge and ability in thatfield, and measure his possible chances of success in it. Now that the Navy has found out something about Joe,he starts learning about the Navy. He gets pamphlets and booklets to read. He sees movies on Navy rates, service schools, and possible jobs in theNavy. He listenstotalksabout them. By the time Joe is ready for hisinterview, he has a little clearer idea what the Navy may hold for him, and can start to formulate in his own mind where he fits. Before the interview, he andhis mates listen to talk which tells them a whatthe interviewer will want to know, how they can best assist him, and encourages them to “loosen up” and talk freely. The interviewer, for his part, by now has a little informationaboutJoe, too; his name, his service number, his test scores, and any physical characteristics about him which may be pertinent. Joe then gets his 20-minute private interview, sitting across the table from one of the Specialists (C) . The interviewerdrawsout the complete story of Joe’s background, education, hobbies, business or vocational experience, travel, athletic achievements, and any otheritems of personal data which might add up to a pretty complete picture of Joe. The interviewer acts also as a vocational counselor, helping and directing himin terms of (Colztinued on page 52)

Besides stalzdard Navy tests, there are special ones for certailz billets. This one tests ability t o understalzd telephone commands through the d h of battle soulzds. Page 4

I wish that every correspondentwould

try a Paul Revere ride." The Japanese goal of driving the white man out of Greater East Asia The Japanese has been achieved. grand strategy was not only to grab the areasof the continent of Asia and in the Southwest Pacific from which they can extract and develop the basic 38 essential war materials to provide them the resources for carrying out this war, but to hold off counterattack until these materials can be developed for war use. This too is being achieved. Let us consider phase. one Man must eat. Rice and fish are the main, staples of the Japanese diet. Assurance of an adequatesupply of rice came with the conquest of IndoChina,supplemented by thisstaple from other regions of conquest. The major share of fish food SUPply for Japan comes from the Kamchatka coast of Bering Sea and from the Sea of Okhotsk. This area, like the adjoining Bering Alaskan Sea fishery area, is one of the world's greatest commercialfishing groundssalmon and halibut chiefly. Japan has succeeded in getting a renewal of its fishing rights in the Soviet RUSsian waters. Unless Soviet Russiaenters the war against Japan, the only soft side of Japan'smilitarydefense is onthe China side. Thus, in their long-range plan, Japanese the penetration of China was a prelude to blows against America. This penetration also insuredthree of the basic materials Japanlacked-coal, iron, and salt. Following this penetrationi t was necessary only, when the time came, t o seal up the last supply route to China by invasion of Burma t o close the Burma Road Allied military movefor ment.This,likeevery move Japan has made, washighly successful. Japan was in naval control of the Pearl Harbor raid. It is quitepossible that Japan could have taken the Hawaiian Islands by a major assault, if it chose to use its full might, following up the sneak raids. I have no doubts thattheJapanese military leaders werewell aware of this. Such a development, however, would have endangered the whole Japanese plan for Greater East Asia, should it requiretoomuch power t o hold the islands and thus lessen the chances for a quick and easy conquest, particularly of Borneo and the Dutch East Indies, from which must come the vital oil to carry on the war, as well as the necessary strategic raw materials from other regions the Southof west Pacific, includingBurma, the Philippines, and the littoral of Asia. Success of such plans has come to Japan so far. Japan is bent on world conquest. This is no idle dream. It is and has been the motivating influence of every factor of the life of the Japanesefor the past 2,500 years, They

have the plans. And they have a lot of aces in the hole. Mark wellmywords, t h a t one of these, in event they find obstacles t o the development of the required 38 basic raw materials needed for war, the sources of which they have already captured, one of these aces in the hole will be to move for a negotiated peace,leaving Japan free in economic control of Greater East Asia, giving Australia, the Philippines, Burma, Indo-China, Thailand, Malaya theoretical' independence and holding theeconomic sway as the real power in the Pacific until theydevelop the sinews of war to carry on. I believe that if a negotiated peace comes in the Pacific it will merely provide for a lull before the greater storm. But the way the Japanese are holdingus back-at arm'slengthnow they may not pull out this ace. Today the Japanese hold and are entrenched in American territory greater in size than New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Maryland. This captured territory is in Philthe ippines, Guam, and Wake-an area of some 114,600square miles, embracing a population of more than 16,000,000, which once livedunder the American fiag. TheJapanese have invadedand now hold an area of nearly 2,000,000 square miles, and have made subject to their ruleof conquest a population of more than 151,500,000, a figure greater than the population of the United States. This does not include the area, or thepopulation, in China that Japan holds. The conquered

territory represents some of the world's richest regions. This c o n q u e r e d population is greater than the combined population of the Japanese Bmpire, and Manchukuo, asit existed before thePearl Harbor attack. The naturalresources involved are infinitely greaterthan Japan possessed before she struck at Pearl Harbor. No othernationhas such a variety'and richness. And thus vastoil supplies, food supplies, and the basic raw materials for war are assured. Military manpower never has been a problem to Japan, with its reserve of some 20,000,000 of empire citizens long trained and ready. The labormanpower problems are simple, with some 100,000,000 to draw upon, not counting the women, which would double the supply. The military picture is a forbidding Pacific one. All of the fighting in the has been far from the limits of the Greater East Asia sphere of conquest. Some 6 months-following 9 months of preparations for the attack-were required to consolidate our positions on Guadalcanal, the remote outpost which Japan was just startingto develop when the United States Marines landed there. More powerful strongholds, such as Buin, Buka, and Rabaul, remain to be taken before American forces get near to the front line of Japanese defense of its conquered territory. These intermediateplatformsare far stronger than Guadalcanalwas when we landed there. Some might possibly be bypassed, but Rabaul appears to be a much more difficult nut
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Size of Japarn a d cornquests compared to corntirnerntal U.S.

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to crack than Guadalcanal.Yet all a further discussion of the Japanese of these platformswere built since the poweyhouses in thp Pacific. There first of 1942. Thereal heavily de- are some 2,500 islands in the Microgroup, and many veloped powerhouses in the mandated nesiandeveloped foryearsof them have by Japan been Carolinas have been under Japanese for military use. development for 20 years. I n a major sense the Japanesemay Truk, central powerhouse of Japan be said to be fighting a delaying acin the Pacific, 800 miles north of tion in the Solomons and New Guinea to Rabaul, isto Japan what Pearl Harbor holdup any American offensive, is to the United States. One differ- while the sinews of war are being deenceis that it wasbuilt in secret. veloped in the conquered areas. Immediately following the occupaTruk, Ponape, the Palaus, and Saipan are the four cornerstones of Japan’s tion of the Southwest Pacific areas, strength and strategy in the Pacific. Japanesetechnical and administraThey weredeveloped in the past 20 tive experts flowed intotheSouth Seas rich regions and operated under years by Japan as major defensiveoffensrve centers to halt anymove by the Japanese Military Administration (JMA). the United States to attack Japan, and from which to move to take the South Premier Tojo, in reporting to the Seas regions which Japan accurately opening of the Japanese Diet in figuredupon taking when the war Tokyo 26 December 1942, said that against the United States started. conditions in the Japanese-occupied Truk’s development has been one areas of the South Seaswere healthy of Japan’s most guarded secrets. No and that the smooth progress. under visitors have been permitted there for the JMA was evenbeyond expectayears. How different this is from our tions. As to the economicdevelop“secret” base of Pearl Harbor, about ment he reportedtothe House of which 160,000 Japanese were clus- Peers that the reconstruction and detered, some living right on the water’s velopment of material facilities and edge! resources of this vast new treasure Truk is not one great island. It is house were making greatcontribua cluster of 245 islands, with a lagoon tions to Japan’s fighting power. 40 miles in diameter, surrounded by a “Theproduction of mineralmatcoral reef, and with facilities to ters,’’ he said, “of rubber, oil, bauxite, shelter the whole Japanese Fleet, and tungsten,manganese,quinine, lumbase facilities for a mighty invasion ber, tin, cotton, and lead and various army and airforce. other materials has already made Destruction or neutralization of ready the amount necessary for the Truk would be a Japanese disaster war’s prosecution.” of the first magnitude. This would be From Manila it was reported that a major victory. It would bea mighty timber mills had been opened and tough job. I will not boreyou with mining facilities were restored, cop-

per ,and ,manganese being shipped to Japan. ‘.Alsoit was reportedthat cottonplanting had beentrebledand supplies of the vital palm oilwere being increased by copra production. ’ Thus time is the ally of Japan and is building UP its strength andpower. Those who really know the Orient have no illusions as to the magnitude of the task o f crushing Japan. Vice Admiral C. E. J. Helfrich, doughtyDutch navalexpert of the South Seas, who commanded the Allied forces in the battle of Java Sea, recentlysaid: “We will have to lick the Japanese man by man. We will have to reconquer the territory we lost island by island. I think Japanese the will fight t o the end.” Admiral Halsey’s formula for victory is: “Kill Japs! Kill Japs! Kill more Japs! Sink s h i p s ! S i n k ships! Sink more ships!” In the navalbattles,and in the Solomons and New Guinea, morethan 100,000 Japanese lives have been lost, but that is but a drop in the bucket compared with what .will be the cost before the last little brown warrior shouts: “Blood for the Eknperor!” This is going~~!to a long, tough, be hard,bitter,costly,~ bloody war. It willgo on for years. There willbe no short cuts. .Deeds and not words are the only weapons in this kind of a war. We will have to shed a lot of blood, sweat, and tears before we can even think of embarkingon the roadto victory in the Pacific.

Japan a pushover? Victory just around the corner? Not yet-asd there will be many a scene like this before uictory does come. The mes of a U.S. cruiser stand with beads bowed as a sailor from the “Helena,” who lost his life in the battleof Kula Gulf, buried at sea. is Page 7

“Official U. S. Xary Photograph.

“OfficialSignal

Corps Radio-Telephotos.

Allied leaders ( a b o w ) watch ten surrendered warships pass.

Action Frees Allied Fleets For Pacific
Four of Italy’s battleships arrived safely a t Malta.These arethe 35,000-ton Ztalia and Vittmio Veneto, and two reconstructed battleships, the Caio Duilio andthe Andrea Dwia. Two other battleships, the Giulw Cesare and the Conte d i Cavour, were so badly damaged a t Taranto by Britishairattacksthatthey could not leave port, and are in Allied possession. Germans seized the unfinished 35,000-ton battleship Zmpero, which was at Leghorn, and sank the Roma as she through the Adriatic. fled Other Italian ships surrendered at Cyprus and Colombo, Ceylon. President Roosevelt,in his report to Congress 17 September on the progress of the war,said: “As long as Italy remained inthe war as our enemy-as long as theItalian fleet remained in being as a threat-a substantial part of British naval strength had to be kept locked up in the Mediterranean. Now that that formidable strength is freed to proceed eastward to join in the ever-increasing attack upon the Japanese, it hasnot been sufficiently emphasized that the freeing of the Mediterranean is a great asset to the war in the Far East.”

R i g h t -Italiaw Admiral D’Zara
lam!s at Malta for cowference.

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and men get a recreation period between patrols (not counted as leave) at a Navy recuperation center, resting up a t such swank onetime-tourist spots as theRoyal Hawaiian Hotel, in Honolulu. Equally important to many a submariner is the fact that sub men are an elite corps of sorts. Like Navy’s aviation, and Army’s paratroops, the submariners are composed solely of volunteers, and just as the flying infantrymen are quietly proud of those high leather shoes, so the submariner wears his dolphin insignia with a swagger of his own. Training of submarine officers is BULLETIN being expanded (see BUF‘ERS BOARD, 67) and enlarged classes page begin at New London on 3 January. Here officers get a course in submarines: their construction, Operation of the ship, engineering, torpedoes, communications, approach and attack work, and so on. The work includes both classroom and actual underway work, so the men see and operate the equipment they read about. Upon successful completion of the course, they go out on actual war patrols. They are given immediate responsibility, and their training continues aboard ship. If their progress aboard ship is satisfactory, they are examined by a qualification board. I f they pass, they are designated “‘qualified in submarines,” and are then entitled to wear the sought-after dolphin, symbol of the full-fledged submarine ofilcer. As gunnery officers, engineering officers, first lieutenants or in other assignments, they head then for actual war fronts. How’re they doing? The answer is given by the Japcargo fleet figures: one-third down and twathirds still to go. Here are the men who can do it, too. (Photographs showing aspects of life aboard modern U. S. submarines appear on the following page.)

“Oficial U. S. Navy Photograph.

F i r s t act in the seagoimg drama that has cost Japan millions of tons of cargo ships..

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If You Must Jump From a Plane
‘Parachute Sense’ Explains
The $64 question is too easy-but is it? T i question is: What is the hs first movement YOU make after YOU goover the side of your aircraft in an emergency exit? You would answer-and loudly-Full that ripcord! And you would be wrong and no money for you! The first thing you do is make absolutelv s u r e you’re clear of your aircraft. LOOK FOR THE PLANE. If youkeep your goggles on you will experience no difiiculty. You can raise them during descent giveyourto self an unobstructed horizon and select your most suitable landing place. Anotherreason for keeping your goggleson is that leaving your aircraft at high speed means that you are traveling forward a t high speed yourself for a brief period after you leave the plane. You know what it means to try to see without goggles under circumstances. these When this forward speed has stopped and you are falling vertically, the rush of air won’t bother you unless you happen to be exactly face downward. In m y other position your body and clothing break up the air current and form a shield.
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“LOOK FOR THE PLANE-are you clear?

If your plane is in a spin, the jump shouldbetoward the inside of the spin, i. e., if you are spinning to the if right, goovei. the right side; you are spinning to the go over the left side. left If your plane is in a steep dive, remember that thesecond you unfasten If you are over 600 feet don’t pull your safety your ripcord until your fall is verti- forward-so belt youwill be thrown make certain your cal-and under 600 feet give yourself are well braced when you release feet the a much margin as is practical.Be s extremely careful of premature open- catch. whenever you dive over, dive Also, ings and jump with your hand on the forward and if you can, ripcord handle. Look for and at the slightly tail surfacesdown not behind are far handle when you reach for it. Don’t as the you want to be sure you clear rely on your memory or sense touch you and of them. Keep that forward movement alone. slight, though-you want to get down Gettingout of harness is accomsteep an plished by preparing yourself for it a tI fa s wingsangle asnpossible.line your are before you land. Sit well back in the to port and starboard i adirect of your cockpit, sling and unfasten thesnap hook your safest method to dive right out is on the wing itself and slide head first off the trailing edge. If you are in full control of your plane, and are bailing out due tofire, weather, fuel exhaustion, etc., best the way to get out is to invert your plane, release your safety belt, and fall out. I N No1 CASESTAND U P I N THE COCKPIT AND F L YOUR RIPUL CORD,RELYING ON THE CHUTE TO WHIP YOU OFF INTO SPACE. “With the headlong dive you avoid THE ODDS ARE VERY HIGH T H A T YOUR CHUTE WILL FOUL THE strikingthe tail assembly.” TAILSURFACES. Your headphone should be disconacross your chest. Then unstrap the nected and your oxygen tube should hooks of the leg straps but do not re- also be detached asthe very first move yourarmsfrom the shoulder moves you make. straps. Reach up and grab the risers And that’s about all there to getis and at the instant feet touch the ting out of your pIane. your ground-but not before-let go the risers, raise your arms up and back over your head and slide off the seat. If YOU want to play’it absolutely safe, allowing for all factors, get out and have that ripcord pulled by 1,000 feet! From an open cockpit, the headlong dive is the best way of leaving your plane. The reason is that it provides the simplest method for clearingyour aircraft andyou avoid being struck by the tail assembly. It gets your head and shoulders down out of the way first; it’s the easiest way to get out; and it takes the least time. All of these points are desirable. Highly. If you go out of your aircraft backwards, or dive with your knees drawn up, you will somersault. This is to be avoided so keep your legs straight if you can or straighten them as soon as you’re clear andbefore you pull the ripcord. Perhaps this is a good place to stop and explain that the procedures outlined here, unless otherwise stated, visualize the plane in level or almost level flight at the time of bailing out. The only important variations are as “LOOK for thehandle when you follows: reach for it.”

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This article was adapted from parts of “Parachute Sense,” a Navy aeronautics training publication.

How to Get Out Safely

Page 13.

“Official U S. Navy Photograph. .

Wild scenes are enacted (sometimes)as lzavalvessels cross the line.

‘Pollywogs’ Still Become ‘Shellbacks’
,

War Has Curtailed But Has Not Halted the Ceremonies on Naval Ships Crossing the Line
Rites so ancient that their origin is lost in antiquity are still held when Naval vessels cross the Equator. Even war has failed to halt them,although it has in many instances discouraged elaborateness. I n these “crossing-the-line” ceremonies pollywogs (men who have never sailed over the imaginary demarcation) are initiated and become shellbacks, later treasuring their Neptune certificates whichtestify that they have been “duly initiated into the solemn mysteries of the ancient order of the deep.” Typical of wartime observances is this “crossing-the-line” story of a convoy, bound for a South Pacific destination: As the convoy neared the Equator, the tedious routine of days and nights was aboard broken a transport swarming with sailors and marines. The terms “shellbacks” and “pollywogs” were heard in the passageways. retinue, received swift and brutal jusSergeants gathered names, checking had been south of the tice. The police force of Neptunus Rex were unawed by rank and their line. Old-timersgatheredingroups ability of canvas shillelaghs packeda wallop. to speculate as the to Sitting down was no pleasure for “these landlubbers to take it.” “Meeting of all trustyshellbacks on many junior officers that night. The Captain welcomed Davey Fo’c’sle a t 1400; all landlubbers stay clear” the ship’s bulletin read one day. aboard ship and announced that His That afternoon, amid a piping over Royal Highness, Neptunus Rex, Ruler of the Raging Main, would hold court the loudspeaker, His Honor, Admiral Davey Jones, Royal Scribe of the Do- the next day.Landlubbers who approached the Royal Domain without main of Neptunus Rex, came aboard with ruffles and flourishes. A strange permission werepromised appropriprocession filed around the AA gun ate justice. After introduction t o the senior ofplatformforward. Davey led the line. (A Chief Petty flcers, Davey Jones toured the decks subOfficer of the United States Navy any- as his Chief of Police issued where exceptin Latitude0000, he was poenas to alllandlubbers. Subpoenas characterized the uninitiated as landgarbed like nothing found in “Uniform Regulations,United States Navy.”) lubbers, beachcombers, plow deserters, The Royal Chief of Police and a pla- parkbenchwarmers,parlordunnitoon of Royal Cops followed him to the gans, sea lawyers, lounge lizards, hay bridge. Leathernecks or sailors who tossers, sand crabs, fourflushers, and liberty hounds, falsely laughed at the Royal Scribe, did not squaw men, masquerading as seamen. standatattention, or ignored his
off menwho

Page 14

A t 0900, 0000 latitude, Neptunus Rex boarded the transport amid cheers and band music. The Captain greeted the bearded rulerandthe Royal Navigator took over the transport. worthy This was a nauticaI chap wearing appropriate- epaulets and flourishing a spy glass. He arranged watches so that all pollywogswouldreceive trial. The court then ascended the thrones on wellthe deck. The LordHigh Chief &stice, an officer in black robe and wig, passed sentenceonoffenders whowere allowed to plead their case and use the “Honest John” lie detector. Pollywogs never tell thetruth, forthe white marked bulb “The Whole Truth” never was lighted during the ceremonies. The Marine troop commander was one of the first summoned.He was chargedwith: “Willfully and maliciouslyhaving failed to show reverence and allegiance to the royal domain and Royal Person, and is herein and thereby a vile landlubber and pollywog. “Willfully neglecting, during 23 years of service, topresent himself before the royal court of His Majesty, Neptunus Rex. “Willfully and knowinglyleading suchanefariousgang of pollywogs and landlubbers into the Royal Domainwithoutmaking,astheprime qualifications for becoming a member of his command, membership in the Ancient Order of the Deep.” The officer got the works. The Chief Executioner grinned with unholy glee and theRoyal Bears disportedthemselveshappily in the ducking tank when another veteran Marine officer stepped before the

NEPTUNE CERTIFICATES
Numerous requests for Neptune Certificates are being received in the Bureau of Naval Personnelfrom individuals in t h e s e r v i c e. Also, mimeographed certificates are being forwarded to this Bureau with request that they be replaced with lithographedcertificates. Correspondence and publicity on this subject could easily jeopardize the security of a ship ,or fleet. I n addition it is not practicable for this Bureau to issue certificates to individuals because of the fact that certain data, including date, longitude, and name of vessel must be entered thereon and authenticated by the signatureof the Commanding Officer. These certificates are available at no cost to ships whose prospective itinerary includes crossing the equator. Commanding Officersshould request the number required directly from one of the following depots: Supply Officer in Command, Naval Supply Depot, Norfolk, Va., or Oakland,Calif. Court. During 36 years of service he had never crossed the line. He was charged “hanging with around Army recruiting stations with the purpose of resigning his Marine Corps commission and enlisting as an Army private.” He pleaded not

guilty but the detector, with a loud ringing ofbells andflashing of red lights, screamed “it’s a lie.” He also got the works. After sentencewas pronounced, the Royal Torturer and the Royal Embalmer escorted the officer to the combination torturerackand embalming table. Next the Royal Doctor administered medicines and unctions. The officer kissed the Royal Baby, bent his knee to Neptunus Rex and proceeded to the Royal Barber. Royal Electricians with electrically charged forks speeded progressdown the line. Through mixture the of grease, glue, and cement that passed for soapy lather, the barber couldn’t And the officer’s hair. So he remained unshorn. The Bear’s cage or Royal Tank was the last stop. A hinged Barber’s bench facilitated transfer of the tank. he patient , t o the When emerged fromtheunderwater embrace of the Royal Bears, he was a full fledged shellback. He received a certificate and card proclaiming him a trusty shellback and a member of the Ancient Order of the Deep. Theothersthenhadtheirturn. They had seen their top commanding officers get the works and took their sentences in good humor. By noon the ship’s company were all shellbacks. Neptune and his court returned ship the the to Captain while the first lieutenant supervised the deck cleaning. Traces of cement were present in hair ears and at evening chow. Strange hair cuts were in evidence. SomeMarines sat a trifle gingerly. Butnohard feelings werepresent. T O O many, on becoming shellbacks, had joined the lineof paddle wielders.

Neptunus Rex, rulerof the Raging Mailz, comenes his court. Royal officers flank His Majesty,corzjuvilzg dire punishments to ilzflict upon theuninitiated “pollywogs.” Not eye# rank protects a personfrom the selztences of the court. At right, a Navylieutenant “gets the works,” Page 15

ia

“Official U. 6. Marine Corps Photographs.

Green Dragons (that’s what the Marines Jcknamed the UT’S because of their special coloring) approach Rendova I s l a d in the Central Solomons.

This f i r s t aid station on the island of Rendova is in the k i d of comztry w e pushed through t o take Enopni (see article below).
P n
0

The Capture ot bnogar
LMarine Raiders and Naval Medicine Men Write a Saga in the New Georgia Jungle
The march beganat daybreak. Despite dense vegetation, rain descended . Technical Sergeant, USMC intorrents.Thejungle floorwas a sea of mud. Sunday, Monday, and New Georgia, Solomon Islands.Shortly after midnight 5 July (4 July Tuesday, we sloshed through kneedeep muck and mire. date back across the international Huge fallen with trees, slippery line) a United States Navy task coats of moss, and the myriad roots banyans, helped slow our force on battered of giant progress. Japanesefortifications on New The further we marched the worse a Georgia‘Is 1 n d the terrain became. Sharp, corallike rocks; thick,overhangingvines and and to nearby open the way for creepers, and prickly plants that the landing of pierced our jungle suits, added their Olverhanging branches troops by a de- hazards. knocked off our helmets, i n d somestroyer group. times the rifles over our shoulders. Enemy flares I n ravines we lost our footholds as revealed our con- rocks broke from steep slopes. voy. We were shelled constantly as Halts were called frequently. At we disembarked, but none of the shots every stop weapons had to be cleaned reached its mark. Marineraidersand soldiers went and oiled. At dark we laid our ponchos’on the over the sides by cargo nets. Barges ground and made mattresses on the sped us to our landing point. We were to attack our objectives by broad leaves cut from the trees. We Mosquitoes, ants, a land movement from the rear, rather built lean-tos. crabs and lizards crawled all about than a direct assault from the sea. overhead. MysThe Marine raiders and soldiers us. Hugebats flew werecommanded by Col. Harry B. terious birds sent weird screeches Liversedge, USMC, of Pine Grove, through the night. Sleepwas fitful. What we wanted . Calif., with Lt. Col. Samuel B Grifwas rest. We needed all our strength fith, USMC, of Frankfort, Ky. After landing, we bivouacked until for the fight we expected momentardaylight.Duringthenight we were ily. Our progress had been slow, but drenched by a terrific downpour. we hadmanaged to creep into the Sleep was out of the question. Pon- enemy area. chos were usedto protect our weapons, At noon Wednesday word was disrather than for personal comfort. patched that troops had ahead

By FRANK J. McDEVITT

reached our first objective-the outpost of Maranusa. Thetroops were immediately deployed. There was no one in the outpost, but fires were burningin kilns for the manufacture of charcoal. Soldiers and Marinesweredistributed throughouttheareatoguardthe “trails.” Suddenly a Japanesepatrol was observed nearing the village. Our officers hoped they would enter the clearing, but some of our troops were -went upasthe discovered. A cry Japs turned to flee. Two were killed. The rest escaped. The alarm was out and we knew action would follow. There were four outposts between Maranusa and Enogai. . Later developmentsindicated Japanese troops from all the points to in the area entered the jungle stop

us.

As our patrols other and troops pushed ahead they were met by bursts of gunfire. TheJapaneseset up machinegun nests in cavelike formations and in the roots of big trees. Snipers, wellconcealed in overhead foliage, accounted for several casualties in our ranks. With burst each our troops returnedthe fire, gradually pushing forward. The trails were strewn with enemy dead. Our second objective-the village of Triri-was taken and used as our field headquarters, and our Navy medical detachment set up a hospital in theimmediate vicinity.

Page 16

A series of engagements took place Wednesday night and through Thursday, when we were able to secure two other outpost villages-Maranusa No. 2, and Baekineru. Friday Early Baevuruno was seized. Then the struggle for Enogai began. The raiders flanked Enogai on all sides, meeting heavy opposition from machine gun nests and snipers. Neverthelesstheymanaged to close in yard by yard. Withthe exception of the Navy medical corps personnel attending our wounded, every man was in the fight Friday night. Finally,inmid-afternoon(Saturday) Enogai fell. The position was rushed from all sides. The victorious troops tore through the outer village and across a causeway to the guns in the beach emplacements. Several Japs who remained hidden in the trees picked off several from our
. a

*. bnogai 'l'rophies Resembled These From Guadalcanal

ranks Saturday night before they were wiped out. As this is written we are digging in. Ourdefenses are being reorganized and we are awaiting planes to evacuate our casualties. TheJapanese a t Enogai hadinstalled large-caliber navalcoast-defenseguns, antiaircraft guns, heavy and light machineguns,mortars, a generator, and an aerial searchlight. Now allthoseare ours. In addition we have the shore installations installed by the Japanese, including native-style buildings which were used for barracks. We also seized stores of rifles, fuel oil, gasoline, and assorted gear, as well as a considerable amount of ammunition, tractors, and radio and incidental equipment, but nothing was more immediately welcome than the plentiful supplies of food and clothing.

As soon as it was certain that the enemy garrison, consisting of Japanese Naval Landing Forces and units of the ImperialArmy, had been wiped out, some of the captured food stocks were distributed. There were cans of salmon and sardines, as well as meat and vegetables. Rice was prepared and served, as were barley, soy sauce, and dried onions. While the Americans satisfied their hunger some put on the field khaki shirts and shorts found in the Japanesestoresandothersdonnedthe white middies or blue jumpers of the seagoing sons of Japan. Our wounded were quickly made comfortable in the barracks, kept warm by -heavy woolen blankets we captured, and the Marine Corps correspondents' stories from mogai were written on captured red-bordered ImperialJapanese Navy stationery.

"Official U. S. Xarine Corps Photograph. "Official

Money t o spend whenthe Marines reach Tokyo

...

. . . Japanese Marine banner, a Proud trophy . . .

U. S. i\larine Corps Photograph.

"

. . Pom poms, used later by U.S . Marines . . .
551713°43"-3

"Official C. S. 3Iarine Corps Photograph.

. . . and tank lighters,, testifying to American
markmanship.

"Official U. S. S a ~ Photograph. y

Page 17

Escort Carrier ‘A’ Helps Blast Japs Out of Attu
HerPlanes Were the Only AirSupportas
Fog Beset U. S. LandingTroops
Value of the Navy’s auxiliary aircraft carriers“‘baby flat-tops”-was indicated in the Aleutian campaign. Some are in service. Many others are under construction. One of the sturdy little carriers, shown with UnitedStates battleships, supplied support aerial single-handedly on many occasions during the first days of the invasion of Attu.Land-basedplanesonAmchitka were fog-bound. Grumman Wildcat (F4F) fighters would take off, fly over the fog until a break revealed a Japanese position, strike, strafe, and bomb enemy troops, swoop out to sea, then attack again. Attu’s snow-covered hills drop into the sea so steeply that the Wildcats were almost constantly in sharp flipper turns during their strafing. Williwaws, gusty Alaskan winds, boil down off the high hills and through thepasses buffeted the naval planes a t 508 knotsandmore.They relentlessly, often tossing them hundreds of feet vertically upward, knocking instruments askew. Shortlyafterfirst United States troopslanded, Jap barges,protected by fog, landedin the rear of United States forces on the west arm of Holtz Bay, placing troops between two fires andthreatening supply dumps. The carrier’s Wildcats were summoned. Their .50-caliber machine guns sank the barges and moweddown the Jap soldiers. Eight planes crashed, forced down at sea, or in collisions with the mountains because of the low visibility, or shot down by the heavy Jap “AA”fire. Five Carrier “A” pilots, including Lieutenant Commander Greenamyer, Group Commander and Air Leader, are listed as killedor as missing. They killed scores of the enemy. Most of these pilots were flying their first war missions. In addition,,when communication difficulties developed, Carrier “A” took over the job of relaying all radlo messages from the Army forces on Attu t o Amchitka and to aircraft and Navy task forces operating in the area.

,

The Different Uses of Auxiliary Carriers
The accompanying article, released after the campaign at Attu, illustrates the value of auxiliary aircraft carriers in an amphibious operation. For the use of escort carriers in combating U-boats, see the following pages. Still a third use is descrioed on page 31.

Page 18

c

Escort Carrier ‘B’ Blasts Wolf Packs
.

Baby Flat-top ScoresRemarkable Record CombattingSubMenace in Atlantic
First notice of the presence of submarines was when given a TBF (Grumman Avenger), returning from its dusk patrol, attacked a submarine many miles on the convoy’s starboard bow. Evidently the U-boats had spotted the convoy during the afternoon andplanned to converge for slaughter that night or the next day. Calculating his diving approach nicely, the Avenger’s pilot obtained a straddle with depth bombs onthe fully-surfaced sub. When the turmoil of the explosions died away, no trace of the U-boat was seen from the Avenger. Two fast United States surfaceshipsfromthe convoy’s escort were immediately summoned; they reached the scene promptly and conducted an all-nightsearch;no evidence of a “kill” was discovered. The convoy was pursued all night by the convergingwolf-pack,which moved in for the attack dawn, when at the half-light exposes the silhouette of transports andcargo ships and protects a submarine lying low on the surface, with only periscope or conning tower showing. Crews of the convoy were at dawn battle stations when,dead ahead, a cruising Avenger spotted a sub (No. 2) and immediately attacked. The submarine was just breaking surface and was headed toward the convoy on an intercepting course. The Avenger climbed as the German U-boat fully surfaced. Spottingthe Avenger as it dove to attack, the submarine began pouring a curtain of antiaircraft fire into thesky in a determinedeffort to fight it out. The, Avenger’s pilot pressed home his dive on the submarine, firing his forwardmachineguns.He had the satisfaction of believing he hit the German gunners because, just before he released his bombs, the sub’s gunfire ceased. A salvo of depth bombs was dropped and two “possible” hits attained under the sub’s stern. After the attack the submarineseemed unable to submergeand, down by the stern, circled slowly for more than an hour. Finally i t disappeared slowly, stern first, below the surface. While thissurface-airbattle was in progress, a Grumman Wildcat fighter, en route to aid the torpedo bomber engaged in theaction, sighted another sub (number three) and reported it to patrolling Avengers. The sun was almost directly overheadwhen an Avenger spotted the U-boat. Again the submarine elected to stay on thesurface,and poured antiaircraft fire at attacking the plane. Despite the “ack-ack,” one of the Avenger’s depth-bombs landed under the U-boat just forward of the conning tower. As the Avenger circled for another attack, the undersea craft submerged slowly, stern first. While convoy crews werestill a t general quartersand noondaymess remained uneaten, another enemy submarine (number four), cruising boldly on thesurface, was spotted.

A United States “baby flat-top” escort carrier, designated Escort Carrier “ B ’ for the purpose of this report, recently returned port to bringing with it a story of continuous and aggressive action against Nazi submarines. Planes of Carrier B, by the speed and teamwork of their attacks, workingin close harmonywith United States destroyers and antisub surface craft, chalked up the remarkablerecord of 2 “certain kills” (prisoners were taken), 4 “very probable kills,” and 4 “probable kills” in attacks on a total of 11 submarines. All ships in the convoys protected by Escort Casdestinations rier B reached their undamaged. It is believed that this record of defense and attack over a similar period of time has not been equalled by any other vessel in the history of antisubmarine warfare. Intheattacks whereresultsare classified as “very probable”or “probable’’ there is an excellent chance that the submarine destroyed. was The Navy Department’s necessary caution in officially evaluating “kills” causes Navy antisub pilots tosay: “To get credit for a kill you’ve got to bring back the submarine’s periscopeor the captain’s hat. And that’s hard to do from an airplane!” The first of Escort Carrier B s engagements began at dusk, a favorite timeforsubmarineattacks, as the convoy she was protecting was plodding eastward.

.

Page 19

“Official U. S. Nary Photograph.

D E A T H OF A U-BOAT: Depth charges bounce off a German submarine. T h e charges were dropped by a plane thatmadethisphotograph on the pull-out. Twelve minutes after the.. pilot of one-.,ofCarrier B’s planes sighted the U-boat, her crew surrendered. This photograph is one of the most striking submarine action pictures of the war. One depth bomb can be seen bounding off t h e side of the sub as another drops into the water directly under thefirst. Visible iz the U-boat’s conning tower i s a crew member manning t h e anti-aircraft gun. l Page 20

Machine-gun bullets fired by the Carrier B plane As a plane from Carrier B circles im triumph, the which swoofied low over its victim raise sDurts o f water seacalms aeain. haainp closed over a Nazi raider. around this Nazi sub. Wake left the>sub’s b; snaky pathis still visible. Depth bombs from attacking the stroyerpromptlyracedto the spot. undersea attacker (number ten) was Avenger landed close to its port side, The evidence of this “kill” consisted badly damaged. blowing the submarine forcibly to of twenty-one enlisted prisoners, two Escort CarrierB’snext engagement starboard. It settled under the surminor officers, and the submarine lasted only 28 minutes, with4 Avenger face a minute later, on an even keel, skipper. The U-boat sankfromunand 2 Wildcat pilotscooperating to. but appeared to be capable of no for- der them during the rescue. “bring back the captain’s cap” and it ward motion. Later, by radio, the Avenger pilot resulted in the capture 17 survivors of Near sunset the same Avenger, saw claimed the submarine captain’s cap. by a United States destroyer. a U-boat (number five) far off the This claim was evaluated and alAn Avenger pilot spotted the surconvoy’s port quarter, runningon the lowed. faced (number sub eleven) shortly surface on a course designed. to inB had not only after noon. Other Avengers and Escort Carrier terceptthe supplyships.Thistime stunned and dispersed the wolf-pack, Wildcats quickly reached the scene. the sub’screwwas caughtnapping. but no sub had approached the con- They dealt it a continuous series of The Avenger, screaming down in a voy closer than 18 miles. bomb andstrafingattacks.The Uhigh-speed dive, straddled the subtried submerge, but an Near sunset two Avengers spotted a boat to marine with a salvo of depth bombs. sub Avenger dropped a load of “eggs” so (number to six) thenortheast The submarine appeared out of con- androaredinto accurately that it wasblown to the drop theirdepth trol and was seen to submerge slowly. bombs in quick succession. Thissub surface outof control. Less than an hour later Carrier B’s was unquestionably damaged. The hawk-like planes attacked with Anal attack in this action took place. guns and more depth Reports of the next two attacks machine Again far off the convoy’s port quar- crackled into the carrier’s radio roo= charges, a salvo of which landed ter another Avenger pilot spotteda squarely on the stricken sub. The Ualmost simultaneously. Within a surfaced directly U-boat beneath minute of each other, pilots in tor- boat blew up so violently that only 17 two him.This was almostcertainly the pedo bombers attacked surfaced subs of her crew survived. same sub attacked only a short time (numbers seven and eight) on oppoUpon returning to their carrier, previously. Immediately “kicking site sides of the convoy. Each pilots found the flight deck crews over” into a vertical dive, the Avenger dropped depth charges;butwithout vainly scanning the horizon for pilot “hit the jackpot” by placing all evidence of an outright “kill.” further sians of the German underbombs in his salvo directly under Escort Carrier B’s parting shot at water fleet. the U-boat’s stern. this wolf-pack occurred the following , “Baby flat-top B ” like her sister The wounded sub immediately sub- morning, when a Grumman Wildcat ships, is classed as a combatant carmerged, but, damaged beyond control, (F4F)fighter strafed a surfaced sub rier. They are converted or built resurfaced quickly a t asteep angle. (number and nine) an Avenger from merchant hulls and are being Still in this position, it started to sink dropped depth bombs on it,many turned in out steadily increasing again, hopelessly out of control. Then miles away fromthe convoy. ’ numbers. Carrier B s achievements, it resurfaced and crewmen popped Escort Carrier B’ had taken only 14 following those of Escort Carrier A out of the conning tower to surrender, hours to disperse her second at Attu, prove that they can do their wolf12 minutes after it had been first pack, compared with almost 24 for her job of helping keep convoy losses at a sighted by the Avenger’s pilot. first. Her next engagement was an- minimum untilthe submarinemenace Again aUnited States escort de- other dusk operation; and the single finally is defeated.
0
~
~ -

~ ”

ScenesfromtheContinuing

War Against U-Boats

"Official U. S Coast Guard Photograph. .

Incident in theAtlantic: A Nazi Lifts HisHandsandVoiceinaPlea

He was on a submarine sunk by a Coast Guard convoy cutter, and escaped in a Momsen lung.

for Help

"Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

The K-74 this summer became the first blimp to be shot down by a U-boat; one man was lost. This peaceful Atlanticscene is being repeatedmoreoftentoday than previously.

Not a Ship Has Been Lost From a Blimp-Escorted Convoy; One Blimp Was Brought Down

Still AnotherAnswer to theU-Boat: The New VictoryShip
Deliveries are expected by the spring or summer of 1944.
An improvement over the Liberty ship, it will be a faster vessel, with finer hull lines, and equipped with turbinegear Propulsion machinery of more than twice the horsepower of the reciprocating steam engine used in theLiberty.

Page 22

A HosPital That Meant Victorv
I
d

I n t h e Guadalcanal A c t i o n , I t Played a Major Role, Army Man Says
This is thestory of a hospital. Behind it lies perhaps one of the most dramatic, certainly one of the most important stories of the entire war. It is a story that cannot fully be told until thewar ends. For this hospital, not too farremoved from the front lines Guadalof canal, played a major role in bringing about American victory in that vital island of the Solomons group. Ask the Marines-they know. Ask the Army men-they’ll tell you. Ask the Navy-well, maybe naval personnel won’t say much. You see, it’s their hospital. Right smack in the center of an Army base. The rain was coming down in torrents thatmurky morning in September when a J a p party attempted to wrest a beach-head from theMarines at Lunga Point. The Japs. came at the Americans ,with all the fire they could pour on-rifles, machine guns, mortars, automatic rifles, grenades. A mortar shell landed on an American machine gun position-the gunner was killed immediately, the number two and number thbee men splatThat same afternoon these six Marines were hundreds of milesfrom Lunga Point-resting comfortably in the naval hospital at this Army base. Sixty days later, all six were back at the “Canal,” again fighting. Taking wounded men out o f Guadalcanal and in 2 months or less putting them back, completely recovered, teredwith shell fragm‘ents. Twenty on the fighting front is the role this yards to the lefta gasoline drum ex- hospital in. plays bringing about ploded, spraying three Marines with American victory. fire. The first part of the operation is A burst of fire raked the grounda Marinelieutenant went down a s when the Corpsmen give first aid to the wounded on thefield. Litter bearbullets tore at his legs. After a fierce 3-hour battle,the Jap ers then whisk them off to field stations. From there they are rushed to party was completely wiped out and the six wounded Marines today can ambulance planes. A few hours laterthe planes landa t tell you all about it,thankstothe naval hospital on this unnamed this Army base, and its human cargo is rushed to the naval hospital where island. When those men went six down they the real miracle begins. The hospital is a large affair. Durwere under the watchful eyes of Navy ing the busy days at Guadalcanal it HospitalCorpsmen,attached to the Marine outfit, who wriggled through housed as many as 900 Patients at muck toadministerfirstaidto the one time-and wasn’t overcrowded, SO stricken soldiers-dressings, sulfa carefully were the wards planned! Duringthosehectic months from . drugs, etc. last August to January and February, the woundedwere pouring into the hospital 40, 50, 75, 100 at a time-all by plane. They were immediately sentto various wards-orthopedics, surgery, medical, X-ray. All were presumed to have malaria, a precaution that saved many a life. Doctors worked in pairs all day and all night to save literally hundreds of lives. And save themtheydid,for this hospital, the first naval base hospital intheSouth Pacific, has the phenomenally low mortalityrate of 0.44 less than .1 percent-actually percent. To its doctors, its planning, and its tireless HospitalCorpsmen goes the credit of its success. Take the head of the hospital, f o r example. He’s Capt. John E. Porter, Medical Corps,United States Navy, Greensboro, N. C. Or the former EXecutive Officer, Capt. Frederick W. Muller, Medical Corps, United States Navy, now returned to, the United Statesandone of theoutstanding roentgenologists of the country. The Chief of Medicine, Capt. Walter M. Simpson, Medical Corps, United States Naval Reserve, organized the Kettering Institute for Medical Research in Dayton, Ohio. But it was the Corpsmen who nursed the woundedback to health. It was the Corpsmen whocajoled and threat-0Ecial U. s. Marine Corps Photograph. ened, soothed and babied the brave FOR COMBZNATZON SUPPLY A N D MERCYMISSIONS: Air trammen of the fighting forces. For 8 ports are used by the Navy to transport supplies am? evacuate woulzded brave man, when wounded, is a delimem from battle zones. Many sick and wounded were .taken from cate problem. That was right up the Corpsmen’s collective alley. Guadalcanal, where the photograph was made, aboard these ships. Thestoryonthispage was written by a member of the United States Army Public Relations Section, Forces in the South Pacific Area, and forwarded to theNavy Department.

Page 23

"Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

Doors

This striking photograph clearly shows the immense network of rafters in the eew wooden blimp barns. at both elzds of the hangars will fold away in the slots in the huge pylons.

Page 24

"Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

Ten football games could be played at once inside hangars like this one at the Naval mond, Fla. Note the sailor ON the bicycle at right.

A r Statio#, Richi

Blimp Barns Made of Wood
A

Navy Builds World'sLargestClear Span Frame Buildings To Save Steel
such a large span couldbe built of anything but steel. When the drawingsfor some .of these hangars were completed, the Bureau of Yards and Docks found two Pacific Northwest companies to prefabricate entire the job. They are the Henry Mill and Timber Co., Tacoma, Wash., and Timber Structures, Inc., Portland,Oreg. Beforeshipment,everybeam was cut to the correctlength,withthe ends shaped at the exact angles, and holes drilled at the precise points for assembling bolts and fixtures. The timbers sheathing, and all treated at the withfire-resistantchemicals prefabricating plant, were transported to thevarious jobs where other contractors are assembling the structures, working from detailed blueprints. In this respect the method of construction is similarto that used in erecting a hangar made of structural steel, and from a distance the trussed and webbed arches look muchlike steel framing for a building. Because of the height, it was found necessary to use steel workers to whom the construction problems were familiar.

\j

Huge wooden hangars of a kind neverbefore attempted by theengineers of this or any other country are being constructed rapidly a t several points along the east and west coasts of the United States to house the Navy blimps which patrol thesea lanes on watch for enemy undersea raiders. These hangars are the largest clear span wooden buildings in the world. They are 171 feet high, or theequivalent of about a 17-story building; more than 1,000 feet long, and are almost 300 feet wide at the base. The clear span between the bents o r footings is 237 feet wide, giving room enough to house blimps in rows of two inside the structure with no dangerof the fabric tearing on the sides of the hangar. Hangars of this size are normally made with structural steel members. However structuralsteel became so scarce a year ago that it was necessary to find substitutes whereverpossible. When the Bureau of Yards and Docks undertook to designhuge a hangar with wooden structural members, it was not believed possible that a building so high, so long, and with

Another peculiarity of the construction of these wooden blimp hangars is that their novel, folding leaf-like sectional doors are suspendedindeas such. pendently of the hangar Two huge pylons, with slots in the middle, support a concrete and steel beam at the top, and thedoors, which can be opened with the touch of an electric button, fold away accordionlike into the hollow recesses of these pylons. Besides avoiding havingthe hangar itself support the load of the doors, more than 100 tons each, thismethod of door construction offers but a minimum of wind resistance. The doors arethe only part of thestructure which uses steel. Two-inch thickwood plank sheathing covers the 51 arches or ribs, forming the curved portion of the hangar. These are supported on footings 24 feet high, each running,of course, the entirelength of thehangar. These foundations are 30 feet wide and are made of reinforced concrete, with ample space withintheir walls to provide machine shops, offices, squadron quarters, and other service space.

Page 25

water when a depth charge, torpedo, or aerial bomb has exploded nearby. The destructive force of such a blast is transmitted in all directions it through the water and is very likely to cause injuries the lungs, stomach, of or intestines. Because the injuries are internal, they cannot be seen and may be overlooked. However, there are certain symptoms should you watch for and be ready to take immediate action when appear. they Shock may the first and be only symptom, or it may develop after the appearance of other symptoms. If the lungs are injured, the victim will have difficulty in breathing. He may spit up or cough up frothy blood. With injury to the stomach and intestines, the victim will complain of pain in the abdomen. Later, due tothe severe internal inflammation, you may find that the belly is swollen or very firm and unyielding. It may feel rigid and boardlike when you put your hand on it.

maycauseshock.Survivorsmay be so weak that shock will develop unexpectedly they when attempt to climb out of a boat or raft.

am? H a d l i n g of Survivors The survivors should be carried from the boat or raft if possible, and noavoidableexertionshould be allowed unless you are sure that there are no serious injuries and that the general physical condition is reasonably good. A good rule to follow is to keep the survivors lying down with thehead low and the feet raised. Aftercarryingthemto a dryand fairly warm place, remove all clothes, but be very careful to handle the legs and feet as gently as possible. Survivors should be warmed up, but never put a hot water bottle or any direct heat against their feet legs, because or if permanent damage may result they have a condition known as “immersion foot.” Don’t place survivorsnear a radiator, stove, o r anything hot. 4. Blast Colzcussiolz Ilzjury, FirstKeep your patients at rest in a warm Aid Treatmelzt ., bed until all signs of exhaustion, The first-aid treatment of these shock, and mental distress have conditions due to blast should be cleared up. given immediately. The victim 8. Examilzatiolz of Survivors should be made to lie down with his You mustexamine.eachsurvivor head low and heshould be kept warm. frostbite, If you have morphine syrettes, give carefully for injuries, burns, him sufficient morphine to relieve his swelling, numbness, paralysis, and unusual tendernessof any partof the pain and keep comfortable. him Water or other fluids may be givenif body. Ask about pain in the arms and thirst is severe. If you suspect that legs. a.Comfort and Questions.-After a n internal organ has been ruptured or that there has been internal you have made the survivor as comhemorrhage,there is all the more fortable as possible, and if his condireason for getting him medical atten- tion permits, ask him how many days he has spent ainopen boatand what n tion promptly. the weather was like and if he was 5. Breathilzg Hard am? Coughilzg injured or sick.Don’t forget to ask i f he was swimming in the vicinity of Blood Inthe case of victims who are an underwater explosion. Findout how much water andfood he had and breathinghardandcoughingblood, prop them up inhalf sitting position whatkind of food rations were at a hand. Ask him if he has taken any and use morphine in small amounts only. only Give one-half the con- sea water t o drink. tents of a syrette. 9. Removul of Oil From Skin Shipwreck victims oftenare covered 6. Effects of Exposure ilz Open with a heavy coating of dirty oil. This Boat happens when a tanker is torpedoed Survivors who have ,been at sea in and survivors are forced into oil covan open boat or raft forseveral days ered water. The oil can beremoved or weeks usually will be suffering from by using another oil such as castor one or more of the following condi- oil, mineral oil, lard, clean diesel oil, tions: or other light oil as a wash and following it by the use of soap and water. a. Extreme thirst. On board naval vessels and in naval b. Starvation (malnutrition and shore stations a special preparation under-nutrition) . c. Painful and swollen ,feet (“Im- called ‘‘Hypex” is used for this purpose. Also a 5 percent solution of mersion Foot”). . d. Frostbite and effects of pro- “Dreft,” “Drene,” or “Orvus” can be used to remove oil. These arethe longed exposure to cold. trade names for several commercial e. Sunburns. cleansing agents. Suap and water f.. Inflammation of eyes caused by must be used afterwards. sun glare, oily water, or exposure. g. Mentaldisturbances. 10. What T o Do for Oil ilz Eyes, The treatment for each onethese of Ears, and Stomach conditions is described separately in I the survivor is covered with a f this guide. Any one of several or a combination of them, or a n injury, dirty coating of oil, some of it usually

7. Carryilzg

gets in his eyes. This causes an eye inflammation. Itstreatmentis described below inthe section called “Eye Inflammation.” Oil that gets in It can the ears maycauseearache. be relieved by gently flushingthe ears out with lukewarm water. Oil that is swallowed may cause ,vomiting, diarrhea and abdominhl pain. These with rest symptoms disappear quickly in bed and a diet..df only soft orliquid foods.

11. So?&

02 1

Body, Legs, am? Feet

Survivors who have suffered from severe exposure may have small sores like boils or ulcers, covering all parts of the body that are not protected by clothing. Carefully clean the dirt from the skin and remove, the crust from the sores. Treat the sores with an antiseptic. Do not touch the sores on the feet or legs if the condition known as ‘,‘immersionfoot’.’ is present. You will knowhow to recognize it after reading its description below.

12. Presszlre Ulcers am? Bedsores
Among those who haveLsuffered greatly starvation, from extreme weight loss and emaciation willoccur. Pressure ulcers or bedsores.may develop from prolonged contact and pressure of the skin againsthard surfaces such as thwarts and boat bottoms. Protect the ulcers against further pressure and ’contact with clothing or bedding by using cotton rings or pads. Do not put the support ,or padding directly on the ulcer orthe surrounding inflamed area.. Changethe position of thepatient frequently by turnirlghim.Cleanse the inflamed areas daily with alcohoP and dust with antiseptic powder. Keep the areas clean and dry and do not apply a dressing.
I

13. Cautiolz About Starting
Treatment
Don’t start treating anyolie until you have carefully read the treatment this for all conditionsdescribed.in guide. The treatment of special conditions caused by exposure and lack of food and water will now be taken
UP.

CARE OF SURVIVORS SUFFERING FROM EXTREME

THIRST
14. Gelzeral Description I the victim has been exposed for a f longtime and has not had enough water, he will be suffering from extremethirst. Exceptforshock and serious injuries, extreme thirst causes the greatest suffering and the most deaths among survivors. The treatment of starvation is not important when survivors are dying of thirst. a. Food and water.-Without food the average man may be expected to Page 27

19. What t o Expect Most of the survivors after long exposure are suffering from starvation. The effect of starvation is much like that of severe thirst. It may be so severe that unconsciousness or shock will result andnoattemptto give food orwaterbymouthshould be made until the shock has been treated. Usually the victims have lost a greatdeal of weight. Theymay 15. Treatmemt of Extreme Thirst have fever and breathing may be Do not try to give fresh water or salt shallow andfast. Keeping them a t water through a rubber tube or other rest in a warm bed is of the greatest device inserted intotherectum. If importance in treating both starvashock or unconsciousness cannot be tion and extremethirst. If they have overcome, the immediate attention of trouble in swallowing, dry mouth, and a medicalofficer is necessary. Great difficulty in urinating, you must treat loss of weight, high fever, very fast them for thirst before giving soft or pulse, convulsions and beingunable solid foods. to urinate are symptoms which show that there is serious damage and that 20. Feedhg a Starved Suruiuor prompt medical attention is needed. I n most c a s e s , however, small In general, the feeding of starved amounts of watercanbetaken by victims is like feeding a person who mouth immediately. If severe thirst i s just recovering from a serious illis present andthere is difficulty in ness. Give themsmallamounts of swallowing and a dry mouth, a few easily digestible foods a t frequent inounces of water sugar with added tervals. For stimulants, give hot tea should, be given every two hours and or coffee with sugar added. Victims the amount should be gradually in- who have been starved for three weeks creased. Use about a teaspoon of o r more and those who have been on sugarto a glass of water. Usually a poor diet before shipwreck will these cases are also sufferingfrom usually need vitamins. To supply vistarvation and the feeding of soft and tamins and fluids, give sweetened liquid foods willhelp in providing wa- fruit juices (fresh orange juice, fresh ter. If moderate thirst is present, it lemonade, and canned grapefruit is treated by giving the victim all the juice). The juice ordinary from water he cancomfortably take and canned tomatoes maybe given and is as often as he likes. Zinc oxide ointusually less apt to cause an upset ment may beused to treat the lips stomach than tomato juice cocktail. when dryness has caused cracks and sores. 21. Effects Produced by Lack of Vitamims 1G. Swellimg of Legs Followimg Treatment Extreme lack of vitamins often causes sore mouth, swollen After the water balanceof the body ing gums, ulcers of the eyes,and bleedskin trouhas been brought back to normal, the survivor’s feetand legs may swell. bles, and swollen legs and arms. The be This swelling may be due to (1) “im- sores in the mouth may very trouand difficulty mersion foot’, (2) lack of vitamins in blesome, causing ulcers vitamins (of the diet, ( 3 ) lack of meat and other in eating. Concentrated several vitamins proteins in thediet. Keep the vic- the kind that contain tim’s feet raised above the level of the including vitamins. B and C ) should be .given. Two orthree times the body until the swelling goes down. usual daily dose should be given. Remember that the lack of vitamins is 17. Caution About the Useof more apt to cause trouble in warm “Sulfa Drugs” and tropical climates. If you do not You may wish to give one of the have vitamin pills, the treatment for sulfa drugs by mouth for the treatstarvation which is describedbelow ment of severe burns orflesh wounds. will help until thevictims get medical Do notgiveany of the sulfa drugs attention.
Thirst maybe so severe that it causes unconsciousness or extreme shock. Don’t give water by mouth in cases of this kind. They should be treated for shock. After recovery from shock, they can usually take small amounts of sweetened water by mouth. It is best not to give alcoholic stimulants to survivors who are inneed of water.

live for about twenty-one days if he has water to drink. If he gets less than one pint of water per day, and provided he gets no moist food, he will suffer from thirst after a few days.However, survivors have been known to live for ten days or more on as little as two or three ounces of water per daywithoutcausingany apparent bodily d a m a g e . The amounts of water and food needed by a survivor depend upon weather conditions, physical exertion and individual resistance.

until the survivor hashad enough water to overcome his thirst. I his f thirst is extreme, this may take several days.

18. Note om Urimatimg Don’t be alarmed if, for the flrst week or more after rescue, the survivor complains of urinating more often than usual.

STARVATION

b. Unconsciousness shock.and

22. First, Secowd, a d Third Dayof Treatmemt On the first day of treatment, give either fresh milk, condensed milk, or canned evaporated milk. Water must be added to the canned milk so that it has about the thickness of fresh milk. Sugar should be added to the fresh milk and evaporated milk, but it need not be added to sweetened condensedmilk. Do not give cream or greasy foods for the first few days. Clearsoups and broths are good if they do not contain much fat. Gruel, such as oatmeal, cream of wheat, or ather well-cooked cereals with sugar and inilk added are good. Usually on the secortd day toast and bread can be added to the victims’ diet, and b y the third day regularfull well-balanced meals can ordinarily be given.

A condition known as nutritfonal or famtne edema (dropsy) may be seen in victims whohave been starved for a period of two months or more. It is a result of not getting enough meat and other protein foods. I n addition to the starved appearance, there is a swelling of the feet, legs, hands, and arms. To treat suchcases give foods having a high proteincontent, such a$ eggs or meat. A t first, giveegg drinks and broth or soups. Try to get such cases under medical attention as SOOQ as possible because they usually need hospital care.

24. Bowel Mouememts
Survivors who have bben on small food or water rations or without food or water for several days often become alarmed because they have few or no bowel movements. This is to be expected and nQ first-aid treatment is necessary. However, if desired, for such cases an enema maybe given for the treatment of constipation.

IMMERSION FOOT
25. Cams a d Symptoms If a survivor has been sitting in an open boat for a long time, his feet are often cold and wet. Actually they may havebeen immersed in icy water in the bottom o f the boat. This causes a condition ,called “immersion foot.” It may develop eventhough the victim has been wearing shoes or boots. Usually the first thing noticed is painful feet, and’thbn fewdays later the a feet and legs Pegin to swell. These first symptomS are much like chilblain, even though the water temperature may have beenabove freezing. After a time discoloration of the skin appears and blood or water blisters, ulcers, and even death of the tissues may occur. The feet feel numb and they may becomeparalyzed.Numbness and tingling sensations may be felt in the arms and hands.

Page 28

fects ofcold. When the wholebody has been exposed to severe cold the victim becomes numb, it is difficult for him to move, his eyesight fails, and may he become unconscious. I n such a case, carry the patient toa cool room andwarm himup very slowly. If breathing has ceased, give artificial respiration. Rub the limbs with cloths wet in cool water. When he begins t o come to, give him. a warm stimulating such drink, as coffee, tea or cocoa. Also slowly make the room warmer or move him to a warmer room. Then put the patient in a warm bed. I f the patient is only chilled and is not unconscious and no parts of his body are frozen, he should be put in a warm bed at once and given hot stimulating drinks. 28.Frostbite Frostbite is the freezing of single parts of the body most oxten the nose, ears, cheeks, fingers and toes. Frostbitten hands or feet are usually very painful. Frozen ears, cheeksand nose are not painful and the victim usually does not realize they are frozen until someone notices the color change and tells him about it.

been burned as a result of scanty clothing. Exposure in an uncovered boat or raft can cause sunburn even under a cloudy sky. A well-tanned skin does not protect always against sunburn.

dened and very small blisters appear, use a burn ointment such as tannic acid ointment or boric acid ointment. Use zinc oxide ointment in cases where the skin has begun to crack and peel.

33. Moderate Sunburn-First-Aid Treatment First-aid treatment for sunburn is the same as for any burn. For moderate sunburn where the skin is red-

out .of every hour that the eyes are painful, Don’t use the cold compresses if there are ulcers in theeyes, but get medical attention as soon as possible. If you have a supply of clear, clean, mineral oil on hand, use a drop of it in each inflamed eye three orfour timesperday. Use an eye dropper or medicine dropper to drop it into the eyes. Do not any put bandages or covering over the eyes. Have the victimwear dark glasses until all the inflammationgone. is

MENTAL DISTURBANCES

29. Thawing Out..Froze.nParts I n thawing out frozen parts of the body, never use %?ut. I f theparts thaw too fast, pain and swelling result. The skin may peel off leaving a
raw surface and there infection.
is danger of

34. Symptoms a.nd Treatment of . Severe Sunbum For more severe burns where large blisters are present, put onboric acid ointment andcover with sterile gauze. I boric acid ointment is not availf able, use Vaseline.Be careful not to open any blisters t h a t have not already broken. Usually fever is present in cases of this kind and in cases wherelarge areas of the body are moderately sunburned. Feverish patients shouldbe kept in and drinkbed ing water and other fluids should be plentifully given.

38. Occurrence of, In Suruiuors Mentaldisturbances,are common among survivors as a result of their severe hardships. S u c h complications are most often seen in victims of middle ageor older who are inpoor physical condition. Fatigue and exhaustion cause nervousness or depression. When victims are rescued they may be so happyand excited that their minds aretemporarilyunbalanced.Survivorsmay become boisterous and very excitable or they may be so depressed that they appear to be unconscious. . .

39. Require Watcbilzg
If possible, have someone stay with them as long as mental disturbances are present.
40. Delirium and Fever
When a victim is delirious, it usually shows that he has fever and is seria ously ill. Convulsions and delirium sometimes result when desperatesurvivors have taken drinking to sea water. People who drink considerablequantities of seawaterseldom ever live to tell about it.

EYE INFLAMMATION 35. Causes
Eye inflammation occurs often among survivors. It maybecaused by exposure to wind, cold, orsalt water; another kind called reflection blindness is caused by exposure to sunlight or sug glare reflected from water, snow, or ice. Eyeinflammation is also caused by oil that may get in the eyes whensurvivorshave to swim in oil-covered Water.

30. First- (Chilblain), Second-, and Third-Degree Frostbite I n first-degree’frostbite, sometimes called chilblain, the skin is a dark red color and part painful. the is In second-degree frostbite, the skin is bright red and there are blisters. I n third-degree frostbite,the frozen part is pale, stiff, and brittle.

41. Treatment
Survivorsmust be reassured that “everything isall right,” andthat there is nothing to fear. Mental disturbances usually clear up with rest conand with treatment for the other ditions described in this guide. You may have to give mild sedatives such as phenobarbital or bromides to help the victims relax and sleep. Rest in bed ina quiet room and sedatives should be provided for several days or weekswhen the mental condition is especially serious and slow to improve.

36. Symptoms of Eye
Isflarnmatiolz
The symptoms of eye inflammation are about thesame whatever the cause. Where oil is the cause, the eyeslook oil-stained and dirty. Eye inflammationcauses the eyes to be red, bloodshot, overflowing with tears, sometimes painful, and there is often a sticky crust on the lids. Looking at a bright light is usually painfulto the victim.

31. Treatment
Treatment should be started by putting coldwet clothson the frosted part. Do not rub snow or ice on it. The temperature of the water in which the cloths are soaked shouldbe (a degree or two raised nradually every few minutes) until it is lukewarm. I f there are blistersdonot ’ open them. Stop this treatment when the skin color is normal again and apply boric acid ointment to the frozen areas. Parts that are dead as a result of third-degree frostbite will, of course, not improve with treatment, and gangrene (death of the tissues) will set in. Cases like this need medical attention as soon as possible.

37. Treatment of

Eye

Inflammation Use a 2 percent baking soda solution Or a boric acid solution to wash out the eyes. The solution should be dropped inthe eyes using an eye dropper or medicine dropper. You can make the baking soda solution by adding one level teaspoonful of baking SUNBURNS soda to one-half pint of water. If you cannot make up the baking soda 32. Results and Causes solution, use acid boric solution. Sunburn of survivors can be very ’Cold compresses (ice bags or cloths serious and deathshave resulted from .wrung out of cold water) should be it when large areas of the body have placed over the eyes for 10 minutes

FINAL WORD
42. No Case Is Hopeless
Remember that recovery is usually rapid and complete in most survivors if theyare promptly and properly treated. Don’t thinkthatany case is hopelesseven though it may appear f to be so. I you follow the directions for treating survivors that you have read above, you swill prevent further suffering, start victims on the way to early recovery and you may save a life.

Page 30

Carriers Ferry Planes to Malta, Africa
Navy Flat-Tops Have Transported 2,500 Planes Active to War Fronts
needed fighter planes to the beleaMore than 2,500 fighting planes by Besides the time saved the transplanes in this have alreadybeen carried to the vari- guered British stronghold of Malta in portation of fighter Wasp; The manner, the necessity of dissembling ous war fronts by United States car- July 1942, by the U. S. S. riers, including the Hornet, identified Wasp moved .within 500 miles of and reassembling the planes is elimMalta before launching the land- inated, and the danger loss bysinkof as the vessel which launched the planesfrom her decks. The planes a sea is Tokyo raiders. More information has arrived barely in time to be refueled ingn t most greatly reduced. I instances“carrier the been made available on this new sys- to meet a 100-plane enemy raid. The ferry” providesits own escort, launchtem of plane transportation, first de- Wasp later repeated this achievement, ing torpedo bombers from its fiight scribed in the INFORMATION B’ULLETINagain successfully. deck to fly antisubmarine patrol. in the May 1943 issue. Of the many planes which carriers Long before the Tokyo raid, Navy In the initial forcewhich moved havetransported overseas, approxi- carriers were ferryinglandplanes t o mately half were landplane fighters, the west coast of Africa for flight onNorth Africa, onecarrieralone transportednearly 100 Army War- which were lashed to the flight and across the continent to take part in the Libyan campaigns. After invasion hawk fighters which captured enemy hangar decks of the “flat-tops.” Other aircraft are Navy and Marine of Africa, this activity was transferred airdromes and cleaned out potential Corps planeswhich, after use as a to the shortened route and substantial nests of- resistance, working with fighting and striking force from carnumbers of carriersconverted from Navy planes and ship batteries. rier decks, are flown ashore to oper- merchantmen were put to work ferryOne of the more widely known ate from advance bases, such as Gua- ing of fighting planes hundreds achievements was the moving of badly dalcanal. to the battlefronts.

Page 31

GERMAN: Short List of Words and Phrases
I
The following list, sixth in a series setting forth phrases in languages common to areas in which the Navy is operating, is prepared by the Bureau for naval personnel interested in acquiring a limited knowledge of certain phrases. In May the Information Bulletinpublished a Japanese Phrase List; in June, Spanish; inJuly, French; in August, Portuguese; in September, Italian. After exhausting the possibilities of this phrase list,’personnelinterested in the Navy Language Program may familiarize themselves with the article, “Languagie Program Expanded,” in the 15 March issue of the TraDivLetter, page 35.

Note On Pronunciation
The column indicating how t o say the German expression is an approximation. Nevertheless, a person who pays close attention to the pronunciation hereshouldhavenotrouble in being understood. Note especially the following: In making use of the column, “How To Say It”,“ai” is to be pronounced as ai in theEnglish word aisle, and “ay” as ay in day.

UsefulWordsandPhrases
GERMAN ENGLISH HOW TO SAY IT dank-uh bitt-uh fair-shtay-en-zee Yah nine ish-mersh-teh tseegah-ret-ten tsee-gar-ren . vo-noong es-sen shbh-fen bah-den vahss ist deece dahss shpresh-en zee doyt-sch eng-lish hair-owss-kommen Thank you Danke Bitte Don’t mention it Db you understand? Verstehen Sie? Yes Ja Nein No Ich mochte I want Zigaretten Cigarettes Zigarren Cigars Wohnung Accommodations essen To eat schlafen To sleeu ‘ baden To bathe What is? Was ist dies This That Sprechen Sie D o you speak? Deutsch German Englisch English Herauskommen! Come out (of there) ! How many men with Wieviele Leute dabei? YOU? Ich habe I have Ich habe nicht I have not How do you .say in Wie sagt man auf Deutsch German? Ich habe Hunger I am hungry
I am thirsty I understand I don’t understand

Illnesses,Accidents,Wounds
Sie pich hah-ben zee zikh Haben verletzt? fair-letst mir den hah-beh ish meer Ich habe Arm verbrochen dane arm fairbosh-en I am wounded Ich bin verwundet ish bin fer-mom-det in the foot am Fuss om fooss the in head kopf Kopf am om here hier heer Can you dress a KOnnen Sie eine k ~ n - n e nZee ine-eh wound? verbinden? Wunde vam-deh fairbind-en? ahss-pea-reen Aspirin Aspirin ish bin kronk Ichbinkrank I am sick Sind Sie zint krank? zee kronk Are you sick? I a m i n great pain habe Ich grosse ish huh-beh powsseh s h m k t - s e n Schmerzen heer here hier Legen Sie sich hin! lay-gun zee zikh hin Liedown! ish brow-keh apI need a purgative Ichbrauche fur-mittel Abfuhrmittel Geben Sie mir gay-ben zee meer Give me some shee-nema Chinin quinine Schauer shower Chills griPPeh Influenza Grippe air-kell-toong Cold Erkaltung Fever Fieber fee-ber honk-height Illness Krankheit VerdauungsstSrung fair-doW-OOngsIndigestion shtur-oong Medicine Medizin meddee-tseen

Are you hurt? M arm is broken Y

Ich habe Durst Ich verstehe Ich verstehe nicht Mann (Herr) vie1 Fraulein Ich brauche einen Anzug eine Decke Bitte hier genw Wie geht’s? sehr p t u da6ke sehr und Ihnen? Guten Abend Guten Tag Guten Morgen Gute Nacht Hallo Hallo Ich heisse Wie heissen Sie? E ist heiss s Es ist kalt Wind Wer? Was? WO? WarUm? Wieviele? Welcher? Weil Hilfe! Ein, eine, ein

Man (Mister) Much Miss I need a suit a blanket Please Here Enough How are you? Very well thank you, and you? Good evening! day! Good Good morning! Good night ! Hello! (Good day!) Hello! (telephone) s My name i What is your name? It is hot It is cold Wind Who? What? Where? Why? How many? Which? Because Help! A,a n

vee-feel-eh Zoy-teh dah-by ish huh-beh ish huh-beh nisht vee zahkt mon O w f doyt-sch ish huh-beh hoong-er ish huh-beh doorst ish fer-shtay-eh ish fer-shtaw-eh nisht mon (hair) feel froy-line . ish brow-keh eye-nen on-tsoo-k eye-neh declc-eh bttt-uh heer geh-n&kh vee gaits zair goat dahn-keh zair oond een-en goo-ten ah-bent goo-ten tahk goo-ten mowr-gen k gm-teh W t hol-Oh hol-oh ish h&-uh vee hfce-en m e es ist hice es ist k s u t vint vare vahss yetst vo vah-rom vee-feel-eh vell-share vile hill-feh ine, i-neh, ine
~

Location
Go straight ahead! To the left To nahkh rechts nach right the reshts What time is it? . Is time? there It is noon Midnight 1:00 a. m. 1 :oo p. m. 1 :10 3 :00 5 :OO aeradeaus nach links

nahkh links

geh-ra-duhLowss

Time
Wie spLt ist es? vee shpate 1st es? Haben wir Zeit? hah-ben veer wit Es ist Mittag es ist mit-tahk Mitternacht mu-ter-nokt Mn Uhr morgens ine oor m m - g e n s Ein Uhr abends ine oor &-bents ein T h zehn Jr ine oor tsane drei Uhr dry oor fiinf Uhr finf oor 8:15 oor fin?-tsane acht Uhr fiinfzehnokt 1o:oo tsane oor zehn TJhr 74 :0 sieben Uhr vierzig see-ben oor feer-tsik 925 neun Uhr funfund- noy-n oor Anf-oonclzwanzig tsvontsik 11:30 elf Uhr dreissig, halb elf-oor dry-sik, holp 2wOlf zwelf ee-ber-morgen Day after tomorrow tibermorgen Day before yester.day vorgestern fore-guess-tern Abend ah-bent Evening Nachmittag nahk-mit-tahg Afternoon Nacht nokt Night Year Jahr Yar jetzt NOW mee-noo-teh Minute Minute moe-ment Moment Moment hoy-teh Today heute mor-gen Tomorrow morgen guess-tern gestern Yesterday von fare-t dahss m e n does theship Wann fahrt das shiff sail? Schiff ?

Page 33

Days of Week, Months of Year
Week Sunday Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday January February March April May June July August September October November December Sailor Ofacer Dock Ocean Chain Depart Port (harbor) Ship Uniform Arm Back Body Ear Eye Finger Foot Hair Hand Head Leg Knife Fork Spoon A cup of coffee of tea A glass of beer Beans Bread Butter Eggs Fish Meat Potatoes Rice Drinking Water Food Matches
Milk

Places To Go
Church City or Town Market Post Ofaee Station Street Telephone Village Baker Barber Give me a haircut Dance Hall Doctor Drug Store Movie Garage Restaurant Shoe Store Tailor Kirche Stadt Markt ’ Postamt Bahnhof Strasse Telefon Dorf Backer Friseur Schneiden Sie mir das Haar , Tanzsaal Arzt Drogerie Kino Garage Restaurant Schuhladen Schneider . keer-sheh shtot markt posst-omt bahn hohf shtrah-seh tay-lay-phone dorf becker freeze-ur shnide-en zee meer dahss hahr tants-zahl artst drogger-ee keen-oh gah-rah-sheh resto-rong shoe-lah-den shnai-der

%th

Tag Monat Woche Sonntag . Montag Dienstag Mittwoch Donnerstag Freitag Samstag, Sonnabend Januar Februar Mars April
Mai

Juni
Juli

August September Oktober November Dezember

takh moan-not vok-eh zohn-tahg moamtahg deens-tahg mit-vok don-ners-tahg frye-tahg zoms-tahg, sohnuh-bent yah-noo-ar feb-roo-ar mairts ah-prill my yoo-nee yoo-lee ow-goost zep-tem-ber ob-ton-ber no-vem-ber day-tsem-ber mah-troe-zeh off-fee-tseer dock mare kett-eh ap-far-en huh-fen
shiff

Military
Ammunition Bomb Cannon Halt: Who’s there? PSlrachute Plane Rifle War Munition Bombe Kanone Halt! Wer da? Fallschirm Flugzeug Gewehr Krieg moo- n e e -tseeown bom-beh koh-noh-neh halt yair dah fahl-sheerm flukh-zoykh gay-vair kreekh

Nautical
Matrose Offizier Dock Meer Kette Abfahren Hafen Schiff Uniform Arm Rucken Korper Ohr Auge Finger Fuss Haar Hand Kopf Bein

oo-nee-form arm rick-en are-per ,oar ow-geh fiw-er
f0OSS

Numbers
One half 1
2

Parts of Body

har hont kopf bine

Food
Messer Gabel Loffel Eine Tasse Tee Ein Glas Bier Bohnen Brot Butter Eier Fisch Fleisch Milch Kartoffeln Reis Trinkwasser Essen, Speise Streichholzer
Kafpee

mess-er guh-bel lefae Eye-neh-tahsseh taY ine glahss beer bo-nen broht
kah-fay

9 10 11 12 1 3 14 15 1 6 17 18 19 20 21
32 40

.

ein halb eins zwel (when telephoning u s e ZWQ.) drei vier fiinf sechs sieben acht neun eehn elf zwolf dreizehn vierzehn funfzehn secheehn siebzehn achtzehn neunzehn zwanzig einundmanzig dreissig zweiundreissig vierzig fiinfzig sechzig siebzig achtzig neunzig hundert hundertfunfundsechzig tausend

ine holp ine-s tsvye, tsvo dry feer finf zex zee-ben okt noy-n tsane elf tsvelf dry-tsane feer-tsane finf-tsane zesh-tsane zeeb-tsane &t-tsane noy-n-tsane tsvon-tsik ine-oonttsvon-tsik dry-sik tsvye-oontdry-sik feer-tsik finf-tsik zesh-tsik zeeb-tsik okt-tsik my-n-tsik hoon-dert houn-dertjinf-oontzesh-tsik tourn-sent

30

eye-er fish fly-Sh milsh kar-to@-feln rice trink-vosser ess-en, shpateeh shtraish-herltser

Boot-er

50
60

70
80 90 100 165 1000

Prepositions
From In Inside of On To With Without von in drinnen von auf
ZU

I
And
As

Conjunctions
und als

fon in drtn-en fon

mit ohne

tsoo mit own-eh

O W

But
If

aber
wenn
oder

Or

lahng lang oont kurz Sie You Red rnat rot ~. ahls blau Blue Green grtin Yellow gelb ah-ber Black schwarz White vice weissven Good gut Bad shlesht schlecht odor klineklein Small
~ ~~ ~

2%

Adjectives
koorts blouw green ! %t % rS goot

I

1

Pronouns
ish He Her
His She

ich
ihr

er

sie They Me (To mich Me) (meer) (mir)

sein sie

zee air ear zine Zee zee mish

Page 34

‘3O-BOOKS-A-MONTH CLUB’ FOR NAVY
Men Afloat, Abroad, May Keep Up Reading Under New Plan
Navy menafloat andabroadcan soon havetheir own “book-of-themonth club” 30 times a month under a new publishing plan now under way. Pocket-sized editions of popular books, both fiction and nonfiction, are already being madeavailable to all ship and station libraries outside the continental limits of the United States. The plan willprovidebooks at the rate of 1 new title a day, or 30 different volumes every month. A similar program is being carried out by the U. S. Army. The books,which include current best-sellers, are published in a special edition exclusively for the armed services, by the Council on Books i n Wartime, a nonprofit organization made up of American publishers, librarians, and booksellers. Handy to read and carry, the volumes come into two “half-pint” sizes: 5 % by 3% inches, and 6 % by 4% inches. They can readily be carried in jacket or coat pockets, or stowed in small places. The majorityof the Armed Services Editions are complete books; a very few are condensed. They will include such current best-sellers as Ambassador Joseph C . Grew’s “Report from Tokyo” and Robert Carse’s story of the Murmansk convoy route, “There Go the Ships”; familiar classics such as “Oliver Twist” by Dickens and “Typee” by Herman Melville; books by modern American writers such as Ogden Nash, John Steinbeck, James Thurber, and William Saroyan, and manytales of mystery,humor, and adventure. As each volume is issued, a sizable number will be assigned to ship and station libraries so that there will be ample copies of each title available. The initial distribution list of 30 titles is as follows:
A-1-Leonard Q. Ross, The Education

“Official U. S. Nary Yhotograplt.

A mystery thriller, a westerm, a historical Izouel, am? am old favorite are imclded im the imitial distributiom.
A-IGAntoine de Saint Exupery,

Wind,

of

A-1i“John Bartlet Brebner Allan and Nevins, The Making of Modern A-l&Philip K.Hitti, The Arabs. A-19-Howard Fast, The Unvanquished. A-20-Albert Q. Maisel, Miracles of MiltA-21-Herbert

Sand and Stars. Britain.

New Books in Ships’ Libraries
The following books have been purchased for distribution to all units of the service although not all titles will be supplied to allunits.Thepractice of the Bureau is to distribute different titles to small units operating in the samearea so that it is possible for units to exchange books. If units do not receive a desired title, request may be made to theBureau.

A-2-Joseph C. Grew, Report From Tokyo. A 3 4 g d e n Nash, Good Intentions. A L K a t h r y n Forbes, Mama’s Bank AcA-&RobertCarse, A - 6 3 2 o s e C. Feld, A-7-l”Ieodore

Hyman Kqlan.

count.

There Go the Ships. Sophie Halenczik,

American. War.

A-22-Graham Greene, The MinBtry A-23-Herzberg,

ness.

tary Medicine. Agar, ATime

for Great-

of

Pratt, Mr. Winkle Goes

to

Fear.

A-&CharlesDickens, Oliver Twist. A-9-John Steinbeck, Tortilla Flat. A-lO-John R. Tunis, World Series. A-11James Thurber, My WorEd and WeZA-12-Frank Gruber, Peace Marshal. A-13-H. L. Mencken, Heathen Days. A - 1 4 - 4 . S. Forester, The Ship. A-15-William Saroyan, The HumanCom-

A-24-Herman Melville, Typee. A-25-Rackham Holt, George Washington A - 2 M o s e p h Conrad, Lord Jim. A-27“Carl Sandburg, StOver the

Landings. Carver.

Paine and Works, Happy

Novels
WITHOUT ORDERS by Martha AlbraAd. Novel of intrigue and underground activities i Italy. n THEAPOSTLE by Sholem Asch. Author of

come to It.

Land.
A-28-Hervey Allen, Action at Aquila. A-29-FAhel Vance, Reprisal. A - 3 0 J a c k Goodman, The Fireside Book.

edy.

(Comtimued om page 51 ) Page 35

BUREAU OF

LETTERS
TO THE

EDITOR
This magazine i s published for the informatiom d interest of the Naval a Service as a whole, &ut opinions expressed are not lzecessarily those of the Navy Department. Reference t o regulations, orders am? directives is for imformatiom only and does not by publication herein constitute authority for actiom. Articles of general interest may be forwarded to the Editor. 1943 OCTOBER NAVPERS-0 NUMBER 319
This column is open to unofficial communications from within the Naval Service on matters of general interest. However,it is n o t intended to conjlict in any way with Navy Regulations regarding the forwarding of official mail through channels, nor i s it to substitute for the policy of obtaining information from the local communding officer in all possible instances. Answers to correspondence addressed to the Editorwill be through this column only.

‘Now Hear This

There is no reasonwhy a fighting navy should not be a smart-appearing navy. Admiral Nimitz, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Fleet, has a fightingfleet, as the Japanesecould verify, and now he calls for more emphasis dress and on discipline in a letter to all units under his command. Writes the Admiral: “Ours is n great Navy which has behind it a record of achievement of which we are very proud. Most o f us are in the Navy because we want to
be. Therefore let us show, on every occasion, our pride in our chosen service by closelyobserving the rules of military etiquette and dress suitable to theoccasion. “The Commander in Chiefnotes an increasing laxity in miEitary manners and appearance on the part of many oficers andenlisted men. This has resulted in a let-down in those standards of smartness which distinguish an eficient and well disciplined organization. “These conditions can only be corrected from the top down and it is the duty o f a.11 senior oflicers to take such steps as are necessary to effect improvement. Responsible seniors will at once take corrective measures with due regard to operations or work in progress.”

. . .’

To

to an error on the third column of page 53 (Sept. 1943 issue) in which it was said that Andrew Francis Carter was the first Naval Reserve Officer toattaintherank of Commodore. I believe that this distinction belongs to Commodore George WilliamBauer, now retired, who held this rank in the Naval Reserve while attached to the Commandant,Twelfth Naval District. - . A. S., Lt. Comdr., USNR P
Answer: Commodore Carter was the first to attain the rank under an act in 1942 reviving the rank o f Commodore on the active list during time of war, as the item was meant to imply. However, the first Reserve commodore was Robert Pierpont Forshew, ranking from 23 July 1911. Commodore Bauer, appointed to rank 1 January, 1927, was the last Reserve commodore under the Naval Reserve laws in force prior to the new act of 1 July 1938. ,That law provided for one rear admiral instead o f commodore, and Commodore Bauer became the first Naval Reserve oficer to attain the rank of Rear Admiral.

I would like t o call your attention

THE FDITOR:

Because what Admiral Nimitz has tosay appliesnot only to hisPacific Fleet but to all hands afloat and ashore, we reprint it here. True Navy men and women will not wait for corrective measures to be applied-if it is important enough for Admiral Nimitz to say something about it, it is important enough for us to do something about it, on our own. Try it and see what a boost your own morale experiences when you are smart in your uniform and in your military etiquette. The Navy itself has given us enough in this war to justify our throwing out our chests with pride. Do your part by observing the rules which have been established for reasons proved by a hundred and fifty years’ experience of the world’s finest Navy.

Quotes o the Month f
Gen. George C. Marshall: “In brief, the strength of the enemy is steadily decreasing while the combined power of the United Nations is rapidly increasing, more rapidly with each succeeding month. There can be but one result (From his biennial report.)

. . .”

a

President Rdosevelt : “Hitler failed to provide his fortress witha roof. He also left various vulnerable spots in the walls, which we will point out to him in due time.”

72

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 11 12 1 O 3 1 15 1 1 18 19 20 4 6 7 2 22 23 25 26 27 1 24 28 29 30
Page 36

Secretary Knox: “Our Navy hasn’t seen a Japanese carrier in the last 4 months. Apparentlythey don’t like to come out where it’s wet.”
$ 7

EDITOR: (1) Do members of the Regular Navy in the V-12 program obtaincommissions in the U. S. N. or the U. S. N. R.? (2) If there isn’t any N. R. 0. T. C. in the school which they are attending is it possible for a V-12 student of the Regular Navy to obtain a commission in the Regular Navy? 13) Do medical and dental students have to obtain a state license before they are given their commissions, or do they obtain their commissions, upon graduation? - . A. A.,S K ~ C , P USN.
T O THE

General Eisenhower: “We are here to stay. Not one foot of Italian ground will be given up.”

Answers: (1) U. S. N. R. (2) All N. R. 0. C.students willhenceforth T. be selected from V-12 students at all V-12 units at the end of the second term of their freshman year in the V-12 Program. Those accepted at

(Continued om page 52)

6

ITHE MONTH’S NEWS.
1

, Italy Surrenders Unconditionally;
MacArthurTaKesSalamaua,Lae; Russians.-Make Sweeping Gains
I

I

(Period of 21 August Through 20 September)

the Allies the greatest tactical good. Any hope that the Naziswould fall The War back on their own or North Italian Italy collapsed as an Axis war power boundaries was dispelled, however,. 8September,5days after American when vicious counter and offensive and British Army and Navy units had thrusts were launched against Allied trodon the toe of the Italian boot Army and Navy forces which dug in and established their first beachheads; with new beachheads at Salerno. Announced General Dwight D. EisenSalerno, a headland some. 25 miles hower: Unconditional surrender. It south of Naples, brought U. S. Army followed in dramatic sequence the vic- and Naval units into bloody contact torious Allied sweep of Sicily, accom- with at least four veteran divisions of days. Capitulation of tough and determined Nazi troops. plished in 38 the Italian mainland opened wide sevSet back after initial landings, AIeral doors to full-scale, direct attack lied troopsinched slowly and stubon the German stronghold. with bornlyforward in succeeding days The surrender actually was signed the aid of superior air support and, on the day of invasion, 3 September, finally, full-scale pounding of enemy but it was not effected until it could do positions by Allied Naval units off-

shore. These units turned loose barrages of destruction from 15-inch guns which blasted a path fora salient below Salerno. B 18 September the situation was y reported in hand by General Eisenhower. General Sir Bernard L. Montgomery’s Eighth Army had accomplished an epic 200-mile push from the foot of the Italianboot and joined with its companion forces at Salerno. Allied air powerwas reported dominant and military observers were confident that theNazis must now fall back to thePo River. German resistance in the South of Italy was predicted a t a nend. Meanwhile, names from romanthe tic novels of old Italy reappeared in

Page 37

~

Possibly the brightest news for America inthesurrender was the Personnel Statistics steady flow of Italian warships into Allied harbors forpossible use against of the Naval Services theirformer war partner. Despite German attempts to destroy the The following totals of perItalian fleet and the chaoticcondisonnel were onactiveduty in tions and confused authority which the Navy, Marine Corps and existed afterthesurrender, it was Coast Guard on 31 July 1943: known by 20 September that more U.S.Navy USMC USCci than 100 warships were in Allied 0Wcers“180,000 22,200 8,200 hands. Enlisted” 1,602,000 293,000 143,000 That thiscapture of theItalian Total 1,782,000 315,200 151,200 fleet would eventually free British Naval units for action with the U. S. It is expected that by 31 Dein thePacific was predicted by British ”Official U. S. Navy Photograph. cember 1943 the above totals will Naval authorities. Other terms of the be increased to the following: ONE SHIP T H A T ISN’TCAM-. surrender placed Italian ports, facU.S.Navy USMC USCG OUFLAGED. The exchange ship tories, airfields, and production areas 0Wcers“201,00029,70010,500 Enlisted“ 2,093,000 370,000 161,000 Gripsholm(shown here at her at the disposal of the Allies. The religious world was shockedon New York pier before sailing on Total 2,294,000 399,700 171,500 16 September when Pius XII, in 2 September) this month was on a strong complaintPopethe German to These statistics include perher way to PortugueseIndia t o High Command, revealed that he and sonnel of the Women’s Reserves return Americans from Japan. the Italian Cardinals were virtual of the respective services, but do prisoners of war in their own domain not include members the Navy of at the Vatican. Field Marshal General the war dispatches. Genoa,Pisa of Nurse Corps or enrollees under Albert Kesselring’s onlyanswer was to the leaning tower,Naples, Gaeta, Pizthe Navy V-12 TrainingProzo, and other historical cities appeared reinforcegunemplacementsaround gram. to be the immediate objectives of the St. Peter’s Square and forbid entrance fast-spreading Allied advance and toallItalians.ThattheGermans were utilizing the shelter and safety conauest. In the South Pacific, American and The official surrender of Italy came of the Vatican was evident. Australian jungle fighters continued Meanwhile, Allied airraids were to roll back the Japanese tide on land, 40 days after the downfall of Musresumedonmilitary andindustrial solini and after 1,181 days, or about sea,and in the air. The Navy an3 years and 7 months, of Italian war operations in the suburbs of Rome. nounced the invasion of Arundel Elsewhere in Europe, things con- Island effort in behalf of the Axis. and on 18 September was tinued to turn for the worse for the engaged in mopping up There was an anticlimax. From operations somewhere inside or outside of Italy, Nazis. Berlin was reported practically there. The Japanese admitted damdeserted as bomb-weary civilians fled age to the the deposedDuce (according to the Marcus Island installations Nazi radio) proclaimed himself dicta- the city in long trains of freight cars, after another smashingNavy raid. on bicycles, by auto, and on foot. tor all over again and once more set Meanwhile, General Bombings of military objectives his bushfighters oustedMacArthurand himself up as the “popular” leader of the Japs from throughout the France, occupied their New Guineabase at Lae and allItaly.Germanyclaimed that he by paratroops” countries and Germany itself also MacArthur had been “rescued announced that “With from a remote mountain fortress. continued in great force. God’s help we are on our way back.” Back, of course, is back to the Philippines, which he hassworn to retake. Lae’s two airfields and the big field at Salamaua, which had earlier fallen to American-Aussie hands, brought the Jap stronghold and operating base a t Rabaul perilously close to the Allied air armada. 13 Salamaua had fallen on September after the Japs had been tricked into diverting their main force from Lae. It took 10 days for our forces to hack their way through the 10 miles of brush from their landing place t o S’alamaua itself. As the Navy continued to pound Jav shipping, supplies and transport sea lines, as well as lend vital air support, the victorious dispatchesfrom the Lae battlefront took on a “Gone With The Wind” flavor. Deep in that far-away jungle theheaviest fighting “Official U. S. Army Signal Corps Radio-Teleplloto. wasdone at places called Vernon’s Plantation and Heath’s Plantation. In the North, U. S. bombers based AMERICAN TRACTOR BLASTED A T SALERNO:German 88’s set in the recaptured Aleutians negothis American Caterpillar afire near Salerno after troops hadsuccesstiated a fourth raid 13 September on fully established beach-head. Strongly entrenched in the heights Paramushiru, Jap naval and air base overlooking the beach, crack Nazi artillery units strongly resisted the in the Kurile Islands. Tough OPPoSiinvasion until they were softened up by the pouBding of heavy guns tion cost us 10 of the 20 attacking bombers. from warships off the coast, and flattened by aerial bombardment.

__

” -

__

~”

Page 38

to friendly ports. KingChristian of Denmark was arrested by the German governors, a treatment almost immediately visited upon his advisers and Government officials. The Germans proclaimed Denmark under siege and instituted martial law.

More U-Boats Than Merchant Ships Sunk in August
In August, more U-boats were sunk thanmerchant ships, according to an OWI and British Ministry of Information announcement, issued after consultation with the BritishAdmiralty, the U. S. Navy Department, and the Canadian Department National of Defense. , Said the announcement: “It is significant that the enemy made virtually noattempttoattackNorth Atlanticshipping,andopportunities for attacking the U-boats have been relatively few. Nevertheless, U-boats have been hunted relentlessly on all stations wherever they have appeared and a heavy toll has been taken of the enemy.” Of more than 90 U-boats announced as sunk during May, June, andJuly, 29 weresunk by United States forces alone. Naval airand surface forces destroyed 24 and 5 were sunk by Army aircraft. The 24 were disposed of as follows: By destroyer and PT boat, 2; by destroyers and (Martin aircraft Mariners), 1; by long-range patrol planes (Martin Mariners, Vega Venturas, andConsolidated Catalinasand Liberators, 11; by carrier-basedaircraft (Grumman Avengers, assisted by GrummanWildcats), 9, and by Navy aircraft (type unreported), 1.

72
Italian forces first turned on their former allies on 19 September when two Italian divisions droveGerman troopsfrom the island of Sardinia. Fighting French, Italians, and Americans started later a campaign to ‘pushthe Germans off Corsica. Closely following the Marcus raid, the Navy slashed at Jap installations on two islands in the Gilbert group 19 September. Tarawa Island and Nauru Island were attacked by strong naval forces. Each island bases Japaircraft.
$ 7

*

Official U. S. Army Signal Corps Photograph.

TYPICAL of thefierce,yard-byyard fighting throughout the South Pacific last month i s this photograph of an American infantryman aduancilzg through a New Georgia jungle. The dead Jap at his side goes unnoticed as he concelztrates onthe task at hand.
~~

*

Allied amphibious forces captured two islands near Naples 18 September: Procida, just off the short upper arm of the bay west of Naples, and Ponza, 65 miles northwest of Naples. (A picture story of the Allies capturing Italian an island appears on page 32.)

Nazi nervousness over possible future invasionpointsexhibited itself inthe Scandinavian countries and also in theBalkans. A mystery which may remain unsolved until after the waroccurred 28 Augustwhen King Boris of Bulgaria “died” mysteriously after a visit to Hitler. Simultaneously, military and civilian revolt against Nazi oppressors broke out anew in Denmark. First, the Danish Navy blew up its own storehouses and supplies and turned its guns on the Nazi units at Copenhagen. Many Danish ships admittedly escaped and made theirway

72

All along the Russian front the Red Army continued its savage and successful drives. Novorossiisk, second .most important Red Navy base, was recaptured 17 September and a day later the recapture of the great rail center of Bryansk was reported from Moscow. The Russians earlier had regained the steel-producing Donets Basin. On a long front, they pushed nearer and nearer the Dnieper.

a

Lord Louis Mountbatten,head of the British Commandos, was assigned to Asia in a military role equivalent to General MacArthur’s in the South Pacific. The British campaign against the ,Japanese from within Asia will be directed by Mountbatten.

*

Great Britain “celebrated” the third anniversary of the London blitz on 7 September with the sixth successive day of British and American air pounding of German military targets 03 the Continent.

*

“Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

”Prop Wash (NAS,Whidbey Island, Wash. )

.

“Best damn lzauigator ilz the business.”

Chinese Foreign Minister Dr. T. V. Soong revealed in Washington 14 September that China has rejected “another” Japanese peace offer made recently, containing the most generous terms so far offered. D . Soong said r that China will fight to a full victory and that he doubted that any “responsible CMnese group’’ woad countenance a peace treaty with Japan.

PC-565 with crossed-out swastika
A 170-foot United States Patrol Chaserdestroyed a German U-boat so swiftly in the Atlantic recentlythat the underseas craft didn’t have a chance fight to back. PC-565 was guarding a convoywhen her sound apparatus picked up the hum a sub’s of motors. Depthchargesbroughtthe raider to the surface, eventually sank her.
Page 39

The Navy
With plans being formulated the for observance this year of Navy Day (27 October), it is revealed that the U. S. Navy is now the mightiestsurface fleet in world history, with 14,072 vessels, and the most powerful naval air force in the world, of more than 18,000 planes. The figures axe included in a published inventory of the Navy’s present-day strength, showing its tremendous expansion since 1940.. Three years ago therewere only 1,076

vessels instead of 14,072; only 383 warships against as today’s 613; only 1,744 planes as compaxed with today’s aerial armada of18,269 naval planes of all types. Plans for the observance of Navy Day include a program of activities during the week prior to 27 October with several hundred radio programs tying in with the event. These activities will come to a climax on Navy Day when appropriate ceremonies will be held. Slogan for 1943 has been announced as “Your Navy-Spearhead of Victory.”

Sub-Sank Big Name

A clean sweep by Naval Aviation was the key to victory in the 37-day campaign at Munda. Navy andMarine Corps planes made up two-thirds of the entire attacking air force and virtually eliminated enemy air opposition by downing 358 Jap planes. This destruction of Jap aircraft was estimated to have accounted for all but 20 or 30of the total enemy planes in thearea. It wasaccomplished at a cost of93U. S. planes. Catalina patrol planes rescued crews of many o f these. Crippling blows were struck during the first 2 days of the action, when our air fighters accounted for 125 Jap aircraftwhile losing 25 of our own planes. High level, medium altitude, dive and glider bombing all played their parts. (For a description, by naval pilots of an air battle over Guadalcanal see Page 48.)
7%

Changes in the Navy’s aeronautics organization placed fiveBuAer divisions inthe Office of CNO. These were Planning,Personnel,Training, Flight and Air Information. Under the plan, which recently established the new Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Air), the present Aviation Division of Naval Operations is absorbed intothe five divisions listed above except that the Naval Air Transport Service will cona separate division under tinue as the new Deputy CNO (Air). The Director of Marine Corps Aviation and appropriateMarineCorps offices in BuAer are assigned directly tothe Deputy CNO (Air). BuAer will continue to function as t%mat6riel bureau, for which it was originally organized.

LT. (JG) ROY S. WHZTCOMB

DONALD T. WARD, AP1 c William S. Stotts, ARM2c, 21, was the first man the Martin Mariner on to see a long, dark object more than 12 miles away on the calm Atlantic. Donald T. Ward, APlc, 19, lifted his binoculars, quickly tugged at the arm Lt. (jg) Roy S. Whitcomb, 26, the pilot. of Lt. (jg) Whitcomb identified the object as a submarine,turnedto gain cloudcover.By this time, the U-boat, new and equipped with a heavy battery of antiaircraft guns, had sighted the plane. Heavy fire; including tracer shells, pouredfrom the sub. Because she apparently was about to submerge, Lt. (jg) Whitcomb decided to begin his attack run at once. Heavierfire failed to stop the plane. Co-pilot Ward released his bombs from 50 feet up. He hit the jackpot. Two bombs struck the U-boat’s deck. Others landed close aboard on both port and starboard side. Returning a minute later, the Navy fliers saw boiling water, brown stains, spreading oil, and 1 . to 20 bobbing heads. The Martin Mariner 5 dropped a liferaft. A U. S. Navy seaplanetender picked upseven Germans. Thus ended a U-boat sinkina typical of many in recent months by U. S. Naval aircraft. What made this incident stand out was that when his identity had been checked, the sub’s commander (now a prisoner) was found to be Kapitanleutnant Friedrich Guggenberger, holder of the Oak Leaves to theKnight’s Crossof the IronCross for numerous U-boat achievements, the most important of which was the sinking of the famous British aircraft carrierArk Royal in December 1941. A l l enlisted members of the plane’s crewwere advanced in rating. In addition to Stotts and Ward, they were Fred Paul Green, ACMM, 24; James R. Burleson, ARMlc, 20; Thomas W. Govern, A ” 2 c , 25; Claude L.Mathews, Slc, 21; and Henry E. Hill, Jr., AOM2c, 28. Other officers aboard wereLt. (jg) Jorden B. Collins, USNR, 24, and Ensign Robert M. Sparks, USNR, 23.

“Official U. S. Sary P’hotographs.

Blue last month replaced red as the color of the border enclosing the insignia onmilitaryairplanes of the UnitedStates. Atquick glance, the red made the U. S. insignia look too much like the Japanese. Thereareno“radiator clubs” a t Annapolis this year. Traditionally made up of midshipmen who preferred to resttheirfeet on theradiators rather than partake in leisure-hour sports and exercises, the clubs folded simply because of lack of membership. Lost inthe New Georgia jungle, Marine Corp. Carl A. Rasmussen encountered three men he took for Marines. One turned around and he knew theywere Japs. Unseen, Rasmussen ducked behind a rock, but the Japs heard him put a clip of cartridges intohis pistol and dove for cover. Now Rasmussen could spot only two. He fired six shots; fled when the hidden J a p answered with a rifle. Next day, back with an Army patrol, Rasmussen found two dead Japs-one shotthroughthe temple, the other through the chest.

*

a

a

Page 40

A l l hands wererescuedwhen the minesweeper Wasmuth (a converted four-stack destroyer) broke in two in the North Pacific, 30-odd miles from Unimak, last December. The rescue tanker Ramapo bucked a 70-mile gale for 355 hours before she succeeded in shootinga line to the forward half of the Wasmuth, where the 136 crewmen gathered. had Only casualty occurred 2 days later when a machinist’s mate, safe on the beach at Dutch Harbor, slipped and broke his a r m

members, training as mail clerks and in aviation instrument maintenance; for officers, special instruction in ordnance and expansion of the aerology training program. (For othertraining course news, see page 70.) credited to the Navy in August, officer and enlisted personnel of the Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps purchased $4,647,693 through the allotment plan. The remainder was bought by Navy civilian employees. From its founding in 1867, the Navy’s Civil Engineer Corps was open to men only. Last month the barrier was lifted as Ensign Kathleen F. Lux added CEC to the W-V ( S ) following her name. Holder of an engineering degree from Purdue University, Ensign Lux was commissioned 9 March 1943 and was on duty in the Bureau of Yards and Docks for several months without a CEC status.Sherelishes the fact that she is the first woman member of the Corps and would like to be orderedto “Island X” to practice her specialty of sanitary engineering. Proof that G. I. coffee never loses its strength: IntheSouth Pacific, mess U. 8.Coast Guardsmen had their cooks save coffee grounds for several days, then dump them in a large can and add boiling water. Into the brew went white uniforms. Result: .a perfect camouflage job. Crewmen of Navy blimps on antisubmarine patrol in the Seattle area recently added a n extra-curricular ih duty: They report all schools of f s sighted andcommunicate the news by short wave to fishing vessels. Blimpmencanspotfish that mighttake fishing vessels, employingusual methods, hours to locate. Thearrangement was developed by Vice Admiral FrankJack Fletcher, USN, andthe Coordinator of Fisheries. Twenty-four persons were killed, 250 injured, and hangars and barracks were wrecked 17 September whenammunition in transit exploded at the Naval Air Station a t Norfolk, Va. Among those killed was Elizabeth Korensky, S ~ C , Women’s Reserve first member to die in line of duty. In the Mediterranean, Escort Carin rier “ B (for her earlier activity the Atlantic see page 19) and the U. S. S. George E. Badger, a n escort vessel converted from an old, four-stack destroyer, chalked UP two German U-boats as blasted to the bottom and another one severely damaged. On a South Pacific island, Seabees and Marines visited “Joe’s Place,” came away from the mahogany-andOf the $22,490,062 in war bond sales

Once More Frigates Serve With Fleet

Yk

Coast Guard re-established the rating of Torpedoman’s Mate, non-existent since the Spanish-American War. The rating was made necessary when the Navy assigned some of its escort destroyers to the Coast Guard.The ships are equipped with torpedotubes. New training courses adopted for the Women’s Reserve: For enlisted

&

a

a

a

a

“Official U. S. Navy Photograph.

CAPT. THOMASLEIGH GATCH, VSN, who won glory and two Navy Crossesand was wounded while commanding the famed “Battleship XJ’ in the South Pacific last year,wassworn in as Judge AdvocateGeneral and proAdmiral last moted to Rear month. wounds the His from Battle of Santa Cruz Islands not fully healed, Admiral Gatch resumed command of his ship f o r the Battle of Guadalcanal, sank at least one Japanese cruiser, and assisted ilz thedestruction and damaging of other enemy vessels. AS JAG, Admiral Gatch succeeds Rear Admiral Walter B. Woodson, VSN, who retiredafter 42 years’ service. Admiral Woodson commanded the heavy cruiser “Houston” which took President RooseBelt t o Hawaii in 1934, and served duririg 1937-38 as Naval Aide t o the Chief Executive.

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One of the newest frigates to join the Navy’s rapidly growing fleet, the U. S. S. Machias (above) was launched at Milwaukee. T h c designation frigate has been giver a new type twin-screw corvette The 1943 frigate hasbeen designec specifically to combat U-boats Congress authorized the construction of America’s original frigate! in 1794. Two of the original vessels are still in commission: thf U. S. S. Constellation, administrative flagship of CinCLant, Newport R. I., and theU. S. S. Constitution Navy Yard, Boston. First of thc new frigates, Canadian-built fol the U.S. Navy, are inservice. T h e new ships larger are than thr standardBritish corvette. Somewhat similarto U. S. gunboats, the) areprimarilyheavyduty vessels.

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teakwood shack with free hamburgers a herd of 300 native ground from cattle. On same the island, other Marines heard a bell that sounded like a Good Humorwagon, followed the sound, received free cake, lemonade, and doughnuts from a mess sergeant driving a jeep.

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Commander George 8. Piper, USNR, relieved Capt. Emmet P. Forrestel, USN, as aide to AstSecNav Ralph A. Bard. Captain Forrestel was ordered with the Pacific Fleet. toseaduty Commander Piper was a special assistant to Mr. Bard.

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Destroyer escort production records were set a t two Massachusetts shipAt Hingham, H. yardslastmonth. M.S. Fitmoy (building for the British Navy under Lend-Lease)was launched 8y2 days after her keelbas laid. At Quincy, the U. S. S. Harmon.:(named in honor of Leonard Roy Aapnnon, StMlc, USN, killed inthe Battle of Guadalcanal awarded and a" Navy Cross posthumously) was delivered t o the Navy exactly 92 day&. after her keel was laid.

Her name steeped with tradition and famed in history, the Navy's newest Commodore J~Cmf&~k Mgan, USN, Waspseventh vessel to bear that name-slides down the ways at theBethiecommanding oGcerof the U. S, Naval hem Steel Co.3 Fore River Yard a t Quincy, Mass. The new 25,000-ton aircraft Operating, Base a t Londonderry, carrier replaces Wasp No. 6,sunk in the SouthPacific on 15 September, 1942 Northern Ireland, was killedin an air- by torpedoes from a U. S. destroyer, after being badly damaged by enemy torplane crash 4 September, in Northern pedoes. (INFORMATION BULLETIN, November, 1942, p. 21.) The first Wasp was of Navy, and was with the first American Ireland. CommodoreLogan, 54, was an eight-gun schooner the Continental squadron to put to sea during the Revolution in November, 1777. She was advanced to that rank24 August. He blown up by Americans to prevent her falling into British hands. The second was a native of Charleston, S. C : Wasp, 18 guns, was built in 1806. Engaging the British brig Frolic, 22 guns, in 1812 the Wasp defeated and captured theFrolic. A short time later, however, the Wasp was captured by H. M.S. Poictiers, which also recaptured the Frolic. Seersucker in Summer Wasp No. 3 was built in 1813, an 18-gun ship. In 1814, after taking several British vessels as prizes, the Wasp disappearedand was neverheard fromagain. For Navy Women Wasp No. 4 had been the yacht Columbia, was purchased during the SpanishGray white, and narrow-striped, West Indies. American war, and used in the blockade of Spanish ports in the woven seersucker dresses with match- She wasplacedout of commission 1 December 1919. Wasp5was a motor ingjackets will replace the present patrol boat taken over by the Navy on 3 November 1917, and returned to her name. Wasp navy-blue cotton suit as the summer owner in 1918. Wasp 6 was the first aircraft carrier to carry the working uniformfor women in the 7 was formerly the U.S. S. Oriskany, named in honor of the battleof Oriskany, fought in Oneida County, N. Y . , during the American Revolution. The name U. S. NavalReserve. I n basicdesign Oriskany has been assigned another carrier, now building. this willbe similarto presentuniforms. The change, to go into effect next The new dress has short sleeves, a lored with one real and three simuyear, was made to provide more consoft round neckline, a trim set-in belt, lated pockets, and a line of navy-blue venient washable hot-weather garb, and a kick-pleat skirt. Round tabs buttons run down the front. There and will be adopted by bath officer an the collar hold secure a newbut-are longsleeves; and lapels are set and enlisted personnel. and Rank ton-on tie, eliminating bulky mate-sharplyalong the collarline. rating willbe shown by appropriate rial at the back of the neck. insignia innavy blue. Collarless, the jacket is simplytaiHome Front I Red I The Cross warned families and friends of American fighting men that enemy short wave radio lists and reports of American killed and captured Casualties among navalpersonnelthrough 18 Septembertotaled 29,589. were unreliable and false. TheenThe totals since 7 December 1941: emy, says the Red Cross, is apparently using this method to underminehome Dead Wounded Missing 3 Prisoners 1 Total front morale. The RedCrassasked U.S. Navy___._-____ 8,016 2,665 2,226 22,094 9,187 families and friends of U. S. fighters u. S. Marine Corps" 2,526 2,021 660 7,132 1.925 U. S. Coast Guard-" to rely only on official facts and fig182 22 158 1 , 363 ures on American prisoners and casTotal ____--__10,219 10,005 5,213 4,152 29,589 ualties. f? lA number of personnel now carried in missing status are undoubtedly prisoners of war not yet offlcially reported as such. Construction of the famed Liberty I tapered I being is gradually ships off in
a.,

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A New Wasp About To Join

the Fleet

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CASUALTYFIGURES

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favor of the newer model Victory ship. The latter has a maximum speed of 17 knots against the average 11 knots of the Liberty type. More than 1,000 are now under construction. (A drawing of the Victory shipappearson page .22.) Collected in a Nation-wide campaign supported by thousands of druggists,hospitals, and other contributors, 11,000,000 doses (5 grains each) of quinine are en route to the fightingfrontsfor useagainstmalaria. Brig. Gen. Keller E. Rockey, assistant to the Commandant, U. s.Marine Corps, was promotedto major genwal, to rank from 28 September 1942. The St. Louis Cardinals clinched their secondconsecutive pennant 19 September, walloping the Chicago Cubs in a double header. The Cards went into the final days the season of with a runaway leadof 18 games over and with the second-placeDodgers the rest of the league strung well out behind. The New YorkYankees on 25 September won the American League pennant and will face the Cards in the World Series in New York and St. Louis. Add wartime titles: WASP (not the aircraft carrier). It’s the official des-

UNVEILED in the Marcus Island raid last month was the Nauy’s newest plane, the Grumman Hellcat. Inheriting all the good qualities of its predecessor, the Grumman Wildcat, and adding many more (increased range, speed, climb, maneuverability and altitude capacity), the Hellcat incorporates combined experience Navy fliers have gained im the Pacific war.
ignation for any woman pilot of the Army Air Forces and WBS chosen by Gen. Henry H. Arnold, AAF commanding general, fro’m the initials o f “Women’s Air Force Service Pilot.” Included are pilots of the Women’s Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron (WAFS), Women’s Auxiliary Flying Training Detachment (WF’TD), and other women pilots inthe AAF. WASPS wear a distinctive uniform but serve in a civilian status.

NAVY NAMES
A newgravingdock,BollesDock, honoring the late Commander Harry A. Bolles (CEO, USN, killed in a plane crash in the Aleutians in July, 1943.

CHANGE OF COMMAND
Rear Admiral Andrew C. McFall, to Chief of the Naval Air Operational Training, relieving Vice Admiral Arthur B. Cook, USN, recently named Commandant of the 10th Naval District and Commander, Caribbean Sea Frontier. F. Hussey, Rear Admiral George uSN, to Assistant Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, relieving Rear Admiral Theodore Davis Ruddock, USN, to sea.
USN,

Sub Crews Tune in Radio Tokyo
“We were sitting quietly in a bay a t the very time the Japs were claiming to havesunkour ship,” said Croel NewtonKicker, Jr., CY USN, whose submarine had returned from a cruise in the SouthPacific. “Another time,” he continued, “we heard the enemy announce the sinking of the seaplane tender Langley. We could see the ship anchored safely just a short distance away. The Japs broadcast the destruction of the Langley several times beforeit finally went down.” “Some of the best jokes I have heard were told during the hours we sat on the bottombeforeresuming our. raids,” Kicker further commented. “It’s a tough life aboard a submarine, but one like because it means we carrying the battle to the enemy.’’

Some of the men who fought and won the Battle of Guadalcanal received recognition of a new type last month. Marine artists who lived under fire saw their paintings and sketches being exhibited in the National Art Gallery ,in Washilzgton.One of thedrawings,byanunknowlz marinepriuate,wasbrought back byLt.Comdr.William N. New, (MC), USN. He found the sketch on anoldpiece of cardboard im aB ambulancedurilzg thebloodybattle of the MatanikauRiver on 8 October 1942. I t depicts a group of litter-bearers carrying a wounded marine to safety through the jungle.

(An article detailing life and duty aboard submarinesstarts onpage 10.)

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Navv Department Communiaues I 1
d

AndotherCommwiiques
N o . 459: 21 August 1943

(Printed.& Italic) Pertinent. to theUnitedStatesNavy
ing and strafing missions were carried cut againstKiska by U.S. Army Liberator. Mitchell and Dauntless bombers and Lightning fighters. Buildings a t Gertrude Cove and North Head were destroyed by direct hits, and fires resulted a t Gertrude Cove, North Head, the main camp and North of Reynard Cove. Light antiaircraft fire was encountered. On 14 August: (a) In the early morning hours a Navy Catalinathreetimes bombed installations on Kiska, with unreported results. intervals, light U 5. . (b) At hourly Naval surface units bombarded Kiska four times. No return fire was encountered. (c) In the late afternoon U S. Army . Liberators, Mitchells and Lightnings bombed and strafed enemy positions on Kiska. Results were not reported.

(b) During a 12-hour period from morning to evening, 18 attack missions were carried out against North Head, Pacific Fleet has landed a force o United South Head, the runway, main camp and f States and Canadian troops on Kiska, submarine base on Kiska and LittleKiska. beginning on 15 August. 2. No Japanese have been found. There Large forces of Liberator heavy bombers, Mitchell medium bombers, Army Dauntwere indications of recent hasty evacualess dive bombers (Doublas A-24), and tion of the Japanese garrison. Presumably, the heavy bombardments by our Lightning and Warhawk fighters particiships and planes that have been carried pated in these attacks. In additionto the bombings, cannon-firing Mitchells on for some time and the danger t o their supply lines by our capture of Attu made successfully attacked shore installations, while the fighter planes strafed at low the enemy positions on Kiska untenable. It is not known how the Japanese got altitudes. Many explosions resulted and numerous fires were started. The enemy's away, but it is possible that enemy suropposition consisted of sporadic antiface ships were able t o reach Kiska under aircraft fire. cover of the heavv foes that havebeen " O n 5 A u g u t : In he early morning light prevalent. Naval surface units shelled Gertrude Cove 3. Since the air and surface bombardand the main camp on Kiska. No return ments in the latter part of July had apfire was encountered. parently destroyed Japanese radio equipOn 6 August: Light Naval surface units ment on Kiska, the assumption was that they were not in communication with the again bombarded Kiska, scoring hits in the target area. There was no return Are. homeland. Consequently, no release of O n 8 August: The Kiska main camp and Allied operations against Kiska has been made since 31 July, as it would have "the Gertrude Cove area were the targets conveyed information to the enemy which in a further bombardment by light Naval surface units, with no return fire. heotherwise would not have had.This On 9 August: Light Naval surface units particularly applied to the period during shelled Gertrude Cove, themain camp which thetransports were in areas exand enemy positions on a hill North of posed to enemy submarineattacksand Reynard Cove. while they were unloading. O n 10 August: (a) Before dawn, GerNo. 460: 21 A u p s t 1943 trude Cove andthemaincamp again N o r t h Pacific: 1 In the period from 1 were bombarded by light Naval surface . August t o 14 August, inclusive, U. S. units. (b) Large forces of Liberator heavy Army and Navy aircraft and heavy and light U. S. Naval surface units carried bombers, Mitchell medium bombers, Army out thefollowing previously unannounced Dauntless dive bombers (Douglas A-24), attacks on Kiska Island and Little Kiska: and Lightning and Warhawk fghters carOn 1 August: Liberator heavy bombers ried out 24 bombing and strafingmissions on Kiska. Only light antiaircraft fire (Consolidated B-24) dropped bombs through solid overcast O n the Kiska main was encountered. Many fires were started. camp area. (c) During the night, a Catalina patrol On 2 August: (a) In the afternoon bomber dropped bombs on Kiska. Liberator attacked North Head on Kiska, O n 11 August: (a) In the early mornand scored hits in the area. ng,light Naval surface units shelled South (b) Immediately following the above Head and Gertrude Cove, starting fires. airattack, heavy andlight U. 5. Naval (b) Gertrude Cove, Reynard Cove, North surface units heavily bombarded the main Head and Little Kiska were thetargets camp, submarine base, North Head, South of 21 bombing and strafing missions carHead and Gertrude Cove on Kiska Island, ried out during the by Liberator heavy day as well as enemy positions on LittleKiska. bombers, Mitchell medium bombers, Army More than 2,300 rounds of large and Dauntless dive bombers (Douglas A-24) medium caliber shells were fired a t t h e and Lightning and Warhawk fighters. targets, with return no fire from t h e Fires were started in all areas and conenemy. siderabledebris, was observed in enemy (c) Early the same evening Mitchell emplacements on Little Kiska. medium bombers (North American B-25) (c) A Catalina patrol bomber dropped and Lightningfighters (Lockheed P 3 ) bombs on the main camp and Gertrude -8 bombed and strafed Little Kiska. Cove during the night. On 3 August: (a) In the early morning, On 12 Auqust: (a) Shortly after midlight Naval surface units shelled Gernight, a light Naval surface unit shelled trude Cove and the main camparea on Kiska. Kiska. Return fire by the enemy was light (b) In the morning,heavy and light and brief. Naval surface units bombarded the south (b) Four bombing and straflng attacks coast of Kiska. Gertrude Cove and were carried out by Mitchell medium Bukhti Point were the main targets. bombers and Warhawk (Curtiss P 4 ) and There was no return fire. Lightning fighters on North Head, South (c) The Kiska area .was heavily bombed Head, t h e runway, seaplane hangar area and thoroughly strafedduringthe day and main the camp on Kiska. Little in 20 attacks by forces of Liberator heavy Kiska was strafed. Hits were observed i n bombers, Mitchell medium bombers, Army all target areas. Dauntless dive bombers, and Warhawk O n 4 August: (a) Shortly aftermidand Lightning fighters. Many fires were night, a Navy Catalina patrol bomber started. (Consolidated PBY) dropped exposive and On 13 August: (a) Light U. S. Naval incendiary bombs on the Kiska main camu Surface units bombarded Kiska early in and submarine base. Large fires resulteh the morning, drawing no return fire. from t h e attack. (b) During the afternoon nine bomb-

North Pacific: 1. A Task Force of the

No. 461: 23 August 1943
North Pacific: 1. U. S. and Canadian troops rare continuing the occupation of positions on Kiska and in the adjacent area. A landing has been made on Segula Island, about 20 miles east of Kiska, with no Japanese being found. 2 Three Japanesemidgetsubmarines, . apparently damaged by demolition bombs. were found on the marine railway at the submarine base on Kiska.

Allied Headquarters i the Southn west Pacific, 23 August-Kula Gulf: Our light naval craft in a night sweep destroyed or seriously damaged six enemy barges. Allied Headquarters in the Southwest Pacific, 24 August-Our light naval craft executed a sweep of coves on the southern coast of Kolombangara Island and in the Kula Gulf, attacking barge hideouts. Allied Headquarters i N o r t h n Africa, 24 August-It was announced that theFrench light cruisers <'Le Fantastique" and "Le Terrible" are working in active cooperation with Allied naval forcesinthe Mediterranean. Light coastal forces of the British and American navies engaged in normal sweeps 08 the coast ofthe Calabrian Peninsula. In a recent message to American naval and military forces concerned, Admiral of the Fleet Cunningham mentioned the admiration with which he watched the splendid and rapid advance of the Seventh Army to Messina during the Sicilian campaign. He said he was fully aware of the great contribution to this success by the United States Navy and asked that his satisfaction might be expressed to all American naval forces on the north coast of Sicily on what had been a model and eflective application of sea power in support of land operations. Allied Headquarters in the Southwest Pacific, 2 S e p t e m b e r d r fight-

ers on a coastal sweep destroyed two barges and a small cargo vessel near Paraso. I n Vella Gulf our l i g h t naval craft onnight patrol sank one loaded barge and damaged two others. Allied Headquarters in the Southwest Pacific, 6 September-Me: In a cordinated ground, air, and naval operation ourtroops in heavy force have successfully landed on the coast northeast of Lae, cutting the enemy’s line of communication to Finschhufen and the north coast. of New Guinea. The movement wasacompletesurprise and the landing was made with little opposition. The troops came ashore under cover of a smoke screen, following a naval bombardment, and protected by air formations. The movement to invest and isolate the Lae-Salamaua area is now under way. Kolombangara, Vilas: Our medium and heavy units bombed enemy base hideouts Webster and Cove. Our naval craft on night patrol destroyed two enemybarges north of theisland. Allied Headquarters in the Southwest Pacific,7 September-Vella Gulf: Our l i g h t naval craft destroyed three enemy barges in a n i g h t action.

destroyed included hangars, fuel and ammunition storage, shops and living quarters. The two landing strips were severely damaged b y heavy bombs. An enemy trawler trapped near island the was sunk by our planes. Allied Headquarters in the Southwest Pacific 12 September - Kolombangara: Our light naval craft on coast patrol attacked and destroyed three barges. Fighters destroyed o m barge.

No. 463: 13 September 1943
North Pacific: 1. On 13 September (Paramushiru time) a formation of Army Liberator (Consolidated B-24) heavy bombers and Mitchell (North American E 2 5 ) medium bombers, successfully attacked enemy shipping and ground installations in the Paramushiru Island area. 2 In spite of spirited enemy opposition, . in the form of heavy antiaircraft fire and fighter interception, the U. S. bombers scored numerous hits on ground installations, set on fire a transport, which was left in a sinking condition, damaged another transport,scored hits on threecargo vessels, one of which exploded, and strafed numerous smallcraft, setting many on lire. 3 Upwards of 25 enemy fighters at. tacked the U. S. planes, and in a running engagement, which lasted for 50 minutes, the U. S. bombers shot down 10 enemy fighters and probably 3 more. Four U. S. planes are known to have been lost due to enemy action, and six other failed t o return.

emy positions by strong forces of cruisers and destroyers continues. I n one day one United States cruiser fired 355 rounds on enemy tanks and machine-gun nests. 2. Allied n a v a l forces continue to assist Army movements into the Taranto area and the advance of the Eighth Army on the coast of Calabria. 3. The Island of Capri was occupied b y an Allied fwce during the afternoon of 1 2 September. Thedefense of the island remainedwiththeItaliannaval and militaryauthorities,who are cooperating with ours.

No. 465: 16 September 1943
S o u t h Pacific (all dates are east longi. tude) : 1 On 13-14 September, during the night, Japanese planes bombed the Lunga Point Area on Guadalcanal Island. Some minor damage was sustained. 2 On the same night a Japanese . bomber attacked U. S. positions on Russell Island, but cawed no damage. 3. No personnel casualties resulted from either of the above raids.

No. 462: 9 September 1943
Pacific and Far East: 1 U. S. sub. marines have reported the sinking of six enemy vessels and the damaging of four others in operations against the enemy i n waters of these areas, as follows: Sunk: 2 large freighters. 1 large cargo. 1 medium tanker. 1 small freighter. 1 medium cargo. Damaged: 1 large cargo. 2 small freighter. cargoes. 1 medium
2 These actions have not been an. nounced in anyprevious Navy Department Communique.

Allied Headquarters in .the Southwest Pacific 1 3 September-Finschhafen: Ourl i g h t naval craft on night patrol sank three enemy barges and damaged a fourth at BlucherPoint and started fires near Kanomi village. Enemy shore guns and aircraft shelled and bombed our units without egect.

Allied Headquarters in North Africa, September-Unloading on the beaches in the Salerno area continues satisfactorily. Destroyers working inshore are bombardingenemy positions and troop concentrations. Yesterday, 15 September, targets in the Salerno area also were bombarded b y battleships. I t is reported that 28 further small units of the Italian Navy arrived at Palermo on 13-1 1 September.
16

No. 466: 17 September 1943
as the resultof an under water explosion in Italian waters on 11 September, 1943. 2. The tug U. S. 5. Navajo was sunk as the result of a n under water explosion in the South Pacific area on12 September,
1943. 3 The tug U. S. S. Nauset was sunk as . a result of enemy action in the Mediter1 The destroyer U.S. 8.Rowan was sunk .

Allied Headquarters in the Southwest Pacific, 9 September-Huon Gulf: During enemy air attacks 4 Sept. our surface ships and antiaircraft defense shot down two torpedo planes and four dive-bombers. Damage sustained b y ournaval vessels WSLS superficial. Pearl Harbor, 9 September-A task forcecommanded b y RearAdmiral Charles A. Pownall, USN, attacked Marcus Island at dawn on 1 September east longitude time. The firstwave of the attack apparently caught the enemy completely by surprise. It is estimated that the attack made in several waves throughout the day destroyed 80 percent o f militaryinstallations on the island. Our losses totaled two fighters one and torpedo plane. Some antiaircraft was fire encountered by the initial waves was but eliminated b y succeeding attacks. Fires startedthroughout‘the island were still burning the day following the attack. No enemy planes left the ground. Seventwin-motored bombers which were parked on the runway were destroyed b y our fighters. Installations

No. 464: 14 September 1943
1 The U. 5. submarine Grenadier has . failed to return from patrol operations and must be presumed to be lost.The next of kin of personnel in the Grenadier have been so informed. MediterraneanArea: 2. On 23 August, the U. 5. 5. submarine chaser 694 and the U. S. S. submarine chaser 696 were sunk as a result of enemy bombing. The nexb of kin of all casualties have been notified. pacific Area (alldatesareeast longitude) : 3. On 13 September, during the night, 15 Japanese planes attacked Funafuti, Ellice Islands. One enemy plane was shot down by antiaircraft fire. Material damage sustained was slight.

ranean on 9 September, 1943. 4 Next of kin of all casualties aboard . the Nauset have been notified. The next of kin of casualties aboard the R o m n and the Navajo will be notifled as ‘soon as possible.

No. 4G7: 19 September 1943
South Pacific (All dates are east longitude) : 1 During the night of 15 Sep. tember, a Japanese plane bombed Guadalcanal Island. Some minor damage was sustained and one man was injured.

Allied Headquarters in the Southwest Pacific 14 September-Solomons;Kula Gulf: Our l i g h t naval craft attacked and damaged five enemy barges during n i g h t patrol. Gunfire from barges and shore positions caused minor damage to our units. Allied Headquarters in North Africa 1 5 September-1. I n spite of fierce enemy resistance and air interference, troops with their supplies and equipment continue to be disembarked on the beaches in the Salerno area b y the Royal and United States Navies, working under ViceAdmiralHenry K. Hew-itt, USN. The bombardment of enI

“By yolcr leave, Sir!”

”Dope Sheet (NAS, Norfolk, Va.).

Page 45

THE GREENLAND ICE CAP as photographed by naval aviators in 1942. I t was in such a ragged, desolate
regiolz as this an Army Flying Fortress was forced down. Its crew was marooned forfiue months before finalrescue of survivors, effected with Navy help, was achieued.

Five Months on the Ice-Cap
Navy, Coast Guard, Army Worked Together To Bring BackSurvivors of ArcticOrdeal
From November 1942 to April 1943 members of the crew of a Flying Fortress were marooned on Greenthe land Ice Cap despite almost continuous rescue efforts. Finally, Bernt Balchen, in a Navy PBY with a Navy crew, brought survivors to safety. As it was puttogetherlongafter the rescue, the story was one of hardship, death, and heroism. Those rescued were Capt. Armand L. Monteverde, pilot; Lt. Harry E. Spencer, jr., co-pilot; Lt. William F. O’Hara, navigator; Sgt. Paul Spina, J. engineer; Sgt. Alexander F. Tucciarone,assistant engineer;Tech. Sgt. Alfred C . Best, observer, and Staff Sgt. Lloyd Puryear, observer. The following were killed: Lt. John A. Pritchard, jr., oscc; Lt. Max H. Demorest, USA; Radioman Benjamin A. Bottoms, USCG; Corp. Loren E. Howarth, radio operator,and Pvt. Clarence Wedel, observer. On 9 November 1942 the Fortress, being ferried to England, was diverted andsenttosearchforan overdue plane. Three men were added to the crew as extra observers. The Fortress crashed into the ice cap near the west coast of Greenland and broke in two. Its radio was wrecked. Sgt. Spina was thrownclear and one of his arms was broken. Both gloves were lost and his hands froze. Others were shaken and suffered cuts and bruises. (;“apt. Monteverde set Sgt. Spina’s arm and splinted it with success. Quarters were rigged in the tail o f the broken fuselage. There were only limited rations, no heat or light and only the most inadequate protection. During the next 10 days the weather was severe, with high winds and driving snow. The men were very cramped and uncomfortable inthe fuselage. Lt. O’Hara’s feet froze. He and Sgt. Spina beddeddown in the bottom;the others scrambled around them. The men moved with great care, hanging onto the butts of the machine guns and asking Lt. O’Hara and

Page 46

“Official 0. S. Army Air Forces Photograph.

ALSO FORCED DOWN on the Greenland ice cap, the crew of an Army B-25 patrol plane was sighted on the fourth day and immediately rescued. Snugly settled im their improvised igloo, with a plane wing f o r a roof, are Sgts. J. C. Whitman and J . R. Brewster. Sgt. Spina as they put their down feet Not many miles from the scene of USCG, landed near the Fortress after the Guard was a small weather-station. taking off from Coast. in the dark: “Is that all right? Am I the crash From hereLt. Demorest and Staff e t . cutter Northland. Lt. Pritchardset missing you all right?” out on foot, taklng several hours t o The ice cap around the plane was Don T. Tetley set out on two motor cover a distance of less than a mile t o great they fissured by deep crevasses, one di- sleds. After hardships plane on foot, being the wrecked plane. rectly under thetail. T i kept grow- reached the hs Lt. Pritchard flew safely back t o t h e ing until it was nearly 50 feet across. forced to abandon their sleds some Northland with two men, Sgt. TucThe tail section began to slide into the distance from the plane. Returning with the sleds a short ciaroneand Puryear. He thenrecrevasse, but the men tied it down to the wreck while the with ropes to the forward portion to time later,Lt. Demorest,about 100 turned yards from the plane, began turning stranded crewwas trying to rescue hold it. off the ski tracks he and Sgt. Tetley Lt. Demorest. Many crevasses were covered with Capt. Monteverde could see that a snow. Lt. Spencer fell through one madewhen theyfirst reached the and was rescued with a rope made of plane afoot, because the sleds were heavy fogwas making up the bay and awkward toturn when they were along the coast. He sent Howarth to parachute shrouds. t Thefirst rescueplanecame over stopped and hewanted to bring hiso tell Lt. Pritchard that he must take and dropped supplies on the fifteenth a stop heading the right way for de- off immediatelybeforebadweather He proceeded another 25 set in. Lt. Pritchard took Howarth day. This was 24 November, Thanks- parture. yards, dived into a crevasse. Tetley aboard and flew off, passing low over givingday. Col. Bernt Balchen, the famousArctic explorer, piloted the stopped his sled and ran to where the others where they were gathered the crevasse, wagging his big C-54 over the camp and dropped Lt. Demorest had disappeared. Far around could see the tail wings in salutation. a quantity of supplies with para- down-150 feet-he The next morning the men learned chutes, but with the wind that was of the sled, but no signof life. that Lt. Pritchard and his Grumman blowing the parachutes did not colAt about the same time, a Grumwreck of the lapse and they sailed out of reach. man airplanepiloted by Lt. Pritchard, hadnot landed.The Page 47

amphibian was finally spotted from the air. In the fog and foul weather it had crashed near the coast and all men aboard-Lt. Pritchard, Radioman Bottoms and Corp. Howarth “Planes Fall Like Flies” as Enemy were instantly killed. Force of 120 Is All But Wiped Out Gangrene had developed in Lt. ‘Vees”of 9 or 10 divebombers Toshoot down 31 Japs (16 Aichi low O’Hara’sfrozen feet. On 7 Decem99’s, 15Zeros) in the16 June air battle each . with a column of Zeros ber, with fine weather, Capt. Monteverde decided that the sled should over Guadalcanal, a Navy fighting slightly above and on either side I made make a run for its home weathersta- squadron mustered all hands includ- there were 25 to 30 Zeros ‘Vee’ . tion with Lt. O’Hara. Lt. Spencer. ing a sick pilot, one shot down a few a stern run into the leading shooting at the secondplane from Wedel and Tetleyweredetailed to days before, and one awaiting trasthe right end. The dive bomber bebattle accompany the sled. Lt. Spencer fer. This description of the went ahead with snow shoes to test was only recently made available in gan to smoke and fell off to theright. Meanwhile, the end plane pulled up for crevasses. Tetleyrode therear the U. S. During thebattle a total of 77 to avoid the damagedplane and I of the sled, driving it. Most of the shot down by Allied gave him a burst.Heimmediately time Wedelfollowed on foot. They enemy planes were Seventeen more were de- shuddered, smoked and followed his progressed slowly but safely until they aircraft. stroyed by antiaircraft fire, for a companion down. I then pulled up were about a mile and a half from the B-17. Here there was a fairly total of 94 by all methods. (Navy around and commenced to head on 415, with a Zero . . I emptied the rest of steep rise, up which led a slight Department Communiquks Nos. ammunition him he into and July my trough, which, from its conformation, 416. 418: INFORMATIONBULLETIN. .~ smoked and fell downward. I reTetley knew would be safe from 1943, pp: 50-51.) The ferocity of the battle, in which ceived three 20-millimeter cannon crevasses. They were still cautious the Allies s;ffered the loss of six shot spun and numerous 7.7s and although they were pretty sure they planes, was described in seven words down. A Zerofollowed me and were out of the crevasse area. Lt. Spencer knelt down to take off from the report of one of the squad- I went into a cloud where I stayed until the field was clear. There was his snow shoes. Tetley gotoff the sled ron’s pilots: “Planes were falling ‘like flies that a Mitsubishi twin-engine bomber flyon one side; Wedel came up the other ing around in the cloud with me and side to give the sled a shove when it day.” The squadron is commanded, by I tried to give him a burst, but my started. Lt. They were talking to each other and Comdr. Clarence M. White, jr., ammunition was all gone. .my controls were all but shot away and I to Lt. O’Hara across the sled’s nar- USN, of West Annapolis, Md. Three of his pilots were lostin mid- thought of bailing out, but Anally row width when suddenlyWedel went through the surface. He clutched at air collisions caused by the intensity made thefield.” Lt. (jg) Henry S. White, USNR, the sled, trying to get a grip on it of the fighting. The squadron was keyed to a high Matewan, W. Va.-“I peeled off after with his mittens. Through the sleepthe It had been Lieutenant Quady and opened up ing bagLt. O’Hara felt Wedel’s hands pitch for battle. trainingand waiting inthe Pacific on the one on the inside of the forslide over his legs. mation. Thisburst hit him in the It happened too fast; formoment for months. First word of the raid a right wing, which apparently sheared Wedel clutched and thenhe was gone. andindication that it wasinforce Zeros was off. He went straight into the mounTetley gunned the sled a short dis- came when a group of 38 tain on the right. I then put about tance ahead and he and Lt. Spencer reported coming down the “slot”-the ran back. They had stopped directly route the Japanese always travel to 100 rounds into the third plane from This was fol- the end, breaking off when he began attack Guadalcanal. across a crevasse. It had held up solidly under snowshoes and thesled, lowedby a report o f “a very large to emit heavy smoke and fell off to off, but Wedel, with his snowshoes had group of planes, probably 80.” (Final the right.” estimate was that 120 Jap planes were broken through. Lt (jg) John W. Ramsey, USNR, the Carter, 0kla.-“I took up a division Four miles further on the sled in The battle.) most vivid impression of the broke down, and, missing Wedel’s me- scope and intensity of the battle may which included one pilot on the sick chanical ingenuity, finally stopped. be gained from the pilots’ individual list, another pilot who had been on the ground for 3 weeks awaiting The stranded men were now sepafrom of transfer, and a third who had been at the scene of the reports. Excerpts some rated-three them: crashed Fortress and three where the shot down 9 days previously and had Lt. Frank B. Quady, USN, Coronado, been back with the squadron sled had broken down. less than Calif.-“We were at 25,000 feet and Foul weather and impassable ter- the enemy sighted consisted 2 shal- a week All I could see around me of were Zeros and three F4Fs (Wildcats). rain frustrated all attempts t o get t o at me. Several Zeros made passes the men. Supplies dropped were One Zero made a beautiful overhead whenever possible, enough to keep the on me . . I gave him a burst and he men alive. broke into flames and fell. I looked In February, Col. Balchen with a around to find, almost in formation Navy crew landed a Navy PBY flying with me,a cream-colored dive bomber boat on itsbelly in the deep snowbewith black markings burning merrily side the sled camp, pickingup all men with another F4F on his tail. I saw at this camp and taking off. two moreof the sametype. My motor Bad weather prevented his return was smoking and oil was being splatuntil April.He again landed at the tered over the windshield, but I mansled camp, this time having with him aged to give the second one a burst, a dog team and a number of men exand he burned. I was wondering I I perienced in Arctic work. whetherto bail outbut the Zeros ”Dope Sheet (NAS,Norfolk, Va.). On 6 April Col. Balchen’s plane rearoundandtheantiaircraftbursts “But Sir! TheDope Sheet said dissuaded me fromjumping and I turned to make its third remarkable andress whites, w i t h Izecker- came in making a dead stick landlanding, and brought all survivors and ing.” the rescue party out to safety. chiefs!”

Navy Squadron Gets 31Japs
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I
I

NEW SHIPS NAMED

IN HONOR OF NAVAL HEROES

I

1

EDITOR’S Many of Uncle Sam’s NOTE: new fighting ships have been named in honor of deceasedpersonnel of the Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps killed in the present war.Thefollowing list comprisesheroes of the fighting forces thus honored to date. Ships have been given surname of the the individual, except as noted. I n thelatter instances, the shipshave been given the full name to distinguish them from ships already bearing. the surnames. L t ( j g ) J o h n W h i t e Acree USNR Lt: Edward Henry Allen, ‘USN (U.. s..Eds.
ward H . Allen). Lt (jg) Stanton MorganAmesbury, USNR Edsign Eugene Earle Amick Jr., USNR Ensign E r i c Theodore Andrek, USNR Lt. (jg) John McDougal Atherton, USNR John Arnold Austm, Ch. Carp., U S N Ensign John Drayton Baker, USNR JosephBangust AMMZc USN LeRoy Kenneth’ Barber,’ Fly, USN Malcolm John Barber, Flc USN and ’Randolph Harold bPc, Barber, 6SN (One Ship named for three brothers). L t Comdr. Kichard Swan Baron USN Eisign Edward Munroe Bates, Jk., USN Ensign Gus George Eebas, USNR Capt Mervyn Sharp Bennion USN Lt.domdr.JohnMichaelBirmingham, USN (U.S. S. John Y. Bermingham). Lt Comdr. Hugh David Black U S N Cdmmander JamesDouglasblackwood, USN (U. S. S . . .Douglas Blackwood). J EugeneBlalrCMN USN Lt. Edward MartinBleSsman, USN Ellsign Robert Sinclair Booth, Jr., USNR Lt. (jg) John Randolph Borum, USNR Ensign Robert Keith Bowers, USNR Lt Bruce Godfrey Brackett, USNR Edsign John Joseph Brennan, USNR Lt. Graham Paul Bright USN Ensign Robert Earl Bris’ter, USNR Lt (jg) BcnRichardBronstein USNR Lt’ (jg) David Aitkens Brough ’UsNR Walter Scott Brown, AMM, bSN (u. s. 8. Walter S. Brown). John Daniel Buckley, AOM3C, USN L t ( i g ) Richard Bull, USNR Li.Richard Salisbury Bull, Jr., USN (u. s. 8. Richard B Bull). Kenneth Cec‘il BunchARMlc USN Lt. Comdr. John EdGard Burke uSN Napoleon Joseph Cabana Mach.: USN Herbert A. Calcaterra MoSIMlc USN Rear Admiral Daniel judson Ca’llaghan, USN Ensign Jack HillCamp, USNR EnsignJosephEugeneCampbell, USNR (JOseph E . Campbell). Ensign Leon William Canfield, USNR First Lt. George H a m Cannon, USMC Daniel William Carlson, CMM, USN T,t Herbert Fuller Carroll, Jr., USN TVilliim Finnie Cates S2c DSRR Ensign Davis Elliottkha&ee,U S N R Ensign Russell F. Chambers U S N R Lt. Comdr. Edgar Griffith Chkse, USN (u. 8. s. Edgar B. Chase). HubertPaulChatelainGMlc USN Ensign Harold Jensen bhristobher USNR T,t. ( i z ) Howard Franklin Clark, UAN (u. s. s.

.

Lt. Dan Robertson Cockrill, U S N R JohnJosephCofer Slc USN John Gaynor Condolly,’CPC, USN Lt. (jg) WalterWesleyCoolhaugh, USNR Ensign Bunyan Randolph Cooner USKR Lt. Comdr. James Edwin Craig, UbN (U. S. 8. James E . Crazg) Commander Mark Hanna Crouter USN EnsignHowardDanielCrow, Us’N (Howard D. Crow) Lt. Comdr. Thomas Ewing Crowley (DC), USN L t Roger Noon Currier USN EdwardCarlyle Daly. ’Cox.. USN (U. s. s. Edward C. -Dab). Hugh S. Daniel Pfc USMCR Ensign Marshail Euiene Darby USN Ensign Frederick Curtice Davis, ’USNR (u.8. s. Frederick? 0. Dams). Franqis D. Day, CWT, U S N Lt. (Jg) Ernest Elden Decker, USNR Lt. (jg) LeRoy CliffordDeede, USNR 1.t (ipj Richard .John Demuses. USNR -I. Em&;’ A r t h u r Louis Dionne, USNR Lt. Joseph Julius Dobler, USNR Ensign John Joseph Doherty, USNR Lt. (jg) Trose Emmett Donaldson, U S N R Ensign John Lincoln Doneff, USN Ensign E a r l Roe Donnell. Jr USNR Ensign Charles John Duffy, ‘6SXR Kenneth W. Durant,, PhM3C; USN Joseph Edwar,d Dunk, S ~ C , USNR Lt Comdr. HllanEbert uSN Edsign Charles Emil Ebenberger, Jr., USNB GeorgeRaymondEisele, SZC, USNR T,t. ( i z ) JacauesRodney Eisner. USNR

.

Ensign Francis Charles Flaherty, USNR Capt.Richard E Fleming, USMCR . Lt.(jg)CarletonThayerFogg, USN EnsignAndrew h e Foreman, USNR ClarenceMelvinFormoe,AMMlc, USNB Edward William Forster, Mach., USN Ensign Rodney Shelton FOsS, U S N R Lt.(jg)RobertLudlowFowler 1 1 USNR 1 Ensign Lee FOX J r USNR (u. s.’ S. Lee PO$). Paul 8. Frame& $bM3c, USNR Andrew Jackson Gandy, J r . , S2C, USNR SamuelMerrettGantner BM2c, USNR Thomas James Gary, S2c,’usN Ensign OswRld Joseph Gaynier, USNR Cagpt:, Elphege Alfred M. Gendreau ( “ 2 ) Eugene F George S2c USN Lt. (jg) Douglas ’Wile$ Gillette, USNR Commander Howard Walter Gilmore, (U. S.S. Howard W.. Gilmore). Commander Walter Wllllam Gilmore (SC),
USN
“I,*

USN

USN

Lt. Frank (jg) Greenwood USNR Charles R. Greer, Pfc., U i M C (Charles R.

I

”Pointer

“NO.! No.! Gus, you hauedt quite
got the right idea!”

(USN Armed Guard Center, Brooklyn, N. Y.).

I

Page 49

any other kind of puzzZe”you’d like to have your mates try their hands on, s e d it to the Editor, with sources if it i s n o t original. Answer to this puzzZe on Page 52.)

(If you have a crossword puzzl-r

SEA-GOING SQUARES

ACROSS

”Powder Puff (Naval Barracks Vallejo, Calif.):

‘Tm mot getting marrieduntil I make commander, euen if I have to wait a year.”

7. Largeatlandingcraft. 9 Fuel. . 10. To mess. 11. Do something. 13. In the stern. 14. British cousin. 15. Engagement. 17. Torpedo Tube. 18. Journey. 20. Anchortackle. 21. Hand propeller. 22. Whom he thinks of. 23. Charlie’s Nobleman. 24. Hail. 26. Khaki predecessors. 27. Plane hang-out. 29. Ups a n d downs. 31. Allow. 32. Bad for planes. 33. Two-striper. 34. Assent. 35. Broadsquare-sterners. 37. Goes with 34 across. 38. Head legal man. 39. Confining for a navy. 40. Bootcamp. 41. Cant. 42. Weatherman. 43. Tostake. 44. BeachHouses. 46. Good neighbor continent. 47. Reveilledoes it. 49. AlliedArmy. 50. Paint to avoid. 51. Engineer. 52. With tug, assistance (vianal slgnal). 53. Line In t h e Navy. 5 . Topside. 4 55. Following sea.

1 Man in the chains .

1 Upper floor .

DOWN used spreading canvas.

for

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1New Library Books I
(Continued from page 35)
“The Nmarene” portrays life of St. Paul. SURVIVAL by Phyllis Bottome. A psychological novel by the author of “Private Wk-lds.” TRUMBULLS by Taylor Caldwell. Excitine. dramaticstorv of Diratical high fin-ance in the 1 6 ’ . 80s * ALL THE YEAR ROUND Robert M. Coates. by Short stories. CAPTAIN EBONY bv Hamilton Cochran. Scrapes and advehtures a slave smugof gling Captain in the 1890’s. IT Is STILL THE MORNING bv Louis Dana. Story of Georgie who wahted to be an artist. T H E MOTHERSby Vardis Fisher. Epic story of pioneers caught in a Sierra Nevada blizzard. G. I. JUNGLEE J. Kahn, J. Interestby . r ing sidelights on army life in Australia and New Guinea. TRUMPET A N D DRUM by Sheila TAMBOURINE, Kaye Smith. The changes thatthree wars wrought in the lives of four English sisters. a ROGUES COMPANY: novel of John Murre11 by Harry Kroll. Plenty of action in this story of a bandit of the Natches Trace. KWOUR’S by Henrfr a. Lamond. Horse ranching in Australia. THE FLW IN THE FOREST Carl D Lane. by . Story behind Perry’s victory on Lake Erie. TI.IE D A BROTHER Bucklin Moon. by Moving story of present-day life in Harlem. 0 RIVER,REMEMBER Martha Ostenso. by Quarrels over land carried through three generations by two Minnesota families. DAYLIGHT SATURDAY ON by John hiestley. The lives and thoughts of a conglomerategroup of workers i n a n English aircraft plant. A TREEGROWSIN BROOKLYN Betty by Smith. and Lusty moving tale of Francie Nolan’s growing u p in t h e slums of Brooklyn. BIG ROCK CANDY MOUNTAINby Wallace Stegner.Restlessadventurer in search of quick wealth in lumber camps and wide-open towns of the west. FROM THE DOLPHIN by Dmwin RETREAT Teilhet. Crew of a former privateersman of 1812 become involved in a South American conflict. YANKEE LAWYER: THEAUTOBIOGWHY OF EPHRAM by Arthur Train. Reminiscences of Train’s famous character. KEYSTONE KIDS: by John R. Tunis. A baseball story.
~~ ~~

General
UNDER LUCKY A STAR Roy Chapman Anby

drews. An explorer’s life time of adventure. CLEAR THE TRACKS Joseph Bromley. by Rousing story of railroading and railroad men by an oldtime locomotive engineer. HONG O G AFTERMATH by Wenzell Brown. KN Allied prisoners i n Japan’s Stanley Camp-their treatment and reactions. MAKERS MODERN OF STRATEOYby Edward M. Earle. Military thought from Machiavelli to Hitler. GOING WSHINGbyNegley Farson. Tales of fishing all around the world, by the globe-trotting author of “Way of a Transgressor.” “~ 7 IT’S ’ R TO S A C U E A N IN THE COUNTRY AD TY I I by Kay Grant. Hilarious verse. SQUARE KNOT, TATTING,FRINGE AND NEEOLE WORKbyR. Graumont and J. Hensel. SHIP OUTFI~TER’S HANDBOOK hnil Hanby sen. STALWART SWEDEN by Joachia Joesten. n Legend has it that the rudder on Sweden’s share i four years of war and a forecast of her future policy. Viking ships was originally placed on AMERICANHEROES AND HEROWORSHIPby theright side, andforthis reason Gerald Johnson. Our history told that side came to be known as the through pictures the men of who helped “steerboard” or“starboard”side of shape it. PILOTING A N D MANEnrVERINo OF SHIPS by the ship. Since the rudder had t o be Lyman M. Kells, Willis F Kern, and kept clear, the left . side was always put James R. Bland. Wk CAN WIN THIS WAR by William F . to the dock, and because of this the Kernan.Author of “Defense Will Not left side was called the “port” side. C f you have a nem or differentversion, Z ut Win the War” claims emphasis m s be send it along to the Editor.) on strategy, not tactics.

MY DUST by Bellamy Partridge. Humorous anecdotes of the coming of the automobile t o a small town. By the author of “Country Lawyer.’’ HIGHWAY TOKYO Joseph Rosenfarb. TO by Proposed strategy for the Pacific. NEWS Is WHATYou MAKE IT by Kenneth Stewart. The last 25 years in the newspaper. business-a record of stories and the people who write them. AROUND THE WORLD by Ivan WEATHER Tannehill. BALKANREB BRAND by Kosta Todorov. Vivid autobiography of a Bulgarian revolutionary. GIDEON WELLES:LINCOLN’S NAVY DEPARTMENT by Richard West. Biography of Lincoln’s Secretary of the Navy.
EXCUSE

I HOW DID IT START? 1

~

What to Take With om Trips to Yoa South Pacific
The Navy reaches out to include many little islands in the South Pacific. However, don’t believe all those travel folders you have readtropical paradise, cool Pacific breezes, romantic moonlight, lovely native dancing girls Rather, anticipate a sweltering hell-hole, scorching, mosquito-laden breezes, rain, rain, rain, rain, rain, rain-and more rain! Reportsfrom that sectorenumeratecertain “Do’s and DON’TS”. DON’T bring too much clothing. Pour suits should ample; each person be launders his own clothing as soon as he takes it off because they mold quickly when soiled. A small issue brush isavailable for washing clothes; some of the mud is very adhesive and cannot be removed by any of the usual methods (soaking, searing, and hoping). DON’T stock UP on soap, tooth paste, razor blades, etc. Towels are scarce, so DO bring three or four. Neither candy nor gum are available, but remember to guardagainsttheheatand ANTS! Cigarettes are available all along the line at sea-store prices, but DO bring a cigarette case because paper sacks get soggy with your constant sweat. Travel lightly. DON’Tbring fancy leather shaving cases, etc. The constant dampness ruins leather luggage, etc. DO bring a hand mirror of good quality. Cheaponesrustin a few days andare worthless. Wooden shower slippers are quite useful if you have room for them. BE SURE to bring a flashlight with extra bulbs and batteries. I you f have a cigarette lighter, bring extra flints and fluid. Bring along your own cards, and if you bring a radio, be sure to bring female plugs and extension cord. The most useful single article is a canteen. And a messkit is important, Marineshoes are very comfortable.A pair of lightmoccasins or tennis shoes are useful around the tent or camp and also to wear is very important. The mud is inside overshoes. The latter item slippery and pretty hard on shoes. A raincoat is essential. “You have never seen rain until you h y e been here and you will be drowned in 60 seconds without a raincoat. DO bringalongcottoncordorlight line, aheavyknife (a small Boy Scout axe is4.0). Leather watch straps “sweat” out in a very short time. Cloth type is much better, bring three or four. The climate is terrific on watches, so if you have two, bring the cheapest. Waterproof watch is best. As for money, $50 is ample You can buy unique native work (although some of it is imported). They do have pay days there, even if they are a little late. But why worry, you’ll find out that a stick of gum will be worth more than a double-fin anytime! “Reprinted, from Muzzle Blast, Naval Air Gunners School, Hollywood, Fla.

...

Mystery and Crime
M R E A T BELLE UDB CAMILLE by Monte Barrett. ” H E PINKUMBRaLA by Frances Crane. C T P R O W L A T NIGHT byA. A. Fair. AS THEC S OF THE DROWSY AE MOSQUITOby Erle Stanley Gardner. HE FELL DOWN DEAD Virginia Perdue. by THEBRIDE LAUGHW ONCE by Sanders & Edelstein.

Westerns
SILVERTIP’S ” R A P by Max Brand. IN by BRAVE THE SADDLE Will Ermine. USELESS COWBOY Alan LeMay. by

...

by VANISHING GUN-SLINGER William Colt MacDonald. C U A E T U by William Raine. O R GS O T RAMROD Luke Short. by REBELOF RONDE VALLEY by Charles H. Snow.

Page 51

to simplify the task of locating any man for a, given job. Finally, that oldbogeyman which over 20,000 different civilian jobs. once served t o keep men out of the (Contilzued from page 4 ) How can men fromsuch varied sources training they might otherwise have “quota” system-has now the needs of t& Navy. Then, analyz- be so classified that they will wind up had-the ing Joe’s scores on the tests, his perin the job wherethey can be most been largely modified. Teletype reports every week flash headinto sonality, and his background as use to the Navy? brought out in the interview, the speContinual and unremitting research quarters the numbers of men intercialist’ records the first- and second- is one part of the answer. The proc- viewed at training stations, and the choice assignmentswhich for he esses through which these men go are classifications into which they fit. variations in would recommend him. subject to constant test themselves to Regional training recruits can constantly be The possibilities? Several: (1) if determine the validity of all Proce- station Joe were an experienced worker or dures. There is a never-ending Proc- checked, differences ironedout imtechnician, he might get an immedi- ess of testing and retesting, studying mediately. Instead of rigid quotas ate rating. But being just out of high and analyzing, filing, classifying and which each station had to m e e C o many electricians, so many cooks, so school, a rating is not too likely for training. him. So, like most men, he is more The tests that Joe was given are many carpenters-there is nowa form of central clearing which can tell imapt t o land in one or theother of under by a continual examination these: (2) one of the Navy’s many BuPers test construction and research mediately which stations have a surservice schools, where he will be given unit, which measuresthe abilities and plus of such men, and which are runaccordspecialized training in the field for areas of informationmost likely to ning short, and adjust quotas which the interviewer has recom- lead to success in the various Navy ingly. Regional and qualificational differmended him, or ( 3 ) sea duty, and the schools andthe services afloat. A opportunity to work his way up test research group within this unit ences are thusbeing minimized, to the aboardship,Other possibilities are works closely with the test conStrUC- benefit of enlisted personnel. Proof of any such program classiof (4) an opportunity to get college tion group to measure the validity of fication and selection is, of course, training, through the Navy’s V-12 the tests, the methods, and the reprogram, or (5) if he seems particu- sults; to determine the minimum does it get carried out to its logical larly qualified, a chance for a fur- levels in tests at which men cantake conclusion? D o all the Joes and Bills and Steves land in the jobs which ther interview with an officer who is certain training ahd be successful. keeping an eye out for officer candiThe tests are themselves “tested”in analysis indicates they are best fitted dates. that they are continually checked with for? There are two things which give Not all recruits are sent to service the needs of training schools and the BuPers a continuing check on this. First, recordsof training schools inschools. Many either do not meet the the results of training as reflected in specialized requirementsthese for the men’s final school scores. Corre- dicatewhether the man got to the service school for which he seemed schools, orprefertoserveimmedilations are sought between various Second, success his or ately at sea, where they can strike for tests and series of tests to find which best fitted. advancement in the seaman branch produce themost reliable prospects lack of it can be checked by his record at the school (and present figures and achieve their petty officer rating for training. -in this way. But since many jobs in The interviewer who spokewith Joe indicate a high degree of relationship the Navy are skilled ones and require is one of more than 400 selected by a between the test scores and success intensive training, thenumber of men careful process. Men are picked for at school). Third and last, the new set-up at receiving stations now sent to school for further instruction their sound educational background, is generally pretty large. their experience in industrial or edu- catches the men coming through and can check their present assignments Now, how about Joe’s assignment? cational personnel work, or in vocaWhat assurance is there that he will tional counseling. Other interviewers against the work they are presently recommendations wind up in the right spot? keep constantwatchon the recruit doing; then make Off-hand, the odds might seem to lines for promisingprospects to be to the proper authority where possibe against it. Surveys by the ‘U. S. trained as Specialists (C) , preferably bilities for improvement would conEmployment Service and the Bureau men of mature bearing and judgment. tribute to thegood of the service. “The right man in the right bilof the Census indicate that there are The average age of interviewers is Everything that science and 2930 years. These men then get let”-? special training a t interviewers school the Navy can do t o get him there is at the Naval Training Station, Bain- being done, sailor. Solution to Cross-Word bridge, Md., going through a 4-week Puzzle on Page 5 0 Letters To The Editor course of instruction in the techniques used in selection departments. They (Colztilzued from page 36) study interviewing, occupations, Navy rates, the relationship of civilian occu- that time will be transferred if necespational experience Navy duties, the sary to schools having N. R. 0. T. C . to interpretation of test results, and their Units. N.R. 0. T . C. graduates resignificance in terms of various Navy ceive commissions in the U. S. Naval Reserve, but after 1 year’s continuous jobs. Having learned standard the methods essential to good classifica- active service on board ship in such tiontechnique,they then sit by an status, may beselected for commisexperienced interviewer for further sions in theRegular Navy i f they were training, and emerge finally as a less than 25 years of age upon reportSpecialist (C) , permanently assigned ing for such active duty. The various ways commissions can be obtained b y to this work. Personnel records carry theprocess enlisted men are outlined in the INfurther, with the enlisted personnel FORMATION BULLETINfor February qualifications card recording some60- 1943, page 4. ( 3 ) NO; their commissions are based upon graduation from odd separateitemsabouteachenlisted man, and enabling an officer t o approved medical or accredited dental size him up immediately. IBM punch sohools, and are issued at the time of cards arealso prepared with this data their graduation.

EVERY MAN WHERE HE’S FITTED

Page 52

DECORATIONS and.CITATIONS
LatinAmericanOfficers Win Legion of Merit For Defense Work
Four Mexican and threeUruguayan naval officers have been awarded the Legion of Merit for outstanding contributions to hemispheric defense. Medals were presented Maj. Gen. to Heriberto Jara, Secretary of the Mexican Navy; Rear Admiral Othon F. Blanco, Under Secretary of the Mexican Navy; Maj.Alejandro Gen. Mange,commander of the Mexican Military Region of the Gulf; Commodore David C. Ochoa, commander of the First Naval Zone at Vera Cruz; Rear Admiral Gustavo A. Schroeder, inspectorgeneral of the Uruguayan Navy; Capt. Juan M. Conosa,commanding officer of the Uruguayan naval arsenal; and Capt. Juan J. Miller, prefect director-general Of communications. ing of that vessel by Japaneseair forces off Christmas Island on March 1 1942, Captain (then Commander) a terrific fight Abernethy put up against waves of dive bombers which swept down out of the sun. When the ship finally was overwhelmed and sinking, he calmly directed abandoningoperationsunder a hail of fire from enemy flyers who kept circling theshipandstrafing helpless survivors clinging to rafts life and floating debris. Capt. Ralph S. Riggs, USN, Amarillo, Tex..: As commander of a destroyer squadron during action against enemy naval forces off,the Komandorski Islandson 26 March 1943, Captain Riggs, with brilliant leadership, engaged in a fierce running battle for 3% hours. His bold attack against a Japanese force, twice the strength of FROM GUADALCANAL: Sergeant his own, a deciding factor in was John Basilolze, USMC,awarded thwarting the enemy’s attempt to deneeded supplies to the Medal of Honor for action on liver urgently Guadalcanal, wore aharried look troops in the Aleutian Islands. as he related his experiences to a

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Legion of Merit To Canadian Officer For Sinking Submarine
Lt. Comdr. Clarence A. King, RCNR, (Degree of Legionnaire). As commanding officer of a Canadian warship on convoy operations in the Atlantic, he succeeded in sinking a German submarine with gunfire and depth charges andin capturing the commanding officer and five men of the U-boat.Althoughhis own ship was badlydamaged in the engagement, Lieutenant Commander King brought her safely to port.

reporters. “This worse is than fighting? he told them. Basilone risked his life bringing up shells for his gunlzers through Japanese lines, thereby contributing t o the uirtual annihilation of a Japanese regiment.

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MEDAL OF HONOR

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Reinhardt J. Keppler,BMlc, USN, Hosmer, S. D (posthumously) : While . serving in the U. S. S. Sun Francisco, Keppler supervisedthe removal of the dead and injured after an enemy torpedo plane crashedthe on after His prompt machine-gun platform. actionundoubtedlyhelpedsave the lives of several wounded shipmates. That night, when the ship’s hangar was set afire during the battle Savo off Island, Keppler took a hose into the blazing area and, without assistance, eventually brought the fire under control. Mortally wounded, he continued to direct fire-fighting operations until he finally collapsed from loss of blood.

Capt. Charles P Cecil, USN, Flat . Rock, N. C.: As commanding officer of the U. S. S. Helena, Captain Cecil skillfully maneuvered hi; ship through submarine-infested waters and effectively bombarded Japanese shore batteries in the face of intense gun and torpedo fire. Twenty-four hours later the Helena participated in n engagea ment a with numerically superior force andcontributedmaterially to the sinking o r severe damaging of all the enemy ships before she was struck by a torpedo. Captain Cecil, calmly and withoutconfusion,directed the abandonment of his sinking ship, and continued supervision rescue operaof tions a from small raft. life (5-6 July, in the Solomon Islands).

Capt. Bertram J. Rodgers, USN, Pittsburgh, Pa.: Duringa3%-hour engagement with an enemy force of far greater strength, Captain Rodgers handled his cruiser with such excellent judgment and skill that she was able to inflict severe damage on one heavy cruiser and lesser damage on another heavy, and a light cruiser. His outstanding achievement contributed to the withdrawal of the Japanese force and frustrated their desperate attempt to reinforce troops in the Aleutian Islands (26 March 1943. off the Komandorski Islands).
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Commander Barton E. Bacon, USN. San Diego, Calif.: While commanding the submarineU. S. S. Pickerel during five patrolsinthe Asiatic theater, CommanderBaconon one occasion attacked a Japanese supply ship and a troop transport with great tactical skill, sinking both of them. I n other actions during these patrols his excellent judgment and were responsiskill ble for heavy damage to a number of enemy ships.

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NAVY CROSS

Capt. Elmer P.Abernethy, USN, Los Angeles, Calif.: As commanding officer of the U. S. S. Pecos during the sink-

Commander Frederick J. Bell, USN, Baltimore, Md.: As commanding officer of a naval vessel during the battle of Ontong Java, Commander Bell coolly conned his ship and directed the fire of his battery in the face of atrepeated bombing and strafing tacks by Japanese dive bombers, destroying at least two enemy bombers and damaging others. That night, following the engagement, he con-

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Lt. Henry R. Ringness (MC), USN, Washington, D. C. (posthumously) : Trapped in a foxhole at Guadalcanal on the night of 13-14 October 1942, Lieutenant Ringness was mortally wounded by the explosion of a Japanese shell, ,which killed four of his companions and wounded four others. Although completely paralyzed inthe lower half of his body and suffering great pain,he persisted in administeringmorphineand blood plasma to other wounded until evacuated to a base hospital. Even then he tried to minimize his own injuries in order that others might be given medical treatment first. Three days later he died of his injuries.

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Ensign Henry J. Nickerson, USNR, Wheeling, W. Va.: In the face of intense antiaircraft fire, Ensign Nickerson took part in determined and effective bombing and strafing attacks on fleeing Japanese forces in the Battle of Midway, and scored a hit on one of ductedasearchforlostplanesin courageous enemy waters and directed our planes the enemy ships. His Bombing Squadron action as a pilot in safely totheircarriers,whichhad been forced to retire from the battle 8 contributed materially to the victory achieved by our forces. area (24 August 1942).
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WZNS THZRD N A V Y CROSS: Commander William H . Brockman, Jr., USN, of Grotom, Conn., has beem awarded a second Gold Star in lieu of a third NavyCross for heroic conduct as commander of asubmarine. His craft crept close enough to ]apart's shores for the crew to watch people swimming in the surf. His submarine is credited with simking a 10,000tom Jap carrier, a 9,000-tontransport, aHd seven otheruessels.

Lt. (jg) Joseph Feeney, usm, Scranton, Pa.: As commander of an Armed a Guard crew aboard merchant vessel, Lieutenant (jg) Feeney was hurled into the air, thrown across the guardrail, and severely injured by the force of a torpedo explosion. With indomitable courage, he dragged himself to the bridge where he manned the phones to the battery and continueddirecting thegununtilthe crew reported the ammunition rendered useless by water, and the order t o abandon ship was given.
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CRUZSER COMMANDER DECORATED:Capt. Frank L.Lowe, USN, Pine Bluf, Ark., received theNavy Cross forconduct as commadimg officer of a cruiser during a engagement with Japm anese forces in the Solomons. Captain Lowe fought ship his with skill and determimation, contributing in large measure-to the destruction of all enemy wessels within gum range(might of 30 November 1942).
Paul L. Clark, Flc, USCG, Jersey City, N. J.: When a hostile plane strafed his landing boat during the occupation of French Morocco, mortally wounding the bowman and severely injuring thecoxswain, (;"larksped toa United States vessel, placed the Wounded men aboard, and courageously returned to his station at the beach, although his craft was riddled with enemy bullets.

Lt.Comdr. John C. Atkeson, USN, Columbia, Ala.: As commanding officer of the flagship of a destroyer squadron, maneuvered he his ship, within less than 10,000 yards of a vastly stronger enemy force anddrew most of the hostile fire away from a heavy cruiser of our task group. At close rangeLieutenantCommander Atkeson launched a torpedo attack and scored one hiton a Japanese cruiser (26 March 1943 ,off the Komandorski Islands). Lt. Alan S. Frank, usm, Glencoe, Ill.: As a pilot of Scouting Squadron 3, Lieutenant Frank led' a group of scout bombers and fighters which scored a hit and 3 near misses on a heavy cruiser and, later, inflicted serious damageon a force of 2 light cruisers and 4 destroyers. He participated,in 2 otherattacks on 13 vessels and scored such a disastrous hit on a destroyer that it probably was sunk(from 6 September to 10 October 1942, in the Solomon Islands area).

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Jack A. Byrom, CSP, USNR, Durant, Okla.: Preceding the occupation of Fedala, FrenchMorocco, Byromguided his scout boatin complete darkness from the transport area 6 miles offshore to the designated landing beach, reef and hosdespite a dangerous rock tile fire from batteries covering the beach. Reaching his position, he guided incoming boatwaves of troops by prescribed signals and maintained his position until his mission was accomplished,therebycontributing to the successful landing of our troops.
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DISTINGUISHED SERVICEMEDAL
Capt. Edmund T. Wooldridge, USN, Lawrenceburg, Ky.: As operations officer and later as chief of staff of a taskforce in the Atlantic,Captain Wooldridge prepared and supervised the operational plans for protecting shipping. He assisted greatly in the development of tactics and technique with which to combat the submarine menace,therebycontributingmaterially to the steadydecline in ship losses.

Alexander J. Bisheimer, G M ~ cUSN, , Akron, Ohio: When an enemy blockade runner was intercepted 10. March 1943, Bisheimer, as a member of a, GOLD STAR . boarding party from the U. S. S Eberle, assisted in an effort to salvage Im Lieu of Second Legign of her and obtain information regarding Merit I 1 the enemy.Despiterapidlyspreading fires, he remained on board until Capt. Paul Heineman, USN, PhilaR. several explosions rocked the ship and delphia, Pa.: As commander of an he was forced dive overboard, being escort unit in the North Atlantic, to Caprescued later. tain Heineman displayed brilliant ini-

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vised the maintenance and repair of vessels of the United Nations engaged in the protection of shipping. Capt.Horatio G. Sickel, I V , USN, Germantown, Pa.: Landing under fire at Fedala, French Morocco, Captain Sickel commenced the installation of the navaloperating base a t Casablanca. Through ingenious employment of the limited facilities available, he soon had the harbor cleared out so that convoy ships could unload. His keen judgment and initiative contributed in large measure to the success of the entireoperation. Commander Colby G. Rucker, USN, Arnold, Md.: Taking ship his into waters known to be occupied by submarines, Commander Rucker located a merchant ship which had been torpedoed and abandoned, skillfully maneuvered hisvessel alongside in heavy seas, and placed a salvage crew aboard. While repairs were being effected, he searched for and rescued most of the torpedoed ship’s crew and returned them to their own vessel. Commander James S. Russell, USN, Tacoma, Wash.: As commander of a patrolsquadronintheAleutian Islands, Commander estabRussell lished a base despite severe weather conditions and extremely limited facilities. He made many all-night pa“Press Association Photograph. trols of the fog-bound upper Bering RECEIVES N A V Y CROSS: Raymond Johnson, SF2c, USN, Chicago, Ill., Seaandpersonallyled units of his i s congratulated by Commander G. H . Bowman, USN, inspector of lzaval squadron a t night in instrument material at Cincinnati, Ohio, on the award of the NavyCross, third medal weather,duringoperationsdirected received by Johnson in 30 years of service. His latest citation was for toward the bombing of Kiska (15 initiative and heroism in leading 20 men in a boat to clear obstructions June-14 October 1942). Commander Clarence 0. Taff, from a riverin North Africa, thereby paving the way an attackon an Redlands, Calif. : As commanding USN, for offiAxis airfield. cer of a patrol squadron in the Solomon Islands area from 15 December tiative handling in the increasing Capt. Albert G. Cook, USN, Monroe, 1942 to 27 March 1943, Commander submarine menace, and effectively La.: As commander of a mine squad- Taff was responsible for the carrying frustrated enemy attacks on several ron and a mine division during the out of more than 230 flight missions, occupation of French Morocco, Cap- without the loss of a man. His couroccasions. Ships of his unit are credited with important sinkings and tain Cook exercised brilliant leader- age andzeal contributed materially to probable damage severe to Nazi ship in mine sweeping, investigation the weakening of enemy resistance in submarines. of reported minefields, escorting mer- this area. chant ships, transporting men and Lt. Comdr. Paul L. Drouin, USNR, material between ports, salvage of Mansura, La.: In charge of a salvage LEGION OF MERIT torpedoedships, and the rescue of I 1 survivors. All these hazardous duties Rear Admiral James, Jules USN, were handled with a high degree of Danville, Va.: As commandant of the efficiency (8-11 November 1942). Naval Operating Ease, Bermuda, from Capt. Stuart H. Ingersoll, USN, 7 April 1941 to 24 March 1943,Admiral James developed the base to its maxi- Alexandria, Va.: During a period of antisubmarine activities in mum efficiency and was successful in intense maintaining complete understanding the North Atlantic, Captain Ingersoll was responsible fordetailedsuperbetween the armed forces there and vision of convoy escort operations. the colonial authorities. Through superior knowledge and seaRear Admiral SpencerS. Lewis, USN, manship, contributed he materially Calvert, Tex.: As chief of staff and to steady the decline in shipping aide to a task force commander in the losses. 10 months Pacific area for the first Capt. LoganMcKee, USN, Alexanof the war, Admiral Lewis performed By maintaining convoy his duties at anexposed battle station dria, Va.: Atlantic in in the face tremendous dive-bomb- shipsinthenorthwest of complete readiness for scheduled OPing,aerial torpedo, and submarine erations, Captain McKee contributed attacks. He participatedintheengagements at Marshall and Gilbert greatly toward the success of the “Kanoehe Klipper. Islands, Salamaua and Lae, Coral Sea, antisubmarine campaign. As mateof the “1 still don’t see why they call it a task force on Midway, Guadalcanal, and in the first rial officer ‘Small Stores.‘ ” Atlantic Fleet, he planned and superbattle of the Solomon Islands.
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John A. Deal, CQM, USN, Lenoir, N.C.: During the occupation of North Africa and while his shipwas engaged in combat with hostile surface forcFs off Casablanca, Deal over took the duties of the navigator while three of the ship's officerswere commanding wews aboard prize ships. He displayed outstanding skill in handling manyimportant bridge details,enablingcommanding his officer to direct fire upon the hostile vessels. Joseph A. Gajdostik, CPhM, USN, Birmingham, Mich.: While in charge of the accessory operation room and troop sick bay on the U.S. S. Edward Rutledge, Gajdostik directed the removal of every patient when the ves- SALVAGE EXPERT HONORED: sel was torpedoed and sunk off Fedala, C a p . Edward Ellsberg, USN, French Morocco, on 12 November New Haven, Conn., receives the 1942. Throughout the evacuation and Legion of Merit from Rear Adduring the transportation of the casM miral James . Irish, USN, superualties to Casablanca, his extraordinary initiative and devotion to duty uisor of shipbuilding in the New were an inspiration to his men and York area, for his work in recon-0iTcial U. S . Ka\-y Photograph. undoubtedly helped keep the loss of structing the naval base at MasDIRECTED ANTISUB OPERAlife to a minimum. sawa, Eritrea(East Africa), which TIONS: Vice Admiral William Charles S. Keenan, CSM, ' m ~ , was wrecked by the Italians beT . Tarrant, USN (Ret.),Wash- Minerva, Ohio:When the U. S. S. fore theyevacuated it i n 1941. ington, D . C., wasawarded the Tasker H. Bliss was sunk off Fedala, Legion of Merit for his direction French Morocco, Keenan hurried to Howard H. Paine, CGM, USN, Norof antisubmarine operations in the forecastle and attempted to res- folk, Va.: While attached to the cue a shipmate trapped in No. 3 hold, U. S. S. Bernadou during the assault the First Naval District. leaving the vessel when only so on Safi, FYenchMorocco, Paineinordered by his commanding officer. geniously devised a method of using partyfrom a transportduringthe Finding another crew member strugto a mooring line occupation of French Morocco, Lieu- gling near him in the water without a K-gun throw ashore. As the ship aproached the tenant Commander Drouin succeeded a lifebelt, he placed his shipmate on harborhe supervised gunbatteries in freeing 38 stranded landing boats aplankbeforeattemptingtoreach with outstanding skill in the face of and returning them to .the ships of heavy fire from opposing guns. the force after 35 hours of continuous a lifeboat. labor. Later, he pumped out, repaired, and raised a scuttled steamer in 68 hours, during which time Lieutenant Commander Drouin and his men toiled nightand day. Lt. Comdr. Paul Foley, Jr., urn, Seattle, Wash.: In addition to leading his patrol plane squadron on haztwo ardous night flights against the enemy in the Aleutian Islands, Lieutenant Commander Foley carried out a complicated schedule of flights supporting the movements of surface forces. Hisheroicexampleinspired his group of fatigued and flight-worn pilots to renewed efforts. Lt. Comdr. Gerald L. Huff, USN, Urbana, Ill.: As tactical officer and assistant operations officer on the staff of the commander of a task force, Lieutenant Commander Huff maintained effective employment of our aircraft against the enemy, undeterred by frequent Japanese air raids (Solomon Islands from 12 December 1942 to 31 March 1943). Lt. Comdr. Henry L. Miller, USN, Fairbanks, Alaska: Pilots who bombed Tokyo in April 1942 were drilled in a special technique by Lieutenant Commander Miller forthisdaringand hazardous flight. He fulfilled his important mission with tireless energy and remarkable inieiative.

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"Official U. S. Navy Photograpn.

DECORATED FOR ANTISUB WORK: Cap. William M . Moses, VSN, Alamosa, Colo. (left), i s shown as he receives the Legion of Merit from Rear Admiral W . H . P . Blandy, USN, Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance. The citation of Admiral Royal E. Ingersoll, USN, Commader-;+Chief of the AtlanticFleet, stated that Captain Moses was "highly instrumental in the development of antisubmarineweapons a d tactics." In the center is Capt. J. N.Jacobson, USN.
John C. Cullen, BM2c, USCG, Bayside, Long Island, N. Y . : Accosted by several armedNazi saboteurs while on patrol a t Long Island, N. Y., on the night of 13 June, 1942, Cullen cleverly allayed their suspicions by accepting a bribe, then sounded an alarm that led to their capture. After apprehension of the enemy agents he furnished vital testimony before a special military commission conducting the trial. Hispresence of mind thwarted this effort to sabotageour national war effort. Elton M. Eastman, GM2c, USN, Proctorsville, Vt.: As gun captain on the U. S. S. Cole during the assault on Safi, French Morocco, Eastman opened fire upon order from control and got out three salvos in excellent time and with commendable accuracy before the command to cease firing was given. Frank B. Gager, MM2c, USNR, Millville, N. J.: While attached to a naval vessel during the assault on French Morocco, Gager was a t his station as telephone talker at an ammunition hoist when a shell struck close to his station.Despitefireand confusion, he remained a t his telephone and accurately reported the circumstances. Although nearly overcome by smoke, and ordered to a safe compartment, Gager obtained a extinguisher and Are put out several Ares in thevicinity of his station, averting what might have been a major catastrophe. Cecil W. Camp, Flc, USN, Houston, Tex.: When his ship, the U.S. S. Edward Rutledge, was torpedoed and sunk off Fedala, French Morocco, on
12 November,1942,oneof his shipmates was trapped while attempting to escape from the engine room. Fully aware that the ship was sinking rapidly, Camp remained behind and struggled with t h e wire mesh guard until he managed to tear it off and free his comrade. Jack E. Limes, SM3c, USN, Toledo, Ohio:While his ship waslocked in combat with enemy surfaceforces off Casablanca, Limes relieved the quartermaster a t t h e wheel and steered Althe ship throughout the battle. though his experience t sea was very a limited, he effectively executed all orders. . Edward Rabak, PhMlc, usm, Parma, Ohio: Attached to theU.S. S. Edward Rutledge during the occupation of French Morocco, Rabak tirelessly provided wounded men with medical assistance in the face of imminent personal danger. Otto B. Wandrie, Jr., PhMlc, USN, Detroit, Mich.: With his ship, the U. S. S. Edward Rutledge, sinking under him, Wandrie worked tirelessly providing the proper medical assistance to wounded men. His resourcefulness and perseverance undoubtedly helped prevent a greater loss of life. Donald G. Zinter, PhM3c, Usm, Rochester, N. Y . : While attached to the U. S. S. Edward Rutledge during the occupation of French Morocco, Zinter worked tirelessly providing wounded men with proper medical attention, and after the ship was torpeded,calmly assisted in evacuating patients.

To commanding officers of four warships, in a task force which turned back @ Japanese attempt to reinforce their Aleutian outposts: Capt. Theodore M. Waldschmidt, USN, Lead, S. D.; Commander Anthony L. Rorschach, USN, Redlands, Calif.; Commander Benjamin F. Tompkins, USN, Newberry, S. C.; and Lt. Comdr. Peter H Horn, USN, Philadelphia, Pa. . In a 3'/-hour running engagement with an enemy force of superior strength, 26 March 1943, off the Komandorski Islands, they skillfuliy maneuvered their ships to avoid 8-inch salvos and forced back Japanese light cruisers attemptingto close in. The task force thereby was able to thwart a desperate attempt to deliver urgently needed supplies to enemy troops. Capt. WalterG. Schindler, USN, New Glarus, Wis.: While gunnery officer on the staff of a taskforce commander during the first months of 10 the war, Captain Schindler flew with the air attack group as an observer in the rear seat of a divebomber and took part in numerous dives on hostile vessels in the face of heavy antiaircraft fire and fierce fighter opposition. Lt. Comdr. Howard B.Haisch (E) USN, Los Angeles, Calif.: Struck in the right eye and blinded by an enemy shell fragment during the assault on French .Morocco, Lieutenant Commander Haisch courageously continued removing wounded to the dressing station and administering treatment to them before submitting himself to medical attention. To five officers and two enlisted men for outstanding skill and courage

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"Newport Recruit (NTS, Newport, R. I.).

trying t o change his skiuuy shirt w i t h o u t taking off his jumper."

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whileserving in submarines on war patrol in the Pacific: H McClintock, . Lt. Comdr. David USN, Marquette, Mich.; Lt. Robert E. Cutts, USN, Milford, N. H.; Guy E. Lt. O'Neil, Jr., USN, Long Beach, Calif.; Lt. William W. Walker, USN, Annapolis, Md.; Machinist Lester J. DeMuth, -USN, Boston, Mass.; Raymond 0. Saunders, CTM, USN, Sibley, Iowa; and Lloyd W. Waddell, CTM, USN, Monmouth, Ill. All were commended for their efficiency, which contributed toward the sinking andsevere damagingof a considerable amount of enemy shipping. Lt. Ralph Boucher, u s m , Damascus, Va.: As commanding officer of an Armed Guard crew, Lieutenant Boucher and his men fought off swarms of German planes which swept down out of clouds or out of the sun, with engines silent. Oneplanewassent "Official U. S. Eary Photograph. hurtling into the sea en route, and a second was set afire and crashedwhile AEROLOGlST HONORED: Comthe vessel being was unloaded. He manderDenys W . Knoll, VSN, and hisvaliant crew neverrelaxed Washington, D. C., received the their vigil until their ship, ice-bound, Legion of Merit. As fieet aerolobeaten by terrific winds, and menaced by gigantic icebergs, finally reached gist in thePhilippines from 5 home port. November 1941 to 11 March 1942, Lt. Roger Kent, USNR, Kentfield, Commander K.noll merged the Calif.: As assistant operations officer uarious weather services scattered for the FirstMarine Aircraft Wing a t Guadalcanal, Lieutenant exKent over the Philippines, Netherlands posed himself to bombing and shellEast Indies, and Malaya, setting ingonmany occasions, and was of up a unified organization of ingreat assistance intheplanning of estimable value the to prosecution operations at a mostcriticalperiod (7 September to 7 October 1942). of the war in that area. Lt. William R. Lilliott, USM, Dunedin, Fla.: Duringwarpatrolson a enemy territory (Solomon Islands submarine, Lieutenant Lilliott ren- area, 6 September to 4 October 1942). dered inestimable assistance in sinkLt. (jg) James Davidson, USN, Roing a considerable amount of Japanese shipping,includinga destroyer, and chester, Minn.: As a pilot of Scouting in damaging converted a aircraft Squadron 3, Lieutenant Davidson was seaplanes attacked by four enemy risk, carrier. At great personal he boarded and set fire to enemy sam- while operating over New Georgia an Island., He damagedoneplane and pan, thereby insuring complete its eluded the others by skillful maneudestruction. vers.On a later date he assisted in Lt. Richard M. Stone, u s m , Savandestroyer, out of nah, Ga.: While commanding officer sinking onedamaging another a force of six, and so that of an Armed Guard crew, three Ger- it was left ina sinking condition. man torpedo bombers attackedhis To four chiefs attached to a subship. One plane was sent crashing during extensive four war intothe sea andanother vanished marine intothe snowstorm with a trail of patrols for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in combat and for skillsmoke, enabling theirshiptomake port. During the weeks spent un- fully carrying out their duties: loading, Lieutenant Stone and his gun Alden D. Habein, CERI, USN, Columbus, Mont.; Franklin Hearn, crew continued their grim watch against enemy planes, mines, and sub- CMoMM, USN, San Francisco, Calif.; marines in spiteof snow, intense cold, Claude Z . Hitchcock, CFC, USN, Oshkosh, Wis.; and Ira H.Dixon, CGM, and terrific gales. Lt. (jg) Roger C. Crow, USNR, Cleve- USN, Vidalia, Ga. land, Ohio: As a pilot of Scouting For gallantry under heavyfire durSquadron 3, Lieutenant Crow dis- ing the landing Army assault troops of played outstanding courage and skill at Safi, French Morocco, to two chiefs on 16 September 1942 in dive-bomb- attached to the U. S. S. Bernadou: ing attacks on two groups of JapaRobert Taylor, CBM, USN, of nese vessels totaling one heavy cruiser, Clarksville, Tex., who performed his three light cruisers, and six destroy- duties as leadsman while exposed to ers. He also participated in numerheavy hostile fire, andlater volunous aerialsearches over dangerous teered to accompany a landing party,
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despite sniping attacks, take and charge of any shipping which might be present. Kenneth P. Berry, CQM, USN, of Port Arthur,Tex., who washelmsman during the approach and entry into theharbor, steering hisshipunder fire in restricted unfamiliar and waters. To three enlisted men in theU.S. S. Dallas who displayed exceptional bravery under fire duringthe capture of the PortLyautey airfield in French Morocco. As crew members, these men assisted in the battery control when a detachment of Army raider troops were disembarkedunder cover . of the ship's protective fire: Loury B. Gonia, CGM, USN, Garden Grove, Calif.; Arley P. Jarrell, CQM, USN, Bim, W. Va.; and Elmer J. Flynn. Jr., SKlc, USN, Norwich, Conn. To two enlisted men of the U.S. S. Cole for their initiative and seamanship when their ship entered the harbor of Safi, French Morocco, under cover of darkness to land Army assault troops: Y. J. McMahan, CBM, USN, Newport, Tenn.; and Wilson M. Young, QMlc, USN, Montrose, Ark. In the face of enemy fire, McMahan directed the handling andmooring of his vessel, while Young,as helmsman, coolly and efficiently executed orders from his exposed station. Chester A. Guynup, CY, USN, Worcester, Mass.:While attached to a submarine detachment at Corregidor, Guynup risked hislife on numerous occasions to out carry vital missionsduring the prolonged siege, and the subsequent evacuationof personnel. He was taken prisoner by the Japanese and subsequently died while in prison camp. Robert Meerman, CPhM, USN, Detroit, Mich.: Accompanying a landing U. party from the S. S. Bernadou duringthe occupation of Safi, French Morocco, Meerman exercised great skill and tireless effort in rendering first aid to many enemy soldiers who had been wounded in the assault. James L. Roll, CEM, USN, El Paso, Tex.: While serving aboard a submarine during three highly successful patrols in enemy-controlledwaters, Roll assisted materially in the sinking of a largeamount of Japanese shipping through expert and conscientious performance of his duties. Daniel H. Shepherd, CMM, USN, Shamokin, Pa.: When the U. S. S. Dallas ploughed up the shallow Sebou River in the zissault on Port Lyautey, French Morocco, Shepherd displayed great courage under when fire his ship had to cross a treacherous bar and then ram her through a steel way cable boom. Through keen initiative, he kept the main engines of the ship

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finally succeeded in rescuing the onIy two victims remaining alive (Solomon Islands area, 13-14 October 1942). Hugh P. Sutherland, PhMlc, USNR, Los Angeles, Calif.: When it became impossible to remove wounded to the rear, during action against Japanese forces at Point Cruz, Guadalcanal, on 1 November 1942, Sutherland worked his way to the frontlines and calmly administered aid first under fire. Later he helped evacuate the patients across a river by amphibious tank.

. Charles E Dole, BWc, USN, Sheffield, Fa.: As a member of a n Armed Guard crew on a United States merchantman, Dole and two other members of his crew quickly opened fire on four German torpedo bombers t h a t suddenly appearedin the early morning. Before any other ship in the convoywas able totraingunson the enemy planes, Dole and his shipmates had driven them off.
, Louis J. Fusco, W T ~ C USN, Rutland, Vt.: While in charge of t h e fire-room watch on a destroyer-transport, bomb concussions from several near misses threw one boiler from its saddle and tore away steam- and fuel-oil lines, rare all lights. With WASP MEDICAL OFFICER DECORATED: Comma.nder Bartholomew extinguishing W .Hogan (MC),USN, West Newton, Mass., shown here with his family, presence of mind, Fusco promptly secured the allhis men won the Silver Star. As senior medical officer of the U.S. S. “WasptJ on deck infires and ordered ship (Solotime to abandon when she was torpedoed by Japanese submarines’ 15 September 1942, mon Islands area, 30 August 1942).

Commander Hogan, despite his own serious wounds, worked tirelessly caring for the injured until forced t o abandon ship.

a t a high degree of efficiency, thereby contributing tothe success of the mission. Tofive enlisted men serving in a battleship in thenaval battle off Savo Island for theircoolness and presence of mind in preventing from fires spreading after an enemy struck shell and exploded fuzed ammunition: Hodgen 0.Patrick, Jr., Ylc, USN, Ocean Park, Calif.; Joseph Delaney, Flc, USNR, Duryea, Pa.; Stanley R. Knaak, Flc, USNR, West Los Angeles, Calif,; Stephen Jarosevich, GM3c, USNR, Nanticoke, Pa.; andJohn R. Rogers, SKBc, USNR, Covington, Ky. To two pharmacist’s mates attached to the First Marine Division for making their way through bursting shells toobtainastretcher and remove a wounded man to the operating room, (the action occurred 23 October 1942 in theSolomon Islands area) : George G. Murrah, Jr., PhMlc, USNR, Richland, Ga.; and Orville F. Tedford, PhMlc, USN, Kenvir, Ky. Gerald T Arrington, PhMlc, USN, . Valley City, Ohio: While serving with the First Marine Division, Arrington assisted in administering first aid to twowoundedcomrades under heavy fire from enemy naval guns. During a lull he searched the bivouac area for more wounded, and on succeeding nights slept in center the of the

bivouac area in order to be immediately available if anyone was injured (Solomon Islands area, 13-14 October
1942).

MMlc, USNR, Clarence C. Kagey, Norfolk, Va.: Although wounded by shell fragments during the occupation of French Morocco, Kagey remained a t his stationin the engine room until he had reported to the bridge by telephone t h e extent of the compartment’s damage. abandoning After the engine room, he dressed his own wounds and began a grueling watch which lasted 4 days. Robert G. Sloan, GMlc, USN, San Francisco, Calif.: While serving in an’escort vessel during action in the Solomon Islands area on 23 October 1942, Sloan waswounded when a shell exploded on his gun. Having assured himself that his gun was useless, he proceeded to render invaluable aid to the other wounded men of his crew. Alfred J. Todak, PhMlc, USN, Buffalo, N. Y . : Whenadirect hit was made on a shelter during a night attack, Todak left his own shelter and attempted,under extremelydifficult and hazardous conditions, to remove the seven occupants who had been trappedwithin it by sandbags and logs. Unable to effect the rescue alone, he called for assistance and

Richard P. Jobb, PhM3c, USNR, Moclips, Wash. (posthumously) : Responding promptly to a call for aid from a patrol subjected to enemy machine-gun crossfire, Jobb rushed forward 150 yards through intense Japanese sniper and fire gave medical assistance to the seriously wounded until he himself was killed by enemy fire (vicinity of Mamara River, Guadalcanal, 26 January 1943). Robert J. Rick, PhM3c, USNR, Morrison, Ill.: As a hospital corpsman attached to a beach partyfromthe U. S. S. Edward Rutledge, Rick went about assisting wounded men in unprotected places, undaunted by heavy strafing and bombing attacks by enemy planes. His courageouswork undoubtedly assisted in saving the lives of many who mightotherwise have perished. Marion E. Stewart, RdMBc, WN, Dayton, Ohio: Attached to theU. S. S. Cole during the landing at Safi, French Morocco, Stewart exposed himself constantly to enemy fire, whileengaged in handlinglineson the forecastle, until finally he was wounded inthe chest. His fighting spirit and devotion to duty contributed in large measure to the success of a vital mission. Lawrence T Wattier, S ~ CUSNR, . , Belle Fourche, S. Dak.: When his vesselwas hit bybombs andset afire

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enemy task force and with his men Lt. (jg) Daniel W. Byerley, USNR, destroyed a transportand inflicted San Diego, Calif.: While attached to severe damage on two light cruisers. Scouting Squadron 3, Lieutenant (jg) On another flight he attacked seven Byerley participatedin seven divewarships between Cape Esperance and bombing attacks on a large number Point Cruz in theSolomons, andwhile of Japanese warships, in addition to homeward bound discovered five Jap- many aerial searches and destructive anese destroyers in the New Georgia assaults on land bases. Channel. He shadowedthesefor an Lt. (jg) Wilhelm G. Esders, USN, hour, meanwhile relaying report to his the base. This is the fourth decora- Pensacola, Fla.: As a pilot attached Im Lieu of Second D. F. C. tion Weymouth has received; he pre- to a Marine Air Group,Lieutenant viously had been awarded the Navy (jg) Esders and three other torpedo contact with an enemy Cross,AirMedal, and Disting~shed pilots made force of one heavy cruiser and three Lt. William E.Henry, USNR, Bakers- Flying Cross. destroyers. Dropping to a very low field, Calif.: A pilot of Scouting Lt. (jg) Allard G. Russell, USNR, Squadron 3, Lieutenant Henry located Seattle, Wash.: While engaged in an altitude and in the face of tremendous antiaircraft fire, they scored two 3 enemy destroyers engaged in landsearch and probably three hits on the ing operations off the north coast of aerial pilot of over dangerous waters asa ScoutingSquadron 3, cruiser. Guadalcanal Island and launched a Lieutenant (jg) Russell discovered shatteringattack whichforced the Lt. (jg) Robert S. marts, USNR, enemy to withdraw. In this and other four Japanese destroyers. Undaunted Duluth, Minn.: Piloting a plane in the by aircraft accompanying the warflights, he participated in attacks on ships, he remained in a vulnerable Solomon Islands area 3-5 October 4 heavy cruisers, 5 light cruisers, 30 position to shadow them for 2 hours. 1942, Lieutenant (jg) m a r t s and his destroyers, and 6*transports. Lieutenant (jg) Russell also took part companions foughtthroughwitherLt. Elwood C. Mildahn, USNR, Roch- in three night missions against eight ing antiaircraft fire to hit an enemy ester, N. Y.: Although attacked by two enemy warships and succeeded in cruiser with 2 bombs, score a near Japanese planes while engaging a de- bringing his damaged plane back to miss on a destroyer, besides shooting attacking planes. down 1 of the stroyer off Choiseul Island the in his base.. Later, he was one of the 9 out of 15 Solomons,LieutenantMildahn coupilots to fly through a tropical storm rageously led .a two-plane section and drop his bombload directly on through heavy antiaircraft to fire the target at Rekata Bay. DISTINGUISHED bomb and strafe the enemy warship. Later, he participatedin an attack on Lt. (jg) Richard C. Purdum, USNR, FLYING CROSS six transportsandeight destroyers, Bozeman,Mont.: While attacking 4 sinking one transport and damaging destroyers, as a pilot of Scouting other vessels (September and OctoSquadron 3 , Lieutenant (jg) Purdum ber 1942). Commander Richard L. Burke, and his group of 6”dive-bombers Lt. Ralph Weymouth, USN, Wash- USCG, New London, Conn.: As com- scored a direct hit on one of the vesington, D. C.: As a member of Scout- manding officer of the Coast Guard Air Station a t Elizabeth City, N. C., ing Squadron 3, Lieutenant Weymouth led a section of planes on an since the beginning of the war, Commander Burke participated in many antisubmarine patrols, in addition to numerous rescue flights. On one occasion he rescued seven survivors from a German submarine, and a t another timehelanded hisplanein waves 8 feet high to effect the transfer of an enlisted man in need of an emergency operation. Lt. Albert0 C.Emerson, USN, Florissant, Mo. (missing in action) : As a pilot of the U. S. S.Hornet Air Group covering a task force engagedina vital mission, Lieutenant Emerson pressed home his attack on a Japanese bomber and with the assistance “Official U. S. Navy Photograph. of two other pilots shot i t down in flames. Destruction of this plane at FLYER WINS SECOND AWARD: a time when the enemy was attemptLt. Comdr. DeWitt W . Shuming t o locate and attack our task force way, USN,Syracuse, N . Y., was contributed greatly to the security of awarded the Gold Star im lieu of the force and in keeping inviolate its a second Distinguished Flying secret mission (13 October 1942). Cross for leading his squadron in Lt. Martin P. MacNair, USNR,Tarrythree effective diue-bombing and town, N. Y . : As a pilot of Scouting strafing raids agailzst Japanese Squadron 3 in the Solomons, Lieuteninstallations and troop concentraant MacNair participated in four attacks on Japanese warships through tions. He assisted i m completely heavy curtains of antiaircraft fire. silencing all opposition and # I During a nightattackonfour deassured the success of our landimg ” M u z z l e Blast Naval Air Gunners School, stroyers operating off northern Hollywood, L a . ) operations with minimum casuGuadalcanal, he assisted by his ag“Are ,yousure that anchor i s part gressive tactics in forcing the vessels alties (7 August 1942, Solomon Islands). of your umiform?” to withdraw.

during an engagement with Japanese forces off Guadalcanal, 7 August 1942, Wattier, despite a badly mangled foot and numerous other injuries, continued firing his 20-mm. machinegun accurately and effectively throughout the engagement. .

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Commander Colby G. Rucker, USN, Arnold, Md.: , As commanding officer of a ship engaged in the occupation of French M o r o c c o , Commander Rucker organized 3 of a United and directed the salvage States ship which NAVY and MARINE had been torpedoed. Despite adverse conditions, the torpedoed ship was CORPS MEDAL brought safely into port. I I Commander William D. Ryan, USNR, Commander James J. Hughes, USN, New York, N. Y.: Exercising keen Washington, D. C.: When his ship judgment and expert seamanship, was torpedoed during the occupation Commander Ryan laid his small vesof . French Morocco, Commander sel alongside a ship which had been Hughes transferred most of his crew torpedoed during the occupation of to anearbydestroyer,retainingon French Morocco, and assisted in salvage party. board only a small pumping, despite destructive pounding He skillfully directed efforts to keep by heavy seas, until all his lines were theship afloat and was able ulticarriedaway and his ship had susmately, with the assistance of other tained a severe battering. ships, to bring her into port. For heroicconduct andoutstanding devotion to duty during submarine patrols which sank 61,677 tons of Japanese shipping; to eight officers and two enlisted men: Lt. John P. Bienia, USNR, New Bedford, Mass.; Lt. Keith G. Nichols, USNR, Covina, Calif.; Lt. (jg) Donald E. Finch, USN, Everett, Wash.; Ensign Nathan J. Ayer, USN, North Stonington, Conn.; Ensign Earl D. Bronson, USN, Honolulu, H.; T. Torpedoman Harry A. Abney, USN, Honolulu, T. H.; Machinist Adolph Bendler, USN, Union City, Conn.; Electrician Charles C. Coleman, USN, Chula Vista, Calif.; Emerial A. McMurtrey, PhMlc, USN, Mountain Home, Idaho; and Einer J. I Ferro, TM3c, USNR, New Orleans, La.

sels, probably sinking it. He displayed outstanding airmanship in subsequent flights against a total of 30 enemy vessels (Solomons area, September and October 1942). Lt. (jg) Francis J. Sauer, USNR, Billings, Mont.: As a pilot of Scouting Squadron 3, from 13 September to 14 October 1942, Lieutenant (jg) Sauer participatedskillful deterin and mined attacks on 4 heavy cruisers, 6 light cruisers, 38 destroyers, and 6 transports, in addition to destructive raids on Rekata Bay and Viru Harbor. Lt. (jg) John Taurman, USNR, Cincinnati, Ohio (missing in action) : When contactwas made witha heavy cruiser and three destroyers, Lt. (jg) Taurman and three other torpedo pilots dropped to 200 feet and pressed home the attack through heavy antiaircraft fire. He scoredone of the two, and probably three, hits which sankthe cruiser (Solomons area, 4 October 1942). Lt. (jg) Alfred Wright, Jr., USNR, South Pasadena, Calif.: Although attacked by 2 Japanese planes while engaging a destroyer, Lieutenant (jg) Wright his foughtscout bomber through heavy antiaircraft to fire damage the enemy seriously by a near miss. He also participated in attacks on a total of 25 vessels (Solomons area, from 24 September to 14 October 1942)

Adak Island, Alaska, a gunner’s,mate had towed the helpless man to a line over the side and thenlost his grip on it throughsheer exhaustion. Seeing that both men were on the verge of drowning, Lieutenant Woodfindove intothe icy waters and keptthem afloat againsta strong tide until a sea ladder was lowered from the quarterdeck. Lt. (jg) John P. Brown, USNR, Indianapolis, Ind.: As commanding officer of the Armed Guard on a merchant vessel which was torpedoed and set afire, Lieutenant (jg) Brown and a cadetbroke down the door of a flame-filled room and r e s c u e d a trapped boatswain whose clothes were ablaze. In spite of painful injuries,he later manned a life raft and continued to look after his gun crew. Lt. (jg) Guthrie F. Crowe, USNR, LaGrange, Ky.: Following the torpedoing of a merchant ship, in which h e was commanding officer of the Armed Guard Lieutenant unit, (jg) Crowe stayed aboardafter the order to abandon ship had been given until he had rescued a severely wounded member of the crew. During 10 days spent in a lifeboat, his leadership practical and knowledge contributed to the morale and physical well-being of the crew. a remote island, After landing on Lieutenant (jg) Crowe went on an extremely hazardousmission and helped rescue 44 survivors of a torpedoed tanker.

-Press

Association Photograph.

BEARDED HERO DECORATED:

When a torpedo inadvertently fired wasjammedbetweenthe outer tube door and the shutter, Chief Torpedoman’s Mate J0h.n H. Whitehouse,VSN, of Lynn, Mass., coolly and methodically removed the warhead. For this he has been decoratedwith the a q N and Marine Corps Medal.

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“Avenger (NAS, Fort Lauderdale, Fla.)

“Captain, I’m afraid we again.” Page 62

overshot

Lt. Richard H. Woodfin, USN, San Diego, Calif.: When a seaman fell overboard from a warship moored at

“Of course, we’re goingto fiy. Do you want to make a fool out of Aerology?’

Lt. (jg) Buren L. Detour, USNR, Redlands, Calif.: Attracted by the distress calls of a soldier a t Oneawa Beach, T. H., Lieutenant (jg) Detour rushed into the surf and swam toward the soldier, who by that time had gone under. Diving repeatedly, he succeeded in bringing him to the surface and with the help of another person dragged the unconscious man through enormous breakers to the beach. Lt. (jg) Arthur T. Guja, USNR, Brooklyn, N. Y.: While on a convoy assignment in command of a small, newly commissioned vessel, Lieutena n t (jg) Guja effected the rescue of 113 survivors of a torpedoed ship despite poor visibility and heavy seas. He .provided for them aboard his crowded vessel for 5 days, caring for their needs as adequately as his limited provisions would permit.

Lt. (jg) AlfredNaifeh, USNR, Norman, Okla. (posthumously) : After the sinking of the U. S. S. Meredith, Lieutenant (jg) Naifeh persisted in swimming back and forth among the life raftson which the survivors were clinging, rendering invaluable aid to the men whowerewounded or exhausted. He finally was overcome by exhaustion, which resulted in his death.
Lt. (jg) Charles W. Smith, USNR, Gloucester, Mass.: As commanding officer of a small vessel on convoy duty, Lieutenant (jg) Smith rescued 84 survivors of a torpedoed ship in spite of poor visibility and a rough sea. For 5 days he provided for them with the limited facilities of his small ship.
To four enlistedmen who risked their lives in rescuing a shipmate washed overboard a t French Frigate Shoals, T. H., 24 November 1942: John Placido, CMoMM, USNR, San Diego, Calif.; Marvin J. Butler, BMlc, USN, Hickory, N. C.; Wilbur E. Danielson, GM2c, USN, Garland, Pa.: and Homer L. Guffey, GM3c, USN, Mineral Ridge, Ohio. Butler and Guffey swam out to the helpless man and supported himabove water, while Danielson and Placido fought theirway through aheavy surf with a lifeline, thereby bringing the hazardous rescue operations to a successful conclusion.

HORNET PHOTOGRAPHER DECORATED: Chief Photographer David H . Ellsworth, USN, Portsmouth, Va.,received the Purple Heart recemtly f o r wounds received in action 26 October 1942 while servimg in the U.S. S. Hornet, “Shangri-la” of the Tokyo bombing raid. Pimning om the medal as Ellsworth’s wife and son Richard look on i s Capt. Newton H . White, Jr., USN (Ret.).
ried to the scene and, although warned Thomas D. Beecher, CRM, USN, of imminent bomb explosions, dragged Orlando, Fla.: As sound operator out the trapped sergeant whose aboard a submarine, Beecher rendered clothes already were ablaze. The inestimable assistance in making six men: LloydH.Bloomingdale, Ptrac, attacks in which a considerable USNR, Troy, N. Y.; and George V . amount of enemy shipping was sunk Schaffer, CEM, USNR, York, Pa. and an unidentified vesseldamaged. William H. Beck, Cl“, USN, IngleVernon -M. Floyd, CPhM, USN, wood, Calif.: I n charge of one torpedo Tchula, Miss.: I n charge of 16 patients room during war four patrols in being evacuated by air from GuadalJapanese-controlled waters, Beck, by canal on 21 October 1942, Floyd sufhis, thorough knowledge of his duties, fered three fractured ribs when the contributed in large measure to the planemade a forced landingon a success of hissubmarineinsinking coral reef. For 10 days thereafter, one enemy cruiser and one destroyer, although sufferingacute pain, he gave and seriously damaging another expert care to all hands, and manucruiser with two torpedo hits. factured a device for the distillation

To two chiefs who served in a submarine which sank 82,600 tons of enemy shipping, including destroyer, a and damaged 31,000 tons: LaMar L. Woodward, CMoMM, USN, Cleveland Ohio; and William K. Carr, CEM, USN, Cottage Hill, Ill.
For heroic conduct in rescuing an Army sergeant from a burning plane, to two enlisted men attached to a constructionbattalion:Immediately following the crash of a E 2 4 a t a n Army airdrome in Iceland, they hur-

Page 63

braved fire and escaping steam to assist in closing the engine-room door. Later he returned to remove a comrade's body and render valuable assistance the to engineer officer in restoring operation of the portengine. Emerial A. McMurtrey, PhMlc, USN, Mountain Home, Idaho: While serving aboard a United States submarine during three war patrols, McMurtrey rendered exceptionally valuable service in caring for men aboard the vessel, thus enabling them to remain at their stations. Forheroicconduct in saving the lives of shipmates during the battle off Savo Island, to two enlisted men: Alexander H. Thrift, MMlc, USN, of San Jose, Calif., who remained in the engine room while vessel was sinkthe ing and assisted injured shipmates to abanescape. When the ship was doned, he towed a wounded man clear of the ship and succeeded in keeping him afloat the remainder the night of until both were rescued. OHern V. W o u r , W c , USN, of Bunkie, La., whoplaced a wounded officer in a life jacket and towed him clear of the ship to a life raft. When it was aboutto be run down by a passing ship, he pushed the raftclear but was himself severely injured by the ship's side.
1

GUADALCANAL VOLUNTEERSCOMMENDED: T w o Coast Guardsmem, who uolumteered fora dangerous assigmmemt in the Solomom Islamds campaigm, recemtly received commelzdations amd the comgratulatiolzs of their commamdingofficer, C a p . R. F . Patch,USCG.Members of a boat crew, the two men"Johm Helzderson, MoMM2c, Bay City, Mich. (Left), and Joe M . COX,Jr., Cox, Miami, FLa.--repeatedly passed through heavy enemy fire to successfully evacuate troops trapped om a beachhead atGuadalcad.
ping: Leo Sciera, CMoMM, USN, Buffalo, N. Y . ; Leonard J. Cailler, MM2c, USNR, Concord, N. H.; Donald J. Snyder, T M ~ cUSNR, Pittsburgh, Pa.; and , Paul C. Morton, CTM, .&N, Terre Joseph Cross, SwlC, USNR, New OrHaute, Ind.: While in a submarine on leans, La. its fourth war patrol,Morton skillSam R. Stiles, CMoMM, USN, Waxafully participated inthe sinking of Observing that the 31,700 tons of enemyshipping. His hachie, Tex.: zeal, loyalty, and determination were conning tower of his submarine could not be closed when the shipwas makan inspiration to his shipmates. ing a sudden dive in enemy-infested Douglass A. Murch, CSM, USN,Mar- waters, Stiles, disregarding his perion, Ind.: When his ship, the U. S. S. sonalsafety, succeeded in arresting before Hugh L. Scott, was sunk off Fedala, the dive and surfacing the ship French Morocco, Murch assisted ,in any serious damage could occur. getting rafts over the side and conJames H. Howard, TMlc, USN, San tinually encouraged the crew as they left the stricken vessel. Twice he Antonio, Tex.: By his heroic conduct war dived overboard and rescued men who during three submarine patrols in enemy-controlled waters, Howard were struggling in thewater. contributed .materially to the deTo fourenlisted men for heroic con- struction of an important amount of Japanese shipping. duct during four submarine war patrols in enemy-controlled waters. By William Lorch; Mlc, USN, North performing theirduties with judgship ment and skill, they contributed ma- Bergen, N. J.: When his was terially destruction in the of a n damaged by an enemy shell during the assault on French Morocco, Lorch important amount of Japanese shipof sea water. Largely through his efforts all evacuees wereeventually rescued in good physical condition.

Sherwin Hendricks, BM2c, USN, Sterling, Colo.: Attached t o a naval vessel in the vicinity of Midway Island, Hendricks witnessed the collision of two Army planes and subsequent efforts to rescue an injured pilot. He volunteered to carry a line to the man, despite heavy seas and the probable Dresence of sharksinthe area, and was directly responsible for saving the pilot's life. Jack M. Rich, MOMM~C, AlexUSN, andria, La.:While serving as sound operator aboard a United States submarine during four war patrols, Rich, by his outstanding skill and conscientious devotion to duty, contributed materially to the destruction imof an portant amountof Japanese shipping.

-NA8 Dope Sheet (Norfolk, Va.)

Page 64

Robert E. L. Chandler, AO3c, USNR, Richmond, Va.: While fighting a gasoline fire aboard a small boat, Chandler noticed a badly burned seamanstruggling unsuccessfully to keepafloat. He dived into the oil-covered sea, and with the aid of another seaman, Succeeded in getting thestunnedand helpless victim into a life jacket until help came. John D. Massman, Cox, USCGR, Seattle, Wash.: During a serious fire in the Frye & Co. plant in Seattle on 18 February 1943, as a member of a fire and rescue party, Massman madefour trips into a gas-filled room t o carry out four unconscious firemen. On the fifth trip he himself was overcome, but was rescued. Jack W. Smay, PhM3c, USN, Summerhill, Pa.:While attached to the First MarineDivision at Guadalcanal, 15 and 16 September 1942, Smay rendered expert and timely assistanceto wounded personnel in a barrage of mortar andmachine-gun fire, and was instrumental in returning to the battle many men who were urgently needed at the moment. Elmer C. Willert, PhM3c, UShrR, Chokio,Minn.: Just before his ship, the U. S. S. Joseph Hewes, plunged into the sea off Fedala, French Morocco, Willert wentto the assistance of a soldier pinned under a large steel girder andthrewhim clear of the stricken vessel. With his comrades safe, he went over the side-the last of his rating to abandon ship. Sam Caponio, Slc, USNR, Oakland, Calif.: As a member of an Armed Guard crew, Caponio’s ship was torpedoed andhis fingers werebadly mangled while he was getting into a lifeboat.Sufferingacutelyfrom exposure and the emergencyamputation of two fingers, he managed to send out blinker distress signals to a lighthousebefore he collapsed from pain and loss of blood. Florian G. Erickson, SIC,. USNR, Bakersfield, Calif.: When an Army sergeant fell overboard from adocked merchant vessel near San Francisco on 18 June 1943, Erickson dived 12 feet into cold water, swam under the dock, and hauled the drowning man to safety. Edwin M. Jacobs, F ~ cUSNR,Vicks, burg, Miss.: When the warship to which he was attached was damaged by a shell during assault the on French Morocco, Jacobsvoluntarily entered the engine room, thenan inferno of smoke, steam, and intense heat, in a valiant attempt torescue a helplessly wounded shipmate trapped inside.
W. Va.: When the ship to which Rice

-Official U. S. Marine Corps Photograph.

Trophies From the South Pacific: Corporal Laurence P. DeBejar, ammunition case, and ( 4 ) a Jap officer’smap case, both on straps over his ( shoulder. A drooping enemy battle flag5 ) hangs behind him.
was attached located a missing pilot. forced down at sea, he saw the helpless and exhausted surrounded man by sharks which had alreadv killed the airman’s companion. & his own initiative. Rice dived overboard. swam to the injured pilot and by means of a line assisted him to the ship.
USMC, hncaster, Calif., returns to the U. S. with ( 1 ) a Japanese major’s bush jacket, which he is wearing; ( 2 ) a .25 caliber sniper’s rifle; ( 3 ) an

I

II

In Lie# o f Second Air M e d a l
. I

*

II

t

Norman E. Rice, Slc,

USN,

Mullens,

Lt. (jg) Richard P. Balenti, USNR, Altus,Okla.: Wounded in the thigh by by enemy gunfire when attacked Gerald L.Rogers, Slc, uSN, Visalia, four Japanese planes, Lieutenant (jg) Calif.: While swimming a t Palm Balenti maintained control of his Beach, Calif., on 7 May 1943, Rogers plane despite the painful injury and went to the aid of a companion who returned safely to Henderson Field. was exhausted and helpless. Several He continued to participate in active times he and the victim were swept operations, vigorously attacking 6 backby a swift current,and when transports and 14 destroyers (5-14 they finally reached shore Rogers car- October 1942, Solomons area). ried the unconscious victim until heln arrived and then assisted in artificiil Lt. (jg) William J. Foley, Jr., USN, respiration until the victim was revived. Chicago, 1 1 : As pilot of a 1. Marine Air

Page 6 5

Lt. Comdr. Rudolph C. Bauer, USN, Jersey City, N. J.: Following the crash of an Army bomber at sea, Lieutenant CommanderBauersped tothe John W. Schliekelman, ACRM, USN, scene and spotted a lone survivor in Redmond, Oreg.: As radiomangunmile shore. the water less ner in Scouting Squadron 3, Schliek- In the face of than awinds from heavy high and elman maintained radio equipment in swells he landed, hauled the man operation despite great difficulties, aboard, and flew him back t o medical was alertindetecting hostile ships attention in such a shocked and exand planes, and repulsed many enemy a few minattacks with deadly blasts from his .hausted condition that proved fatal. utes’ delay might have weapons. Lt. Albert0 C.Emerson, USN, Florissant, Mo. (missing in action) : While Eight aviation radiomen gunners participating in aerial flight as pilot attached to Scouting Squadron 3 in a fighting squadron of the U. S. S. duringSeptember and October 1942 Hornet air group, Lieutenant Emerhave been presented Air Medals, or son daringly engaged numerous enGold’ Stars in lieu of a second Air emy aircraft in combat with the result Medal, for meritorious achievement in that two Japanese fighter planes were the Solomon Islands area. Those re- destroyed (26 October 1942, near ceiving Gold Stars areClyde R. Simp- Santa Cruz Islands). Tex.; son, ARMlc, USN, Corpus Christi, Lt. (jg) Harold W. Lough, .USNR, Morton Lachowitz, ARM2c, USN, New Weston, W. Va.: While returning Bedford, Mass.; Robert Hansen, war during battle the ARM2c, USN, Aberdeen, S. Dak.; Dar- from patrol re11 H.Beaman, ARMlc, USN, Green- of Midway, Lieutenant (jg) Lough fleld, Iowa; and Willard L. Wright, landed his plane on the sea and rescued a pilot and his mechanic whose ARM2c, USN, Tawas City, Mich. plane had been forced down by engine Air Medals went to Marvin K. Tay- trouble. This was performed suclor, AhZM2c, USN, Hatchkiss, Colo.; cessfully despite the that fact he William H. Rambur, ARMlc, USN, had just completed a long and tiring Parshall. N. Dak.; and . Balford A. 700-mile patrol. Sumner, ARMlc, USN, Kimball, Nebr. Lt. (jg) Francis G. Slater,. USNR, Identicalcitationsstate thatthe Brooklyn, N. Y . : As second pilot of a men were alertin detecting hostile patrol plane during action against an ships and aircraft and reliable in enemy submarine, Lieutenant (jg) transmitting contact reports to their Slater rendered valuable service by his base and thatdeadly blasts from their skillful and alert cooperation. Two weapons repulsed numerous enemy of the plane’s bombs exploded directly aircraftattacks. in the swirl of the diving submarine onesecond after the periscope disappeared. . Ensign Maurice E Woodcock, USNR, Morristown, N. Y. (missing in action) : Piloting a fighter plane in an engagement against 20 Japanese destroyers on 4 February 1943, Ensign Woodcock and his comrades were attacked by 30 Zeros.He succeeded in downing one enemy plane before he himself was shot down. To seven enlisted men whose skill and courage as members of a n antisubmarinepatrolsquadroncontributed materiallv to the probable sinking of a U-boat: Frank E. Haswood. ARM~c,USNR. Moundville, Ala.; Norman C. Eich. horn, AMMlc, USN, Chittenango, N. Y.; George J. Brown, Jr., ACRM, USN, Portsmouth, Va.; W. Alfred Jones, ACMM, USN, Akron, Ohio; William J. Bentrod, CAI?, USN, Lynwood, Calif.; John J. McGuire, W 3 c , TJSNR, Salt Lake City, Utah; Carl and Fischer, A ” 3 c , USNR, Ross, Calif. When a n enemy submarine was sighted on the surface,allmanned

Group, Lieutenant (jg) Foley took partin flights against 23 Japanese vessels, including 7 warships engaged in landingoperations off the north coast of Guadalcanal, and invigorous raids on land installations (Solomons area, September and October 1942).

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AIR MEDAL

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their battle stations in the of perface sistent antiaircraft fire and assisted the pilot in pressing home accurate an and deliberate depth-charge and machine-gun attack which severely damaged and probably destroyed the craft. To two chief aviation pilots for skillful airmanship on 27 February 1943 when their patrol Plane was forced to make an emergency landing in a blizzard. The pilot, Elmer H. Roberds, USN, Belvieu, Tex., flew on instruments for 3 hours until he flnally located a familiar lighthouse. He then flew out over the sea, jettisoned his bomb load, and landed on a frozen marsh without injury to personnel andwith only slight damage to the plane. John B. McDonnell, USN, @Onset, R. I., copilot, by careful dead reckoning navigation aided materially in maneuvering the plane. Conrad H Lawrence, m c , USN, . DaytonaBeach, Fla. (missing) : AS an air bomber and turret gunner serving Torpedo with Squadron 8, Lawrence took part in numerous attack missions under extremely adverse conditions. By his courageous and skillful performance of duty, he contributed greatly to the successful achievements of his squadron. Melvin M. Bryson, ARM2c. USN, Council Bluffs, Iowa: As radioman gunner attached to Scouting Squadron 3, his plane was engaged by Japanese aircraft while delivering a bombing and strafing attack on a destroyer. With expert marksmanship, Bryson blasted the enemy plane, which was left with smoke pouring from its fuselage. He also participatedinsixothermissionsagainst Japanese warships.

”Beacon (NRS, San Pedro, Calif.).

“ ’ 1take the pursuit job. You cam 11 have the bomber.‘’ Page 66

”Rinaldi

in The Hoist (NTS, Diego). San

or endorse the following on the outside of sealed packages: “May be opened for customs purposes before delivery to the addressee.” I n order to provide protective colorIf this statement is lacking, customs ation, slate r a y working uniforms will officials will contact theaddressee for g be issued to all enlisted men serving authority to open the parcel f o r at sea. The new uniform will not be examination, and serious delay in deready for several months, and when livery will result. available may be authorized for wear Also (although not required law), by by enlisted personnel below the rating it is desirable that senders include in of CPO. The present undress whites each gift package a signed certificate still will be worn for dress and liberty. in substantially the following form: Design and fabric of the new uni“I hereby certify that I am a form, including hat, will be the same member of the armed forces of the as the whiteuniform now worn. Only United Statesonduty outside the the color will be changed. Dungarees continental limits of the United also will continue tobe worn for work States, and that the enclosed shipa t sea and ashore but the uniform ment is sentby me as a gift pursuant new is expected to ease the wear to which to Public Law 790 and that its value dungarees are subjected aboard ship. is $50 or less (United States currency). Slate grays have previously been “Dated this ______ day of _________ authorized for commissionedofficers 194_-.” and chief petty officers (Information (Details in N. D. Bul. CsemimonthBulletin, September 1943,page 73) for lyl, of 15 September 1943, R1395.) wear bothafloat and ashore.

Gray Uniforms Authorized For Enlisted Men at Sea

Volunteers Needed For Submarine Duty
Volunteers are needed to provide officers for the expanding U. S. Navy submarine service. Applications of volunteers for the class convening 3 January 1941 (and subsequent classes) at theSubmarine School, New London, Conn., are desired from officers who are graduates of the Naval Academy, Classes of 1939 through 1943,inclusive, and from NavalReserve officers not over 28 years of age of the rank of lieutenant, lieutenant (junior grade), and ensign. This isthe lastopportunity forofficers of the Class of 1939 for assignment to this duty. Sea service and other requirements set forth in the BuPers Manual (articles EL1301 and E-1304) havebeen removed.However,officers with seagoing experience, and particularly Academy graduates, are especially urged to volunteer. Reserve officers without seagoing experience should have engineering or technical training or experience, but exceptions .are made in the cases of nontechnical officers whose service records on shore duty over a reasonable period are outstanding. Applicationsmust be endorsed or accompanied by a certificate of a medical officer stating the candidate’s physical fitness for submarine duty. (Full details in N. D. Bul. of 1 September 1943, R1356.1

.

All Pay Grades Included In Maternity Care Plan
Wives and infants of all enlisted men (formerly, those only of the lower four pay krades) are now eligible for emergency maternity and infant care undera plan established by the Children’sBureau of the U. S. Labor Department, and operating in 41 States and all Territories except Puerto Rico. These services are provided, however, only when similar services are not otherwise available from theNavy or official State or local health agencies, and (in the case of those in the first, second, and third pay grades) when circumstances in theindividual cases warrant. The plan is in operation (as of 1 September 1943) in all States except Colorado, Louisiana, Massachusetts, North Dakota, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas. (Full details in N. D. Bul. [Semimonthly1 of 1 September 1943, R
1366.)

Civil engineering course open ---___ -__ Civilian technician, uniform for”--__ Command course at Newport____-____ Films available for shore estahlishmerits---_____-_-_____--___"__---_

70

69 69
69

Gift packages, customs requirements

Customs Service Requires Note on Gift Packages
A 1 handssendinggiftsinto 1 the United States or Territories from outside the continental limits must stamp

Gray uniforms for enlisted men-_______ Household shipments, adrance notice required on__--____-___----___--_- 68 69 “Letter from a Father” -____________67 Maternity care plan broadened______-Merchant Marine men eligible for Navy awards---______-_____-----_--_-__ 69 “Only a Reserve” 68 Pistol shot medal 68 Playwriting contest open to enlisted personnel 68 Refrigerator distribution limited””__ 69 Ribbons, ranks and rates,priceschanged- 70 Rifleman medal. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Sailors serving with Army units, u’niform for----__--__--_-___________ 69 Submarine duty, volunteers needed for__ 67 Training courses, information on””-_ 70 V-12 Bulletins. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 V-7, math requirements lowered in qualifications for_-____----____________67

67 67

Math RequirementLowered For V-7 Qualification
Prior completionof a course in trigonometryisnolongerrequired for eligibility of enlisted men for Reserve midshipmen training under the V-7 program. Instead, candidates must have completed two single semester courses in mathematics (as previously required), or, in lieu thereof, their commanding officer’s endorsements must include the statement that they been exhave amined in mathematics and are considered to have sufficient aptitude to qualify for Reserve midshipmen training. Another change eliminates the 10 years’ citizenship formerlyrequired and substitutes simply citizenship. Other requirements, which have been

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plays by or for United States armed Postgraduate Cowse Set forces, or any designee of ComTHREE, shall always be free of royalty. With In Applied Communications these exceptions, allrights in the Deadline for applications from plays shall remainthe property of the officers for postgraduate training in Playwriting Contest Open author, any and monies accruing is from the publication or productionof applied communications 15 October. T o Enlisted Personnel the play shall be the property of the Eligible for the 1-yearcourse convening about28 January 1944,are regular Cash prizes of $500, $250, $125, $75, and $50 are offered in a one-act play- author. Manuscripts should be written on officers of Classes 1940 to 1942, inwriting contest open allenlisted per- only one side of the paper;sheets to clusive, and Reserve officers who have sonnel of the Navy, Marine Corps,and should be bound together simply; tihadmathematicsthroughdifferenCoast Guard. tle of the play and name and address tial and integral. calculus equivalent Only original plays not previously of the author should be plainly stated to that required for a B. S. degree i n shown, with playing time of from 15 on the cover. Although every effort mechanical, civil, or electrical engito 30 minutes, are eligible. There is will be made to return manuscripts, neering or applied physics. Additionnolimitationonsubjectmatteror ally, they must be less than 26 years it is suggested thatauthorsretain form but humorous plays, based on duplicate copies. of age, should meet all physical rethe simplest, cleanest, and most hufor line duties, Requestsfromnaval districts for quirements general man values are preferred. and have had at least 1 year of sea all materials pertaining to the contest The type of acting required, the should be made directly to the Comduty. (Details in N. D. CsemiBul. scenic backgrounds,costumes,props monthlyl, of 15 September 1943, mandant,Third Naval District, Atand make-up must all be within the tention: Welfare and Recreation Offi- R1402.) limitations of the usual naval theatri- cer. cal activity. The decisive factor, howAdvance Notice Requested ever, will be the entertainment value Navy Medals Awarded On Household Shipments of each play. All manuscripts should submitted For Firing MC Course be Because Navy packing facilities are to the Commandant Third Naval DisNaval personnel now can win Navy overtaxed, the Bureauof Supplies and trict, Attention: District Welfare and 1303, 90 expert rifleman and expert pistol shot Accounts requests that allpersons enRecreation Officer, Room Church Street, New York (71, N. Y., medals by qualifying in a Marine titled to shipment o f household goods at Government expense advise shipand must be received there not later Corps rifle, carbine, or pistol course ping activities as far in advance as when circumstances make the firing than 1200, 15 February 1944. of,prescribed Navy courses impracti- possible (preferably 1 month) of prosI manuscriptsnot f do warrant moves. BuSandA also reprizes, thatpart of the $1,000 not cable or incohvenient. (Specific reg- pective that shipments of household awarded will be presented to theNavy ulations appear in N. D.Bul. Csemi- quests goods Relief Society by Mr. John Golden, monthlyl of 1 September 1943, mum,be kept to the absolute minieliminating articles not actuNew York theatrical producer, who is R1348.) ally required. (Details in N. D. Rul. sponsoring the contest. (semimonthly), of 1 September 1943. All performances or filming of the R1376.)

in effect since 7 April 1942, remain the same under the new order. (Full details appearin N. D. Bul. [semimonthly of 1 August 1943,R1262.1

- ”-K--,

n

‘Only a Reserve’

\
T w o Sons of Heaven (?) on their way home!
Page 68

”Bayou Tale Spinner (NAS, New Orleans, La.).

A young war-winning Bailor, new to theNavy, wasintroduced to a crusty admiral in old Washington summer. last Feeling somewhat abashed, the neophyteremarked apologetically, “I’m only a reserve, sir.” The old salt gave him a martinet stare, wagged a finger a t himand said, “Never use the word “only” when you describe your status. The U. S. Navy, as such, never won a war, nor has the regular Army won one, except with the aid of the Reserves pressed into service from civil life. Always remember this: You win our wars. We simply keepthe gunsclean during peace time.” ”Naval Air Station News,, Anacostia, D. C.

-Buccaneer

(NAS, Vero Beach, ma.).

“He wants to be sure he won’t get tired of that design, first.”

Films Available For Shore Establishments
Three new, short-subject motion pictures illustrating the interdependency of the worker on the production and themen of the fleet on the firing line, were released last month for exhibition to civilian workers in naval shoreestablishmentsand shipyards. Titles: “December 7th,” “TheLife and Death of the Hornet.” and “The Navy Flies on.” Shoreestablishments desiringtoexhibitthese films should address requests to the Chief of the Bureau of Aeronautics (Training Film Section), Navy Department,Washington, D.C., with information copy to the Division of PersonnelSupervision andManagement, Secretary’s Office, Shore Establishments Division, Navy Department.

.NewInsignia For Civilian Technicians
Civiliam t e c h niciams, who may serve w i t h the Navy, were authorized last month to w a r uniform e a U.S. similar t o t h a t TECHNICIAN worn by Naval officers, minus any imsigmia of rank or corps, or shoulder or sleeve marks. Caps with blackchinstrap and without cap device will be worn. Instead of Naval insignia, technicians will wear the insignia pictured herewith, on the left breast pocket of coat and shirt.(Details in N . D . Bul.[semimonthly], of 1 September 1943, R-1368.)

Refrigerator Supply Low; Distribution I s Limited
In theMarch issue of the INFORMABULLETIN,page 74, notice was given that an allocation of domestic refrigerators had been obtained by BuPers for resale to naval personnel through Ship’sService Stores. Declining supplies of fabricated refrigerators do not permit further allocation from the War Production Board in sufficient quantity to supply all applicants on the basis ,existing up to this time. Effective3 September 1943, BuPers is required to limit itsapproval of further applicationstothose (1) submitted by naval personnel returned from sea duty or duty overseas, and, (2) for thepersonal use of such applicants in their ownhomes. A l l other conditions previouslystipulated by the War Production Board remain in effect.
TION

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Command Course Begins 1 January at Newport
A command course for approximately 15 officers of the regular Navy o the rank of lieutenant commander f and above will open at the Naval War College on 1 January 1944. Also, a preparatory staff course will be held at the same for time 50 Reserve officers of theranks of lieutenant commander, lieutenant, and lieutena n t (junior grade). Classeswill last approximately 5 months. Applications should reach BuPers on cr before 15 November. (Details in N. D. Bul. Csemimonthlyl, of 15 September
1943, R1403.)

LETTER FROM A FATHER
The following letter to the Commandant of a Naval air station has been forwarded to the Bureau: Your kind letter of sympathy in the loss of our son, Aviation Cadet -_------__----, helped to crowd some of the grief from our hearts USNR, and replace it with pride. If our dearly belovedboy had to go as he did, there is a sense of consolation in the knowledge that he gave his life in the service of the finesC fighting force in theworld. As a former Navy man, during World War I, your fine letter held an added meaning for me and I assure you that Mrs. ______________ and I will ever treasure it among our proudest possessions; along with the flag which was presented to us at our son’s grave. At a time when vicious forces seek the destruction of all that we believe in asAmericans, of all that is decent and beautiful, of the ideals for whichAmericans havefoughtand died throughoutour history, it is necessary that personal loss be subordinated. We assure you that we understand that fully; that we are proud that our boywas privileged to do his partinthisgreatstruggleagainst tyranny, oppression, andthe enslavement of free men-and doubly proud that he did so in the service of the U. S. Navy Air Corps. To you of the Navy, to our son’sofficers and fellow-cadets,we, his God grieving but proudParents,can only say:“Carryon,andmay be with you.” For Mrs. ______--______ members of our family I wish .to and the sincerely thank you for yourconsoling letter and for the traditional Navy tribute whichswelled our broken hearts with pride in the dark hour when we said a last farewell at thegrave of our precious boy. who are facing death In return, can only offer our prayers for those we hourly in order that freedom may live. We would like totake this occasion to commendAviation Cadet _____---__USNR,who accompanied the remains of our son home - ---, ’s as official escort. We want you and Cadet _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _officers and shipmatesto knowhowsplendidly he carriedout that difficult assignment. No one could have givenus greater aid and consolation. I n every respect his conduct was in accordance with the very highest Navy tradition, No words of praise we can bestow upon Cadet ______--______ would adequately express how much his visit to ourhome meant to us. Sincerely 2nd respectfully yours,
” _

Men of Merchant Marine Eligible for Navy Awards
Personnel of the United States Merchant Marine are now eligible for the Navy’s Silver Star Medal and the Navy and Marine Corps Medal. The awards may be made when direct combat with the enemy is involved, or in case of especially meritorious service under combat conditions when members of a naval expedition. (Details in N. D. Bul. Csemimonthlyl, of 15 September
1943, R1391.)

Sailors Serving W i t h Army May Wear G. I. Uniforms
Navy enlisted men serving with Army detachments inareas where naval uniforms would be inappropriate now are authorized to wear U. S. Army uniforms with appropriate navalinsigna. (Details in N. D. Bul.Csemimonthlyl, of 1 September,
R-1364.)

” ”

Page 69

Prices Changed on Reprints Of Ribbons, Ranks & Rates
New prices have been established by the Government Printing Office for the two pamphlets, “Summaryof Regulations Governing the Issuance and Wearihg of Decorations, Medals and Ribbons‘ Now Designated for Naval Personnel” and “Summary of Ranks and Rates of the U. S. Navy Together with Designations and Insignia.” For personal use, copies of “Decorations, Medals and Ribbons” may, be ordered from the Superintendent of Documents, Washington, D. C., at 15 cents each, and copies of.“Ranks and Rates”maybeordered at 10 cents each. Specify complete title. Copies for official use may be requested o f BuPers without cost. The “Decorations, Medals and Ribbons” pamphlet should identified as NAVbe PERS 15016,-and th,e “Ranks and Rates” pamphlet as NAVPERS 15004.
I

(formerly BNP 672), Enlisted Training Course Certificate, and BuPers Manual change pertaining to this revision, are both outlined in Manual Circular Letter No. 21-43 (N. D. Bul. lsemimonthlyl of 15 September 1943,
R1411).

Civil Engineering Course Open to Certain Oficers
Postgraduate training incivil engineering is open to regular Navy officers whose career in the line appears to be i n jeopardy through failing eyesight or similar physical impairment. Applicants should be from the Classes of 1941 or 1942 and their applications should reach BuPers by 1 November 1943. It is expected that three officersbe will ordered to Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute for instruction t o begin 13 January 1944 and t o last approximately 20 months. (Details in N. D. Bul. Csemimonthlyl, of 15 September 1943,R1401.)
~

The new enlisted training course for Stewards and Cooks will automatically be substituted for the older edition of Officer’s Cooks and Stewards when the publication is received from the printers. Signalman, third class, training course and progress test and examination booklets also have been revised to bring thecontentsinlinewith present communication procedure. supply is exSincethe warehouse hausted, it has been necessary Place to some requestson back order. These will be filled as soon as the new edi. . tions arrive. -The Hoist (NTS, San Diego, Calif.). There is no progress test and ex“Do you gemtlemem have the amination book for Parachute reseruatiomsy Rigger, third class and second class, now being distributed, and no accompanying book is proposed at this time. V-12 BULLETINS A number of requests for enlisted training courses are being received addressed The following V-12 Bulletins were from enlisted personnel released during the period, 20 August direct to BuPers, in violation Iof Navy Regulations, Article 2010. n each to 20 September, inclusive: case a form reply is returned to the 69, Nos. 18, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, commanding officer of the activity 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 78, 79, 80, 81, where the enlisted man is on duty, 77, 83, 84, 86, 91. 85, enclosingone copy of the 1943 “InCommanding officers of V-12 units structions for Enlisted Training” and should be certain that copies of all directing the writer’s attention to the V-12 Bulletins are made available to provisions of Article 2010. the Academic Dean or the V-12 Liaison Faculty Member. Since each V-12 Unit now is receiving three copies of every bulletin, this number should besufficient for academic and Navy use. If allnumbershave not been received, they may be obtained, upon requestfrom the Training Division,, BuPers.

1

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Information on Training Courses
Educational officers wondering why BuPers does not send the shipment of training courses they ordered should determine whether a return address was included with the order. Although every attempt is made to determine where such orders should be shipped, such requests as those bearing only the names of officers that have identical repeats in the official -Pee Vee (NAS, Lake City, ma.). files must be held awaiting a second “Oh, Z used to have ome im every order or tracer inquiry, in order to But I foulzd this t o , port too avoid mis-shipment. The revised form NAVPERS 672 &e much &etterl”

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“NO! No!
Page 70

-The

Hoist (NTS, San Diego, Calif.

It’s supposed to kick like that.”

...

What Is Your Naval I. Q.?
BY KEITH A. BOTTERTJD
Y ~ cUSNR ,
1. How many of the following colors appear on the American Defense ribbon? (a) yellow; (b) red;(c)white; (d) blue?
2 Here are the silhouettes of three . planes. If you were thegunneron a Grumman ,Avenger, a t which would you Are?

Answers to What I s Yolcr Naval I . Q.?

14. What would be the approximate velocity of the wind if there are con1. All four colors. tinual rolling waves, the wind carries 2. Shoot at the one on the left, a Geralong wave crests for a distance equal man Junkers 90, and the one on the right, the is a to one-half the wave length, and there a Japanese Mavis. In center are scud or foam streaks? (Within 3 B-17, a Flying Fortress. 3. Steward’s mates. knots will count a correct). s 4. CV-aircraft carriers including all the 15. A Navy lieutenant of the line, a

commander who is a flight surgeon, and a Marine lieutenant approach a corner on which standing colonel are a of the Army quartermaster corps and an ensignonshorepatrol duty. A fight breaks out betweentwo sailors nearby.Suppressing the disturbance is the responsibility of the: (1) Navy lieutenant; (2) commander; ( 3 ) Marine lieutenant; (4) Army colonel; ( 5 ) ensign.
16. The most powerful and destructive of all winds occur in: (1) tropical cyclones; (2) hurricanes; (3) squallline thunderstorms; (4) tornadoes; (5) typhoons. 17. Here is a reproduction (except for color) of the personal flag of the SecNav. The AstSecNav, the UnderSecNav, andthe AstSecNavAir also have personal flags. They follow the same outlines as SecNav’s, but the colors differ. Give the proper colors of each.

27,000-ton class (Essez) , plus all existing carriers built as such, as the Saratoga (CV3). CVB-aircraft carriers, large. Class includes any carrier larger than CV. C w a r r i e r s small,the 10,000-ton class converted from former CL’s. CVE”carriers, escort, including conversions to auxiliary carriers from merchant vessels, tankers,andtheKaiser-built vessels, all now reclassified as combatant ships. T h e reclassification became effective 15 June
1943. 5. Cargoships. 6. Admiral Royal

3 There are no more mess attend. ants in the Navy. By what name are they now known?
CV? ACVB?

4. W h a t is a

CVL? A CVE?

A

5 What U. S. . ships are named ’ after stars? 6. A t l e f t is CINCLANT.‘ Can you g i v e his name?

7. If you should “catch B crab” while r o w i n g, could you eat it?
8 How many rates in the . Navy are open to members of the Women’s Reserve? 9 Can you identify the following . nautical terms? (1) crane; (2) crow’s nest; (3) swallow; (4) gooseneck; (5) wings; (6) crow’s foot.

18. The mottoes of the U. 8.Coast Guard and the U. S. MarineCorps are: (1) Semper Paratus, and (2) Fidelis. Which belongs to 1 .Who was in immediate command Semperorganization? 0 of the U. S. naval forces which played which a large part in the invasion of Sicily? 19. There are a number of ways in 11. Where is the Second Naval Dis- which enlisted men and officers may draw extra compensation. Name trict? The Seventeenth? three af them, alongwith the amount. 12. What is the Armed Forces Insti. tute? What does it offer you? 20. Some of these names appear in the news from Sicily; others from 13. “We left fires visible for 200 Italy, the South Pacific and Russia: miles,” bomber pilots report on their Orel, Melito, Bagnara, New Britain, return froma raid. Are they stretch- Bougainville, San Fratello, Buin, Stalings things? A t an altitude of 25,000 ino, Lae, Salamaua, Messina and Cafeet, how far can a pilot actually see? tania.Can you separatethemcorAt sea level how far can a sailor see? rectly?

E Ingersoll, USN. . 7. “Catching a crab” is failing to keep in stroke while pulling an oar and (when pulling with others) thereby jamming and fouling other oars. 8. Under Navy regulations, all ratesopen to men are also open to women, providing theycan qualify. However, law prohibits them from serving aboard combat aircraft, at sea, etc. 9. ( 1 ) Machinery used for picking up heavy objects, cargo. (2) An observation post high on a ship’s mast, used by lookouts. ( 3 ) The space between the cheek and the sheave in a block through which the line passes. (4) A metal fllling onthe inboard end of a boom. (5) The outboard sections of a cargo hold. ( 6 ) A series of small lines made fast to the upper partofan awning to raise it up above protruding objects on the deck. 10. Admiral Vice H K. Hewitt, USN, . Commander of U S. Naval forces i North . n African waters. 11. There are no such naval districts. 12. It has been established at Madison, Wis., forthe special beneflt ofthe personnel of the Armed Forces and offers a wide variety of correspondence courses a t a very low cost. 13. At 25,000 feet a pilot cansee approxfmately 194 miles. A sailor at actual sea . level can see only 2 8 miles on an undisturbed horizon. 14. Thirty-one to 37 knots. 15. Navy lieutenant. 16. Tornadoes. 17. SecNav: white stars and anchor on blue field: UnderSecNav: white stars and anchor on red field; AstSecNav:‘blue stars and anchor on white field; AstSecNavAir: red stars and anchor on white field. 18. (1) Coast Guard, Semper paratus (always prepared). ( 2 ) Marine Corps, Semper fidelis (always fuzthful) 19. Duty involving flying pays 50 percent of the base pay plus longevity in the way of added compensation; submarine duty 50 percent plus longevity: sea and foreign duty 20 percent of base pay only for enlisted men, 10 percentof base pay for officers; messmen, mailclerks, divers, and many others receive extra compensation: enlisted winners of Medals of Honor, the Navy Cross, the Distinguished Service Medal, Silver Star Medal, Distinguished Flying Cross, and Navy and Marine Corps Medal (after 7 Dec. 1941) get $2 per month extra. 20. Sicily: Fratello, San Messina, Catania; Russia: Orel, Stalino; South Pacific: New Britain, Wougainville, Buin, Lae, Salamaua; Italy: Bagnara and Melito.

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Page 71

INDEX FOR OCTOBER 1943
P'age
Page

Letters to the Editor ___________ 36 Navy, British capture Italian isApplied Communications Course land-----_--_-__-____"__--__- 32 set__-___________-_____---_-- Life aboard modern U. S. subma68 rines___-_______---____-----_ 10 Navy Department commuriiques- 44 25 Blimp barns made ofwood""" 26 Neptune certificates Lifeboat, First aid for men in-" 15 Books, pocket-sized, f o r Navy men--___--_--___-____--_---- 35 Lookouts (training tip of the New books in ship's libraries"__ 35 53 November calendar month)-_-----_---_----_----70 Bulletins, V-12 -______-_______-_ 36 67 BuPers Bulletin Board ______--_- Malta, Africa, get planes by car"Only a Reserve" _______________ 68 rier ____________________--___- (and down Japs)" 31 Periscope up Capture of Italian Island Ustica- 32 10 8 1 6 Malta, Italian fleet surrenders atCapture of Enogai________-__--Pistol shot medal allowed for Maternity care plan broadened" 67 Navy men on MCcourse""-68 Carrier scores remarkable record 19, Men in Atlantic _____________- in lifeboat, First aid for_"- 26 Plane, If you must jump from". 13 Merchant marine men eligible for Carriersferry planes toMalta, Playwriting contest open to enNavy awards_____________---- personnel______________ 68 69 31 Africa _____________________-listed 37 "Pollywogs" still become"Shell42 Month'snews ________-_---_---Casualty Agures__________-----backs"____-_-___-__---_-_-__-14 Ceremonies crossingthe equator- 14 Navy awards,Merchantmarine men eligible for ______-___--- Prices changed on ribbons, ranks, - 69 70 Civil Engineering Courseopen-" and rates___---____-_-_--_-__ 70 Civilian Technician, Uniform for- 69 Quotes of the month ___________ 36 69 Command Course Newport"-at This Month's Cover Refrigerator distribution limCommuniques,Navy Department- 44 ited___--_----___-____-----_- 69 Communications, Applied, Course Ribbons, ranks, and rates prices 68 set________-___-____-_------_ _ _ _ & 70 changed _ _ _ _ _ _ ____-____ Courses: Rifleman Medal, allowed Navy Applied Communications_"- 68 Men on MC courses___________ 68 69 Command ___-________----69 Sailors with Army, Uniform for" 70 Civil Engineering ________-Sea-going squares (cross word puzzle) ______________________ 50 70 Training_____________"_-_-_ "Shellbacks," "Pollywogs" still Decorations and citations ___----54 14 become--__----_--_---------Editorial page __________-_-_--- 36 Ships namedi in honor of Naval 16 Enogai, Capture of __________ heroes__-_-_____-_-__--_--__-49 Escort Carrier "A" helped blast F i 1m s Shore establishments, 18 Japs______---_-___-____-----69 available for Escort Carrier "B" blasts wolf Short list of words and phrases, packs_-____-_--_--_--_---____ 19 33 German Every man where he's best fitted- 2 Story of Escort Carrier " ' " 19 B-Ferrying planes to Malta,Africa- 31 ri n e duty, Volunteers Submarine me% live a life of ex- S u b m a for______-__-_-___,_- 67 Films available for shore estabneeded 69 citement, stalking their prey, sendlishments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Submarines, Life aboard ______-First aid for the men in the life8 26 boat___-____---_________-_--_ ing home the deadly tin fish, and Surrender of the Italian Fleet-" when the enemy Training courses, Information 5 scurrying for safety First round-Japan on--______-______---___-____70 2 attacks with depth charges. When Fitting every man for his job"" 46 the submarine is surfaced they are Training tip of the month, LookFive months on an icecap outs""""-"""""""" 53 8 constantly alert for hostile ships or Fleet, Surrender of Italian German: Short list of words and planes (front cover); thesub's wake Uniforms: 33 phrases--_________-_____-___streams out clearly behind the long, Gray, for enlisted men at Gift packages, Customs requiresea--_-_____----__-___--- 67 67 ments for____-__--_____-____- slimhull (inside front cover). On 69 Navy Men with A y" r "m. Gray uniforms for enlisted men- 67 the opposite page a submarine skipCivilian technician_________ 69 49 per stands 012 the bridge. Japanese in Heroes, Ships named honor of23 flags painted on the conning tower U p periscope (and down Japs)" Hospital that meant victory."-_ 10 Household shipments, advance indicatethatthis undersea raider Ustica taken by Navy, British notice required on ____________ 68 Army________---_--____-__-__ 32 enemy ships, one Icecap, Five months on _-_______ 46 has sunk three V-7, Math requirements lowered 13 warship and two merchamtmen. I f you must jump froma plane" in qualifications for__________ 67 Italian Fleet steams to Malta to For a graphicdescription of life V-12 bulletins _________________ 70 8 surrender___--____-_________aboard a U . S. submarine, see ar- Wolf packs blasted by Escort Japs on Attu, Escort Carrier "A" ticle entitled " 'Up Periscope' (And 19 Carrier "B" helps to blast out"""""_18 Wooden blimp barns ___________ 25 "Letter from a Father"_________ 69 Down Japs!)" on page 10.

P'age

____________ _____________

__________-_."_--

_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ c _ _ _ _ _ I

____________
______

__________________

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Page 72

U. S . GOVERNMENT P R I N T I N G O F F I C E : 1943

Protect your dependents against having their allotmenf and family allowance checks stolen o r lost; send them these Secret Service tips
DON'T think it isn't a problem your family might have to face-there is a steady increase in the number of checks stolen or lost after delivery to dependents. I n some cases, mailboxes havebeen rifled; because of failure to notify the Nav'and postman of changes in address, some dependents havehad theirchecks fall intothe ands of dishonestpersons; and often even checks properly addressed and delivered have been left lyin around so someone could steal them. If t% happens to your dependents, it means waiting from three months to a year for at that payment, while the check is traced and another issued. To avoid this, the United States Secret Service has prepared some suggestions for your are shown below. Mention theminyour next letter home-or better and send them.

L

,

" " " " " " " " " "

6 WAYS TO PROJECT A GOVERNMENT CHECK
1. BE SURE some member of the family is at home when checks are due to be delivered.
"

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2. PRINT your name clearly on your mail box. EQUIP your mailbox with a good lock. J.DOE

4 . CASH your checks in the same place each month. This will

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your. check until you are in the presence of the person who is to cash it.

6 I F YOU MOVE,notify . your postmaster; also immediately notify the Navy [see below). ,

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TO make sure allotment or family allowancechecks arrive safelyand without delay,whenever families move,theyshould Immediately notify either the Allot. ' m n t Division or the Family Allowance Division (whichever one is applicable) of the Bureau of Supplie and Accounts, Navy Department, Cleveland,Ohio.

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