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BACHELOR OF COMMERCE By N.T BEBIN RUBERT REG NO: 081CO130 Under the guidance of PROF. MRS. FLORENCE JOHN, M.Com, M.ED, M.PHIL
DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MADRAS CHRISTIAN COLLEGE (AUTONOMOUS) TAMBARAM, CHENNAI-600 059
This is to certify that this project report titled A STUDY ON
INTERNET MARKETING is a bonafide record of the work done by N.T
BEBIN RUBERT who carried out the research under my supervision. Certified further that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein dose not from part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree to award was conferred on earlier on this or any other candidate.
SINGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE
First of all I would to thank my Father in Heaven who with his abundant Grace and Mercy that HE has bestowed upon me, was I able to complete this project. My heartfelt thanks and gratitude to my guide, Mrs. Florence John, for her invaluable support and guidance. Sincere appreciation to all the respondents who in the midst of their busy work, found time to fill my questionnaire and give their valuable feedback. My sincere thanks to Dr. Charles Suresh David, Head of the Department of commerce, for his encouragement. I would like to thank all my friends who helped me in doing this work.
1. Suggestions Annexure Sample questionnaire Bibliography 37 3 5 68 69 70 71 74 4 .2.3.1. Objectives 1. Introduction 1.1. Methodology 1 PAGE NO 5 8 36 2 3. Findings 4. Conclusion 5.2.CONTENTS CHAPTER DETAILS 1.1. Data Analysis and Interpretation 4.
INTRODUCTION 5 .
As the tools and reach of marketing increase. a new fast paced digital economy is emerging. Consumer Marketing operated on mass marketing principles and business primarily concerned itself with how to build the best sales force. Most business transactions will be made electronically. The major driver of these changes is technology.Evolution of Marketing At the beginning of the century. it reinforces the new marketing emphasis . there is an emerging global culture. which permit new methods and new opportunities. Each of these is strongly motivated by technological opportunities. In fact. a consumer might build the product himself from a wide array of parts provided by the company. it allows vast coverage and helps in serving the customer better 6 . In the digital marketing environment. manufactured. the job and responsibilities of marketers have evolved with them. It was followed by a period in which commodities were produced on a mass scale. The reason being that it is much cheaper. it wouldn‗t be surprising to see that there are companies that exist only inside computer networks. At the end of the century. directly from the producer to the consumer. Technological change has moved steadily back focusing on the individual. A fourth stage. sales and brand management.which in many ways is turn to business at the turn of the century. priced. distributed and sold. In today‗s technology driven world. These changes shape the possibility and conduct of business. a focus on the individual customer. In the near future. promoted. Marketing is especially tied to communication and transportation revolution. social life was mostly local. As the new technology of the Internet develops. Kotler formalized this evolution with his book "Marketing Management. bypassing the supply chain. the consumer becomes an integral player in the development of the product." His key stages are production. It is ecommerce that is changing the way products and services are conceived. is also important.
Out of this. Marketers around the world have from time to time tried to reach their target audiences through various media. the total volume of E-commerce transactions in India was about Rs.50 crore could comprise of retail transactions. about Rs. Effectiveness of the Net in Reaching Out to the Masses The reach of Internet may not yet be as wide as that of other mass media. Out of this volume.131 crore in the year 1998-99. Internet is one of the latest to join the list of such media inventions. It estimates that Indian Internet Users will increase by 130% compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) from 0.Growth of Internet usage and E-commerce: According to the research report of Goldman Sachs.300 crore during 1999-2000. but given its unique advantages. 7 . India has emerged as the second largest Internet market in Asia after China with 100 million users in 2005.12 crore were contributed by retail Internet or Business-to-Consumer transactions. Scientific and technological advances have and will continue to create newer media to improve communication. and about Rs. Indian industries are expected to reach online penetration of 2% by 2003 and 8% by 2008. about Rs.5 million users recorded at end of 1998. For Business-toBusiness transactions. and marketers will try to use the same to effectively address their audiences. The survey also revealed that E-Business transactions in India are expected to exceed Rs. Also the figures of the number of Internet Service Providers (ISPs) is expected to increase by leaps and bounds and March 2006 sees at least 30 private international gateways. it is undoubtedly the communication medium of the future. As per preliminary findings of the NASSCOM survey.119 crore were contributed by Business-to-Business transactions.
OBJECTIVES 8 .
OBJECTIVES To find out whether Internet marketing is suitable for Indian Environment. 9 . To know the awareness level of Internet marketing among the people. To find out the uses and problems faced by the customers in Internet marketing. To ensure that this type of marketing is better than any other marketing.
However. but is yet not taken as a serious medium. Internet in the media terms is expected to make an impact and show its true caliber.Internet Fame with the Indian Audiences Let us first take a quick look at the audience that this medium is trying to reach. the projections on Internet usage appear to be as follows: Current Media usage habits of the Indian audiences TV. print and cinema have penetrated the most. Entertainment The reach or popularity of any media is related to 10 . some of these limitations can be addressed. Internet is available in regional languages also. Various initiatives of companies like ITC and HLL like E-choupal and i-Shakti have given a considerable boost to vernacular usage of internet 2. the usage of internet might be dominated by telephone lines. The top 8 metros of the country. first from the customer‗s point of view. 1. Information 2. There could be several other modes to increase the reach of the Internet. Even today this medium is largely confined to only those who are literate in English. Internet is accessible though other media also and not only through telephone lines. with the current limitations. Government policies are aimed at broadening and strengthening the infrastructure required for Internet accessibility. Does that mean that Internet is not an effective tool for reaching out to people? Or is it likely to work very well under certain conditions? To understand this better. 3. but broadband and cable net are coming in a huge way. the scope of the Internet as a medium to reach out to a large number of people is presently limited. let us compare Internet and other traditional media. However. Current media options serve two broad benefits to the customer: 1. In the current scenario.
but also in allowing him to transact —often in a seamless manner. If the internet is treated and used exactly like any other medium. the reach is related to the net value perceived by the customer about that particular medium. It offers customization of the content. To quickly summarize the advantages of the Internet as seen from the point of view of the user as well as the marketer: To the user: Internet gives more control in choosing content. but also largely on the ability of the marketer to make use of the real advantages of the Net like interactivity. The cost of acquisition of the media itself In short. The extent of benefits perceived to be delivered 2. It offers tremendous convenience to the user not only in delivery of information. flexibility. 11 . It offers a variety of options for information and entertainment. It offers a wide range to choose from for the user. Internet has brought with it a very high degree of control to the media user. one can also evaluate Internet as a media from the marketers‗ point of view by way of a similar classification.1. Its effectiveness is dependent not only on the target audience one is talking to. All of this makes Internet a highly interactive media but also an expensive one. Internet appears to have a comparatively higher cost of acquisition. ability to monitor and the like. there is also a high degree of flexibility in what the user is able to do. But Internet has various other advantages over the traditional media which cannot be neglected. the Internet does not appear to be a very advantageous option either in terms of reach or in terms of cost-effectiveness. the way the user wants to view it. Not only are there a plethora of sites catering to every imaginable need. it is unlikely to yield major benefits to the marketer. If evaluation as per the above classification is done. On the basis of the above clarification. Next. These stem mainly from the ability of this medium to allow a far more focused targeting as compared to other media. However.
the benefits of this highly customizable and interactive medium can be used effectively to target niche audiences. It offers a higher level of identification of the user to the marketer. unlike any other media. It allows the marketer to actually link his spends to action. in fact.g. In this ability Internet is. VoIP) is almost equal to one-to-one interaction with the audience. To the marketer: The Internet offers several options to a marketer trying to target a particular community It serves not only as a channel of information. Therefore.g. one can change the whole look of the advertisement within hours and increase the effectiveness of the communication on the Internet. Yahoo Inc. forums. chats. It gives the user the choice of content for various topics ranging from news to stock options to entertainment to sports and just about everything. but also of product distribution It offers a highly interactive medium that sometimes (e. What are the options available to the marketer to reach out more effectively to their audiences? 12 .The best example of giving control of content is the My Yahoo !! service offered by the Internet giant. and pay only on action This action could be a click on the banner or even product purchased or just a banner impression or per 1000 impressions. the Internet offers a medium for high level of experimentation at a low cost. Imagine doing the same with a television advertisement. E. Which are the products that can possibly benefit from marketing on the Internet? 3. Who are the people who can be reached through the Internet? 2. though the Internet with its present limitations may not be able to match other media in actually reaching out to large numbers of people. Given the payment options and high interactivity. This can be elaborated a little more by answering the following questions: 1.
financial products and services. Affiliate marketing 13 . soft drinks). about 60 per cent of Indian Internet users are chiefly found in the age group of 19-34. Even today. airline services. for this medium to be cost-effective. These include 1. Almost 80 per cent of Internet users are males. E-mailers and their variations 3.and entertainment-seeking are also growing. Almost 53 per cent of Internet users belong to SEC A1/A2. Advertising options available on the Internet: The Internet offers a variety of options for the marketer to advertise her/his products/brands. Which products are likely beneficiaries of the Internet? Given that the usage of the Internet is highest amongst young. Banner ads and their variations 2. More than 55 per cent of such Internet users live in towns with a population of over 40 lakhs. FMCG products where the core target audience is younger (deodorants. Sponsorships 4. information. products related to entertainment like movies (promotions and tickets). male audiences belonging to the larger towns and who belong to higher SEC groups. and usually earns over 6000 per month. Indian users are most likely to use the Net for sending and receiving emails. Are there ways for monitoring effectiveness of this medium in order to control it better? Overview of the Indian Internet Users: According to the data available with NASSCOM. consumer durables to some extent and high-end services like tour operators. products having similar target groups would benefit the most from this medium. Search Engines 5.4. The most likely examples that come to mind include telecom. hotels etc. contests etc. However. plays. It is estimated that the Internet user spends an average of 10 hours per week on the Net.
Banner Ad . 11. Pop Under Ad . often including interactive forms. Interstitial .online advertising not involving standard GIF and JPEG banner ads.an ad that displays in a new browser window. Pop-up Ad . 3. banners still remain the most popular option. 468x60).a banner ad measuring 120 pixels wide and 240 pixels tall. However.advertising sequence in which a visitor receives ads from one advertiser throughout an entire site visit. The Variants of Banners include: 1. 7.Vertical Banner .advertisement using text-based hyperlinks. mainstream formats. 2. instead of (or in addition to) standard graphical elements. Given the highly interactive nature of the Internet. simple direct marketing tools such as email can also be used more 14 .an ad that displays in a new browser window behind the current browser window. 9. rectangular banner sizes suggested by the IAB. 5. 10.e. 4.a banner ad using HTML elements.an advertisement that loads between two content pages.Skyscraper Ad.new media that offers an enhanced experience relative to older.a graphical web advertising unit. HTML banner . wider options are now available to the marketer which. Rich Media. Button Ad. Beyond the Banner . 13. typically measuring 468 pixels wide and 60 pixels tall (i. smaller than a banner ad.In India. 12. Rectangle Ad .an online ad significantly taller than the 120x240 vertical banners. and the also fact that unlike other media it offers a higher level of identification of the user.a graphical advertising unit. serves to enhance the visibility and effectiveness of the banner.Text Ad . even at the cost of being intrusive. 6.Surround Session . 8.any one of the large.
but things have changed on the Internet. To be able to attract the customers and retain 15 . The example of the above can be seen at dell. and which has possibly not been used to its optimal level yet by marketers in India.effectively. Place and Promotion have long been associated with marketing. It will rather be on the uniqueness of the product. images and multimedia. For example.rotate it. So along with a change in the nature of the four P‗s there are three new P‗s which are relevant to the internet marketer. Marketers can own either popular keywords or make use of meta-tags (these are similar to the keywords which the search engines uses to catalogue various websites/products) in order to go higher on the search lists. The Product On the Internet usually changes form online. and the user experiences it electronically. Price.com and it has reaped profits so much so that it is now being viewed as a threat by the computer giant Microsoft Inc 7 P's of Marketing on the Internet The four P's . Then again there are sponsorships. The other tool on the web with enormous potential. a high-end car seller can today easily send an offer to persons earning over Rs 25000 per month at a very reasonable cost and within a very short period. zoom in or zoom out and even visualize the product in different configurations and combination. Technology allows the user to virtually touch and feel the product on the Internet . Physical goods are usually presented in the form of a detailed online catalogue that the customer can browse through. is the search engine. in the form of text.Product. Content and software are two avatars of digitized products that can be even distributed over the Internet. On the Internet. Every company will be able to bring down the cost of its products and hence competition will not be on price. which can be effectively used to increase brand salience and even change image. The above is used by the search engine giant Google. 1.com where the company offers the user to virtually feel every aspect of their product before they go into a buy decision. E-marketing will be based more on the product qualities rather than on the price.
com is extremely popular as its compares the price of many airlines and offers the least price to the buyer. Also it gives the buyers information about multiple sellers selling the same product. Promotion Is extremely necessary to entice the customer to its website. multiple points of entry. banner ads. 3. viral marketing.com now known as ebay. The Place Revolves around setting up of a marketing channel to reach the customer. The Price Has been drastically changed over the Internet. outdoor advertising and television can be used to spread 16 . The very famous bazee. Promoting a website includes both online and offline strategies. Presently. Online strategies include search engine optimization.in follows the same principles. Dell Computers have used this strategy very effectively and hence they have been able to reduce their prices of their laptops drastically and reaped huge profits. the cyberspace is already cluttered with thousands of sites probably selling similar products. strategic partnership and affiliate marketing.them. The elimination of the intermediate channel allows the producer to pass the reduced distribution cost to the customer in the form of discounts. For the customers to know of the Company‗s existence and to garner information on the kind of products or services that the company is offering. 2. as there are currently more than one billion web pages. It lets the buyer decides the price. A website named Priceline. There can be traded links or banner advertisements for the same. 4. Internet serves as a direct marketing channel that allows the producer to reach the customer directly. the company will have to provide nouvelle and distinct products that forces the net users to purchase and come back for more. Pricing is dynamic over the Internet. promotion has to be carried out. Also the traditional mediums like print. It leads to best possible deal for the buyers in terms of price.
Personalization Using the latest software from Broad-Vision and others.g.fedex. Processes Customer supports needs to be integrated into the online web site. Also. The mass customization allows the company to create web pages products and services that suit the requirement of the user.in) entered the Indian cyberspace and started its personalized services.co. 7. A customized web page does not only include the preferred layout of the customer but also a pre selection of goods the customer may be interested in.awareness. The principle of K.com). Email campaigns and spamming the Chat rooms on almost every server has been exploited to the maximum for the cause of promoting their website.S ( Keep it simple stupid ) is the most important factor that has to be considered while presenting the online business 6. customers must be able to find out about their order status after the sale has been made. the web page should not be cluttered with a lot of information. Presentation The presentation of the online business needs to have an easy to use navigation.g.S. Similar variants have been used by the Govt of India for its Speed post and Registered Ad services where you can keep a track of your post by entering the code that has been issued to you. FedEx (www. To further enhance after sales service. it is possible to customize the entire web site for every single user. About 80% of the people read only 20% of the web page. He can read 17 . simple but powerful navigational aids on all web pages like search engines make it easy for customer to find their way around. For e. Yahoo! (www. 5. A sales service that will be able to answer the questions of their customers fast and in a reliable manner is necessary.I. without any additional costs. The look and the feel of the web site should be based on corporate logos and standards. Therefore. For e. A registered user of Yahoo can now personalize the front page with all the information he needs.yahoo. the overnight Courier Company allows its customers to keep track of the parcel and they are well informed about the present whereabouts of their package.
Web directories/search engines are information. see the weather forecasts of his city and listen to his favorite songs and all this simultaneously. Establishes Trust 2. Search engines help people find relevant information on the Internet. Internet Marketing Tactics There are many different technologies to facilitate your Internet marketing strategy. Keeps Your Website Fresh in Visitors' Minds 18 . Major search engines maintain huge databases of web sites that users can search by typing in keywords or phrases. E-zines: (Online magazines): These publications are focused on specific topics and may be a way to reach a target audience interested in that subject. Advertise your message. gateways that have high traffic and are good for displaying advertisement banners. Seven good reasons to establish an E-Zine 1. appeal to broad target groups.the news of the world. Some companies have gathered the e-mail addresses of potential customers and used these lists to send out product information specific to client interests. They are used to find Internet information and for this reason. Builds Relationships 6. Keeps Current & Potential Customers Up to Date on New Products & Services 5. Establishes You as an Expert 4. Allows You to Build an Opt-In Email Marketing List 7. Some of the most common and effective tools are: Search Engines and Directories: Search engines are one of the most popular means of finding web sites. second only to following links on web pages. add a tax calculator. Brings Visitors Back 3.
while experienced frequent buyers prefer search engines. This allows clickthrough's to be tracked online and commissions to be calculated. A common third party provider such as Commission Junction can be used. the customer pays the Merchant 19 . An alternative is to purchase lists of customer e-mail addresses indexed by special interests from a private company such as 'Postmaster Direct'. the brands they trust. The Merchant provides their advertising banners and links to their Affiliates and assigns a commission for each click-through to their site. new online buyers get referrals when shopping online. or purchase of their products that is generated from those links. Marketers have to think about the drivers of customer response and purchase. Affiliates place the tracking code for these ads and links on their Web sites. A Merchant recruits content sites to partner with them as Affiliates in exchange for commissions. Email marketing campaign management is still fairly unsophisticated even at the largest of organizations. or requests for information forms that request submission to your opt-in lists. It also provides the opportunity to generate additional revenue by exploiting your site's own content to promote the products and services of other online Merchants. business customers. Isolating the behavior of high value customers. subscription to their service. If a product or service is purchased.E-mail: Ethical methods of gathering e-mail addresses are through on-line registration built into your corporate Web sites. Over time. or the minority of customers who prefer to buy online will be critical. and what they consider relevant. as more is learned about your customer buying behavior. you can will isolate campaign and program characteristics that drive your customer or visitor response and action. there is still need for improvement. For example. While most marketers are aware of privacy issues and the risks of Spam. Affiliate Marketing: Affiliate Marketing enables you to increase online sales by promoting your products and services through a network of Affiliate sites on a payment-by-results basis. Online customers are becoming increasingly selective about their relationships.
com and a lot many other reputed websites. This is a better method of purchasing banner advertising as you are only paying for results.com. The rates you pay can vary tremendously as there is currently no standard price model . One can use banner advertising as a means of promoting its own products and services.com Pay-Per-Visitor: This method of purchasing banner advertising is based on a charge for the number of times someone visits your site as a result of clicking on your banner. The Google ad sense ads can be seen on websites like Times of India. Banner Advertising: Banner advertising can play an extremely important role within your website strategy. or as a way of generating revenue by selling advertising space on your own website. Pay. Purchasing Advertising: There are currently two widely recognized methods of purchasing banner advertising.com has used this strategy to the maximum and has earned millions of dollars by proper implementation of this strategy. The dating giant adultfriendfinder. The revenue model is known as google ad sense and almost every successful website uses this model to make profits. although expect to pay a premium.Per-Click: The revenue model of the Internet giant google. Moneycontrol. The rates for these are usually quoted on a cost per thousand basis or (CPM). you are simply paying for the number of times your banner is displayed.com and adclicksor. There are no guarantees as to how many visitors will come to your site as a result of seeing your banner. Websites that offer such programs include paypopup. ManagementParadise.directly and the Affiliate is paid a commission for that transaction. raising awareness.so be prepared to negotiate! Pay-Per-Impression: This method of purchasing banner advertising is based on a charge for the number of times someone sees your banner. 20 .com has its very own service which offers certain share of the profit that it makes by the click-thru that a website generates from its ad sense codes.
The average click through ratio on banners is just under 1%. Consumers can download a streaming clip for a product or service from a marketer's website. Location. although with a well planned and executed advertising campaign using effective banners you can increase this to as much as 15%. another way of looking at banner ads is as "branding" tools.Branding . First. whether or not the viewer clicks on the ad. and a brand image in the viewer's mind. With many people now listening to web radio or watching web broadcasts. It must be placed effectively on a web site. After all. While CTR and cost per sale relate to direct marketing objectives. Two new studies recently released suggest that the streaming advertising market is going to boom now and in 21 . It must be simple and get your point across. but be prepared to work at it. It must invoke action (i. it can either be part of a streaming audio or video program on the web. marketers have increasingly been turning to streaming advertising. and hopefully thereby more acceptable. Branding is very difficult to measure. Location any campaign is limited by the amount of advertising you can do depending on the size of your budget.e. Location.: "Click here") It must download quickly. They create brand awareness. streaming advertising comes in two basic forms. but can be very powerful. this makes perfect sense. In effect another kind of rich media advertising. Therefore it is important that you target your market carefully so as to maximize advertising spend on effective banner campaigns. Rich Media Advertising: Looking for ways to make online advertising more compelling. everyone is accustomed to getting commercials on their TV or car radio. The other channel for streaming advertising is essentially an infomercial. There are a number of key issues that must be considered when designing a successful banner: It must have an attention-grabbing headline. It is a good idea to have a number of different banner ideas so that you can carry out small test marketing campaigns with each one until you find those that work best.
informational Web sites. mailing lists. bulletin board systems. electronically. buy-one-get-one-free). initiatives. is an excellent way to contact target markets.share advertising.offering product samples. Conferences: By their nature conferences are organized for special interests. 22 . Examples of sales promotion strategies are: Sampling .the years to come. Sales Promotion: Employing methods to stimulate sales through immediate or delayed incentives to the customer. Collaborative Marketing: Team up with other business to: Cross-promote . Advertising in conference literature. build their awareness and prepare them for the action of purchasing. setting up links from one corporate Web site to another or offering special promotions in partnership with complementary goods or services. the price: value ratio is adjusted favorably enough to affect a sale.g. Participate in joint sponsorship of events. directories. Bonus offers .g. This strategy should integrate with the overall marketing mix to balance extra sales with long-term profit motives.offering additional goods or services when making single purchases (e.e. The giant ad selling company media turf uses this method for providing content to advertisers. provide further market information to customers. If the incentive is attractive. Advertise . Link exchange: with trade/professionals associations to support credibility of firm. etc. print and electronic.
Publicity: The goal of publicity is to have others talk about the small business or its products. the small business may sponsor and/or publish its own electronic magazine on the Web.Limited time offers .attracting visitors to return to a Web site. interest. Feature pricing: providing special pricing to those that order electronically. It can be inexpensive or even free and it may have the potential to generate far more in sales than even a well executed advertising plan. and desire. etc. Promotional Publications: Facilitate customer education. e-mail. the customer may have the opportunity to try out more than one company‗s product/service while testing another. 23 . with the intention of building corporate image and even brand awareness. Also. Games with prizes: Useful to keep people coming back to Web sites.Buy a company‗s product/service and get a coupon for another company‗s product/service. Although time consuming. Cross-promotions with other companies‟ products/services . These are useful in fields where the customer needs information to develop sufficient knowledge for movement through the first three stages of the sales process of awareness. Cross-product sampling: When a customer makes a purchase they have an opportunity to try out another company‗s product/service. they replace or complement the print versions of newsletters/corporate magazines/flyers. Useful for complementary products/services.
Resellers: Some sites will remarket other companies‗ products as intermediaries. An opportunity for small businesses to reach to their intended target group via these forums is by posting messages or by sponsoring such a forum. customers might receive an e-mail message inviting them to visit a private Web page on the company‗s intranet. and giving them a password.Subscriptions: Business marketers may use their Web sites to encourage visitors to subscribe to receive regular email messages from the company. as a way of encouraging a sale. Controlled-access Web pages: Clever business marketers may use their Web site to attract new customers. Web based forums are advantageous for their superior display of advertising images/messages. The company. 24 . offers customers who visit the page a prize or enticement of some sort. The companies that host these sites may have invested significant resources in making them attractive to the target audience a small business is interested in attracted. By piggybacking on another company‗s efforts. cost-efficiencies may be realized by engaging in a reselling arrangement. and are a clever way for marketers to push product news to willing customers. Or. E-mail based forums appeal to a wider audience due to the greater use of this application over Web-based forums. Public Forums: These are often community-based or interest-based sites that allow visitors to communicate with one another. They might publish a Web page that allows customers to download a free trial version of a software application that expires after a time if not paid for. These messages are called digests or newsletters.
The information collected from them is used to measure site visitors. on-line surveys. develop user 25 . or through tracking of areas of site they visit. Visitors can then be identified as ―old‖ or ―new‖ when they visit the site. These websites also offer referrals wherein if you refer someone to their site and the person becomes a member then you are paid commission on that. especially if out of the telephone area or time zone. Measurement: The Internet has the unique ability to provide marketers with detailed information about the success of their Web marketing programs.‖ then process this information using Web site analysis software. On-line Surveys: Information may be collected on the visitors to a Web site through registration forms. Virtual Malls: Web based sites that allow companies to post their products or services for sale long with other companies. These are also useful for feedback on site maintenance problems. Companies can track visitors to their site and collect information about them from their―cookies. Cookies are a type of digital identification. The Web site can collect some very basic information about the user (e-mail address.E-mail Links: Visitors to a site should have the opportunity to correspond with the host of that site. Cookies are an essential part of many companies‗ business strategies. which pages were visited) and use it to create visitor profiles. E-mail links may be strategically placed throughout the site to elicit response from visitors for at various points. or may have products that are not related except by their companies‗ desire to attract a similar target audience. which is read every time the user connects to a public Web site. time of day the site was accessed. may be arranged by complementary products. These may be product specific.
Advertising on the Net is slowly catching on. initiatives are on to increase the number of Internet users. is working at building 1. which is much less than one per cent of the total advertising cake. in partnership with the Reliance group. Is this because Net penetration in India is not deeper? Yes. Hindustan Lever‗s advertising budget is upwards of Rs 700 crore and out of this.profiles. It is estimated that Internet subscribers will increase to around 35 million by 2008 from the current figure of one million. For instance. But. In developed economies. And the UK-based WorldTel. So. There is a question here. there are other reasons why online advertising is going through a slow motion in India. a drive is on to make Internet more affordable. Slow motion However. which boasts of 1. the company spends not more than Rs 25 lakh on online advertising.800 cyber kiosks in Madhya Pradesh and BSES is planning to put up 1.000 community Internet centres in Tamil Nadu. this might not be the case for long. advertising on the Net accounts for anything between seven and 7. and target advertising— in much the same way that television allows advertisers to target their message to a certain demographic.5 per cent of the total advertising cake. Not only that. Advertising on the Internet: emerging issues Internet might be a catchy advertising medium.000 cyber kiosks in Bombay. how large is online advertising in India? Various estimates put the size of online advertising in India between Rs 24 crore and Rs 29 crore. If numbers are the only factor. Why is online advertising so small in India? Why aren't the advertisers putting their money on Net advertising? For instance. Fine. For. to an extent. then how is that Net advertising has picked up in Hong Kong. however. 26 .8 million Net users compared to some 3.5 million in India. there are quite a few issues that need to be sorted out. the Reliance group is planning to set up 7.
advertisements and road shows for creating awareness about the online advertising concept. media director with the Mumbai-based FCB-Ulka Advertising: "While television has two people meter services.One such reason is this: there is no official organization in India that monitors and regulates the online advertising industry. The very reason that ad viewerships in online advertising are not monitored and audited is making quite a few corporate advertisers go slow in latching on to the Internet medium. What needs to be done? The advertising industry should take efforts to educate potential Net advertisers about the advantages of advertising on the Net. Rightserve of Hughes Software is said to be spending nearly Rs two crore on seminars. online advertising has to live with another hurdle. Says B Venkataramanan. AC Nielsen is looking at rating Net advertisers and ORG-MARG is planning to kick off its research on Net advertising. Some steps have already been taken in this direction. we will be going about online advertising in a planned way. Only such a mechanism can help to track ad viewership patterns much more accurately and monitor television advertisements effectively. Says Apurva Purohit. The cost factor Absence of a monitoring mechanism apart. Many advertisers are not aware of the benefits online advertising can offer over the traditional media. advertising networks such as Media2Net." True. 27 . group media manager of the Mumbai-based Hindustan Lever: "I am skeptical about the kind of figures most dot-coms come up with. Rightserve and Mediaturf are doing their bid to fuel online advertising in India. For instance. So. For instance. there is no possible mechanism to enable working out optimized schedules on the basis of ad viewer ship rather than programme viewership." All these might become things of the past with quite a few studies on online advertising in the pipeline. Tam (IMRB) and Intam (ORG-MARG). And there is no mechanism available for tracking viewership of advertisements.
second television commercial will cost between Rs 250 and Rs 300 per thousand.com. while a ten-second banner on a reputed site such as Rediff. In the USA.000 per thousand.com. rates for a simple banner advertisement on the Net need to come down. Is this perception right? Compare the cost of a banner advertisement on the Net with a television commercial. But." The implication: value per Rupee spent on advertising is higher in the case of television. And that has been the international experience. Mediaturf is working in this direction. Mediaturf believes that when the rates come down. What are the emerging trends as far as cost of online advertising is concerned? Currently.com will cost as much as Rs 500 to Rs 1. it is essential to express advertising costs on the Net in terms of cost per thousand (CPT). a Mumbai-based media consultant with Mediaturf. And that is the perception that advertising on the Net is expensive. That is efficiency is higher in the case of television advertising. Already. That means. but how are rates fixed for advertising on the Net? It is a difficult poser considering the fact that rates for advertising on the Net have no rationale behind them. while in absolute terms advertising costs are lower as far as the Net is concerned. volumes should go up. For instance.com just adopted the international rate charged by Yahoo.22 to US $30. For. these Indian rates are not justified. Does this not make advertising on the Net cheap? No.52 per thousand impressions. online advertising outlays too rose during the same period. It wants to bring down the cost of Net advertising at least by 50 per cent. Rediff.There is another reason why advertising on the Net has not really picked up. Here is what Amardeep Singh.com's rate as a benchmark and adjusted their rates accordingly. Other websites in India just took the Rediff. Though the cost of an advertising campaign on the Net could be anywhere between Rs 15. 28 . has to say: "A thirty. whether advertising on the Net is cost-effective or not depends on the value per advertising Rupee.000 and Rs 1. advertising in the press or television will cost upwards of Rs 50 lakh. the issue here is this: since the number of Net users in India is limited now. Fine.5 lakh. when the rate for a full banner advertisement fell from US $33.
Online Constraints As efforts to eliminate wastages in online advertising take off. Despite the bandwidth constraint. one can stream audio and video technologies together with faster bandwidths and delivery channels in a bid to present the same idea with the use of sound. the days of innovative banners and convergence of real-time advertising are not far. thanks to the fact that online advertising depends so much on technology and software programming. The prospects are of course bright for online advertising. with massive investments coming in bandwidth. Anyway. this is not possible in India. who have found a way to use the Net to air commercials with the dial-up mode and thus overcoming the bandwidth constraint. Estimates are that in a couple of years online advertising Could touch Rs 300 crore. the Coco-Cola television commercial is being aired in Zeenext. 29 . music and visual imagery and make interactions with the banner possible. effective online advertising calls for skills in consumer and relationship management. Understanding the Internet Customers Now to be able to use the seven P‗s effectively in order to achieve the predefined goals of any organization it is imperative to understand the customers. In online advertising. And Nasscom's estimates are that online advertising could touch Rs 750 crore by 2002. two per cent of the total adspend in the country. Sure. But. So. India has an advantage in online advertising. However. This initiative has been taken by Mediaturf and a Bangalore-based software programmer. But. soon bandwidth will cease to be an issue. E-commerce will only help the spread of online advertising.com. there could be a glut soon. efforts are also needed to eliminate the attendant constraints. Customization will only be truly effective if we understand our customers and their true needs. thanks to the existing bandwidth problems.
The five categories of users are: Directed Information Seekers: They require specific. the marketer needs to understand the characteristics of the online customers. They are sure what they require and just log on to the Web to purchase the item. timely and relevant information about the products and services being offered. Entertainment Seekers: They see the Web as an entertainment medium of vast breath and potential and want to explore the medium before the mass gets there. 30 . insight or even a pleasant surprise. The Net users can be classified into five categories depending upon their intention of using the Internet. Directed Buyers: They want to buy something .Before adapting marketing practices to the Internet. advantage. Something that can give them an edge. Bargain Hunters: They are of two kinds. One who look for free items on the internet and other who are seeking better deals. higher discounts etc.now. Undirected Information Seekers: These users require something interesting and useful.
Critical Success factors in E-Marketing Having observed the evolving paradigms of business in the Internet era. Content has to be very target specific. for example. Attracting the Right Customer: Is the first crucial step. Here again it is important to note that the majority of online customers are not seeking the lowest price. is changing rapidly with multiple players jockeying for position. 31 . Not only do referred customers cost less to acquire than those brought in by advertising or other marketing tools. Integral to the concept of delivering proper content value is innovation. The digital company has to select its target segment by finding out which section of customers are the most profitable in terms of revenue transactions and who are the customers who generate the maximum number of referrals. it would be foolish to cater to the whole spectrum of digital visitors. there are five critical success factors that the E-Marketer has to keep in mind. The power of customer referrals has never been so enormous. The retail financial services industry. personalized interactions (through customized navigation paths as seen on the web sites of GM and Toyota) and Problem Resolution (updates of delivery schedules and e-mail responses). Rising digital penetration would mean that the number of customer visiting particular sites would inevitably go up. While the number of eyeballs or page views has so far been conveniently used as a satisfactory measure by most web sites. they also cost less to support since they use their friends who referred them for advice rather than using the companies‗ own technical desk. Content would include Product enhancements (Software patches for glitches). E-Bay attracts more than half of its customers through referrals. since word of the mouse spreads faster than word of the mouth. Delivering Content Value to engage the user’s interest: Is the critical importance in retaining customer participation. Product innovation serves as a key tool to attract new customers. This is because content serves as a powerful differentiator. Rather they are seeking convenience above everything else.
advertising paradigms have been constantly changing. Club Med. and hence they notice the add.supporting text and graphics video sound all together. Advertisements are ubiquitous. Advertising does not always target a much focused audience. Space is not a restricting factor The proportion of advertising to editorial is high sometimes 50:50. Response to the action is not immediate. Does not evoke immediate action. First response is immediate as when the user clicks. (please refer the chapter) 32 .Changing patterns of Marketing Traditional Marketing V/s Internet Marketing Marketing over the years more so recently has started being used interchangeably with advertising. Now since the explosion of the internet. ZIMA were the first to try it out and the Internet advertising has come a long way since then. A web page would be 91% editorial and 9% advertising. the person is directed to other web page with more details. Invokes immediate action as you at-least need to click on the add. Sprint. Advertisements are passively received. MCI. Here. I would attempt to compare Internet Advertising with Traditional Advertising: Let‗s have a look: Traditional Advertising: Traditional advertising is static. as regards size of the banners etc. Volvo. The first Web advertisement was placed on the Hot Wired web site in October 1994. Space is a problem. AT&T. Whereas Internet Advertising: It is dynamic with multimedia. The user has high attention level and concentration while using the net.
Personalization Tools Tools such as the software that creates personalized interfaces between ebusinesses and customers hold tremendous promise for value exchange and contextual commerce. The ads and the subsequent information on the web site should be constantly updated and highlighted in the ads and thus induce repeated clicks on the add. They should not advertise on the net just to project themselves as a techno savvy company or maybe because their competitor is doing the same thing. So while designing or formulating any advertising strategy for a brand on the internet a manager has to take in to account factors like: 1. It should be a wellplanned campaign full of specific information and attention catching. One more thing would be to generate 'search' specific advertising. To be sure. people perceive the ads to be time consuming and full of unwanted information. For example the search is for travel on a search engine there are ads of travel agents on the net.) Personalization tools also present risks. many practitioners still question the short-term return on investments in personalization tools. (Fewer than 15 percent of visitors to Yahoo! have chosen to set up a "My Yahoo!" page for themselves. Generally. This would mean that if I give a search for books on the search engine. the value of personalization has yet to be fully demonstrated in practice. The Internet has made a huge impact on advertising. 5. Thus we see that advertising is changing and so are the rules for advertising on the internet. 3. 2. the ads displayed would be related to the books. Advertisements catch users when they are on the lookout for something. This can be much focused. Care should be taken to design the ads in such a way that the information they provide or the hyperlinks they provide to a site gives adequate and specific information. such as managing privacy. as well as real operational challenges. and opportunity costs. For that reason. 33 . intrusiveness. 4. Companies should be careful as regards joining the IT bandwagon.
Collaborative Tools They facilitate word of mouth, or what might be called "branded person-toperson communications"—for instance, the ratings that buyers offer sellers on eBay, the Lands‗ End "shop with a friend" feature, Raging Bull‗s discussion boards, and Pert‗s viral marketing (which encourages consumers to e-mail their friends instructions for obtaining free Pert Plus samples). Collaborative tools such as consumer ratings, though essential for content- and community-oriented digital brands, are underutilized.
Purchase-process Streamlining Tools They eliminate such physical-world constraints as the need to walk into a store to purchase a product. Amazon‗s one-click ordering system, for example, eases transactions by sparing repeat customers the inconvenience of inputting transaction data. Peapod‗s shopping lists save consumers time by recording the products they purchased previously. The fact that most e-shoppers drop out of the buying process during the last clicks suggests that improvements along these lines might be very worthwhile. Self-service Tools They allow customers to obtain answers and results without the delays and inconsistencies that more often than not characterize human efforts to provide assistance. Such tools include software for tracking orders, preparing statements, and changing addresses on-line. Although incumbents often have difficulty integrating these Web-based tools with legacy systems, the tools are indispensable for banks, retailers, and other e-businesses that handle large volumes of transactions.
Do-it-yourself product design tools They allow consumers to customize products and services, either with the help of configuration options or from scratch. Dell Computer, for example, lets customers design their own systems on-line by choosing from a range of options; customers of Music.com and Listen.com can download the music of various artists onto a single compact disc. But the need to create manufacture-to-order systems to capture the potential of these tools may make them uneconomical in industries that, unlike software and music, are not based on information.
Sources of data The data needed for the study has been collected through primary and secondary data Primary data Primary data has been collected through distributing questionnaires to know about the public to know weather, customer are satisfaction in Internet Marketing. Secondary data Book journals Websites
DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 37 .
1) Do you know about Internet Marketing? TABLE: 1 Options No of Respondents Percentage Yes No 41 9 82% 18% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 82% of the people are aware of Internet Marketing and only 18% of the people are not aware of this type of marketing. 38 .
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 82 18 Yes No 39 .
2) How far Internet Marketing helps to you? TABLE: 2 Options No of Respondent Percentage 25% 9 18% 50% 24 48% 75% 13 26% 100% 4 8% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 18% of the respondents says Internet Marketing is 25% help full and 48% says it is 50% help full and 26% says it is 75% help full and only 8% of respondents says it is 100% help full to the customers. 40 .
8 18 26 48 41 .
42 .3) Is Internet Marketing welcomed by customers? TABLE: 3 Options No of Respondent Percentage Yes 22 44% No 28 56% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 44% of the respondent says Internet Marketing is welcomed by customers and 56% of the respondents says that it is not yet welcomed by the customers.
60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes No 44 56 43 .
44 .4) Does Internet Marketing make your purchase easy? TABLE: 4 Options Yes No of Respondent 34 Percentage 68% No 16 32% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 68% of the respondent says Internet Marketing makes the customer purchase easy and the other 32% of the respondent says it is not so easy for the customers to make a purchase in internet marketing.
70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Yes 68 32 No 45 .
5) Have you ever been cheated while doing your purchase through Internet Marketing? TABLE: 5 Options No of Respondent Percentage Yes 16 32% No 34 68% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 32% of the respondent says that customers are cheated while doing purchase through Internet and 68% of the respondent says that customers are not cheated in Internet Marketing. 46 .
No 68 Yes 32 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 47 .
48 .6) If yes in what case you’re cheated? TABLE: 6 Options No of Respondent Percentage Damaged Goods 16 32% Delay of Delivery 21 42% Money Transactions 9 18% Fake Marketing 4 8% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 32% of the respondent says that customers are cheated in damage of goods and 42% of the respondent says that customers are cheated in delay of goods and 18% of the respondent says that customers are cheated in money transactions and 8% of the respondent says that customers are cheated in fake marketing.
45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Damaged goods Delay of delivery 18 8 Money transaction 42 32 Fraud Marketing 49 .
50 .7) Is Internet marketing better than other marketing? TABLE: 7 Options No of Respondent Percentage Yes 18 36% No 32 64% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 36% of the respondent says that Internet Marketing is better that other types of market and 64% of the respondent says it is not better than other types of market.
36 Yes No 64 51 .
52 .8) Can you save your time through Internet Marketing? TABLE: 8 Options No of Respondents Percentage 88% Yes 44 No 6 12% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 88% of the respondents says that Internet Marketing saves the time of the customer and only 12% of the respondent says that Internet Marketing does not save the time of the customers.
12 Yes No 88 53 .
9) Internet Marketing is suitable for what type of customer? TABLE: 9 Options No of Respondents Percentage Lower middle class 0 0% Middle class 6 12% Upper class 16 32% High class 28 56% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that none of the respondent says that Internet marketing is affordable for the lower middle class customers and only 12% of the respondent says that it is affordable for the middle class customers and 32% of the respondent says that it is affordable for the upper class customers and 56% of the customers say that it is affordable for the high class customers. 54 .
60 56 50 40 30 20 12 10 0 Lower middle class Middle class 0 32 Upper class High class 55 .
56 .10) Will you trust Internet Marketing? TABLE: 10 Options No of Respondents Percentage Yes 22 44% No 28 56% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 44% of the respondents says that Internet Marketing is trusted by the customers and 56% of the respondents says that it is not trusted by the customers.
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 44 56 57 .
58 .11) Do you think Internet Marketing is changing more? TABLE: 11 Options No of Respondents Percentage Yes 37 74% No 13 26% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 74% of the respondents say that Internet Marketing is improving and the rest 26% of the customers says that Internet Marketing is not changing it‘s the same.
26 Yes No 74 59 .
60 .12) Problems faced by you in Internet Marketing? TABLE: 12 Options No of Respondents Percentage Bad Server 13 26% Illegible Webpage 6 12% Time Consuming 11 22% Server Busy 20 40% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 26% of the respondent say that they face problem because of bad server and 12% of the respondent says because of illegible webpage and 22% of the respondent says because of time consuming and 40% of the respondent says that they face problem because the server is busy.
40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Bad server Illegible webpage 12 22 26 40 Time consuming Server busy 61 .
62 .13) Which age group of customers is more attracted in this kind of market? TABLE: 13 Options No of Respondent Percentage 16-26 26 52% 27-36 12 24% 37-46 6 12% All the above 6 12% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 52% of the respondent says that the customers from the age group of 16-26 of age are more attracted to Internet Marketing and 24% of the customers are from 27-36 of age and 12% are from 3746 and another 12% of the respondent feels that all the age grouped customers are attracted to Internet Marketing.
12 12 16-26 27-36 52 37-46 All the above 24 63 .
14) In what way you are benefited through Internet Marketing? TABLE: 14 Options No of Respondent Percentage Easy to Use 16 32% Less Time Consuming 26 52% Easy to Pay 8 16% Interpretation: From the above table it is inferred that 32% of the respondent says that Internet marketing is easy to use and 52% of the respondent says that it is less time consuming and the remaining 16% of the respondent say‘s Internet Marketing is easy to pay. 64 .
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 8.4 Easy to use Less time consuming Easy to pay 65 .2 3.2 1.
15) Is this marketing more powerful than other marketing? TABLE: 15 Options No of Respondents Percentage Yes 20 40% No 30 60% Interpretation: From this table it is inferred that 40% of the respondent says that Internet Marketing is powerful than other types of market and 60% of the respondent says that this is not so powerful than other types of market. 66 .
Yes No 67 .
18% of the respondents say they are 25% satisfied with Internet marketing and 48% are 50% satisfied and 26% of respondents are 75% satisfied and only 8% of the respondents are 100% satisfied. 68% of the respondents say Internet marketing makes their purchase easy and the remaining 32% say that it‘s not easy to make a purchase in Internet marketing. From the survey it is clear that only High Class people are benefited in this kind of marketing. 32% of the customers are cheated through internet marketing 32% of the customers are cheated in damaged goods and 42% on delivery of goods 64% of the customers say Internet marketing is not better than other marketing. 56% of the customers do not trust Internet marketing.Findings: 82% of the respondents are aware of Internet Marketing and 18% of the respondents are not aware of Internet Marketing. 88% of the customer says that internet marketing saves their time. 44% of the respondents welcome Internet marketing and the remaining 56% of the respondents says no to internet marketing. From the survey it is clear that Internet marketing is changing a lot in the society 68 .
As the field of Internet Marketing explodes. Two popular Internet marketing strategies are site-centric and symbiotic marketing. For example. Internet Marketing does not threaten the existence of traditional marketing techniques. Although Internet Marketing provides valuable assets such as an increased awareness of brand name. It is clear that most of the adults are using this Internet marketing. Many of the customers say that they carry a problem of Server Busy often when they do marketing in Internet. it complements the efforts. and (2) allow consumers to actually see and physically touch a product before purchasing. traditional marketing efforts still can address some of the disadvantages of online shopping. there still will be a need for traditional advertising. The survey says that most of the respondents say that Internet marketing saves the time of the customer. Rather. traditional marketing efforts can (1) promote brick-andmortar shopping experiences based on the opportunity for social interaction. 69 . Theorists may gain new ideas about the Internet and evaluate whether current marketing theories can continue to be applied to the study of the Internet. consumer protection and taxes. and policy makers must address topics such as security. Many will need to further their studies on the benefits and barriers that the Internet has on the various marketing mediums. Still in India Internet marketing is not so powerful than other types of marketing. Conclusion The Internet will continue to play a significant role in the field of marketing. However. Both approaches are viewed to be at opposite ends of the spectrum. Practitioners may continue to conduct market research to determine what consumers want. some organizations have used both methods in their Internet strategies.
Although the site-centric has the central site as its foundation and base. especially for large organizations. it has its downside. However. there are certain areas in which the customers feel that Internet marketing has to change they are as follows: The marketing should be easy for the less educated people also. the techniques can be expensive and unaffordable for small businesses. The symbiotic marketing strategy is more cost effective and provides organizations with an avenue to develop ―a presence on the key portal sites in the business-to-business market‖ (Lockett & Blackman. 2001). There tends to be a need for a longer lead time and it may require more persistence than the site-centric mode Suggestions from the Study: Even though Internet marketing is been developed all over the world. Price of the products should remain same People feel that the company should assure that they are paying their money worth fully It should be more easier and attractive It should have more advertisement of their products It should avoid more advertisements while purchasing in Internet 70 .
How far Internet Marketing helps to you? a) 25% c) 75% [ ] b) 50% [ ] d) 100% [ ] [ ] 3. Does Internet Marketing makes your purchase easy? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 5. Do you know about Internet Marketing? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 2.QUESTIONNAIRE ON INTERNET MARKETING Name: _________________ Designation: __________________ Organization: _________________ Place : __________________ 1. Have you ever been cheated while doing your purchase through Internet Marketing? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 71 . Is Internet Marketing welcomed by customers? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 4.
Will you trust Internet marketing? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 11. Is Internet marketing better than other marketing? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 8 Can you save your time through Internet Marketing? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 9. Internet marketing is suitable for what type of customers? a) Lower middle class c) Upper class [ ] b) Middle class [ ] [ ] [ ] d) High class 10. Problems faced by you in this type of market? a) Bad server c) Time consuming [ ] [ ] b) Illegible web page d) Server busy 72 . If yes in what case you‘re cheated? a) Damaged goods c) Money transactions [ ] [ ] b) Delay of delivery [ ] d) Other‘s if any _____________ 7.6. Do you think Internet marketing is changing more? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 12.
Your opinion about Internet Marketing? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________ Thank you for your kind co-operation.13. 73 . Which age group of customers are more attracted in this kinds of market? a) 16-26 c) 37-47 [ ] b) 27-36 [ ] c) All the above [ ] [ ] 14. In what way you are benefited through Internet marketing? a) Easy to use [ ] b) Less time consumption [ ] c) Easy to pay [ ] d) Other‘s if any ___________________________ 15. Is this marketing more powerful than other marketing? a) Yes [ ] b) No [ ] 16.
fabmart.com www.com www.marketingterms.Com – Vijay Mukhi E-Business Essentials.com www.BIBLIOGRAPHY Books Marketing Management.rediff.Matt Haig Websites www.com www.Philip Kotler Marketing.com www.hungama.j-info.com 74 .internetworldstats.
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