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Chapter  1 Power Electronics Control
Power
control
analog/digital
elect roni c device circuit
electronic
power component static retrtary
Application of Power Electronics Power electronics combine power electronics and control. Control deals with the steady state and dynamic characteristics of the clone loop system. Power deals with the static and rotating power equipment. for the generation, transmission and distribution of electronic power. Electronic deals with the solid state device and circuits for signal processing to meet the desire control objective. Power electronics may be defined as the application electronics for the control and conversion of electric power, the interrelationship of Potential Energy with power, electronics and control is shown in figure above. Some applications of power electronics are as follows: 1. Aerospace : Example – aircraft power system 2. Commercial : Example – advertising, heating 3. Industrial : Example – cement mill, welding 4. Residential : Example – cooking, lighting 5. Telecommunication : Example – Battery chargers 6. Transportation : Example – street car, trolley buses 7. Utility System : Example – high voltage direct current (HVDC), transmission system History of Power Electronics 1948 → Bell Lab (Silicon Transistor) 1956 → PNPN traggiration
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Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np The history of power electronics begin with the mercury arc rectifier in 1900. Then metal tank rectifier, grid control, vacuum tube rectifier, ignitron, pkahotron & Hydraten were introduced gradually. These devices were applied for power control until 1950. The first electronics revolution begin in 1948 with the invention of silicon transistor at a bell telephone library by Bardeen, Brattain, Schookely. The next break through in 1956 was also f aboratory, the invention of PNPN triggering transistor which was defined a thyrastor or rom Bell Silicon Control Rectifier (SCR). The second electronics revolution begin in 1956 with the development of commercial thyrastor by the general electric company. That was the beginning of a new era of power electronics. Since then many different types of power semiconductor devices and conversion techniques have been introudced. Power Semiconductor Devices: Power Semiconductor Devices can be broadly divided into 5 types. They are: 1. Power diode 2. Thyristor 3. Power BJT 4. Power MOSKET 5. Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) or Static Induction Transistor (SIT) Thyristor can be divided into 8 groups. They are: 1. Forced Commutated Thyristor 2. Line Commutated Thyristor 3. Gate Turn off Thyristor (GTO) 4. Reverse Conducting Thyristor (RCT) 5. Static Induction Thyristor (SITH) 6. Gate Assisted Turn off Thyristor (GATT) 7. Light Activated Silicon Control Rectifier (LASCR) 8. MOS Control Thyristor Power diode are of two types: 1. High Speed Power Diode 2. Schotty Power Diode
Control Characteristics of Power Devices
By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering) / 2
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Vg
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Thyristor or SCR
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Fig : GTO/SITH/MCT Switch
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d) MOSFET/IGBT Switch Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np / 3
diode Controlled turn on and uncontrolled turn off : e.g.g. Eastern College of Engineering) /.4 . Transistor Types of Power Electronics Circuit: 1.Downloaded from www.com.g. SCR Controlled turn on and off : e. Static Switches 1) Diode Rectifier This rectifier converts AC voltage into fixed DC voltage. AC Supply D1 + v s=v mSinwt load resistance + R vs a) Circuit Diagram D2 By Manoj Basnet (Ass.g. Lecturer. ACDC Converter (Controlled Rectifier) 3. ACAC Convert (AC Voltage Controllers) 4. GTO Continuous Gate Signal Requirement : e. DCAC Converter (Inverter) 5. Diode Rectifiers 2.jayaram. DCDC Converter (DC Choppers) 6.np + D C vgs 1 t1 T t vs IGBT G S V gs +  + G V0 vs E  t1 T t 1) 2) 3) 4) Uncontrolled turn on & off : e.
jayaram.np Vm Vs=Vm Sinwt π 2π wt Vm Vm V0 π 2π wt b) Voltage waveform 2) ACDC Converter (Controlled Rectifier) By this rectifier.5 . Downloaded from www.np /. ACAC Converter • Such types of converter are used to obtain a variable ac voltage from fixed ac voltage.com. • Output Voltage is controlled by varying the conduction time or firing angle α . Vm Vs=Vm Sinwt d π 2π wt vs=Sinwt AC Supply vs T1 Lead result Vm Fig : Circuit Diagram T2 Vm V0 d π Fig : Voltage Waveform 2π wt 3.jayaram. average output voltage can be controlled by varying the conduction time of thyristor or firing angle α .Downloaded from www.com.
6 . It is normally necessary to introduce filters on the input and output of the converter system to reduce a harmonic level to an acceptable magnitude. Protection of power devices 3. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Power converter can cause radio frequency interference due to electromagnetic radiation and the getting circuit may generate erroneous signal and this interference can be avoided by grounded shielding. Design of power circuit 2. DCAC Converter (Inverter) 5.com. This can cause problem of distortion of output voltage. Design of logic and gating circuit Peripheral Effects The operations of power converter are based mainly on the switching of the power save conductor devices and as a result.jayaram. Determination of control strategy 4. Static Switch Since the power devices can be operated as static switches. harmonic generation into the supply system and interference with the communication signaling circuit. DCDC Converter 6. Figure shows the block diagram of generalized power converter. the converter introduces current and voltage harmonics into the supply system and on the output of converter. Design of Power Electronic Equipment The design of power electronics can be divided into four parts: 1. Lecturer. the supply to there switches could be either DC or AC and the switches are called as AC Static Switches or DC Switches.Downloaded from www.np 4. By Manoj Basnet (Ass.
8mV q 1. cathode I s = Leakage current n = Emperical constant known as emission co .7 . Reverse Biased Region.np /. the diode is said to be forward biased and the diode conducts. we have VT = KT 1. a small reverse current (also known as leakage amount) is the range of micro or milli ampere flows and this leakage amount of current increases slowly in magnitude with reverse voltage until the avalanche or zenor voltage is reached. I D = Current through diode A V D = Diode voltage with anode positive w.r.2 Semiconductor Diodes • • • A power diode is two terminal PN Junction diode.efficient or ideality factor whose value varies from 1 to 2 For Ge diode : For Si diode : n=1 n=2 KT VT = Thermal Voltage = q where.np Chapter . V D > 0 2.3806 × 10 −23 × 298 = ≈ 25. I I ID A V D V K VD V 0 Reverse l eakage current a) Practical Fig : VI characteristics of diode b) Ideal vi characteristics can be expressed by Shockley diode equation as given below: ID = Is e ( V p nVT −1 ) where. Under reverse condition. They are: 1. When anode potential is higher than that of cathode. Forward Biased Region.6022 × 10 −19 The diode characteristics can be divided into three regions. the diode is said to be reversed.t.Downloaded from www.3806×1023 J q = Electron charge = 1.6022×1019 C T = Absolute temperature in Kelvin At a junction temperature of 25°c.com. K = Boltzmann constant = 1.jayaram.jayaram. When cathode junction is higher than that of anode. V D < 0 Downloaded from www.com.
V D < −V zk Consider a small diode voltage. Breakdown Region. This time is called reverse recovery time of the diode.1 V.1% error ( nVR − 1 = I s e 0.8mV I D = I s e VD = I s (48.1V . ID>>Is I D = I s e VD ( nVT − 1 ≈ I s e VD ) nVT with 21% error Reverse Biased Region. V D < 0 For VD < −0. ID = Is e ( − VD nVT − 1 ≈ −I s ) In Breakdown Region. the reverse voltage is high usually greater than 1000 V.com. Once a diode is in forward conductor mode and then it’s forward current is reduced to zero. V D = 0. Lecturer. Figure shows two reverse recovery characteristics of a junction diode.23 I s with 2.25 I I RR RR t t t1 IRR t6 a) Soft Recovery b) Abrupt Recovery Fig : Reverse Recovery Characteristics t rr = t a + t b − (1) t a = due to charge storage in depletion region t b = due to charge storage in bulk semiconductor material The ratio t a / t b is known as Softness Factor. the diode continuity to conduct due to minority carrier which remain store in PN Junction and bulk semiconductor material. denoted by SF. IF I F t rr trr ta 0.1V . n = 1 & VT = 25. the magnitude of the reverse voltage exceeds the specified voltage known as breakdown voltage V Br .1 (1×0. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Reverse Recovery Characteristics The current in a forward leased junction diode is due to the net effect of majority and minority carriers.Downloaded from www. The reverse voltage increases rapidly with small change in reverse voltage beyond V Br . I RR = t a di dt − (2) By Manoj Basnet (Ass.np 3.8 .23 − 1) [neglecting I s ] = 48.jayaram.0288 ) − 1 ) ( ) For VD>0. the exponential term becomes negligible as compared to unity. The minority carrier requires a certain time to recombine with opposite charges and to be neutralized.
Reverse Recovery Charge (θ RR ) It is the amount of charge carrier that flow across the diode in the reverse direction due to charge over from forward conduction to reverse blocking condition. θ RR ≅ t a . the power diode can be classified into three categories. Application of power diode of this type include battery charging.I RR + t b .com. we have: ta di 2θ RR = dt t rr − (5) If t b is negligible as compared to t a .9 .Downloaded from www. etc. They are used in DC to DC.np Reverse recovery time (TRR) may be defined as the time interval between the instant the current passes through zero during the change over from forward conduction to reverse blocking conduction and the movement.jayaram.jayaram. UPS.I RR 1 1 2 2 1 = I RR . Their current ratings vary from 1A to several thousand amperes and range of voltage rating is from 50V to 5KV. These diode convert current rating from less than 1A to 100A with voltage rating from 50V to 3KV.np /.com. Fast Recovery Diode The diodes with low reverse recovery time of about 5 µs or less are classified as fast recovery diode. Fast Recovery Diode 3. t rr ≅ t a t rr ≈ t rr ≈ 2 2θ RR di dt 2θ RR di dt − (6) di − (7 ) dt I RR ≈ 2θ RR . Downloaded from www.t rr − (3) 2 2θ RR t RR I RR = − (4 ) From (2) and (4). Types of Power Diode Depending upon the recovery characteristics and manufacturing technique. DC to AC converter circuit. Schottky Diode General Purpose Diode These diodes have relatively high reverse recovery time of the order of about 25 µ s. They are: 1. the reverse current has decayed to 25% of it’s peak reverse value I RR . General or Standard Purpose Diode 2.
Downloaded from www. The current rating of schottky diode varied from 1A to 300A and they are used in high frequency instrumentation system. They have very fast recovery time and low forward voltage drop. This problem is normally overcome by connecting di/dt limiting inductor Ls as shown in the figure. According to the equation. By Manoj Basnet (Ass. the switch is turned on at t=t2. The rate of rise of forward current of diode D1 and the rate of fall of forward current of diode Dm would be very high tending to be infinity. the peak reverse current of diode would be very dt high and diodes D1 and Dm may be damaged.com. If the switch is turned off at t=t1 diode Dm would circulate through Dm. I RR = 2θ RR di . The maximum available voltage is generally limited to 100V. Lecturer.np Schottky Diode It uses metal to semiconductor junction for rectification purpose instead of PN junction. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Again. Effects of forward & reverse recovery time I1 Ls + I1 Sw Vs Dm I2 L D1 R I2 I0 I0 Vs R t IP=Is/R I0 I2 I0 I3 t1 t2 a) Circuit Diagram t1 t2 t Due to reverse recovery of Dm b) Wave Form If the switch is turned on at t=0 and remains on long enough a steady state current of I o = Vs / R would flow through the load and the free wheeling diode Dm will be reverse bias.10 .jayaram.
jayaram.np /.11 . the current cannot change suddenly from I o to I P . VC is the allowable reverse voltage of the diode. The rate of rise of current through the diode D1 which should be same as the rate of fall of current through diode Dm is reverse current of Dm is di Vs = . Due to a highly inductive lead. This time is some time known as forward recovery time (tfr). The excess energy stored in Ls would induce high reverse voltage across Dm and this may damage diode Dm .jayaram.np Ls + I1 Sw Vs Dm I2 I0 D1 R I2 I1 I0 I1 I0 Ip t L I2 t1 t2 tm a) Circuit Diagram t1 t2 t b) Waveform The practical diodes require a certain turn on time before the entire area of junction becomes conductive and di / dt must be kept low to meet the turn on time limit. the peak dt L I RR = t rr di dt V = t rr s Ls Vs Ls and. 1 C sVc2 = wR 2 2w C s = 2R Vc where.Downloaded from www.com. If trr is the recovery time of Dm. The excess energy stored as a result of reverse recovery time is 1 2 wR = Ls I p − I o2 2 1 2 = Ls (I o + I RR ) − I o2 2 1 2 = Ls (I o + t rr ) − I o2 2 [ ] [ [ ] ] This excess energy can be transfer from inductor Ls to a capacitor C s which is connected across diode Dm .com. A resistor Rs is connected in series with Cs to damp out any transient oscillation. Downloaded from www. the peak current through the inductor Ls would be I p = I o + I rr = I o + t rr When the inductor current becomes I p diode Dm turn off suddenly.
I s = I R + I s2 I R1 + I s1 = I s − (i ) − (ii ) VD1 IR1 IR2 i=I s Is1 Is2 + From (i) and (ii).np Series Connected Diode Let us consider two diode connected in series. the reverse leakage current of the two diodes are I s1 = 30mA and I s2 = 35mA .12 . The current sharing of diodes would in accord with their respective forward voltage drop. then + I s1 = + I s2 − (iii ) VD1=V D2 Is1 Is2 V Parallel Connected Diode In high power application diodes are connected in parallel to increase the current carrying capability to meet the desire current requirement. Q. Eastern College of Engineering) /. By Manoj Basnet (Ass. both diodes conduct the same amount of current and the forward voltage drop of each diode would be all most equal.com. In forward bias condition.jayaram. However in reverse blocking condition each diode has to carry the same leakage current and as a result the blocking voltage will be differ significantly. Lecturer. A simple solution to this problem is to force equal voltage sharing by connecting a resistor across a diode. Two diodes are connected in series as shown in the figure to share a total voltage of V D = 5 KV . I R1 + I s1 = I R2 + I s2 VD1 R1 VD1 R + I s1 = VD2 R2 VD2 R VD2 + + I s2 Is i If R 1 = R2 = R. Uniform current sharing can be achieved by connecting current sharing resistor. i I=Is VD1 + VD2 + D1 + VD1 VD2 Is D2 Is V a) Circuit Diagram b) vi chracteristics In practical vi characteristics for the same type of diode differ due to tolerances in their production process.Downloaded from www.
b.5 ta t b = 0. Find the diode voltages if the voltage sharing resistances are equal.jayaram. dt (a) θRR Solution: I RR = t a di dt (b) peak reverse current − (i ) θ RR = SF = 1 I RR . SF = 0.5.5t a t a = 3.33µs − (i ) − (ii ) t rr = t a + t b = 5µs Downloaded from www.jayaram. Find the voltage sharing resistances R1 & R2 if the diode voltages are equal.np /. R1 = R 2 = R = 100kΩ .com. The reverse recovery time of a diode is t rr = 5µs and the rate of fall of diode current di = 80 A / µs.t rr − (ii ) 2 tb = 0 . then determine storage charge.Downloaded from www. If the softness factor.com.13 .np a. Solution: I s1 = 30mA V D1 = ? R1 = R2 = R = 100kΩ I s1 + I R1 = I s2 + I R2 I R1 = VD1 R1 I R2 = VD2 R2 I s2 = 35mA VD2 = ? I s1 + VD1 R1 = I s2 + VD2 R2 − (ii ) V D = V D1 + V D2 ∴VD1 − VD2 = 500 V D1 + V D2 = 5000 ∴V D1 = 2750V & V D2 = 2250V Q.
com.14 . ⎜ ⎟ I (s ) = s s ⎝ cs ⎠ Vsc or . V i (t ) = s e −t / Rc R Capacitor Voltage 1 t Vc (t ) = ∫ idt c 0 1 tV = ∫ R e −t Rc dt c 0 R [ ] ] = V [1 − e = Vs 1 − e −t / Rc −t / T s Vs ⎡ e − t / Rc ⎤ = ⎢ ⎥ Rc ⎣ − 1 / Rc ⎦ t T = Rc = Time constant of Rc load.3 Diodes Circuit & Rectifier Diodes with RC Load + S1 D1 + R C VR1 + Vc  Vs  When switch s1 is closed at t=0 V s = V R + Vc 1 idt + Vc (t = 0 ) c∫ With initial condition.Downloaded from www.np Chapter . Lecturer. ⎜ R + ⎟ I ( s ) = s cs ⎠ s ⎝ V ⎛ Rcs + 1 ⎞ or . I (s ) = R(s + 1 / Rc ) Taking Inverse Laplace.jayaram. The rate of change of capacitor voltage is dVc (t ) ⎛ 1 ⎞ −1 / Rc t Vs −t / Rc = −Vs ⎜ − = e ⎟e dt Rc ⎝ Rc ⎠ By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Vc (t = 0) = 0 = Ri + Vs I (s ) ≠ RI ( s ) + s s V 1⎞ ⎛ or . Eastern College of Engineering) /. I (s ) = Rc( s + 1 Rc) Vs or .
jayaram.Downloaded from www.np /.jayaram.15 .36 VS/R τ τ=Rc Diode Circuit with RL load Ls t τ t D1 + R VR + L VL  Vs a) Circuit Diagram When switch S is closed at t=0 Vs = VR + VL di z = Ri + L dt Vs = RI (s ) + L[sI (s ) ) − i (0 )] s With initial condition i(0) = 0 Vs = RI ( s ) + LsI ( s ) s (R + Ls )I s = Vs s Vs I (s ) = s (R + Ls ) Vs = Ls (s + R / L ) V ⎡1 1 ⎤L I ( s) = s ⎢ − L ⎣s s + R / L⎥ R ⎦ Downloaded from www.com.np & the initial rate of change of capacitor voltage (at t=0) is dVc (t ) V = s dt t =0 Rc VS/ i R Vc Vs 0.632Vs 0.com.
jayaram. R t − t − di V L = L = Vs e L = Vs e T dt L where. s is closed 1 t Ri + ∫ idt + VC (t = 0 ) = 0 c 0 Vc (t = 0 ) = −Vo Taking laplace transform. A diode circuit is shown in figure with R = 44 Ω and C = 0.1 µF .63Vs 0.com. Lecturer.np I (s) = By inversion.36 VS τ τ t t O b) waveform Q. I (s ) Vo RI (s ) + − =0 Cs s i R + VR V0 VC C  By Manoj Basnet (Ass.Downloaded from www. If switch s1 is closed at t=0. Eastern College of Engineering) /.16 . T = = time constant RL load R Vs ⎡ 1 1 ⎤ ⎢s − s + R / L⎥ R⎣ ⎦ i (t ) = Vs R VL VS i Vs/R 0. −R t ⎞ ⎛ V −Rt ⎜1 − e L ⎟ = s e L ⎜ ⎟ L ⎝ ⎠ V di = s dt t =0 L Voltage across inductor. determine: a) Peaked diode current b) Energy dissipated in a resistor R c) The capacitor voltage at t=2 µs Solution: at t=0. The capacitor has an initial voltage Vo = 220V .
switch s is closed.np /. VC (t ) = ∫ idt + Vc (t = 0 ) c 0 1 tV Vc(t) = ∫ o e −t / RC dt − Vo c 0 R O ⎤ ⎡ V ⎢ e −t / RC ⎥ = o ⎢ ⎥ − Vo RC ⎢ 1 ⎥ − ⎢ RC ⎥ ⎦ ⎣ = Vo (1 − e − t / RC ) − Vo = −Vo e −t / RC −6 Vo At t = 2µs .jayaram.1 × 10 −6 × (220) = 2.Downloaded from www.np V 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜R + ⎟ I (s ) = o Cs ⎠ s ⎝ V ⎛ RCs + 1 ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ I (s ) = o s ⎝ Cs ⎠ CVo I (s ) = 1 ⎞ ⎛ RC ⎜ s + ⎟ RC ⎠ ⎝ I (s ) = Vo 1 ⎞ ⎛ R⎜ s + ⎟ RC ⎠ ⎝ By inversion.42mJ 2 2 1 t c) Voltage across capacitor.17 . Vc (t = 2µs ) = −220e − (2×10 / 4×0.jayaram.64V Diode with LC Load At t=0.1×10 −9 ) = −139.com.com. i (t ) = Vo −t / RC e R Vo 220 = = 5A R 44 a) Peak diode current = i(t) V0 /R O t 1 1 2 b) Energy dissipated in resistor = CVo2 = × 0. di 1 t Vs = L + ∫ idt + Vc (t =0) dt c 0 Downloaded from www.
sin ωt L C L i (t ) = I p sin ωt where I p = Vs The rate of current is di C 1 = I p . cos ωt L LC dt di Vs = .np Vc (t = 0) = 0 Using Laplace Transform: Vs I ( s) = L[sI ( s ) − i (0)] + s Cs i (0) = 0 V 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ Ls + ⎟ I ( s ) = s cs ⎠ s ⎝ ⎛ Lcs 2 + 1 ⎞ Vs ⎜ ⎜ cs ⎟ I (s ) = s ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ I (s ) ) = CVs 1 ⎞ ⎛ LC ⎜ s 2 + ⎟ LC ⎠ ⎝ Vs .com. . By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Eastern College of Engineering) /.18 . sin ωt L ω C = Vs . Lecturer. cos ωt − (2 ) dt L Initial rate of rise of current. L(s + ω 2 ) 2 S D + L + VL Vs .jayaram. . the diode current i falls to zero and the capacitor is changed to 2Vs. i (t ) = Vs 1 .ω cos ωt = Vs .Vs L ⎢− ω ⎥ 0 c ⎣ ⎦ t = Vs LC ω .Vc I (s ) = where ω = 1 LC By inversion. 1 (1 − cos ωt ) − (4) = Vs (1 − cos ωt ) At t = t 1 = π LC .Downloaded from www. di dt = t =0 Vs L − (3) Voltage across capacitor Vc (t ) = 1 t 1 t 1 C ⎡ cos ωt ⎤ ∫0 idt = c ∫0 I p sin ωtdt = c .
I (s ) Vo − =0 Cs s V 1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ Ls + ⎟ I (s ) = o Cs ⎠ s ⎝ L[SI (s ) − i (0 )] + i (t ) = Vo C = 110 A L S1 + i VL Vc L + V0 Conduction time.jayaram. A diode circuit with Lc load is shown in figure with the capacitor having initial voltage Vo=220V.66µs Vc (t ) = = 1 t idt + Vc (t = 0) C ∫0 C 1 t ∫0 Vo L sin ωtdt − Vo C C ⎡ cos ωt ⎤ − − Vo L⎢ ω ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ t V = o C = Vo LC ω .jayaram.np i(t) O Vc(t) t1/2 t1= t 2c 2Vs Vs O t Q.com.Downloaded from www. If switch s1 is closed at t=0. di 1 t L + ∫ idt + Vc (t = 0 ) = 0 dt C 0 Vc (t = 0 ) = −Vo Taking laplace transform.com. capacitance C=20 µF and inductance L = 80 µH . t1 = π LC = 125.np /.19 . s1 is closed. 1 (1 − cos ωt ) − Vo Vc (t ) = −Vo cos ωt Steadystate Capacitor Voltage Downloaded from www. determine: a) Peak current through the diode b) Conduction time of the diode c) Steady state capacitor voltage Solution: At t=0.
The capacitor is initially charged to voltage Vc with upper plate +ve. Solution: At t=0. Find the conduction time of the diode. L = 100µH .com. device expressions for the current through and voltage across C.π LC = −Vo cos π = Vo = 220V O V0 V0 t t1 t1/2 t1 t V0 Q.np Vc (t = t1 ) = −Vo cos ωt = −Vo cos 1 LC . Determine also the voltage across the diode after stage conduction. Lecturer.jayaram. I (s ) = ⎜ s where ω = ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ L ⎠ s +ω By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Switch s is closed at t=0. In case Vs = 400V . Vo = 100V . In the diode LC H /W `is shown in the figure.20 . C = 30µ . di 1 t Vs = L + ∫ idt + Vc (t = 0 ) dt C 0 Vc (t = 0 ) = Vo Using Laplace Transform. switch s is closed. Vs I (s ) V o = L[sI (s ) − i ( s )] + + s Cs s Ls + i + L VL + Vc Vs C V0  V − Vo 1⎞ ⎛ ⎜ Ls + ⎟ I (s ) = s cs ⎠ s ⎝ ⎛ Lcs 2 + 1 ⎞ V − Vo ⎜ ⎟ I (s ) = s ⎜ cs ⎟ s ⎝ ⎠ I (s ) = c(Vs − Vo ) 1 ⎞ ⎛ LC ⎜ s 2 + ⎟ LC ⎠ ⎝ 1 LC 1 ⎛ V − Vo ⎞ or .Downloaded from www. peak current through the diode and final steady state voltage across C.
d i di i L 2 +R + =0 dt c dt 2 d i R di i + + =0 2 L dt LC dt Changing equation in s domain.32 A L ° c) Steady state voltage across capacitor = 2Vs − Vo = 700V d) Vo = Vs − VL − Vc = Vs − 0 − (2Vs − Vo ) = Vs − 2Vs + Vo = −Vs + Vo = −300V Diode Circuit with RLC Load At t=0. 2 = −α ± α 2 − ω o 1st case Downloaded from www.np By inversion i (t ) = V s − Vo 1 C .com. ω o = 2 s1. sin ωt L L ω V1V C ° /2 O Vc(t) i(t) Voltage across capacitor.np /. = s − + Vo C L⎢ ω ⎥0 ⎣ ⎦ t t1/2 t1 t 2VsV ° Vs V ° Vs Vs+V t t = (Vs − Vo )(1 − cos ωt ) + Vo a) t1 = π LC = 54.com.21 . di 1 t Vs = Ri + L + ∫ idt + Vc (t = 0) dt C 0 S1 + R + VR + L VL + Vc  With initial condition i (t = 0) = Vo By differentiation.jayaram. 2 = − We define. R 1 ⎛ R ⎞ ± ⎜ ⎟ − 2L LC ⎝ 2L ⎠ damping factor α = R 2L 1 LC 2 resonance frequency. R i s2 + s + =0 L LC 2 Vs V  + ° C  s1. switch s1 is closed. sin ωt + Vo C 0 L V − Vo C ⎡ cos ωt ⎤ .Downloaded from www. sin ωt = (Vs − Vo ). 1 t Vc (t ) = ∫ idt + Vc (t = 0) C 0 C 1 t = ∫ (Vs − Vo ).77 µs b) I p = (Vs − Vo ) C = 164.jayaram.
Inductance L = 2m + 1. the roots are equal s1 = s 2 and the circuit is called critically damp and the solution will be of the form i (t ) = ( A1 + A2 t )e s1t If α > ω o .ω r cos ω r t − αe −αt sin ω r t dt di dt di dt = A2ω r t =0 ( ) Initial rate of rise of current is limited only by inductor L. The 2nd order RLC circuit shown in the figure has the source voltage Vs = 220V . Lecturer. = t =0 Vs 220 = L 2 × 10 −3 Vs L A2ω r = A2 = Vs = 1 . Capacitance C = 0. If switch s1 is closed at t=0.000 rad / sec 2 L 2 × 2 × 10 −3 1 ωo = = 10 5 rad / sec LC i (t ) = e −αt ( A1 cos ωt + A2 sin ωt ) 1. 2 = −α ± jω r where.Downloaded from www.jayaram.22 . The initial value of the capacitor voltage is Vo = 0 . the roots are real and the circuit is called over damped. determine: a) Expression for the current i(t) b) Conduction time of diode Solution: α= R 160 = = 40. The roots are s1. A2 sin ωt di = A2 e −αt . The solution is − (i ) ω r = ω o2 − α 2 = 91. ω r = ω12 − α 2 i (t ) = e −αt ( A1 cos ωr t + A2 sin ωr t ) Q.com. The solution takes the form: i (t ) = A1e s1t + A2 e s2t If α < ω o . α < ω o it is an underdamped circuit . i (t ) = e − αt i(0)=A1=0 . the roots are complex and the circuit is called under damped.np If α = ωο .652 rad / sec At t=0 i(t=0)=0 From (i). Eastern College of Engineering) /.2 ωr L By Manoj Basnet (Ass.05µF and Resistance R = 160Ω .
i (t ) = 1.2e
−40 , 000 t
Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np sin (91,652)t
b) Conduction time of diode, t1 =
π π = = 34.27 µs ω r 91,652
Freewheeling Diodes In the circuit steady state current after switch s1 is
equal to
2
Vs . If switch s1 is now open the energy R
S1 +
D1
close is
i
stored
R Dm if L
1 ⎛ Vs ⎞ L⎜ ⎟ in inductance L will appear in the form of 2 ⎝R⎠
Vs
arc
at
such the opening contact of switch s1. In order to avoid occurrence a diode called freewheeling diode is connected across RL as shown in the figure. The circuit operation can be divided into two mode. The circuit operation has two modes. Mode 1 begin when the switch is closed at t=0. Mode 2 begin when the switch is then opened. Mode1 Diode Current
i1 =
Vs R
R t ⎞ ⎛ ⎜1 − e L ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠
When the switch is open at t=t1, current at that time becomes R t1 ⎞ Vs ⎛ ⎜1 − e L ⎟ i1 (t = t1 ) = ⎜ ⎟ R⎝ ⎠ i2 R Mode2 di 0 = L 2 + Ri2 L dt L[sI 2 (s ) − i2 (0 )] + RI 2 (s ) = 0 V i i2 (0 ) = s = I 1 R I1 i2 (Ls + R )I 2 (s ) = L. Vs R t1 t LVs R if I 2 (s ) = i2 RL(s + R / L ) R t2 t1 i2 (t ) = I 1e = t Waveform L
Single Phase Halfwave Rectifier: Rectifier is a circuit that converts an AC signal into unidirectional signal.
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Is
Vm
+ AC, Supply Vp Vs=Vm sinwt R VL
V2 o Vm /2 2
Is Vm/R
o
/2
2
wt
VD
o o
/2
2 2
wt wt
Vm
During +ve half cycle of i/p voltage diode D1 conduct and the i/p voltage appears across the lead. During –ve half cycle of input voltage, the diode is in blocking condition and the o/p voltage is zero.
Performance Parameter A rectifier is a power processor that should give a DC output voltage with minimum amount of harmonic contains. There are different types of rectifier circuit. The performances of rectifier are normally evaluated in terms of following parameters. Average value of o/p (lead) voltage Vdc Average value of o/p current Idc Output DC Power Pdc = Vdc × Idc RMS value of o/p voltage Vrms RMS value of o/p current Irms Output AC Power Pac = Vrms . Irms
Efficiency (rectification ratio)
η=
Pdc Pac
Output Voltage can be considered as being composed of two components (1) DC value (2) AC component or ripple.
2 2 Effective AC component of output voltage is Vac = V rms − Vdc
From factor, measure shape of output voltage is FF =
Vrms Vdc ⎞ ⎟ − 1 = FF 2 − 1 ⎟ ⎠
2
2 2 Vrms − Vdc ⎛V Vac Ripple factor measures ripple content is R F = = = ⎜ rms ⎜V Vdc Vdc ⎝ dc
Transformer Utilization Factor is TUF =
Pdc P = dc Vs I s V A
where, Vs & Is are rms voltage and rms current of transformer secondary respectively. Let us consider the waveform
By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering) / 24
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Ip Vs Is Input Current Is 1 wt
o Ip Fundamental Component Input Voltage
Here, Vs = sinusoidal input voltage is = instantaneous input current is1 = fundamental component of instantaneous input current
If φ is the angle between fundamental component of input current and voltage, then the angle
φ is known as displacement angle.
Displacement Factor is defined as cos φ i.e. DF = cosφ . The harmonic factor of input current is
⎛I −I defined as HF = ⎜ ⎜ I s2 1 ⎝
2 s 2 s1 1 2 1
⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠
⎡⎡ I ⎤ 2 ⎤ 2 = ⎢ ⎢ s ⎥ − 1⎥ ⎢ ⎢ I s1 ⎥ ⎥ ⎣⎣ ⎦ ⎦ I s1 P cos φ ⇒ ac Is VA
Both I s and I s1 are expressed in rms. Input Power Factor is defined as: PF = Vs I s1 cos φ Vs I s =
Crest Factor, CF is to specify the peak current ratings of devices and components CF of input current is defined as:
CF = I s ( peak ) Is
Q. The half wave rectifier has a purely resistive lead of R. Determine: a. Efficiency b. Foam Factor c. Ripple Factor d. Transformer Utilization Factor e. Peak Inverse Voltage of Diode D1 f. Crest Factor of i/p current Solution: P η = dc Pac Vdc = 1 T VL (t )dt T ∫0 1 T2 = ∫ Vm sin ωtdt t T 0 V = m T
=
⎡ cos ωt ⎤ 2 ⎢− ω ⎥ ⎣ ⎦0
T
Vm [1 − cos ωT / 2] Tω
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5Vm 2 Vrms 0.57 Vdc 0.com.5Vm )2 R (0.26 .31Vm )2 R 2 (0.Downloaded from www.21 ⎡1 d) Vs = ⎢ ⎣T ∫ T 0 2 V (Vm sin ωt ) dt ⎤ = m ⎥ 2 ⎦ 2 By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer.5Vm ) b) FF = Vrms 0. Eastern College of Engineering) /.np = = I dc = Vm (1 − cos π ) 2π Vm π = 0.jayaram.318Vm ) P η = dc = = 40.5Vm = = 1.318Vm 1 c) RF = FF 2 − 1 = 1.5Vm = R R Pac = Vrms I rms = Pdc = Vdc I dc = (0. ⎥ ⎣ 2T 2 ⎦ 2 m 1 2 Vrms = I rms = Vm = 0.318Vm = R R Vrms ⎡1 =⎢ ⎣T ⎡1 =⎢ ⎣T ⎤2 V (t )dt ⎥ ∫0 ⎦ T 2 L T 2 1 ∫ 0 ⎤2 V sin ωtdt ⎥ ⎦ 2 m 1 ⎡V 2 =⎢ m ⎣T ∫ T 2 0 ⎛ 1 − cos 2ωt ⎞ ⎤ 2 ⎜ ⎟dt ⎥ 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ T 2 1 ⎡V =⎢ ⎢ 2T ⎣ 2 m ⎡ sin 2ωt ⎤ ⎢t − 2ω ⎥ ⎣ ⎦0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 1 2 2 ⎡Vm ⎛ T sin ωT ⎞⎤ 2 =⎢ ⎜ − ⎟⎥ 2ω ⎠⎦ ⎣ 2T ⎝ 2 1 ⎡V T ⎤ =⎢ .5% 2 Pac R(0.318Vm Vdc 0.
jayaram. 2. Vdc = Average Output Current.318Vm ) .5Vm = load current R TUF = (0.Vm × 0.286 Vs I s R. I dc = 1 2π Vdc R π +σ ∫ 0 Vm sin ωtdωt = Vm [1 − cos(π + σ )] 2π Downloaded from www.np /.5Vm 2 e) PIV of diode = Vm f) I s ( peak ) = CF = 0.5Vm Vm ⇒ Is = R R I s ( peak ) =2 Is Single Phase Half wave Rectifier with RL load + is D1 R Dm VL VR io Vs=Vm sinwt AC.27 .jayaram. Conduction period of D1 will extend beyound 180° until the current becomes zero at ωt = π + σ .com.R Pdc = = 0.com.VR VR =i° R +6 is=i ° 2 v° VD D1 6 Current I o continuous to flow even after source voltage Vs has become –ve.np Is = 0.Downloaded from www. Average Output Voltage. Voltage V R = I o R has the same wave shape as that of I o . this is because of presence of inductance L in the lead circuit. Supply Vp VS VS=VS.
At t = t1 = from diode D1 is transferred to Dm and this process is called commutation of diode. I L = Vs − E Vm sin ωt − E = R R charging current should be I dc = 5 A . The effect of this diode is to prevent a negative voltage appearing across the load and as a result the magnetic stored energy is increased. The primary input voltage V p = 120V . the diode D1 conducts Vm sin α = E sin α = E Vm ⎛ E ⎝ Vm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ α β π wt 2π VmE R α = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎡ forα < ωt < β ⎤ ⎢β = π − α ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ Q. the current ω Halfwave Rectifier as battery charges R + Vs D1 i2 α β VsE π VmE 2π 3π wt + V1  E Vm+E i a) Circuit Diagram If the output is connected to a battery.np The average output voltage and current can be increased by making σ = 0 . which is possible by adding freewheeling diode Dm . the rectifier can be used as a battery charger. The battery shown in the figure is E = 12V and its capacity is 100 watt hour.com. Eastern College of Engineering) /. The average Charging Current.60 Hz and transfer has a turn ratio of N = 2 : 1 . For Vs > E . Then calculate a) The conduction angle δ of the diode b) Current turning resistance R c) Power ratings PR of R d) Charging time ho in hours e) Rectifier efficiency η f) Peak inverse voltage Solution: E = 12V V p = 120V R + Vs  D1 iL E 120 = 60V 2 n Vm = V2Vs = 84.85V Vs = = Vp + Vp  By Manoj Basnet (Ass.28 .Downloaded from www. Vs=Vmsinωt π .jayaram. Lecturer.
2 PR = I rms .74° b) Average Charging Current.np α = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎞ ⎟ = 8.4 I rms = 8.β + Vm cos α + E. δ = β − α = 163. I 2 rms 1 = 2π ⎛ Vm sin ωt − E ⎞ ⎟ dω t ∫α ⎜ R ⎝ ⎠ β 2 ⎡⎛ Vm ⎤ V2 2⎞ ⎟(π − 2α ) + m sin 2α − 4Vm E cos α ⎥ ⎜ +E ⎟ ⎢⎜ 2 ⎢⎝ 2 ⎥ ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ 2 1 = 2πR 2 = 67.jayaram.2 A Power Rating of R.α 2πR 1 (− Vm cos(π − α ) + E (π − α ) + Vm cos α + Eα ) = 2πR 1 (2Vm cos α + 2 Eα − Eπ ) I dc = 2πR R = 4.667hrs 60 Power deliver to the battery e) Rectifier efficiency.32% Pdc + PR 60 + 286.85 + 12 = 96.26 = 286. η = total input power ho = = Pdc 60 = = 17.com.Eωt ]α 2πR 1 = − Vm cos β − E.com.13° ⎟ ⎠ β = 180° − α = 171.87 ⎛ E ⎝ Vm a) Conduction Angle.np /.26Ω c) RMS Battery Current.85V Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier Downloaded from www.jayaram. I dc = = 1 2π ∫α ⎜ ⎝ β ⎛ Vm sin ωt − E ⎞ ⎟dωt R ⎠ 1 β [− Vm cos ωt .R = 67.4W d) Power deliver to the battery.29 .4 × 4. Pdc = EI dc = 12 × 5 = 60W ho Pdc = 100 100 = 1.4 f) PIV diode = Vm + E = 84.Downloaded from www.
Eastern College of Engineering) /.30 .np VD1 + Vp + + Vs + + D1 i2 VD2 o VD 2 wt Vs Vm i2 Vmo 2 D2 E V2 Vm o VD =0 1 VD 2 2Vm VD =0 2 VD 1 2 wt By Manoj Basnet (Ass.Downloaded from www. Lecturer.com.jayaram.
jayaram. Determine: a) Efficiency b) Waveform Factor c) Ripple Factor d) TUF e) PIVof diode D f) CF of input current.jayaram. the power is supplied to the load through diode D1 and D2 during negative half cycle the diode D3 and D4 conduct.I dc = R RMS value of output voltage: Vrms ⎡1 =⎢ ⎣π ⎤2 V dωt ⎥ ∫0 ⎦ π 2 L 1 1 ⎡1 =⎢ ⎣π ⎡V =⎢ ⎣π ⎤2 V sin ωtdt ⎥ ∫0 ⎦ π 2 m 2 2 m ∫ π 0 ⎛ 1 − cos ωt ⎞ ⎤ ⎟dωt ⎥ ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎦ ⎝ 1 1 2 π V 2 ⎡⎡ sin 2ωt ⎤ ⎤ 2 = m ⎢ ⎢ωt − ⎥ π ⎢⎣ 2 ⎥0 ⎥ ⎦ ⎦ ⎣ Downloaded from www. VL Solution: Average Output Voltage: Vm 1 π Vdc = ∫ VL dωt π 0 o wt = 2Vm π = 0.com.com.6366Vm 2 Average Load Current: 0.Downloaded from www.6366Vm ) 2 Pdc = Vdc . A single phase full wave center tapped transformer has a purely resistive load of R.31 . Q.6366Vm V I dc = dc = R R (0.np /.np Vs Single Phase Full Wave Bridge Rectifier Vm 2 Vm VL Vm o Vs wt wt + Vp  D1 D3 R + V1  2 D2 D4 o 2 Vm During positive half cycle of input voltage.
Downloaded from www.π ⎥ ⎣ 2π ⎦ V = m = 0.0.com.707Vm Vrms = = 1.707Vm I rms = 0.jayaram.32 .32% 2Vs I s 2 × R × Vm × 0.482 d ) Vs = I s2 = Is = Vm 2 2 I rms .6366Vm ) × 2 × R Pdc = = 57.R.5Vm = R TUF = = Vm 2R (0.6366Vm Vdc b) FF = c) RF = FF 2 − 1 = 0.R 2 .Vm Q. Lecturer.5 × Vm 2 e) PIV of diode = 2Vm f) CF = I s ( peak ) Vm 2 R = = 2 I rms R.707Vm R By Manoj Basnet (Ass.707Vm )2 0.6366Vm R Vrms = 0.707Vm = R R Pac = Vrms I rms = a) η = (0.6366Vm ) .707Vm 2 2 m 1 2 RMS Value of Load Current: I rms = Vrms 0.R I rms 2 = Vm 2 .np ⎡V ⎤ = ⎢ . 2 0.11 0. A single phase full wave bridge rectifier has a purely resistive load of with the supply voltage 220V and supply frequency 50Hz.R = = 81% Pac (R. Then calculate: a) Efficiency b) Ripple Factor c) TUF d) PIV of diode e) CF Solution: R = 5Ω Vm = 2 × 220V = 311V Vdc = 0.707Vm ) 2 R 2 Pdc (0. Eastern College of Engineering) /.6366Vm I dc = 0.
6366Vm ) .707Vm ) RF = FF 2 − 1 = 0.jayaram. i L D1 + D3 R i L 2 D2 D4  L E i Max L I L a) Circuit Diagram i min L /2 2 b) Wave Form Fig: Fullwave Bridge Rectifier with RL Load If Vs = Vm sin ωt = 2Vs is the input voltage.com.R = = 2 Is R. In practice. L iL = ⎜ − ⎟t 2Vs E sin (ωt − θ ) + A1e ⎝ L ⎠ − 2 R ⎛ R⎞ 2 2 where.Vm Single Phase Full Wave Rectifier with RL Load: With resistive load.Vm (0.(0.a) η = Pdc (0.33 . 1 ⎛ 2Vs sin θ E A1 = ⎜ I 1 + − ⎜ R z ⎝ π ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎞ ⎛ R ⎞.np /. most loads are inductive to a certain extent and the load current depends on the value of load resistance R and load inductance L.6366Vm Pdc = = 81% Vs I s R.R = = 81% 2 Pac R.⎛ ω ⎞ ⎝L⎠⎝ ⎠ ⎟e ⎟ ⎠ Downloaded from www.com. This is shown in the figure. 2 .np b) FF = Vrms = 1.11 Vdc 0.707Vm ) 2 Downloaded from www.jayaram. z = ⎡ R 2 + (ωL ) ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ⎛ ωL ⎞ θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ Case 1: Continuous Load Current iL = I1 At ωt = π . the load current i L can be found from: di L + Ri L + E = 2Vs sin ωt dt which has the solution of the form. the load current is identical in shape to the output voltage.482 c) TUF = d) PIV = Vm e) CF = I s ( peak ) Vm .
Eastern College of Engineering) /.com.34 . we get ⎡ ⎛ R⎞ ⎤ ⎜ − ⎟t 2Vs ⎢ 2 E iL = sin (ωt − θ ) + . i L ≥ 0 π wt α β Wave Form Case 2: Discontinuous Load Current Load Current Flows only during the period α ≤ ωt ≤ β α = sin −1 ⎜ ⎜ ⎛ E ⎝ Vm ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ At ωt = α .np ⎛ ⎞ 2Vs 2Vs E sin (ωt − θ ) + ⎜ I 1 + − sin θ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ 2 2 R ⎝ ⎠ At ωt = 0. i L (ωt = 0 ) = I 1 IL = 2Vs 1 + e ⎝ L ⎠ω E − sin θ I1 = ⎛ R ⎞π 2 R ⎜− ⎟ 1 − e ⎝ L ⎠ω After substitution.R sin θe ⎝ L ⎠ ⎥ − ⎛ R ⎞⎛ π ⎞ ⎥ R 2 ⎢ ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎢ ⎥ 1 − e ⎝ L ⎠⎝ ω ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ V Vm E o i L ⎛ R ⎞π ⎜− ⎟ 0 ≤ ωt ≤ π . rms diode current ⎡ 1 β 2 ⎤2 I r = ⎢ ∫ i L d ωt ⎥ ⎣ 2π α ⎦ Average diode current 1 β Id = i L (dωt ) 2π ∫α 1 By Manoj Basnet (Ass.jayaram. i L (ωt ) = 0 π ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎡E ⎤ ⎛ R ⎞⎛ ω ⎞ 2Vs ⎝ L ⎠⎝ ⎠ A1 = ⎢ − sin (α − θ )⎥ e z ⎢R ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ iL = − ⎟ ⎜ ⎡E ⎤ R ⎛ αωβ ⎞ E 2Vs 2Vs L⎝ ⎠ sin (ωt − θ ) + ⎢ − sin (α − θ )⎥ e − =0 z z R ⎢R ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ β can be determined from this transidental equation sin x − e − x = 0 by an iterative method of solution. Lecturer.Downloaded from www.
the fundamental frequency of the harmonics is also increased D1 iL 1 Va a N 2 + 3 4 D3 D4 R VL D2 and is 9 times the source frequency (9 f ) .com.jayaram.35 . the output contains the harmonics and the frequency of fundamental component is 2 times the source frequency (2 f ) .np /.jayaram. Circuit Diagram For simplicity.com. This rectifier is also known as star rectifier.np Multiphase Star Rectifier: In single phase full wave rectifier. let us assume three phase star rectifier. Vr = Vm sin ωt 2π ⎞ ⎛ V y = Vm sin (ωt − 120°) = Vm sin ⎜ ωt − ⎟v 3 ⎠ ⎝ 2π ⎞ ⎛ Vb = Vm sin (ωt + 120°) = Vm sin ⎜ ωt + ⎟ 3 ⎠ ⎝ Downloaded from www.Downloaded from www. In case of multi phase rectifier.
V y is most positive phase voltage and D2 conducts from 150° to 270°. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Vr is most positive phase voltage and D1 conducts from 30° to 150°.jayaram. Solution: Average Output Voltage Vdc = 1 6 π Vm sin ωtdωt ⎛ 2π ⎞ ∫6 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ 3 ⎠ 5π 5π 1 ⎡Vm cos ωt ⎤ 6 = ⎥π 2π ⎢ ω ⎣ ⎦ 6 3 = 0. At ωt = 270° Vr = −Vm Vm ↓ 2 V Vb = m ↑ 2 So. Hence output Vy = consists of 3 phase voltages V R . Q. At ωt = 150° .36 .com.Downloaded from www.V y . If the rectifier deliver I dc = 30A.827Vm By Manoj Basnet (Ass.Vb . Determine a) efficiency b) foam factor c) Ripple factor d) TUF e) PIV of each voltage f) Peak current through a diode. At an output of Vdc = 140V .np Y R B 120 60 30 60 120 150 180 240 270 300 360 At ωt = 30° Vm ↑ 2 V y = −Vm Vr = Vb = Vm ↓ 2 At ωt = 150° V Vr = m ↓ 2 Vm Vy = ↑ 2 Vb = −Vm So. Vb is most positive phase voltage and D3 conducts from 270° to 30° next cycle. Each lasting for a period of 120°. A 3φ star rectifier has a purely resistive load with RΩ . Lecturer.
827Vm ) × 2 P = 0.np I dc = Vdc 0.8272) = 96.827Vm = R R Vrms ⎡ ⎢ 1 =⎢ ⎢ 2π ⎢ 3 ⎣ ⎤2 5π ⎥ 2 ∫π66 (Vm sin ωt ) dωt ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ 1 = 0.84068Vm ) 2 R 2 Pdc (0.84068Vm = = 1.84068Vm I rms = 0.Downloaded from www.com.4855Vm ) e) PIV = 3Vm 3 φ bridge rectifier: i L VB Nr D1 D3 D5 Vy R R + RVL  D4 D6 D2 Fig : 3φ Bridge Rectifier This is a full wave rectifier.0165 0.37 .np /.com.1824 r 3I s2 R = I rms R Is = I rms 3 = 0.84068)2 Vrms 0. The pair of diodes which are connected between that pair of supply lines having the highest amount of instantaneous line to line voltage will conduct.jayaram.4855Vm R 2 (0.0165)2 − 1 = 0.jayaram.827Vm )2 R Pac = Vrms × I rms = a) η = b) F = (0.827Vm Vdc c) RF = FF 2 − 1 = d) Vs = Vm 2 (1.6643 TUF = dc = 3Vs I s 3 × Vm × (0.84068Vm R Pdc = Vdc × I dc = (0. Phase Voltages: Downloaded from www.77% = Pac (0.
6539Vm ) Pac = Vdc I dc = R By Manoj Basnet (Ass.6539Vm . Determine a) efficiency b) foam factor c) Ripple factor d) TUF e) PIV of each diode f) Peak current through a diode.Downloaded from www.2 sin ⎜ ⎟.jayaram. Solution: Vdc = 1.6539Vm ⎡ ⎤2 ⎢1 π 2 π⎞ ⎥ ⎛ = ⎢ ∫π2Vm sin 2 ⎜ ωt + ⎟dωt ⎥ 6⎠ ⎝ ⎢π 6 ⎥ ⎢3 ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ = 1. cos(ωt − 60°) 2 = 3Vm cos(90° − (30 + ωt )) V yb = 3Vm sin (ωt − 90°) Vby = 3Vm sin (ωt − 200°) V6y VD Vry Vrb Vyb Vyr Vbr Vby = 3Vm sin (ωt + 30°) wt 30 30 60 90 120 150 180 210 240 270 300 330 360 π Average Output Voltage.38 .6554Vm V V I dc = dc . Eastern College of Engineering) /. I rms = rms R R 2 (1. Vrms = 1.np Vr = Vm sin ωt V y = Vm sin (ωt − 120°) Vb = Vm sin (ωt + 120°) Vry = Vr − V y = Vm sin ωt − Vm sin (ωt − 120°) ⎛ ωt − ωt + 120° ⎞ ⎛ ωt + ωt − 120° ⎞ = Vm . Vdc = = ∫ ⎛π ⎞ π ⎜ ⎟6 ⎝3⎠ π 1 2 π 1 2 Vry dωt ∫π 3 = 1. The rectifier deliver I dc = 60 A at an output voltage of Vdc = 280.6554Vm 1 6 π⎞ ⎛ 3Vm sin ⎜ ωt + ⎟dωt 6⎠ ⎝ Vrms Q 1. Lecturer. A 3 φ bridge rectifier has a purely resistive load of R.7V and the source frequency is 60 Hz .com. cos⎜ ⎟ 2 2 ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ 3 = 2Vm .
042 d) rms voltage of transformer secondary voltage.9V g) Peak diode Current = 3Vm 3 × 169.R R × 3 × Vm × 2 × 1.6539Vm c) RF = FF 2 − 1 = 0.67Ω I dc 2π 3 3 When Vry = line to line rms voltage . io = I o Downloaded from www.6539Vm ) .Downloaded from www.com.R V 1.72 = = 62.jayaram.67 V I dc = dc R V R = dc = 4.6554Vm b) FF = rms = = 1. Vs = I a = rms value of diode current 2 2 3I a R = I rms R I I a = rms 3 2 2 I s R = 2I a R R L Vm 2  E I s = 2I a = e) TUF = = 2 3 I rms Pdc 3Vs I s (1. θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ A1 in the equation can be determined from the condition at ωt = π 3 .6539Vm )2 × 2 × 3 .39 .com. Vry = 2 × Vry sin ωt for ≤ ωt ≤ di + Rio + E = 2Vry sin ωt which has the solution of the form dt ⎛R⎞ −⎜ ⎟ t 2Vry E sin (ωt − θ ) + A1e ⎝ ω ⎠ − − (1) io = z R L Where.R P a) φ = dc = = 99.72 = 293.009 Vdc 1.np /.9 A R 4. load impedance.jayaram. the lead current io can be found from. z = R 2 + ω 2 L2 3φ bridge rectifier with RL Load: The output voltage becomes π ( ) 1 2 ⎛ ωL ⎞ And load impedance angle.8% Pac (1.6554Vm )2 .np (1.6554Vm f) PIV = 3Vm = 3 × 169.6554Vm ) 2 Pac = Vrms I rms = R 2 (1.
40 . The output of rectifier contains harmonics and filters can be used to smooth out DC output voltage of the rectifier and these are known as DC Filter. Q.com. A 3φ bridge rectifier supplies a highly inductive load such that the average load current l dc = 60 A and ripple contain is negligible. ⎛ R ⎞⎛ π ⎞ ⎡ 2Vry Vry E ⎛π ⎞ ⎤ ⎜ c ⎟ ⎜ 3 −t ⎟ E sin (ωt − θ ) + ⎢ I o + − sin ⎜ − θ ⎟⎥ e ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ − io = 2 z R z R ⎝3 ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ 2π ⎞ π⎞ ⎛ ⎛ i o ⎜ ωt = ⎟ = io ⎜ ωt = ⎟ = I o 3 ⎠ 3⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎛ R ⎞⎛ π ⎞ − (2 ) ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞ ⎜ − ⎟⎜ ω ⎟ 2Vry sin ⎜ − θ ⎟ − sin ⎜ − θ ⎟e ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ 3 ⎠ E ⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎝3 ⎠ Io = − − (3) For I o ≥ 0 ⎛ R ⎞⎛ π ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ω ⎟ R 1 − e ⎝ L ⎠⎝ 3 ⎠ After substitution. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Determine the ratings of the diodes if the line to neutral voltage of star connected supply 120V at 60Hz. the input current of the rectifier contains harmonics also.Downloaded from www. Lecturer. peak current.np ⎛ R ⎞⎛ π ⎞ ⎡ 2Vry E ⎛π ⎞⎤ ⎜ c ⎟⎜ 3 ω ⎟ sin ⎜ − θ ⎟⎥ e ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ A1 = ⎢ I o + − R z ⎝3 ⎠⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦ After substitution. ⎡ ⎛ 2π ⎞ ⎛π ⎞⎤ ⎢ sin (ωt − θ ) + sin ⎜ 3 − θ ⎟ − sin ⎜ 3 − θ ⎟ ⎥ E 2Vm π 2π ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠⎥ − ⎢ io = For ≤ ωt ≤ & io ≥ 0 ⎛ R ⎞⎛ π ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ω −t ⎟ z ⎢ 3 3 ⎥ R 1 − e ⎝ L ⎠⎝ 3 ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣ Rectifier Circuit Design: The design of rectifier involves determining the ratings of diodes like PIV.64 A ⎦ PIV = 3 × Vm = 3 × 2 × 120 = 294V Output Voltage with LC Filter: Figure If Vdc is less than Vm current i L will begin to flow at ωt = α which is given by: By Manoj Basnet (Ass.jayaram. Due to rectification action. An AC Filter is used to filter out some of the harmonics from the supply system. Solution: Average diode current = 1 2π ∫π 5π 6 5π 6 I dc dωt = 1 6 1 × 60 × ∫π 6 dωt = 20 A 2π 6 5π ⎡ 1 RMS diode current = ⎢ ⎣ 2π ∫π 6 ⎤2 2 I dc dωt ⎥ = 34. etc.
jayaram.np ⎛V ⎞ Vm sin α = Vdc which gives α = sin −1 ⎜ dc ⎟ ⎜V ⎟ ⎝ m⎠ The output current i L is given by di Lc L = Vm sin ωt − Vdc dt which can be solved for i L Vm Vdc 1 ωt iL = ∫α (Vm sin ωt − Vdc )dωt = ωLc (cos α − cos ωt ) − ωLc (ωt − α ) forωt ≥ α LC Downloaded from www.com.np /.jayaram.41 .Downloaded from www.com.
The anode current must be more than a value known as latching current I L . of carriers and thyristor will be in blocking state. the junction J 2 is reverse bias and only a small leakage current flows from anode to cathode. The thyristor is then said to be in forward blocking or off state condition and leakage current is known as off state current I d . When anode voltage is made positive with respect to cathode. Since the other junction J 1 and J o already forward bias there will be free movement of carriers across all the junctions resulting in a large forward anode current. This is known as avalancy breakdown and the corresponding voltage is called forward break down voltage (VBD ) . Once a thyristor conducts. It has three terminals. The latching current I L is the minimum anode current required to maintain the thyristor in on state immediately after a thyristor has been turned on and the gate signal has been removed.jayaram. The device will then be in a conducting state or on state.com. if the anode current is induced below a level known as holding current I h . the junction J 1 and J 2 are forward bias. the reverse bias junction J 2 will break. Lecturer.np Chapter – 4 Thyristor Characteristics A cathod A p n G R p G gate n J1 J2 J3 G cathod Fig : Thyristor Symbol and Thyristor Junction A thyrisor is 4 layered semiconductor device of PNPN structure with 3 PN Junction. However. Eastern College of Engineering) /. it behaves liek a conducting diode and there is no control over the device. a depletion region is developed around the junction J 2 due to reduce no.42 . If anode to cathode voltage Vak is increased to sufficiently large value. Forward voltage drop gate troggered IL IH VBR Forward break down voltage VAk Forward leavage current Reverse leavage current Fig : vi characteristics By Manoj Basnet (Ass.Downloaded from www.
com. In practice. the forward voltage is maintain below VBO and the thyristor is turn only by applying a positive voltage between its gate and cathode. we have: I A = I c1 + I c2 = α 1 I A + I CBO1 + α 2 I k + I CBO2 − (3) But. The collector current is I c = αI E + I CBO where. I CBO = leakage amount of collect or base junction α = common base current gain For transistor θ1.43 .Downloaded from www. I c2 = α 1 I k + I CBO2 − (ii ) where. I c1 = α 1 I A + I CBO1 − (i ) where. I k = I A + I G − (4) Downloaded from www. Two transistor model of thyristor: A IT P A IA= IT IB1= IC2 n J2 G IG p θ1 P n p I2 I3 θ1 α1 IG1 α2 IG IB2 θ2 Ik G θ2 Ik K a) Basic Structure b) Equivalent Circuit K Fig : Two transistor model of Thyristor A thyristor can be consider as two complementary transistor one PNP transistor θ 1 and the other NPN transistor θ 2 as shown in the figure. α 1 = current gain for θ 1 I CBO1 = leakage current of collector base junction For transistor θ2. The thyristor will be in reverse blocking state an a reverse leakage current would flow through the device. α 2 = current gain for θ 2 I CBO2 = leakage current gain for θ 2 Combining equ(i) and (ii).com.jayaram.np When the cathode voltage is positive with respect to anode.jayaram.np /. the junction J 2 is forward biased but the junction J 1 and J 3 are reverse biased.
there will be increse in the number of electrohole pair. this will immediately increase anode current I A . dt 5. Thryristor turn on: 1.44 . resulting in a large value of anode current I A and the thyristor will turn on with a small gate current. the charging current of capacitive junction may be sufficient enough to turn the thyristor.Downloaded from www. Gate Current: If a thyristor is forward bias. there is a regenerative of positive feed back effect. 3. This can be done in one of the following ways: 1. Light : If light is allowed to strike the junction of thyrsitor. 4. I A = α 1 I A + I CBO1 + α 2 I A + α 2 I G + I CBO2 IA = α 2 I G + I CBO + I CBO 1 − (α 1 + α 2 ) 1 1 2 − (5) [1 − (α 1 + α 2 )]I A = I CBO + I CBO2 + α 2 I G If the gate current I G is suddenly increased. leakage current will flow to initiate regenerative turn on. the forward blocking voltage is decreased as shown in the figure. High Voltage 4. the denominator of equation (5) approaches zero. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Gate Current A thyristor a turn on by increasing the anode current. Thermal : If the temperature of thyristor is high. If α 1 + α 2 tends to infinity. By Manoj Basnet (Ass. which would further increase α 1 and α 2 . a high value of charging current may damage the thyristor and device must be protected against high dv . 2. This type of turn on may cause thermal runaway and is normally avoided. dv dt i j2 = dVi2 di j2 d d a j2 = C j2 V j 2 = C j2 + V j2 dt dt dt dt ( ) ( ) If the rate of rise of anode to cathode voltage is high. dv dt 5.jayaram. which would increase the leakage current and cause α 1 and α 2 to increase due to regenerative action.com. The increase in the value of α 1 and α 2 would furhter inrease I A I.np Now. Therefore. α 1 + α 2 may tend to be unity and the thyristor may be turn on. Light 3. Lecturer. This type of turn on may be destructive and should be avoided. As the gate current is increased. the electron hole pair will increase and the thyristor may be turn on. the injection of gate current by applying positive voltage between the gate and cathode terminals would turn on the thyristor. Thermal 2. High Voltage : If forward anode to cathode voltage is greater than the forward breakdown voltage V BO sufficient.
Downloaded from www.com. If the rate of rise of anode current is very fast compared to the spreading velocity of turn on process.45 .632Vs Vs O t=τ t Rs + S1 Cs T1 A C k Downloaded from www. a localize “hot spot” heating will occur due to high current density and the device may fail as a result of excessive temperature. Under steady state operation Dm The practical devices must be protected against high dt di can be very high conduct when the thyristor T1 is off. di = V s Ls dt dv Protection : dt VA k Vs 0. In practice is limited by adding a series dt inductor Ls as shown in the figure. If T1 is free when Dm is still conducting dt di and limited only by the stray inductance of the circuit.jayaram.np /.np iT IG1 > IG2 > IG3 IL IA IG2 IG1 IG=O VAk O V3 V2 V1 VB0 V1 > V2 > V3 Fig : Effect of Gate Current on Forward Blocking Voltage di Protection : dt Ls + i T1 Im R2 C2  Dm load A thyristor requires a minimum time to spread the current conduction uniformly through the junction.jayaram. di .com.
Lecturer. FET Controlled Thyristor (FETCTH) 9.com. dv 0. Reverse Conducting Thyristor (RCT) 6. thyristor can be broadly classified into following categories: 1. Bidirectional Triode Thyristor (TRIAC) 5.jayaram. When T1 is turn on. = dt Rs C s where. a step voltage will be applied across thyristor T1 and enough to turn on the device. MOS Controlled Thyristor (MCT) By Manoj Basnet (Ass.632Vs or . I TD = discharge current + Ds Vs R1 Cs R2 T1 It is possible to use more resistor for I RD = Vs R1 + R2 dv and discharging current such that: dt Types of Thyristor: Depending upon the physical construction. Gate Turn off Thyristor (GTO) 4. dv can be limited by connecting capacitor C s .46 . Light Activated SiliconControlled Rectifier (LASCR) 8. Static Induction Thyristor (SITH) 7. Eastern College of Engineering) /. turn on and turn off behaviour. Phase Control Thyristor (SCR) 2. Fast Switching Thyristor (SCR) 3. τ = Rs C s Rs = Vs I TD − 9i where.np dv may be dt If switch s1 is close at t = 0. the dt discharge current of capacitor is limited by resistor Rs .632Vs = dt τ dv 0.Downloaded from www.
com.Downloaded from www. Generally in a range 515 µs depending on the voltage range. Bidirectional Triod Thyristor: MT 1 MT 2 TA MT 2 TRIAC Sumbol MT 2 Equivalent of TRIAC A TRIAC can conduct in both directions and is normally used in AC phase control. The turn off time is of the order 500100 µs .np Phase Control Thyristor: This type of thyristor generally operate at the line frequency and is turn off by natural communication. They may have fast turn off time.jayaram. FET Controlled Thyristor: M1 G T1 R Downloaded from www. A IG TA Tm K Fig : Amplifying Gate Thyristor Fast Switching Thyristor: These are used in high speed switching application with forced communication (example chopper. It eliminates the requirement of equipment. However it can be turn off by negative gate signal. This is most suited for low speed switching application and is also known as converter thyristor. The modern thyristor use an amplifying gate where auxiliary thyristor TA is gated by a gate signal and then the amplified output of the TA is applied as a gate signal to the main thyristor Tm . inverter).com.np /. It can be considered as two SCR connected in antiparallel with a common gate connection as shown in the figure. Gate Turnoff Thyristor: A GTO line an SCR can be turn on by applying a positive gate signal.jayaram.47 .
If a sufficient voltage is applied to the gate of MOSFET typically 3r. This collector current of NPN Transistor acts as the base current of PNP transistor.com. Eastern College of Engineering) /. With on FET on. OFF FET is energise by positive voltage pulse at the gate. Further.jayaram.48 . current begins to flow from anode A through ON FET and then as the base current and emitter current of NPN transistor and then to the cathode K. This turn on NPN transistor as a result collector current begins to flow in NPN transistor as OFF FET is off. PNP transistor is also turn on. As a result MCT turn off. So anode current begins to flow through off FET and therefore base current of PNP transistor begins to decrease. the collector current of PNP transistor that forms a base current of NPN transistor also become to decrease. With the application of positive voltage off FET is turn on and ON FET is turn off. Subsequently. MOS Controlled Thyristor: + ve → N − channel − ve → P − channel G (offFET) (nchannel) pnp on FET(pchannel) off on npn G A a) Equivalent Circuit k It is basically a thyristor with two MOFET built into the get structure.Downloaded from www. on FET gets turn on and off FET is off. For turning off. Thyristor Turn Off: v Vm i + V VAK R1 O i Vm RL O α π 2π wt wt Fig: Line Commutated Thyristor Circuit By Manoj Basnet (Ass. MCT turn on.np A FET controlled thyristor combines a MOSFET and thyristor in parallel as shown in the figure. One MOSFET is used for turning on the MCT and other for turning off the device with the application of negative voltage pulse. Lecturer. a triggering current for the thyristor generated internally. After off FET is turn on emitter base terminal of PNP transistor are short circuited by off FET.
Downloaded from www.np A thyristor which is on the ON state can be turned off by reducing the forward current to a level below the holding current I H . ONstate T2 T1 offstate V1 V2 O Is V Fig: Off State Characteristics of Two Thyristor Series Operation of Thyristor: Consider n thyristor connected in series as shown in the figure: Downloaded from www. two or more transistors can be connected in series to provide the voltage rating.jayaram.np /.com.49 . However.com. due to production spread the characteristics of thyristor of the same type are not identical.jayaram. Series Operation of Thyristor: For high voltage application.
the load current is not shared equally due to the difference in their characteristics. I = total string current Voltage across SCR1 = Vbm = I1 R Voltage across (n+1) SCR = (n − 1)I 2 R Now. Vs = nVbmn − (n − 1) × ∆I b R= nVbm − Vs (n − 1)∆I b Parallel Operation of Thyristor: When thyristor are connected in parallel.50 . different potential existed various terminals. Lecturer. R1 IT R2 I2 T2 I1 T1 Fig : Current Sharing Thyristor Thyristor Firing Circuit: In thyristor converter.np String current R VGm String voltage I 1 = I − I bmn & I 2 = I − I rms where. Vs = I 1 R + (n − 1)I 2 R = Vbm + (n − 1)(I − I bmx )R = Vbm + (n − 1)[I1 − (I bmx − I bmn )]R = Vbm + (n − 1)I1 R − (n − 1)R∆I b where. This thermal runaway may be avoided by having a common heat sink so that all unit operate at same temperature. The power circuit is subjected to a high voltage usually greater than 100V and gate circuit is held at low voltage typically By Manoj Basnet (Ass. If a thyristor carries more current then that of others. Eastern College of Engineering) /. it’s power dissipation increases there by increasing the junction temperature and decreasing the internal resistance.com. ∆I b = I bmx − I bmn RI 1 = Vbm As.jayaram. This inturn will increase it’s current sharing and may damage the thyristor. A small resistance may be connected in series with each thyristor to force equal current sharing but there will be considerable power loss in series resistance.Downloaded from www.
np 12V to 30V and isolation circuit is required between individual thyristor and it’s gate pulse generating circuit. the transistor saturate and DC voltage Vcc appears across the transformer primary. When pulse is removed from base of the transfer turn off and voltage of opposite polarity is induced across the primary and the freewheeling diode Dm conducts.Downloaded from www. Vs Unijunction Transistor (UJT) R RB2 E + IE B2 B1 + C  R B1 VB1  VE Negative resistance region Saturation Region Fig : Circuit VE Vp Vp Peak Point Valley Point Vv T VB1 2T VE(Set) Vv IE IE (VA) 0 Ip Iv Fig : Characteristics T 2T Fig : Waveform Downloaded from www.jayaram. G N2 gate voltage N1 V1 R1 D1 C1 θ1 A simple isolation arrangement with pulse transformer is shown in the figure.51 . inducing a pulse voltage on the transformer secondarily which is applied between the thyristor gate and cathode terminal. A short pulse to the input of ILED D1 turns on the photo SCR T1 and power thyristor TL is trigger. When a pulse of adequate voltage is applied to the base of switching transistor θ1.com.com. The isolation can be accomplish by either pulse trf or opto couples.np /. ILED R1 + V1 A T1 D1 G k +Vc 0 R optocoupler Photoser An optocoupler could be a phototransistor or photoSCR as shown in the figure.jayaram.
The frequency of oscillation is f = 60 Hz and width of triggering pulse is t g = 50 µs . the UJT turns on and the capacitor C will discharge through RB1 at a rate determine by time constant τ 2 = RB1 XC . When the emitter voltage V E decays to the valley point VV . .5V ) . Eastern College of Engineering) /.jayaram.Downloaded from www.VE = VV for turning off. I V = 10mA. the time constant of charging circuit is T1 = RC .51 × 30 + 0. UJT has three terminals called emitters E.com.8V Let C = 0. When DC supply voltage Vs is applied.np UJT is commonly used for generating triggering signals for SCR.5µF By Manoj Basnet (Ass. A basic UJT triggering circuit is shown in the figure.(iv) Q.67ms f 60 V p = ηVs + 0. Solution: 1 1 T= = = 16. the capacitor C is charged through resistance R. I E = I V . Vv = 3. Lecturer.51 to 0. the emitter ceases to conduct. η = 0. Vs − I V R < VV R> Vs − VV IV − (ii ) The width of triggering pulse is t g = RB1 . I p = 10 µA. the UJT turns off and the charging cycle is repeated. η = 0.5V . Design triggering circuit of figure between the parameter of UJT are Vs = 30V .5 = 15.5 = 0. The period of oscillation is approximately given by: T= ⎛ 1 ⎞ 1 ≈ RC ln⎜ ⎜1 −η ⎟ ⎟ f ⎝ ⎠ where η is intrinsic stand off ratio.52 . Since the emitter circuit of UJT is in the open state.51 V. When the emitter voltage V E which is same as the capacitor voltage Vc reaches the peak voltage V p . B1 and B2.82 UJT will turn on if Vs − I p R > V p R< Vs − V p Ip − (i ) At valley point. The waveform of emitter and triggering voltage are shown in the figure C.C RB2 = 10 4 ηV s − (iii ) V p ≈ ηVs + VD (= 0.
jayaram.5 10 4 = = 654Ω ηV s Programmable Unijunction Transistors (PUT): +V3 Rv anode Gate anod VA Cathod + + Rk VRk + R2 VG R1 a) Symbol b) Circuit PUT is a small thyristor shown in figure (a). If V A exceeds gaet voltage VG by one diode forward voltage Vd . the device will remain in its off state. R2 . But V p of PUT can be varied by varying resistor dividor R1 and R2 .5 ln⎜ ⎟ 60 ⎝ 1 − 0.The gate voltage VG is maintained from the supply by the resistor divided by R1 and R2 and determine the peak voltage V p in case of UJT V p is fixed for a device by DC supply voltage.5 ⎠ R = 46.R< R> Vs − V p Ip Downloaded from www. If anode V A is less than ate voltage VG .C R B1 = R B2 50 = 100Ω 0. the peak is reached and the device turns on.8 = 1.5 = = 2.7 KΩ which falls within limiting value we have t g = RB1 .65 KΩ IV 10 ⎛ 1 ⎞ T = RC ln⎜ ⎜1 −η ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 ⎛ 1 ⎞ = R × 0.42mΩ 10 Vs − VV 30 − 3.np = 30 − 15.Vs R1 + R2 Intrinsic Ratio Vp R2 = η= Vs R1 + R2 Period of Oscillation Vp = ⎛ Vs ⎞ ⎛ ⎞ ⎛ 1 ⎞ ⎟ = RC ln⎜1 + R2 ⎟ ⎟ = RC ln⎜ T = RC ln⎜ ⎜1 −η ⎟ ⎜ ⎜V −V ⎟ R1 ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ p ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ s The gate current I G at valley point is given by V I G = (1 − η ) s RG Downloaded from www.com.jayaram.com.53 . PUT can be used as relaxation oscillator as shown in figure (b).np /.
Eastern College of Engineering) /.com. C = 0. pulse width is t g = 50µs .np where. Design triggering circuit of figure (i) the parameter of PUT are Vs = 30V . Peak triggering voltage is VRK = 10V .jayaram.67ms f 60 V p = VRk = 10V T= Let. Lecturer.Downloaded from www.2 KΩ V I G = (1 − η ) s R2 ⎛ 1 ⎞ 30 R 2 = ⎜1 − ⎟ = 20 KΩ ⎝ 3⎠ 1 By Manoj Basnet (Ass. I G = 1mA frequency of oscillation f = 60Hz.54 .C 50 = 100Ω 0. Solution: 1 1 = = 16. RG = R1 = R1 = R1 R2 R1 + R2 RG η RG 1 −η Q.5 ln⎜ 60 ⎜ 1⎟ ⎜1− ⎟ 3⎠ ⎝ R = 82.5 V p 10 1 = = η= Vs 30 3 RK = ⎛ 1 ⎞ T = RC ln⎜ ⎜1 −η ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎞ ⎛ ⎜ 1 ⎟ 1 ⎟ = R × 0.5µF t g = Rk .
Downloaded from www.jayaram. The device is then automatically turn off due to the natural behaviour of source voltage. The forced commutation of thyristor can be achieved by seven ways and can be classified as: 1) Self Commutation 2) Impulse Commutation 3) Resonant Pulse Commutation 4) Complementary Commutation 5) External Pulse Commutation 6) Load Side Commutation 7) Line Side Commutation Downloaded from www. and the output requirement are satisfied.5 Thyristor Commutation Technique Introduction: A thyristor is normally switched on by applying a pulse of gate signal. This is known as natural commutation of line commutation . it is normally necessary to turn it off. the thyristor current goes through a natural zero and a reverse voltage appears across the thyristor. the input voltage is DC and the forward current of thyristor is forced to zero by an additional circuitry called commutation circuit to turn off the thyristor. Once the thyristor is turn on.jayaram.55 .com. A commutation circuit normally uses additional component to accomplish the turn off. This technique is called as forced commutation. There are many techniques to commutate a thyristor. Forced Commutation: In some thyristor circuit. However. these can be broadly classified into two types: 1. Forced Commutation Natural Commutation: + + Vo io R V0 i 0= V0R Vs= Vmsinwt  a) Circuit Diagram 2π wt b) WaveForm Fig : Thyristor with natural commutation If the source voltage is AC. When a thyristor is in conduction mode it’s voltage drop is small. Commutation is the process of turning off a thyristor and it normally causes transfer of current flow to other parts of the circuit.np /. Natural Commutation 2.com.np Chapter .
The figure shows a typical circuit where the capacitor is an initial voltage of − Vo when the thyristor t1 is fire the current that will flow through a circuit is given by: By Manoj Basnet (Ass.56 .np Self Commutation: + T1 Vs i + V2 + Vc L C  a) Circuit Diagram In this type of commutation.jayaram. (t = 0) V s = V L + Vc = L The charging current is i (t ) = Vs C sin ω m t L And the capacitor voltage as : Vc (t ) = Vs (1 − cos ω m t ) where ω m = 1 LC i(E) Vs C /2 O O π w 2t2 ωmto = π π to = ωm t o = π LC O t0 π b) Waveform At time t = t o = π LC charging current becomes zero and thyristor t1 is switch off itself.com. t o is commutation time. a thyristor is turn off due to the natural characteristics of the circuit. When the thyristor T1 is switch on. the capacitor charging current is given by: di 1 + idT + Vc (t = 0) dt c ∫ With initial conditions Vc (t = 0) = 0 . This method of turning off a thyristor is called self commutation and the thyristor t1 is said to be self commutated. Eastern College of Engineering) /.Downloaded from www. Lecturer.
the current becomes zero and the capacitor voltage is reverse to Vo . determine the conduction time of thyristor T1 and the capacitor voltage after T1 is turned off. The circuit parameters are L = 10µH . The inductor carries an initial current of I m = 250 A . t r is called reversing time. C = 50µF & Vs = 200V . If thyristor T1 is switched on at t=0.com.Downloaded from www.jayaram.np T1 L With Vc (t = ) = Vo .com. T1 Im Vs V0 + i C Solution: di 1 + idt + Vc (t = 0) dt C ∫ With initial condition i (t = 0) = I m & Vc (t = 0) = Vo = Vs By solving above equation. i (t ) = I m cos ω m t 1 where ω m = LC 1 L sin ω m t + Vs Vc (t ) = ∫ idt + Vc (t = 0 ) = I m C C Vs = L Downloaded from www. Vc (t ) = −Vo cos ω m t i(t) O π w mt V0 O π/L π V0 After time t = t o = π LC . A thyristor circuit is shown in the figure.np /.57 .jayaram. i (t = 0) = 0 i (t ) = Vo C sin ω m t L di 1 + idt + Vc (t = 0) = 0 dt C ∫ i + Vc  L C a) Circuit Capacitor Voltage. Q.
C = 5µF & Vo = Vs .jayaram.np i (t) Im Vc (t) O π/2 w mt π/2 w mt Conduction time of thyristor T1 = π 2 ωm = π LC 2 = 35.58 . R = 10Ω. Determine the available turn off time of the circuit if Vs = 210V .Downloaded from www. Lecturer. The charge reversal of capacitor from Vo (= Vs ) to − Vo is then done by firing thyristor T3 . Let us assume that thyristor T1 is initially conducting and carrying a load current of I m . An impulse commutated thyristor circuit is shown in the figure. Time required for capacitor to discharge from − Vo to zero is called circuit turn off time (toff ) . By Manoj Basnet (Ass. When the auxillary thyristor T2 is fire. When the capaitor current falls to zero and thyristor T2 turns off.The capacitor will discharge from − Vo to 0 and then charge to the DC input voltage Vs .com. The current through T1 and cease to flow and the capacitor would carry the load current . Vo = I m t off 1 toff I m dt = C ∫0 C Vo C Im t off = Q. Thyristor T3 is self commutated. Eastern College of Engineering) /.12 µs Capacitor Voltage after T1 is turned off = I m Impulse Commutation: L + Vs C Im T3 Vs + T2 T1 Dm Fig : Impulse Commutated Circuit It is assumed that the capacitor is initially charge to voltage of − Vo . thyristor T1 is reverse bias by the capacitor voltage and T1 is turned off.
np + Solution: 1 Vs = Vc + Ri = ∫ idt + Vc (t = 0) + Ri v C With initial condition. Thyristor T3 is fired to reverse the voltage of capacitor to − 2Vs and T3 is also self commutated. When the thyristor T2 is fired.com. the capacitor is charged to 2Vs and T2 is self commutated.jayaram. Assuming that thyristor T1 is conducting and carries a load current of I m thyristor T2 is fired to turn off T1 . The inductor L carries the load current I m and equivalent circuit during the commutation period is shown in the figure. Capacitor current Vs = L Downloaded from www. the discharging and recharging of capacitor are not accomplished through the load and the commutation circuit can be tested without connecting the load. Vc (t = 0) = −Vo = −Vs 2Vs − RC e R Capacitor Voltage i (t ) = Vc (t ) = t − ⎛ 1 idt + Vc (t = 0) = Vs ⎜1 − 2e RC ⎜ C∫ ⎝ t V0=Vs + T1 i Vs T2  R ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ At t = t off Vc (t = t off ) = 0 t off ⎛ ⎞ − ⎜1 − 2e RC ⎟ = 0 Vs ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 2 t off = RC ln = 347 µs Lineside Commutation: T1 L T3 Vs Lr T2 C Dm Im In this type of commutation.Downloaded from www.59 . L + + Im Vs Vs + Vc(t) i (t) di 1 + idt + Vc (t = 0) dt C ∫ With initial condition i (t = 0 ) = I m and Vc (t = 0) − 2Vs .com.jayaram.np /.
Commutation Circuit Design and Commutation Capacitor: The design of commutation circuit require determining the value of capacitor C and inductor L. In selecting a commutation capacitor. the specification of peak. By Manoj Basnet (Ass.Downloaded from www. rms and average current and peak to peak voltage must be satisfied.np i (t ) = I m cos ω m t + 3Vs C sin ω m t L − (1) And capacitor voltage. Eastern College of Engineering) /.com.60 . Lecturer. L sin ω m t − 3Vs cos ω m t + Vs − (ii ) Vc (t ) = I m C 1 where.jayaram. ω m = LC The circuit turn off time is obtained from the condition Vc (t = t off ) = 0 of equation (2).
these controlled rectifiers are also called AC to DC converter and are used extensively in industrial applications specially variable speed drive ranging from fractional h.61 .Downloaded from www.p. The output voltage can be varied by controlling the decay or fixing angle of thyristor. Since.jayaram. Dual Converter Semi Converter is the one quadrant converter and it has one polarity of voltage and current.com. Full Converter 3.com. 1. Full Converter is a two quadrant converter and the polarity of its output voltage can be either positive or negative.6 Controlled Rectifier Introduction: A diode rectifier provides a fixed output voltage only.np Chapter .jayaram. Three Phase Converter Each type can be subdivided into 1.np /. However. phase controlled thyristor are used instead of diode. (horse power) to mega watt power level. Semi Converter 2. The phase controlled converter can be classified into two types depending on the input supply. In order to obtain controlled output voltage. these rectifiers convert from AC to DC. Vo Vo Io Io Fig : Full Converter Vo Io Fig : Semi Converter Fig : Dual Converter Principle of Phase Controlled Converter Operation: Downloaded from www. the output current of full converter has only one polarity. Single Phase Converter 2. Dual Converter can operate in four quadrant and both the output voltage and current can be either positive or negative.
π α = π . Vdc = 0 RMS Output Voltage is given by: Vrms V ⎡ 1 ⎤ = ⎢ ∫ (Vm sin ωt ) dωt ⎥ = m 2 ⎣ 2π α ⎦ π 2 1 2 ⎡1 ⎛ sin 2α ⎞⎤ 2 ⎢ π ⎜ π − α + 2 ⎟⎥ ⎠⎦ ⎣ ⎝ 1 Q. When the thyristor T1 is fired at ωt = α .np T1 iv + Vp Vs V0 Vs Vm o Vo α π 2π a) Circuit Diagram Vm α π 2π wt i0 V0/R α π 2π wt VT1 o α π 2π wt Vm b) Wave Form During positive half of input voltage the thyristor anode is positive with respect to its cathode and the thyristor is said to be forward bias. If the converter of above figure has a purely resistive load of R and the delay angle is α = determine a) Rectification Efficiency e) PIV of thyristor T1 Solution: b) Foam Factor c) Ripple Factor d) TUF π 2 .jayaram.com. thyristor T1 conduct and input voltage appears across the load. Eastern College of Engineering) /. α= π 2 By Manoj Basnet (Ass. The average output voltage can be formed from V 1 π Vdc = Vm sin ωtdωt = m (1 + cos α ) 2π ∫α 2π Vm α = 0. Lecturer. When input voltage starts to be negative at ωt = π the thyristor anode is negative with respect to its cathode and thyristor T1 is said to be reverse bias and it is turned off. Vdc = When.Downloaded from www.62 .
FF = Vrms 0. ID2 π π+α 2π wt T1 Vp Vs T4 a) Circuit io T3 R α π 2π wt + IT2.3536Vm .1592Vm Vdc 0.R P a) Rectification Efficiency.63 .3536Vm V I rms = rms = R R (0.21 0. ID1 Ia wt Vo L T2 E IDma IA α π 2π i0 Ia wt b) Wave Form Fig shows a single phase semi converter with highly inductive lead such that current is as same continuous and ripple free.com.3536Vm )2 Pac = Vrms .np /.I s = R 2 TUF = (0.1592Vm ) 2 R Pdc = = 0.3536Vm ) 2 o π+α α π 2π e) PIV = Vm Single Phase Semi Converter: v0 α IT1.1592Vm Vdc Vs c) RF = FF 2 − 1 = 1.np Vdc = I dc = Vm π (1 + cos α ) = 0.27% 2 Pac R(0.983 d) Vs = Vm 0.1014 I s I s RVm × (0.I rms = R (0.3536Vm ) 2 b) Foam Factor. η = dc = = 20.1592Vm )2 Pdc = Vdc × I dc = R (0.jayaram.1592Vm = R R 1 V ⎡1 ⎛ sin 2α ⎞⎤ 2 Vrms = m ⎢ ⎜ π − α + ⎟ = 0.3536Vm = = 2.3536Vm 2 ⎣π ⎝ 2 ⎠⎥ ⎦ 0. Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.Downloaded from www.1592Vm ) .
A converter operation can be divided into two mode: mode 1 and mode 2. whose solution is of the form.t R⎜ ⎝ R ⎞ ⎟ for i L ≥ 0 ⎟ ⎠ − (2 ) ⎛ R ⎞⎛ α ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎤ E⎡ − ⎢1 − e ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ ω ⎠ ⎥ R⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ At ωt = α . i L (ωt = 0 ) = I Lo L I L1 = I Lo e − R L .Downloaded from www. Lecturer. 2 during mode 2 can be found as LdiI 2 + RI L 2 + E = 2Vs sin ωt . Mode 1: This mode is valid for 0 ≤ ωt ≥ a during which the freewheeling diode Dm conducts. During the period from α ≤ ωt ≤ π + α .com. During negative half cycle of input voltage thyristor T2 is forward bias and firing of T2 at ωt = π + α will reverse bias Dm . During the period α ≤ ωt ≤ π . load inductor L and battery voltage E as shown in the figure above. ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎡ ⎤ ⎛ ⎞⎛ ⎞ 2 E A1 = ⎢ I L1 + − . The load is connected to the supply through T2 and D1 . I L2 = ( 2Vs / Z sin (ωt − θ ) + A1e 1 2 −2 ) ⎛R⎞ −⎜ ⎟. Eastern College of Engineering) /. The load current depends on the values of load resistor R.jayaram.t ⎝I ⎠ − E R For I L2 ≥ 0 − (5) where. di + Ri L + E = 0 − (1) dt Initial conduction. the input voltage is negative and freewheeling diode Dm is forward bias. thyristor T1 is forward bias when T1 is fired at ωt = α the load is connected to the input supply through T1 and T2 .Vs sin (α − θ )⎥ e ⎝ L ⎠ ⎝ ω ⎠ R z ⎣ ⎦ α − (6 ) With substitution of A1 . By Manoj Basnet (Ass.np During a positive half cycle. z = R 2 + (ωL ) [ ] θ = tan −1 ⎜ ⎛ ωL ⎞ ⎟ ⎝ R ⎠ R A1 can be determined from the initial condition at ωt = α i L2 = i L1 . Average output voltage is Vdc = 2 2π ∫α π Vm sin ωtdωt = Vm π (1 + cos α ) 1 V ⎡1 ⎛ sin 2α ⎞⎤ 2 = m ⎢ ⎜π − α + ⎟ 2 ⎠⎥ 2 ⎣π ⎝ ⎦ Single Phase Semi Converter with RL Load: In practice a load has finite inductance.64 . load current becomes I Lo e ⎛ − R ⎞⎛ α ⎞ ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠⎝ ω ⎠ for i L1 ≥ 0 Mode 2: This mode is valid for α ≤ ωt ≤ π while thyristor T1 conducts if Vo = − 2Vo sin ωt is the input voltage the load current I 1.t − E⎛ − ⎜1 − e L.
T 4 T1 Vp Vs T3 α π π+α 2π wt R Vo L T4 T2 E wt Io=Ia wt During the positive half cycle thyristor T1 and T2 are forward biased and io = ia when these two thyristor are fired simultaneously at ωt = α . Single Phase Dual Converter: Lr Lr /2 /2 T12 T42 + Vs T13 T11 T1 + Vs T4 T3 V01 V0 + i0 V02 T2 a) Circuit Diagram Downloaded from www.Vs sin (π − θ ) − sin (α − θ )e ⎝ L ⎠ ω ⎬ ⎪ z ⎪ ⎩ ⎭ 1− e − E R for I Lo ≥ 0 − (8) R ⎡ 1 ms current of thyristor.Vs sin (ωt − θ ) − + ⎢ I L1 + − . Vs T1.np /.Vs sin (α − θ )⎥ e z R ⎣ R z ⎦ ⎛ R ⎞π ⎜− ⎟ ⎝ L ⎠ω for I L2 ≥ 0 − (7 ) Applying initial condition i L2 (ωt = π ) = I Lo .I L2 Downloaded from www. Due to inductive load thyristor T1 and T2 will continue to conduct beyound ωt = π even those the input voltage is already negative. we get : I Lo ⎛ R ⎞ (α −π ) ⎧ 2 ⎫ ⎜ ⎟ ⎪ ⎪ = ⎨ . I av = 1 2π ∫α i T L2 dωt Single Phase Full Converter: For shown a single phase full wave converter with highly inductive load so that the load current is continue and ripple free.com. T2 Vo T 3.jayaram.com. the load is connected to the input supply through T1 and T2 . I r = ⎢ ⎣ 2π ∫α I T 2 ⎤ L 2 dω t ⎥ ⎦ 1 2 Average current of thyristor.65 .jayaram.np R α ⎜ ⎟⎜ ⎟ ⎤ ⎛ L ⎞ ⎛ ω −t ⎞ 2 2 E ⎡ E ⎝ ⎠⎝ ⎠ = .
jayaram. 1 ωt ir = θ r d (ωt ) ωLr ∫2π −α1 = 1 ωLr ∫ π α (V ωt 2 − 1 o1 + Vo2 dωt ) By Manoj Basnet (Ass. The delay angles are controlled such that one converter operates as rectifier and the other as inverter.66 . The circuiting current will not flow through the load and is normally limited by a circulating current reactor Lr as shown in the figure. Lecturer. This will result in circulating current between the two converters. Eastern College of Engineering) /. If α 1 and α 2 are delay angles of converter 1 and converter 2 respectively. the corresponding output voltages are VDC1 and VDC 2 .com. The system will provide four quadrant operation and is called dual converter.np Vs Vm α1 π1 π=α 1 2π wt Vo1 Vm sinwt Converter 1 o/p α1 π π=α 1 2π wt Vm sinwt Vo2 Vm sinwt Converter 2 o/p Vm sinwt If two of these full converters are connected back to back as shown in the figure above both output voltage and load current flow can be reversed. V DC1 = 2Vm 2Vm π cos α 1 & VDC 2 = π cos α 2 V DC1 = −VDC 2 cos α 1 = − cos α 2 = cos(π − α 2 ) α1 = π − α 2 α 2 = π − α1 Since the instances output voltages of two converter are out of phase there will be instantaneous voltage difference.Downloaded from www.
com.com. Continuous Conduction Mode (α ≤ 30°) With the resistive load. This is due to the fact that the maximum value of conduction angle of thyristor is 120°.jayaram. T1 can conduct from ωt = 30° to150° as phase 1 is most positive in the period 30° to 150°. Here no any thyristor can be trigger below phase angle of 30° because it remains reverse bias by other conducting phases.Downloaded from www. Delay angles are α 1 = 60° & α 2 = 120° . conduction angle will be less than 120° and hence output voltage and current becomes discontinuous.25 A ωLr Peak Load Current = Vm = 16. there are two modes of conduction: 2. the circulating inductance is Lr = 40mH . The firing angle α for a particular thyristor connected in a particular phase is therefore measure from 30° w.jayaram. A single phase dual converter is operated from 120 V. If α is more than 30°. the load current is continuous. Downloaded from www.97 + 11.25 = 28.t.97 A R Peak Current of Converter1 = 16. Solution: At ωt = 2π I r (max ) = 2Vm (cos 2π − cos 60°) = 11. 60Hz supply and the load resistance is R = 10Ω .np /.np ωt 1 ⎡ = − Vm sin ωtdωt + ∫ − Vm sin ωtdωt ⎤ ⎥ 2π −α1 ⎣ ⎦ ωLr ⎢ ∫2π −α1 ωt ir = 2Vm (cos ωt − cos α 1 ) ωLr Q. Similarly T2 can conduct from ωt = 150°to 270° and T3 from ωt = 270° to 30° of next cycle.r. corresponding phase voltage.67 . the one which is connected to the phase voltage having highest instantaneous positive value. 1.22 A Three Phase Half Wave Converter: T1 1 R 3 2 T2 T3 a) Circuit Diagram The circuit functions in a manner such that only one thyristor is conducting at any given instant. Discontinuous Conduction Mode (α > 30°) When the firing angle α is taken in between 0° to 30° from the cross over point. Calcuate the peak circulating current and peak current of converter 1.
jayaram.s.m.68 . r. peak current and PIV in the case of controlled rectifier.com. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Lecturer. The output of converter contains harmonics that depend on delay angle and filters must be design to remove the harmonics.np V1 V2 V3 o 30 60 120 150 180 240 230 360 wt α=300 Continuous conduction) 1 α+ 6 V sin ωtdωt Average load voltage for continuous conduction mode is Vdc = 2π ∫α + π m 6 3 3 3Vm cos α = 2π 1 π Average load voltage for discontinuous conduction mode is Vdc = V sin ωtdωt π 2π ∫6 +α m 3 3V ⎡ ⎛π ⎞⎤ = m ⎢1 + cos⎜ + α ⎟⎥ 2π ⎣ ⎝6 ⎠⎦ Rms Output Voltage are Vrms Vrms ⎛1 ⎞2 3 cos 2α ⎟ = 3Vm ⎜ + ⎜ 6 8π ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ 1 5π for continuous conduction 1 ⎡ρ α 1 ⎛π ⎞⎤ 2 = 3Vm ⎢ − + sin ⎜ + 2α ⎟⎥ ⎝3 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 24 4π 8π for discontinuous conduction Design of Converter Circuits: The design of converter circuit requires determining the rating of thyristors and diodes. current. A 3φ half wave converter is operated from 3φ star connected 208V. 60Hz R=10 Ω By Manoj Basnet (Ass. If it is required to obtain an average output of 50% maximum possible output voltage then calculate a) Delay angle α b) Rms and Average output current c) Average and rms thyristor current d) Rectification efficiency e) TUF f) Input Power Factor (IPF) Solution: 208V. Q. the current rating of device depend on the delay angle α . 60Hz supply and the load resistance R = 10Ω .Downloaded from www. The thyristors and diodes are specified by average current.
com.74 = = 9.9 > 30° (so it is working in discontinuous conduction mode ) 70.69 .84 Input P.34 A 3 3 I rms = c) Average current of thyristor.81W Downloaded from www.023 e) TUF = dc = = 0.com. I R = d) η = I rms 3 = 5.023 = 54.89 = 2π 2π Vdc = 0.474 P 70.25 208 3Vs I s 3× × 5.jayaram.Downloaded from www.47 2 × 10 = 896. we have: Vdc = 3Vm 2π ⎡ ⎛π ⎞⎤ ⎢1 + ω ⎜ 6 + α ⎟⎥ ⎝ ⎠⎦ ⎣ 1 α = 67.23 = = 7.455(lag ) 1970.74 × 9. Po = I rms .23V I dc = Vdc 70.47 3 Input Power .84 2 f) Output Power. = 896.70 Vrms ⎡5 α 1 ⎛π ⎞⎤ 2 = 3Vm ⎢ − + sin ⎜ + 2α ⎟⎥ = 97.np /.np Phase Voltage (Vs ) = 208 3 V Vm = 2Vs = 169. I A = Rms current of thyristor.81 = 0.R = 9.F.jayaram.74 A ⎝3 ⎠⎦ ⎣ 24 4π 8π Vrms 94.023 A R 10 Vdc = 3 3Vm cos α 2π 3 3Vm cos α 2π α = 59.23V = So.23 × 7. Pi = 3Vs I s = 1970.47 A 70.474 A R 10 I dc 7.95% 94.23 × 7.5 × Vdc (max ) = 70.83V Vdc (max ) = 3 3Vm 3 3 × 169.023 = = 2.
Principal of StepDown Operation: Vo Vs Chopper + + VH sw io t1 + t2 t R io Is=Vs/R Vs Vo   a) Circuit Diagram t1 t2 t T b) Wave Form a) Fig : Step down chopper with resistive load When switch s w is closed for a time t1 . Forced Commutated Thyristor The average output voltage is given by: Va = 1 t 1 ∫0 Vo dt = T T ∫ t1 0 Vo dt = Vs V . power transistors are used as switch for chopper operation. The main principal is to chop a constant DC voltage for a particular time interval and by changing the chopping time. output DC voltage can be controlled. Power BJT 2.np Chapter – 8 DC Choppers DC Choppers: DC Choppers converts fixed DC input voltage to variable DC output voltage.Downloaded from www. If the switch s w remains off for a time t 2 .t1 = t l ∫ Vs = s t1 = kVs T T where.70 . Generally. It can step up or step down DC voltage. Power GTO 4. Lecturer. Power MOSFET 3. k = t1 = duty cycle T T = chopping period f = chopping frequency Rms Output Voltage is By Manoj Basnet (Ass.com. Eastern College of Engineering) /.jayaram. the voltage across the load is zero. the input voltage Vs appears across the load. The chopper switch can be implemented by using 1.
jayaram. When the chopper remains on its voltage and chopping frequency f = 1KHz . Po = ∫ dt = 0 T R f Input Power. Vch = 2V .09% 2398 Pi R 10 = = 20Ω k 0. Pi = = Vs Vo ∫ kT (Vs − Vch )2 R 0 k (Vs − Vch ) dt = = 2398kW R 2 1 T ∫ kT 0 Vs idt = 1 T ∫ kT 0 1 V (V − Vch ) ⎛ V − Vch ⎞ Vs ⎜ s . A step down DC chopper has a resistive load of R = 10Ω and the input voltage Vs = 220V . the output voltage can be varied from 0 to Vs by controlling k/ Two types of operation can be defined: a) Constant Frequency Operation: The chopping frequency f or chopping period 'T ' is kept constant and on time t1 is varied and this type of control is known pulse width modulation (PWM) control. T or f .com. R = 10Ω.5ms offtime t 2 = T − t1 = 0.2 = = 99.5 × 1 = 0. If the duty cycle is 50% determine (i) average output voltage VA ii) Rms output voltage Vo iii) chopper efficiency iv) effective input resistance Ri of the chopper v) ontime and offtime of the chopper.5.15 1 kT Vo2 1 iii) Output Power.Downloaded from www. f = 1Kmz i) Va = k (Vs − Vch ) = 109V ii) Vo = k (Vs − Vch ) = 154. Vch Solution: Vs = 220V . the input power to the chopper is same as the output power and is given by 1 2 Pi = 1 T ∫ kT 0 Vo idt = 1 T Vo2 V2 dt = k s ∫0 R R 0 The effective input resistance seen by the source is Ri = Vs V R = s = V k Ia k s R The duty cycle k can be vary from 0 to 1 by varying t1 .jayaram.kT ⎟dt = .np ⎤ ⎡ 1 kT Vo = ⎢ ∫ Vs2 dt ⎥ = kVs 0 ⎦ ⎣T Assuming a loss less chopper. This is called frequency modulation. k = 0.5ms Downloaded from www. Q.np /. Therefore.71 . b) Variable Frequency Operation: The chopping frequency ' f ' is varied either 'on' time t 1 or off time t 2 is kept constant.com. s s T R ⎝ R ⎠ kVs (Vs − Vch ) = 2398kW R iv) η = v) Ri = Po 2376.5 vi) ontime t1 = kT = 0.
the load current becomes −t R L −t R L E (Vs − E ) ⎛ ⎜ I 1 (t = t1 = kT ) = I 2 − (3) The load current for mode 2 can be found from di2 +E − (4 ) dt With initial condition 0 = RiL + L i2 (t = 0 ) = I 2 R L −t E⎛ ⎜1 − e L ⎜ R⎝ R i2 (t ) = I 2 e −t − ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ − (5) This mode is valid for 0 ≤ t ≤ t 2 (= (1 − k )T ) at the end of this mode.72 .np Step Down Chopper with RL Load: Vo Vs t1 i + + L Dm Vs Vo R I1 E T kt IV T t2 t Countineous Current (1k)T t Discountineous Current Fig : Chopper with RL Load I2 i1 i2 F Fig : Wave Form The operation of the chopper can be divided into two modes.Downloaded from www. load current becomes i2 (t = t 2 ) = I 3 − (6) By Manoj Basnet (Ass. the chopper is switch on and current flows from supply to the load.jayaram. the chopper is switch off and the load current continuous to flow through freewheeling diode. Lecturer. During mode2.com. Eastern College of Engineering) /. The load current for mode1 can be found + di L Vs = Ri1 + L + E − (i ) dt Vs With initial current R i1 (t = 0 ) = I 1 gives the load current as ⎞ i1 (t ) = I 1e + 1− e ⎟ − (2) ⎜ ⎟ R ⎝ ⎠ This mode is valid for 0 ≤ t ≤ t1 (= kT ) at the end of this mode. During mode1.
5) is − ∆I max = Vs R tanh R 4 fL & For 4 FL >> R.73 . L = 7.5 and E = 0.com.jayaram.5mH .np Under steady state condition I1 = I 3 Now from (2) I 2 = I 1e From (5) I 3 = I1 = I 2 e − (1− R )T R L − (1− k )T E⎛ L − ⎜1 − e ⎜ R⎝ R − kT R L −(7 ) − kT R L + (Vs − E ) ⎛ ⎜ R ⎜1 − e ⎝ ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ − (8) ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ − (9) Peak to peak ripple current is ∆I = I 2 − I 1 which after simplification becomes V 1− e ∆I = s R − kT R L +e −T R L TR L −e TR − (1− k ) L 1− e The condition for maximum ripple d (∆I ) gives =0 dk k = 0. Step down chopper is feeding RL load with Vs = 220V .np /.com. R = 5Ω.jayaram. Calculate: a) Minimum instantaneous load current ' I 1 ' b) Peak instantaneous load current ‘ I 2 ' c) Maximum peak to peak load ripple Solution: R R − KI − KT ⎞ V −E⎛ ⎜1 − e L ⎟ I 2 = I 1e L + s ⎟ R ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ R R − (1− K )T − kT ⎞ E⎛ L I1 = e − ⎜1 − e L ⎟ ⎟ R⎜ ⎝ ⎠ I2 E I1 Downloaded from www.5 The maximum peak to peak ripple current at (k = 0. tanh θ ≈ θ ∆I max = Vs 4 FL Q.Downloaded from www. K = 0. f = 1KHz .
473 I 1 = 0.63 A I ∆I = I 2 − I 1 = 7.2 0.L = (1 − k )Vs .6 0. The average load current I A = 220 A in chopping frequency f = 250 Hz .5 dk Principle of Stepup operation: + iL Chopper D1 Load + _ Vs _ CL a) Stepup Arrangement Vo/Vs 6 i I2 i1 I1 t1 T t2 t 1 0. input voltage Vs = 550V and E = 0V . Eastern College of Engineering) /.1 × 200 = 20 A T= 1 = 0.Downloaded from www. Va = kVs = RI a Voltage across inductor is di L = Vs − RI a = Vs − kVs = (1 − k )Vs dt V ∆i = (1 − k ) s .7165 I 1 + 12.26 A Q.com.np I 2 = 0. Lecturer. Solution: ∆i = 10% of I a = 0.kT ∆i = 0.jayaram.25Ω .004 sec f Average output voltage.37 A.4 0. I 2 = 25. we get: I 1 = 18.kT L ∆i.8 1. Calculate the load inductance ‘L’ which would limit the maximum load ripple current to 90% of I A . Use the average output voltage. k = 0.0 i2 E 5 4 3 2 K b) Current Wave Form c) Output Voltage By Manoj Basnet (Ass. The step down chopper has a load resistance R = 0.7165 I 2 − (i ) − (ii ) Solving these two equations.74 .
T − t1 1 = Vs . L During mode 1. the energy stored in the inductor is transfer to the load through diode D1 and the inductor current falls. t2 T = Vs .t ∆i = s 1 L The instantaneous output voltage is di Vo = V s + L dt ∆i Vo = V s + L t2 V .jayaram. If the switch is opened for time t 2 .np /. t 1− 1 T Vo = Vs 1− k If a large capacitor C L is connected across the load as shown by dash line in figure. the output voltage will be continuous. When the chopper is turn. This principle can be applied to transfer energy from one voltage source to another as shown in the figure. the voltage across the inductor is di V L = Vs = L dt And. this gives the peak to peak ripple current in the inductor as V . L + i iL L D1 + i + Vs iL L D1 + _ i I2 H I1 t1 t2 t i2 Chopper Vs _ _ Mode 1 _ The inductor current for mode 1 is given by: di Vs = L dt And. I 1 is initial current.Downloaded from www. it is expressed as V i1 (t ) = s t + I 1 where. current must rises and necessary condition Downloaded from www.75 .com. the inductor current rises and energy is stored in the inductor L.t = Vs + s 1 t2 ⎛ t ⎞ = V s ⎜1 + 1 ⎟ ⎜ t ⎟ 2 ⎠ ⎝ T = Vs .jayaram. The voltage across the load can be step up by varying the duty cycle k.np When a switch is closed for time t1 .com.
Class C Chopper 4. thereby limiting the minimum and maximum value of output voltage.jayaram. Class E Chopper Class A Chopper: νi VL νL VL vL VL IL iL Class A Chopper IL o IL IL o IL Class B Chopper Class C Chopper By Manoj Basnet (Ass. I 2 is initial current for mode 2.76 . the duty cycle k can only be controlled between a minimum value K min & K max .np di > 0 or Vs > 0 dt The current for mode 2 is given by di Vs = L 2 + E dt And is solved as ⎛V − E ⎞ i2 (t ) = ⎜ s ⎟t + I 2 ⎝ L ⎠ where.Downloaded from www. the current must fall and condition is: di2 < 0 or Vs < E dt Performance Parameter: The power semiconductor devices require a minimum time to turn on and turn off. Chopper Classification: Depending on the direction of current and voltage flow chopper can be classified into 5 types: 1. Class D Chopper 5. Class A Chopper 2. Lecturer. For stable system. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Therefore. Class B Chopper 3. we have: ∆I max = Vs 4 fL Load ripple current depends inversely on chopping frequency f and frequency should be as high as possible to reduce load ripple current.com.
the load voltage is positive but the load current is negative.np /.Downloaded from www. the voltage E drives current through inductor L and load voltage V L becomes zero.jayaram. The load current falls. Vs = L di + Ri L + E dt ⎛R⎞ −⎜ ⎟ t ⎝L⎠ R − t ⎞ Vs − E ⎛ ⎜1 − e L ⎟ ⎟ R ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ An initial current of I 2 .np vL VL vL VL iL +IL o +IL iL VL VL Class D Chopper Class E Chopper Class A Chopper: The load current flows into the load. The load current is described by. iL = I 2 e + for 0 ≤ t ≤ t 2 Downloaded from www. Its example is stepdown chopper. This is also a single quadrant chopper but operates in second quadrant and said to be operated as inviter. The current I m which rises is described by: di + Ri L + E dt With initial current i L (t = 0 ) = I 1 . gives 0=L i L = I 1e ⎛R⎞ −⎜ ⎟ t ⎝L⎠ ⎛R⎞ ⎛R⎞ ⎛ −⎜ ⎟ t ⎞ −⎜ ⎟ ⎞ i ⎛ ⎜1 − e ⎝ L ⎠ ⎟ − E ⎜1 − e ⎝ L ⎠ ⎟ for 0 ≤ t ≤ kT − ⎟ R⎜ ⎟ R⎜ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ at t = t1 .com. When switch s1 is closed.jayaram.77 . a magnitude of energy stored in inductor L is returned to the supply Vs . i L = (t = t1 = kT ) = I 2 When switch is turned off. This is a single quadrant chopper and is to be operated as rectifier.com. Vi diode D1 . Both the load voltage and load current are positive. Class B Chopper: i2 i s iL + R I2 I1 t Vs S1 VL E VL kt T Load Current a) Circuit Diagram Vs The load current flows out of the load.
Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np
Class C Chopper:
S1 Vs S2 VL D1 iL + D2 L R
a) Circuit Diagram
The load current is either positive or negative. The load voltage is always positive. This is known as two quadrant chopper. Class A and Class B chopper can be combined to form Class C chopper. S1 and D2 operate as Class A Chopper whereas S2 and D1 operates as Class B Chopper. Care must be taken to insure that two switches are not fire together; otherwise, the supply Vs will be short circuited. Class C Chopper can be operated either as a rectifier or as an invitor. Class D Chopper:
D3 L E 
S1 Vs + D2
a) Circuit Diagram
Class D Chopper can also operate as rectifier or as inverter. If S1 and S4 are turn on VL, iL become positive. If S1 and S4 are turn off, load current will be positive and continue to flow for a highly inductive load. Class E Chopper:
VL
S1 Vs
VL
D1
S3 R V2 S4
D3
Inverting VL +ve iL ve VL ve iL ve Rectifying
Rectifying VL +ve iL +ve iL VL ve iL +ve Inverting
L S2 D2
D4
a) Circuit Diagram b) Polarities
1st Quadrant Operation: S2 and S3 are kept off, S4 is kept on and S1 is operated when S1 is on, VL and iL are positive. When S1 is switched off, current free wheels through S4 and D2. 2nd Quadrant Operation: By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering) / 78
Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np S2 is operated while S1, S3, S4 are off when S2 on reverse current flows through RLE leand and D4 and inductor stores energy. With S2 off, energy stored by inductor is turned to supply through D1 and D4. 3rd Quadrant Operation: S1, S2, S3 are kept off and only S4 is operated. With S4 on the current freewheels through D2. With S4 turn off current is feed to the source through D2 and D3.
V
Input +
Vr
dc chopper +
Vc
Vg Vs Ve Control Vr Vc Amplifier
Va
o
T
t
Vref


o
a) Block Diagram
KT T
b) Control Signal
DC chopper can be used as switching mode regulator to convert DC voltage normally unregulated to a regulated DC output voltage. The regulation is normally achieved by pulse width modulation (PWM) at a fix frequency and the switching device is normally BJT or MOSFET. Control voltage Vc is obtained by comparing the output voltage with its desired value. Vc can be compared with saw tooth voltage to generate the PWM control signal for DC Choppers. Therefore, there are four basic topologies of switching regulator. 1. Buck Regulator 2. Boost Regulator 3. BuckBoost Regulator 4. Cuk Regulator Buck Regulator:
Figures
In a Buck regular, the output voltage Va is less than the output voltage Vs .This is like a step down chopper. The circuit operation can be divided into two modes. Mode 1 begins when θ 1 is switch on and mode 2 begins when transistor θ 2 is switch off. Assuming the inductor current rises linearly from I 1 to I 2 in time t1 V s − Va = L t1 = L∆I Vs − I a ∆I t1 − (2 ) Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np / 79 − (1)
Downloaded from www.jayaram.com.np & inductor current falls linearly from I 2 to I 1 in time t 2 , Va = L t2 = di t2 − (3)
L∆I Va
where, ∆I = I 2 − I 1 = peak to peak ripple current of inductor from (1) and (2),
∆I = or ,
(Vs − Va )t1
L
=
Va t 2 L
V s − Va t 2 = Va t1
⎛ Vs ⎞ (1 − k )T ⎜ − 1⎟ = ⎜V ⎟ kT ⎝ a ⎠ Vs 1− k 1 = 1+ = Va k k
Va = kVs Assuming a lossless circuit,
(5)
Vs I s = Va I a = kVs I a , average input current I s = kI a − (6) The switching period T can be expressed as,
T= = I 1 ∆IL = t1 + t 2 = + L (From (2 ) and (4 )) f V s − Va Va ∆ILVs − (7 ) Va (Vs − Va ) Va (Vs − Va ) fLV s − (8)
which gives peak to peak ripple current as
∆I =
or , ∆I =
Vs k (1 − k ) fL
− (9)
We can write inductor current i L as i L = iC + i D If we assume ∆i D is small and negligible, ∆i L = ∆iC which flows into for IC = ∆I 4 By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer, Eastern College of Engineering) / 80 & Average capacitor current
t1 t 2 T + = is 2 2 2
f = 25kHz a) k= 5 = 0. The switching frequency is 29 kHz.4167 12 b) ∆I = L= Va (Vs − Va ) fLV s Va (Vs − Va ) ∆IfVs L = 148. If the peak to peak ripple current of inductor is limited to 0.T ∆I ∆VC = ∫ 2 = dt = 0 4 8C 8 fC C T − (10 ) from (8) and (10) ∆V c = ∆VC = Va (Vs − Va ) 8 LCf 2Vs Vs k (1 − k ) 8 LCf 2 − (11) − (12 ) Q.np /.83µH c) ∆Vc = C= ∆I 8 fC ∆Ι = 200 µF 8 f∆Vc Boost Regulator: Figures In boost regular the output voltage is greater than the input voltage.jayaram.81 ∆I Vs − (2) .com.jayaram. ∆Vc = 20mV .Downloaded from www. Mode1 ∆I Vs = L − (1) t1 or .np & Peak to peak ripple voltage of capacitor 1 ∆I ∆I . t1 = L Mode2 Downloaded from www.com. Va = 5V . The buck regulator has an input voltage of Vs = 12V . Mode 1 begins when MOSFET M1 is switch on and mode 2 begins when MOSFET is switch off. The required average output voltage is Va = 5V & peak to peak ripple voltage is 20 mv. The circuit operation can be divided into two modes. determine (a) Duty Cycle K (b) Filter inductance L (c) Filter capacitor. Solution: Va = kVs Vs = 12V .8A.
k fC (10) Q.5 A . A boost regular has an input voltage Vs = 5V .(5) [(t1 = kT . By Manoj Basnet (Ass.(8) Peak to peak ripple voltage is 1 t1 ∆Vc = ∫ I C dt C 0 t1 1 = ∫ I a dt C 0 I .np V s − Va = − L or . Average output voltage 15V .∆I = + Vs Va − V s ∆ILVa = Vs (Va − Vs ) V (V − Vs ) ∆I = s a − (7 ) fLVa ∆I = Vs . Lecturer. The switching frequency f = 25kHz.Vs Vs .Downloaded from www.k fL .jayaram. t 2 = (1 − k ) / T )] L L Va = Vs 1− k Assuming loss less circuit. L = 1500µH & C = 220 µC .t1 (Va − Vs ) = t 2 .com.L − (4) Va . Average output load current I a = 0. T = = t1 + t 2 f L∆I L. t 2 = ∆I = ∆I t2 − (3) ∆I . Eastern College of Engineering) /.t = a 1 C I (V − Vs ) = a a − (9 ) Va fC ∆VC = I a .82 . Determine a) Duty cycle b) ripple current of inductor δi c) peak current of indcutor I s d) ripple voltage of filter capacitor. V s I s = Va I a ⎛ V ⎞ Vs I s = ⎜ s ⎟ I a ⎝1− k ⎠ I Is = a − (6 ) 1− k 1 Now.
k ∆Vc = a = 80. Mode 2: Va = − L t2 = −L ∆I = ∆I Vs ∆I t2 − (2) − (3) − (4) ∆I Va Vs .5 A 1− k I k d) ∆VC = a fC I s = 2. The circuit operation can be divided into two modes. Mode 1 begins when T1 is turn on and mode 2 when T1 is turn off.k 1− k . But the output voltage polarity is opposite to that of the input voltage. Mode 1: L.Downloaded from www.np Solution: V a) Va = s k Vs .jayaram.5 A 0.∆I Vs = − (1) t1 or.945 A 2 2 I .com.5 + = 1.(6) Downloaded from www.jayaram.89 A b) ∆I = fL I c) I s = a = 1. t1 = L. Vs I s = −Va I a = Is = I a .com.83 .k = 0.t1 Vt =− a 2 L L kVs 1− k ⎛ t = kT ⎞ .np /.69 ∆I I2 = Is + = 1.61mV fC Buck Boost Regulator: Figure Figures It provides the output voltage which is less than or greater than the inut voltage.(5) ⎜ 1 ⎜ t = (1 − k )T ⎟ ⎟ ⎝ 2 ⎠ kVa 1− k Va = − Assuming loss less circuit.
8 A fL Figures It provides an output voltage which is less than or greater than an input voltage but the output voltage polarity is opposite to that of input voltage.dt = I a.t1 − Vs − Vc1 t2 = L1 L1 By Manoj Basnet (Ass. t1 = Vs − Vc1 = t2 = − ∆I 1 .com. Solution: Vk a) Va = − s = −4V 1− k I k b) ∆Vc = a = 56.5V and switching frequency is 25kHz. T = ∆I = Vs . The circuit operation can be divided into two modes.k fC . Determine a) average output voltage Va b) Peak to peak output ripple voltage ∆Vc c) Peak to peak ripple current of inductor. The buck boost regulator has an input voltage Vs = 10V . Mode1 Vs = L1 ∆I 1 t1 L1 ∆I 1 Vs − L1 ∆I 1 t2 − (1) − (2 ) − (3) or .L1 Vs − Vc1 When ∆I 1 = I L12 − I L11 ∆I 1 = Vs .jayaram. The average load current I a = 1.(7) fL(Va − Vs ) Now.8mV fC Vk c) ∆I = s = 0.25µA .Downloaded from www. Mode 1 begins when θ 1 is turn on and mode 2 begins when θ 1 is turn off.k − (8) fL Peak to peak ripple voltage of capacitor is I aV s 1 t1 1 t1 1 ∆Vc = ∫ I C dt = ∫ I a . duty cycle k = 0.np ∆IL ∆IL ∆IL(Va − Vs ) 1 = t1 + t 2 = − = f Vs Va V sV a V sV a .t1 = − (9 ) (Va − Vs ) fC C 0 C 0 C ∆I = ∆VC = I a . Lecturer. The inductance L = 150 µH and fileter capacitance C = 220µF . Eastern College of Engineering) /.84 ( ) .(10) Q.
3.np Vc1 = Vs 1− k − (5) ∆I 2 t1 − (6 ) Now.jayaram. L2 Vc1 + Va − (7 ) Va = − t2 = L 2 ∆I 2 t2 − ∆I 2 . the output power of these regulator is small.K fL2 KVs fL2 I s (1 − k ) − (13) fc1 KVs 8c 2 L2 f 2 Limitation of single stage conversion: 1. Identify the modes of operation for cheaper circuit 2. 5. Determine the equivalent circuit for the various mode.L2 − (8) Va ∆I 2 = (V c1 + V a t1 L2 ) =− Va t 2 L2 Va − (9 ) k From (5) and (9). The ac output is isolated by the transformer and converted to dc by rectifier. For high power application.Downloaded from www.jayaram. Determine voltage and current rating requirement of all components. Chopper circuit design: 1. Determine current and voltage for the modes and their waveform. The four regulator use only one transistor employing one stage conversion due to current handling limitation of single transistor. there is no isolation between input and output voltage which is highly desirable characteristics in most applications.com.com. we get: Vc 2 = − Va = − ∆I 1 = ∆I 2 = ∆Vc1 = ∆V c 2 = KVs 1− K − (10 ) − (11) − (12) V s . Vc1 + Va = L2 t1 = ∆I 2.85 .np /. 4. multistage conversion are used where a dcvoltage is converted to ac by inverter. Evaluate value of L and C that would satisfy design limit. Downloaded from www.
The instantaneous field current if is described as: di f Lef = R f i f + L f dt The instantaneous armature current can be found from Va = Ra ia + La The motor back emf is expressed as: e g = kVωi f The torque developed by motor is Td = k t i f ia The developed torque must be equal to load torque. rad / s Β = viscous friction cons tan t N − m / rad / s K v = Voltage Cons tan t V / A − rad / s K t = K V = torque cons tan t L f = field circuit induc tan ce. Lecturer.86 . Eastern College of Engineering) /. H By Manoj Basnet (Ass.np Chapter 10 DC Drives Basic Characteristics of DC motor: If. H Ra = armature circuit resis tan ce. N − m dia + eg dt La = armature circuit induc tan ce. Vf va Va Ra + eg w Td Tc Rf  B Fig : Equivalent Circuit of Separately Excited DC Motor When a separately excited DC motor is excited by a filed current of If and armature current of Ia flows in the armature circuit. i f + La Lf vf. Ω R f = field circuit resis tan ce.Downloaded from www.com. ω = motor speed . the motor develops a back emf and a torque to balance the lead torque at a particular speed. dω Td = I + Bω + TL dt Where.jayaram. Ω TL = Load torque.
87 . Rf The motor speed can be varied by: 1.jayaram. Torque demand. if Ia If armature current field current o Constant torque Constant power Speed. known as field control.np /.ω Eg w = constant applcoximately linear region If Fig : Magnetization Characteristics The speed of separately excited motor can be found from.com. which corresponds to rated armature voltage.com. 3. Controlling armature voltage Va known as voltage control. if . w Fig : Characteristics of separately excited motor Downloaded from www. Pd Speed Torque Td Speed. a =0 dt dt Vf = Rf I f E g = K v ωΙ f V a = R a I a + K v ωI f Td = K t I f I a = Bω + TL Developed power is Pd = Td . w ia . Id.jayaram. 2.Downloaded from www.np di f di Under steady state conditions. Controlling the field current. rated field current and rated armature current is known as base speed. ω= Va − I a Ra Va − I a Ra = Vf Kv I f Kv.
The field circuit resistance is Rf = 147 Ω and the armature circuit resistance is Ra = 0. Ia = If + ia = if La.Downloaded from www.m. Eastern College of Engineering) /. motor controls a load requiring a torque of TL = 45 Nm at a speed of 1200 r. 220 V. Lecturer. the power developed by motor remains constant.7032 V / A rad/s. Rf  w Td Tc B Va = (Ra + R f )I a + E g = (Ra + R f )I a + K vωI f Td = K t I f I a = BωtI f Va − (Ra + R f )I a Kv I f Speed Id. Numericals: Q. Ra va Va Lf. w Constant torque Constant power Fig : Characteristics of DC Series Motor The speed can be varied by controlling (1) armature voltage Va or (2) armature current Ia which is a measure of torque demand. A 15 HP. armature voltage is maintained at rated value and field current is varied to control the speed.com.c. Pd Power Pd E g = K v ωI f ω= Torque Td armature current Speed.p.p.np For a speed less than base speed. armature current and field current are maintained constant to meet the torque demand and armature voltage Va is varied. The field voltage By Manoj Basnet (Ass. separately excited d.jayaram. However.25Ω and voltage constant of motor is K v = 0.m. 2200 r. For speed higher than base speed.88 .
com.np /.25Ω K v = K f = 0.25 + 132. The armature current may to amuse continuous and ripple free. If Ra Ra. The viscous friction and no load losses are negligible. Solution: R f = 147Ω. V f = 220V Ra = 0.7032 × 125.497 A 147 a) E g = E v ωI f = 0.28V b) Va = I a Ra + E g Td = K t I a I f Ia = Td 45 = = 42.com.497 Va = 42.89 .Downloaded from www.75 A KI f 0.jayaram. determine: a) Back emf E g b) Required armature voltage Va c) Rated armature current of motor.7032 V / A rad / s Td = TL = 45 Nm ω = 2π × If = Vf Rf 1220 = 125.7032 × 1.87 A 220 Operating Modes: (i) Motoring Ia = If Ia Rf.97V c) I h p = 74600 I rated = 15 × 746 = 50.jayaram.75 × 0.25 = 142.np V f = 220V .497 = 132.66 × 1. La Va La + Eg Separately Excited Motor Series motor M Downloaded from www.66rad / s 60 = 220 = 1.
Operating Modes: ii) Regenerating Braking Ia Ia Ra Ra. Both armature and field current are +ve.jayaram. The armature current is –ve. Eastern College of Engineering) /. iii) Dynamic Braking Ia Ia Ra Ra. La Rb La + Eg Series motor RF iF Rb Eg + It is similar to regenerate braking except the supply voltage V A is replaced by braking resistance Rb .np Back emf is less than supply voltage Va .com. the motor develops torque to meet the load demand. Lf Rb Va La + Eg M  RF iF Vf Va Eg + M Seperately excited moter By Manoj Basnet (Ass. La Va La + Eg M RF iF Rb Eg M + The motor acts a generator and develop induce emf voltage E g . iv) Plugging If Ia=If Rf. E g must be greater than the supply voltage V A . Lecturer.Downloaded from www. The kinetic energy of motor is dissipated in Rb .90 .
com. Single Phase Semiconductor Device 3. the armature voltage can be vary by varying the delay angle of converter α a .jayaram.Downloaded from www. Depending on the type of single phase converter.com.91 . Ra Vc wt Ia id Ia αa π wt a) circuit αa π 2π wt Downloaded from www. La Va + + M Eg Va + M + Eg Va < Eg  Va > Eg Reverse Motoring Reverse Braking Fig : Condition for four quadrature Single Phase Motor: If the armature circuit of dc motor is connected to the output of single phase control rectifier.jayaram.np /. Single Phase Fullconverter Drive 4. Single Phase Dualconverter Drive Single Phase Halfwave Converter Drive: is + id Va Dm + M Eg LF. ta Va<Eg M M + Eg Va>Eg Forward Braking Forward Motering Torque Ia Ia Ra. single phase drive may be subdivided into: 1. Rf Ia if Ia is La.np v) 4 Quadrants Ia Speed Ia Ra. A converter is also applied in field circuit to control the field current by varying delay angle . Single Phase Halfwave Converter Drive 2.
the average armature is V Va = m (1 + cos α a ) for 0 ≤ α a ≤ π When. the average armature voltage is Va = Vm (1 + cos α a ) 2π for 0 ≤ α a ≤ π Where.jayaram. ia Va La.np With a single phase half wave converter in the armature circuit. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Ra + id M Eg Vs LF.Downloaded from www. average field voltage V f = if π Vm π (1 + cos α ) for 0 ≤ α f f ≤π . Rf + Eg M  Ia o a) Circuit Is wt is Ia αa Va π π+ αa wt Ia b) Quadrature c) Waveform By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Ra Vs LF. With a semiconductor in filed circuit.com. Lecturer. Vm = peak voltage of ac supply With a semiconverter in the field circuit average field current is Vf = Vm π (1 + cos α ) f for 0 ≤ α f ≤ π Ia Single Phase Semiconverter: is Id if ia La. Rf wt π= αa αa id Ia π 2π wt is Vs αa π π= αa 2π wt With a single phase semiconductor in armature circuit.92 . Vm = peak voltage of ac supply.
R f = 147Ω the motor voltage constant K v = 0. Determine a) Field current i f b) Delay angle of converter in the armature circuit α a c) Input power factor of armature circuit converter Solution: Vs = 208V . continuous and ripple free.7032V / A − rad / s load torque TL = 45 Nm at 1000 rpm.25Ω. 60 Hz. cos α f for 0 ≤ α a ≤ π where. the average field voltage is Vf = π cos α f for 0 ≤ α f ≤ π Q. The armature resistance Ra = 0.93 ω = 2π × . The ac supply to the armature 1φ . Ra Vs LF. R f = 147Ω K v = K t = 0. The speed of the separately excited motor is a controlled by 1φ semiconverter. The field current which is also controlled by a semiconverter is to the maximum possible value. 208V . the average armature voltage is Va = π 2Vm cos α a 2 for 0 ≤ α a 2 ≤ π where α a 2 = π − α a1 With a full converter in the field circuit.com.7032V / A rad / s Td = TL = 45 Nm 1000 = 104.com. Rf Vs converter2 α a2 if If converter 1 operates with a delay angle of α a1 .16V Ra = 0. Vm = peak voltage of supply for 0 ≤ α f ≤ π π Single Phase Dual Converter: converter1 α a1 Ia La. Vm = 2 × Vs = 294.jayaram.72 rad / s 60 Downloaded from www. The viscous friction and no load losses are negligible.Downloaded from www. The inductance of the armature and field circuit are sufficient enough to make the armatural field current.np Va = Vf = 2Vm π 2Vm cos α a . the average armature voltage is Va = 2Vm π 2Vm cos α a1 for 0 ≤ α a1 ≤ π If converter 1 operates with a delay angle of α a 2 .jayaram.np /.25Ω .
27 = 1. α f = 0 Vf = (1 + cos α ) f 2Vm π Vf Rf Vm = 2 × 294.16 E g = Ra I a + E g = 0. Eastern College of Engineering) /.24W Pa 5343.94 .5W The rms input current of the armature converter is ⎡ 2 I sa = ⎢ ⎣ 2π ⎛π −αa ⎞2 ⎤ 2 I a d ωt ⎥ = I a ⎜ ⎟ = 37.24 Closed Loop Control of DC drives: The speed of dc motor changes with the load torque to maintain a constant speed.20 A k t I f 0.23 = 5343.np a) V f = Vm π When. PF = Power supply T2 Vr + Ve Speed Converter Vc Converter Va dc mo tor w Seed sesing Fig : Block Diagram of Closed Loop Converter Field DC motor drive By Manoj Basnet (Ass. the armature (and or field) voltage should be varied by continuously by varying the delay angle of ac to dc converter or duty cycle of chopper.82 = 106.jayaram.03 = 7702.38 = π (1 + cos α a ) α a = 82.Downloaded from www.7032 × 1.16 π = 187.38 × 50.274 A 147 π (1 + cos α a ) Td = k t I a I f Ia = Td 45 = = 50.5W If the losses in armature converter are neglected.5 = = 0.25 × 50.274 294.com.23 + 93.03 A ⎦ ⎝ π ⎠ 1 2 1 ∫α π a Input voltamp rating VI = Vs I a = 208 × 37.38V 106. A close loop control system has the advantages of improve accuracy fast dynamic response and reduce effects of load disturbances and system non linearity. Lecturer.2° c) The output power. Input Power Factor. the power from supply is Pa = Po = 5343.694(lagging ) VI 7702.27V If = b) α a = ? Va = = 187. Po = Va I a = 106.
motor speed is w(s ) = .com.com. Rm + Vs Conerter of gain K2 Vf  w Td T2 B Fig : Converter Fed Separately Excited dc motor gain K 2 . The speed controller responses with increase controlled signal Vc . the speed error Ve increases.jayaram.Downloaded from www.95 From (8). change the delay angle or duty cycle of converter and increase the armature voltage of the motor and increase armature voltage develops more torque to restore the motor speed to the original value. Open Loop Transfer Function: If + Lm.jayaram. the armature current is Va (s ) − K v I f ω (s ) I a (s ) = (sLm + Rm ) T= V a ( s ) − k v I f ω (s ) Rm (sTa + 1) − (10) − (9) − (8) − (7 ) Where.np /. Ta = Lm = time constant of motor armature circuit Ra Td (s ) − TL (s ) (SI + B ) −(11) Downloaded from www. The armature of the motor is Va = k 2Vr − (i ) are: eg = K v I f ω V a = R m i a + Lm The motor speed is adjusted by setting reference voltage Vr . the system equation − (2) dia + K V I f ω − (3) dt − (4 ) Td = K t I f ia Td = J dω + Bω + TL − (5) dt Taking Laplace transform of above equation: Va (s ) = K 2V1 (s ) − (6) Va (s ) = Rm I a ( s ) + Lm sI a (s ) + K V I f ω (s ) Td (s ) = K t I f I a (s ) = sJω (s ) + TL (s ) From (7). Assuming a linear power conver of Assuming filed current I a remains constant during any transient disturbances.np If the speed of the motor decreases due to the application of additional load torque.
Lecturer. The response due to a step change in the reference voltage is obtained by setting TL to zero.jayaram. Tm = J / B = mechanical time constant of motor Two possible disturbances are control voltage Vr and load torque TL . Eastern College of Engineering) /. T L(s) Ia (s) Kt If T d(s) + Kv If 1 B(STm+1) w(s) Vr(s) K2 1 Rm(STa1) Fig : Open Loop Block Diagram of Separetly Excited d.B ) ) / ( R . TL (s ) ω (s ) = s (Ta I m ) + s (Ta + Tm ) + 1 + (kV I f 2 − (1 B )(sTa + 1) ) /(R .c.Downloaded from www.B ) 2 m − (13) The response due to a change in load torque TL can be obtained by setting Vr to zero.com.96 .Eg(s) Vc K2 Va la Kv If w(s) Kf If K1 By Manoj Basnet (Ass.B ) 2 m − (14) Using Final value theorem steadystage relationship of change in speed k2 kv I f ∆ω = ∆V r − (15) 2 Rm B + (K v I f ) ∆ω = Rm B + (K V I f Rm ) 2 ∆T1 − (16) Close Loop Transfer Function: TL(s) Vrs + . motor V r (s ) ω (s ) = s 2 (ToTm ) + s (Ta + Tm ) + 1(K v I f K 2 K r I f / ( R m .np = Td (s ) − TL (s ) B(sTm + 1) − (12) Where.
The closed loop step response due to a change in reference voltage can be setting Vr to zero.np To change open loop arrangement into closed loop system a speed senser connected to the output shaft. The output of the phase detector would be constant voltage proportional to the phase difference and motor speed would be main trained at first value.jayaram.np /.jayaram. Microcomputer control of DC Drives: Downloaded from www.97 . K 2 KV I f ∆W = ∆V r − (3) 2 Rm B + (K v I f ) + K 1 K 2 K v I f ∆W = Rm B + (K v I f Rm ) 2 + K1 K 2 K v I f ∆TL − (4) Phase Locked Loop ( PLL) Control: Phase detector Low pas filter Converter k2 DC mortor Speed encoder In PLL control system. When the motor runs at same speed as the reference pulse train the low frequencies could be synchronized (or blocked) with a phase difference. In such direction and magnitude as to retain the locking of reference and feedback frequencies. the motor speed is converted to a digital pulse train by using speed encoder the output of encoder acts as a speed signal of frequency to the phase detector compares a reference pulse train f r with the feed back frequency f o and provides a pulse with modulated output voltage Vc to a continuous dc level Vc which varies the output of power converter and in turn the motor speed. K 2 K r i f / Rm B W (s ) = 2 − (1) Vr (s ) S (Taτ m ) + S (Ta + τ m ) + 1 + (K v I f )2 + K 1 K 2 K v I f / (Rm B ) [ ] The response due to change in load torque I L can be obtained by setting Vr to zero.Downloaded from www.com. (− 1 / B )(Sτ a + 1) W (s ) = 2 − (2) Vr (s ) S (Taτ m ) + S (Ta + τ m ) + 1 + (K v I f )2 + K 1 K 2 K v I f / (Rm B ) [ ] Using final value theorem the steady change in speed due to step change in control voltage ∆I L can be found from (1) and (2) by substituting S=0.com. Any disturbances contributing to the speed change would result in phase differences in the output of phase detector could respond immediately to vary the speed of motor.
A micro computer control system can also perform various desirable functions: ON/OFF of main power supply.Downloaded from www. The pulse amplifier provides the necessary isolation and produces gate pulses of required magnitude and duration. speed control.jayaram.com.98 . Lecturer. Eastern College of Engineering) /. The speed signal is fed into microcomputer using A/D converter to limit armature current of motor inner current control loop is used the line synchronizing circuit is required to synchronize the generation of firing pulses with a supply line frequency. etc. start/stop of drive. current control. This control scheme is implemented in software and it flexible to change the control strategy to meet difference performance characteristics. By Manoj Basnet (Ass.np Line synchronizin g ckt Determination of thyristor of be fired M Delay angle generator Time and Logic If Rf Lf Current controller Pulse amplifier Current comparator AD Speed controller AD Spe ed Signal Motor Current Speed comparato r Speed reference (ωr) start/stop command A micro computer control reduces the size and cost of hardware electronics improving reliability and control performance.
convection cooling is commonly used in industrial application.jayaram. Supply and load side transient 5. In practice power devices are protected from: 1.Downloaded from www. High and by shutter circuit dt dt 3. Although heat transfer can be accomplished by conduction. This heat must be transfer from the devices to a cooling medium to maintain the operating junction temperature within the specified values. the electrical analog of a device which is mounted on a heat sink is shown in the figure: T1 Ric Tc R cs Ts PA RSA TA The junction temperature of a device is given by: T j = PA (R JC + RCS + RSA ) Where. R JC = thermal resistance from junction to case RCS = thermal resistance from case to sink c/w RSA = thermal resistance from sink to ambient c/w T A = ambient temperature In high power application.com.99 . Heat must be flow from the device to the case and then to the heat sink in cooling medium.np /. natural or forced air. short circuit fault conditions may exist resulting in excessive current flow through the devices. Fault condition by fuse Cooling & heat sink: Due to on state and switching loses. normally oil or water. Snubber Circuits: Downloaded from www.com.np Chapter 11 Properties of Devices & Circuit Introduction: Due to the reverse recovery process of power devices and switching action in the presence of circuit inductance voltage transient occurring converter circuit.jayaram. heat is generated within the power devices. convection and radiation. If Pa is the average power loss in the device. Reverse recovery transient 4. Thermal runaway by heat sink dv di 2. the devices are more effectively cooled by liquids.
Eastern College of Engineering) /. The snubber could be polarized orc)unpolarized. the snubber must be effective in either direction. s An RCsnubber is normally connected across the semiconductor device to limit R 1>R L dv where R1 limits do change current of capacitor. t t t − Vs R + RL − T Vs − T di 1 = Ie T .com. I = Now. = .np C T1 R1 R D D1 R1 C R 1>R R D a) Polarized R 1>R Ls C T1 T2 b) Reverse Polarized R dv within the dt maximum allowable rating. dt When a pair of thyristor is connected in inverse parallel. A reverse polarized snubber limits reverse Design of snubber circuit: Rs Cs L + T1 RL Rs + Vs  L RL  When switch is closed Vs = (Rs + RL )i + L t − ⎛ i = I ⎜1 − e T ⎜ ⎝ di which gives dt ⎞ ⎟ ⎟ ⎠ Vs Rs + RL & T= L Rs + RL Where. R limit the forward dt R1 limit the discharge current of capacitor when the device is turn on. s .Downloaded from www.e = e dt T Rs + R L R L By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer.jayaram. The forward polarized Unpolarized dv and snubber is suitable when thyristor is connected with antiparallel diode.100 .
s L L ⎛ dv ⎞ − (3) Rs = ⎜ a ⎟ Vs ⎝ dt ⎠ max Rs = 2 ρ − (2) L R cs where. permitted values are: Ip = 250 = 125 2 60 ⎛ di ⎞ = 30 A / sec ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ dt ⎠ max 200 ⎛ dv ⎞ = 100V sec µs ⎜ ⎟ = 2 ⎝ dt ⎠ max Now.Downloaded from www.jayaram.np Vs ⎛ di ⎞ at t = 0 ⎜ ⎟ = ⎝ dt ⎠ max L L= Vs ⎛ di ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ max . dt dt ⎛ dv a ⎞ ⎛ di ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ = Rs ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ max ⎝ dt ⎠ max V = Rs . Solution: For a factor of safety 2. ρ = damping ratio = cs 2 L 2 ⎛ 2ρ ⎞ Cs = ⎜ ⎜ R ⎟ . L= Vs 500 = = 16. ⎜ ⎟ = 200V / sec . It should be less than peak current rating of thyristor.65 .i dv a di = Rs . Take a factor of safety for the given data.jayaram.np /.com. if the minimum load resistance is 20 Ω .101 . a = Rs .(1) Voltage across SCR.67 µH 30 ⎛ di ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ max Downloaded from www. ⎜R ⎟ ⎝ s RL ⎠ Q.L ⎟ ⎝ s⎠ − (4) Vs and total current Rs When SCR is turned on capacitor Cs will discharge a maximum current of ⎛V V ⎞ through thyristor will be ⎜ s + s ⎟ . Following are the specification of a thyristors operating from a peak supply of 500V and ⎛ di ⎞ ⎛ dv ⎞ repetitive peak current I p = 250 A⎜ ⎟ = 60 A / sec.com. Design the snubber ⎝ dt ⎠ max ⎝ dt ⎠ max circuit. Take ρ = 0.
jayaram. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Rs = L ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ Vs ⎝ dt ⎠ max 500 500 + = 96.42 A .67 × 100 L ⎛ dv ⎞ = 3.20µF = Take C s = 1µF R=72 C=1uF 15aH + Vs 20Ω Reverse Recovery Transients: Due to the reverse recovery time t rr and reverse current I R and amount of energy is trapped in the circuit inductance and as a result transient voltage appears across the device.15 A Rs R L 3.Vs 7 × 500 = = 35µH 100 ⎛ dv ⎞ ⎜ ⎟ ⎝ dt ⎠ max Rs ⎜ ⎝ 7 ⎟ ⎠ Cs (2 ρ )2 . In addition to dv protect. Lecturer.np Rs = 16. Also.65 ⎞ 2 × 35 = 1. The equivalent circuit for dt a circuit arrangement is shown in the figure. IR + L C R Divice under recovery The energy stored in the inductor L which is transferred to the snubber capacitance C is dissipated mostly in snubber resistor.L = ⎛ 2 × 0. Take Rs = 7Ω .Downloaded from www. The value of Rs must be increased. the peak current through thyristor is Vs Vs 500 500 + = + = 175.33 20 This peak current is more than permissible peak current of 125A.33Ω ⎜ ⎟ = 500 Vs ⎝ dt ⎠ max When thyristor is turned on. Supply and Load side transient: By Manoj Basnet (Ass.102 . which is also less than 7 20 L= Rs .com. peak current through thyristor is permissible peak current. the snubber limits the peak transient voltage across the device.
thereby. under steady state condition and amount of energy is stored in the magnetizing inductance Lm of the transformer and switching off the supply provides a transient voltage to the input of converter. The value of α varies between 30° and 40°. K = constant and V = applied voltage.jayaram. As the applied voltage is increased.com. Current Protection: The power converter may develop short circuit of faults and the fault current must be clear quickly. Voltage Protection by Selenium Diodes and Metal Oxide Varistors: i Clamping Vz Voltage o v _ v + b) Symbol a) VI characteristics The selenium diode may be used for protection against transient over voltage. Fast acting fuses are normally used to protect the semiconductor device. limiting the transient voltage. when an over voltage appears. fuse opens and clears a fault current in few milliseconds. Normally.np /. Varistors are nonlinear variable impedance device consisting of metal oxide particles.jayaram.103 . The current is expressed as I = KV α where.np i + Vp S1 Np Ns R + C Vo R Lm I0 + C Vo L C R L O A D a) Circuit Diagram b) Equivalent Circuit during turn off c) Equivalent Circuit due to load disconnection A transformer is normally connected to the input side of converter. The characteristics of selenium diode are shown in the figure. the knee point is crossed and the reverse current flow through the selenium increases suddenly. a capacitor may be connected across the primary or secondary of the transformer to limit the transient voltage. As the fault current increases.com. When load is disconnected the transient voltage are produced due to the energy stored in inductance. the film become conductive an the current is increased. the operating point lies before knee of the characteristics curve and draws very small current from the circuit. Fusing: Downloaded from www.Downloaded from www. However.
Downloaded from www. the fuse temperature also rises and fuse melts and arcs are developed across the fuse.jayaram. When the fault current rises. A crowbar is used for protecting circuits or equipment under fault condition where the amount of energy involved is to high and the normal protection circuit cannot be used. Lecturer.com. A crowbar consists of thyristor with voltage or current sensitive firing circuit. If the fault condition are sensed and crowbar thyristor Tc is fired.104 . The fuse manufacture specify the currenttime characteristics for ac circuit and there is no equivalent curve for dc circuit for a circuit operating from dcvoltage. The fuse protection of dc circuit require more careful design then that of ac circuit. Eastern College of Engineering) /. Due to the arc. the impedance of fuse as increased thereby reducing current. The crowbar thyristor is placed across the converter circuit to be protected.5 times the equivalent ac rms voltage. the voltage rating of fuse should be typically 1. Crowbar Protection Circuit: F + Dm Vs Tc R θ1 _ L Fig : Protection by crowbar Transistors can be protected by a crowbar circuit. Fault Current with AC source and DC source: The fault current and fuse clearing time will be dependent on time constant of fault circuit. By Manoj Basnet (Ass.np T1 T3 L F1 F3 ac supply F2 F2 R T4 T2 Fig : Controlled Rectifier The semiconductor device may be protected by carefully choosing the location of fuse. A virtual short circuit is created and fuse link F1 is blown thereby relieving the converter circuit from over current.
the transistor acts amplifier by a gain. The power transistors can be classified broadly into four categories: i) Bypolar junction transistor (BJT) ii) Metaloxide semiconductor filed effect transistor (MOSFET) iii) Staticinduction transistor (SIT) iv) Insulated gate bypolar transistor (IGBT) i) BJT: co llector C Ic n IB p Base n B IE E emitter p Base n B IE E IB n C Ic co llector Fig : a) NPN transistor emitter Fig : b) NPN transistor RC + IB RB VB Ic IB VC F1 VCE1 + VCE _ VBE IE _ Fig a) Circuit Diagram IC Active region IB3 IB2 IB1 IB=0 VCE VCE VCC VCE Cut off Active region Saturation Fig c) Output Characterisitcs Fig d) Transfer Characterisitcs There are three operating region of transistor circuit active and saturation.105 .com.np /. In the saturation region the base current is sufficiently high so that the collection emitter voltage VCE is low and the transistor acts as switch.jayaram.np Chapter 7 Power Transistors Introduction: Power transistor have controlled turn ON and turn OFF characteristics.jayaram. the transistor is off or the base current is not enough to turn it ON. In active region.Downloaded from www. In circuit off region. Downloaded from www.com.
the collector current remains almost constant I CsS = VCC − VCE (sat ) − (14 ) RC By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer. IB = V B − V BE − (9 ) RB VC = VCE = VCC − I e Rc = VCC − β I B RC = VCC − − (10) β RC RB (VB − VBE ) − (11) VCE = VCB + VBE VCB = VCE − VBE The maximum collector current in active region which can be obtained by setting VCB = 0 and VBE = VCE is I CM = VCC − VCE VCC − V BE = RC RC − (12 ) And the corresponding value of base current I BM = I CM β − (13) The transistor saturation may be defined as the point above which any increase in base current does not increase collector current significantly.Downloaded from www.np The equation neglecting the current is Ie = Ic + IB Current gain. I CEO = collector to emitter leakage current From (1) and (3).106 .jayaram. In the saturation. Eastern College of Engineering) /. − (1) β= Ic IB − (2 ) I C = βI B + I CEO − (3) where. α = Or.com. β = − (6) β 1+ β − (7 ) − (8) α 1−α Let us consider the circuit of fig 1(a) where transistor is operated as switch. we have ≈ I B (1 + β ) I E = I B (1 + β ) + I CEO − (4) ⎛ ⎛ β + 1⎞ 1⎞ I E ≈ I C ⎜1 + ⎟ = I C ⎜ ⎜ β⎟ ⎜ β ⎟ − (5) I ⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ The collector current can be expanded as: I C ≈ αI E Where.
The load resistance is RC = 11Ω .6 b) β s = CS = I B 11.jayaram.1 = 35.31A 10 − 1.1A RC 11 I 18.5 RB = = 0. Solution: RC = 11Ω VCC = 200V VB = 10V ODF = 5 VCE ( sat ) = 1V VBE ( sat ) = 1.31 + 1 × 18.31 PT = VBE I B + VCE I C = 1. Overdrive factor.5V .np I And the corresponding base current I BS = CS − (15) β Normally.107 .np /.1 I BS = CS = = 2. The dc supply voltage VCC = 200V and the input voltage to the base circuit is N B = 10V .07W Downloaded from www. b) Force β F c) Power loss Pt in the transistor. the circuit is designed so that I B is higher than I BS . R Ic RB + V _ B − (18) + _ VCC VBE IE The bipolar transistor shown in the figure is specified to have β in the range 8 to 40. Find a) Value of R3 that results in saturation with overdrive factor (ODF) of 5.5V β min = 8 β max = 40 a) R B = ? VB − V BE ( sat ) RB = IB VCC − VCE ( sat ) 200 − 1 I CS = = = 18.jayaram.5 × 11.26 = 11. If VCE ( sat ) = 1V & VBE (sat ) = 1.com.1 = 1 .com. ODF = IB I BS − (16 ) I CS − (17 ) IB Forced β = β f = The total power less in two junctions is PT = VBE I B + VCE I C Q.31 I 18.7514Ω 1.Downloaded from www.26 A 8 β min I ODF = B I BS I B = ODF × I BS = 5 × 2.
VBE ( sat ) = 3V .com. I CS = 100 A.1Ic s td tn t s t f to t Fig : Switching times of bipolar transistor When the input voltage is reverse from V1 to − V2 and the base current is also changed to − I B 2 the collector current does not change for a time t s called the storage time. VCE ( sat ) = 2V . Ts = 5µs. Ts is required to remove the saturating charge from the base. Eastern College of Engineering) /.jayaram.The turn on time ToN is the sum of delay time t d and rise time t r . Td = 0. ToN = t d + t r Q. Tr = 1µs. T f = 3 and f s = 10KHz.9c s 0. I B = 8 A. Lecturer.108 . the reverse current − I B2 helps to discharge base current . The parameters are VCC = 250V . The duty cycle is 50%.Downloaded from www.np Switching Characteristics: VB V1 t KT V2 (1K)T VB V1 VB IB t KT V2 IB t VB Ic s 0. the collector to emitter leakage current is I ceo = 3mA .5µs. The wave form of the transistor switch is shown in the figure. Determine the power loss due to collector current a) During turn on (ton = td + tr ) b) During conduction period (tn) c) During turn off (Toff = ts + tf) d) During off time to e) Total average power loss (PT) By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Due to the change in polarity of V B from V1 to − V2 .
jayaram.com.75mW T 0 During rise time.5µs (1 − K )T = t s + t f + t o = 50µs t o = 50 − 3 − 5 = 42 µs a) Due to delay time.VCC = 5 × 10 −3 × 250 = 0.75W Average power loss during delay time is 1 td Pd = ∫ PC (t )dt = f s × 0. t r = 1µs.5. ic (t ) = (I CS + I CEO )t tr + I CEO ⎛ VCC − VCE (sat ) ⎞ ⎟ + VCC VCE (t ) = −⎜ ⎜ ⎟ tr ⎝ ⎠ Downloaded from www.jayaram. 0 ≤ t ≤ td ic (t ) = I CEO VCE (t ) = VCC Instantaneous power due to collector current. t s = 5µs.Downloaded from www.np /.109 .com.5µs.5 = 48. t f = 3µs KT = t d + t r + t n = 50µs t n = 50 − 1 − 0.75 × t d = 3. PC (t ) = iC (t )VCE (t ) = I CEO .np VCE VCC VCC(Sat) o t on IC Ics t off t ICCo t iB IBs td tr tr ts tf to KT o iB T=1/ fc (1K)T t VBE(Sat) Solution: 1 T= = 100µs fs o K = 0. t d = 0.
Pr = 1 T tr ∫ 0 PC (t )dt = 1 T ∫ tr 0 ⎞ I CS . Lecturer.05W Switching Limits: i) Secondary Breakdown: Secondary (second) break down is caused by localize thermal runaway.jayaram. The manufacturer shows the derating curve for thermal derating and second breakdown derating. ii) Forward Bias Safe Operating Area (FBSOA): FBSOA indicates I C − VCE limits of X’sistor during turn off and for reliable operation.com.75mW + 42. Eastern College of Engineering) /. the transistor must not be subjected to greater power dissipation.np PC (T ) = I C (T )VCE (T ) Average Power during rise time. Proportional Control 4.t + VCC ⎟dt = 42. Antisaturation Control By Manoj Basnet (Ass. IB IB1 IBS t IB2 FIg : Base Drive Current Waveform The commonly used technique for optimizing the base drive of transistor are: 1. as RBSOA iv) Power Derating: The ambient temperature and thermal resistance must be consider when interpreting the rating of device. The current concentration may be caused by defects in transistor structure.33W Total power PT = 274.110 . Turn on Control 2.t ⎛ VCC ⎜− . Turn off Control 3.32W = 42. resulting from high current concentration. Base Drive Control: Ton can be reduced by allowing base current picking during turn Ton.33W ⎟ tr ⎜ tr ⎝ ⎠ Total power loss during turn on time Pon = Pd + Pr = 3. iii) Reverse Bias Safe Operating Area (RBSOA): The manufacture provide I C − VCE I limit during reverse bias turn off. and Toff and be reduce by reducing base current and allowing base current picking turning turn off. then that shown by FBSOA curve.Downloaded from www.
There will be base current picking during turn off. the base current is limited by R1 and initial value of base current V − V BE V − V BE and final value of base current is I R1 = 1 is I BO = 1 R1 R1 + R2 The capacitor C charges up to infinity VC ≅ V1 . Proportional Base Control: If the collector current changes due to change in load demand. during turn off. the storage time which is proportional to the base current increases and switching speed is reduced. Power MOSFET: A power MOSFET is a voltage controlled device.jayaram.jayaram. The switching speed is very high. The storage time can be reduced by operating the transistor in subsaturation rather than hard saturation. the capacitor voltage VCE is added to V2 as a reverse voltage across the transistor. the base drive current is changed in proportional to collector current. MOSFET are of two types: 1) Diplation MOSFET 2) Enhancement MOSFET ID RD G VDD + VGS _ VDD D RD D G + VGS _ a) nchannel b) pchannel Downloaded from www.111 .com. R1 R1 + R2 Turn off Control: If the input voltage is changed to –V2.np Turn on Control: VB C V1 t1 t2 t _ V2 + VB R1 R2 IE Vcc IC Rc When an input voltage is turned on.np /.Downloaded from www. Switching times are of the order of nanosecond. Anti saturation Control: If the transistor is driven hard.com.
jayaram.com.np D G + VGS _ S RD G VDD + VGS _ D RD S VDD a) nchannel b) pchannel Fig : Enhancement MOSFET ID o VP VGS VP o VGS ID a) nchannel b) pchannel a) Depletion MOSFET Vr VGS o Vr VGS ID a) nchannel b) pchannel b) Enhancement MOSFET Lin ear reg ion Saturation region VGS2 VGS1 VGS = VG VDS Fig : Output Characteristics VG Switching Characteristics: V1 O VGS V1 VGSo VT t d(on) tr td(off) tf t By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Lecturer. Eastern College of Engineering) /.Downloaded from www.112 .
Downloaded from www.jayaram. The current rating of SIT can be output 300A. The turn on and turn off times are very small.np /. Example: audio.com. UHF and microwave amplifier. It is most suitable for high frequency applications. VHF. It has low noise.25 µs . 1200V and switching speed can be as high as 100kHz.on delay time t r = rise time t d (off ) = turn off delay time t f = fall time Gate Drive: RD G + RS VG _ R1 RG VDD Turn on delay time can be reduced by connecting RC circuit.com. loop gate source capacitance and small thermal resistance. low distortion and high audio frequency power capacity. Typically 0.113 . IGBT: C B E Symbol Downloaded from www.jayaram. high frequency device. SIT: D G S Symbol A SIT is a high power. loop gate series resistance. A SIT has a short channel length.np t d (on ) = turn .
Even the gate or base drive characteristics should be identical.114 . Determine the drain current of each transistor (MOSFET). transconductance threshold voltage. a reasonable amount of current sharing can be obtained by connecting resistor in series with emitter (or source) terminals as shown in figure. power supplies. onstate voltage. Simultaneously.5V1 and that of MOSFET m2 is V DS 2 = 3V . The drain to source voltage of MOSFET m1 is V DS1 = 2.Downloaded from www. But. the transistor should be matched for gain. The current rating of IGBT can be up to 400A. transconductance. IGBT is inherently fast then BJT.np IGBT combines the advantes of BJT and MOSFET.Rs 2 − (ii ) By Manoj Basnet (Ass. Voltage sharing n/w. IGBT has high input impedance like MOSFET and low ONstate conduction loss like BJT. Eastern College of Engineering) /. IT RC θ2 IE2 RC2 θ1 IE1 RC1 Vcc Q. Two MOSFET are connected in parallel to carry a total current of I T = 20A. the device should be match for gain. it is not always possible to meet this requirements. turn on time and turn off time.com. the switching speed of IJBT is inferior to that of MOSFET. IGBT’s are finding increasing application in medium power application such as DC and AC motor drive. turn on time and turn off time. Transistor are connected in parallel if one device cannot handle load current demand for equal current sharing. However. in practice. Series and Parallel Operation: Transistor may be operated in series to increase their voltage handling capability. It is very important that the series connected transistor are turn on and turn off. IT = 20A D D RD M1 S RS1 S RS2 M2 VDD I T = I D1 + I D 2 − (i ) V DS1 + I D1 Rs1 = V Ds 2 + I D 2 .jayaram. similar to diode could be used. Lecturer. 1200V and switching frequency can be up to 20 kHz.
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