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Atmosphere-Gases that surround our planet.

I. Composition of Air (Highest to Lowest) A. Nitrogen B. Oxygen C. Argon D. Carbon Dioxide E. Hydrogen F. Neon G. Helium H. Krypton I. Xenon J. Radon(Just a trace) *K. Humidity-amount of water vapor in the air. It varies from 1 to 4% by volume on the average. It is highest over bodies of water and under high amospheric temperature when evaporation is rapid. II. Properties of Air A. 99% of mass of atmosphere is found in the botttom 30 km. B. Atmospheric density decreases with increasing altitude. C. Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude. D. More than half of the air molecules are found in the bottom 5.5 km. E. At sea level, atmospheric pressure=14.7 lb/in2 = 1 atm (atmosphere) = 1013.25 N/cm2 = 1013.25 mb (milibar) F. Atmospheric density is inversely directed to air temperature. III. Major Divisions of the Atmosphere (According to Temperature Variations) A. Troposhere-Bottom 16 to 18 m of the atmosphere where winds, clouds, water vapor are found and where weather phenomena occur. It is warmer near the equator and colder towards the pole, thus, the air grows colder as one goes up higher. B. Stratosphere-Lies above the troposphere, the air grows warmer as one goes up higher. Its average depth is above 30km and its outer boundary is around 50km above sea level. C. Mesosphere-Air grows coldly as one goes up higher as the gases in this region do not absorb the suns rays. D. Thermosphere-Layer next to the mesosphere thats made of very thin air that is heated by the suns rays, making its temperature sometimes rise to 1000 degrees Celsius. IV. Divisions Based on Distribution of Gases in Atmosphere A. Homosphere-located at the bottom 90km of the atmosphere where there is continuous movement of air massesl thus, gases such as N2 and O2 are mixed. The term homosphere is derived from the prefix homo (meaning same), referring to the relatively homogeneous mixture of gases in this region, except for the ozone layer that envelops the globe at around 30km above sea level. B. Heterosphere-Outer portion of atmosphere where no mixing of gases takes place, thus, gases tend to separate in layers. The term heterosphere is derived from the prefix hetero (meaning different), referring to the unmixed gases in this region.

V. Divisions based on Distribution of Ozone and Ions A. Ozonosphere-The bottom 70km of the atmosphere, ozone in the ozone layer is also called the stratospheric zone. B. Ionosphere-Region of the atmosphere which is sufficiently ionized by solar ultraviolet radiation. This is the outer portioin of the atmosphere where ions and electroncs are trapped by Earths magnetic field and form layers referred to simply as D, E, and F layers. They reflect radio waves back to Earth, and tehrefore play a very important role in radio transmission. VI. Movements of Air A. Convection Cell/Hadley Cell Part 1: The rise of warm air oveer equator cools at high temperature. Part 2: Warm air descends in horizontal movement/Better known as wind. *There are 3 convection cells per hemisphere, 3 in the north and 3 in the south. B. ITCZ International Convergence Zone Meeting of trade winds at about 5 degrees north and 5 degrees south of the equator. It is not stationary, as it moves north or south of the equator with the seasons, father over land than over the ocean because of variations in ocean temperature. C. Sea Breeze Occurs in daytime, cool, gentle wind from sea is produced when warm air over land rises then the colder air over the sea moves toward the land. D. Land Breeze Occurs in nighttime, warm air in the sea rises, colder wind over land moves toward the sea. E. Doldrums Low pressure zone of rising warm moist air Area of calm or equatorial belt of calms located between 5 degrees north and 5 degrees south of the equator. Areas where hurricanes originate. F. Trade Winds Horizontal wind movement VI. Lighting and Thunderstorms A. Benjamin Franklin-First scientist to observe the very nature of lighting. B. Thunderstorms-Usually small C. Troposphere-Reason for thunderstorms

Convection-Air becomes warmer, a.k.a updraft-rise of the hot air. D. Causes/Factors affecting Thunderstorms Moisture supplies thunderstorms Instability in the atmosphere, a mechanical lifting that rises to cause thunderstorms. Clouds cannot hold in rain anymore, and gravity causes the rainfall. *The details arent complete, download the remaining in powerpoint form at: