Male Reproductive System-(Veterinary Science) Learning Objectives 1.

To find out the structure of the male reproductive system and comparation between 5 classes 2. To find out the histology of male reproductive system 3. To find out about castration A. The Structure Of Male Reproductive System  TESTIS  Pisces In the fish sperm are produced in clones, each located within a cyst or follicle. In cyclotomes, the large unpaired testes are not served by any genital ducts. Sperm are shed into the coelom and exit via abdominal pores, the archinepric ducts drain the kidney exclusively. The sperm storage and transport may be termed as a vas deferens. These tubules within the anterior part of the kidney function as an epidydimis. There are also leydig cell in the cranial region secrete seminal fluid into the genital ducts. In bony fish, th earchinepric duct drain the kidney and may receive sperm from the testes. In teleost like shark, the testes tend to develop separate sperm ducts and routes of exit. In most teleost this separate ducts form a testicular duct, which is not homologous with the archinephric duct and may be establish its own opening to the exterior. In the salmonids, sperm released into the body cavity and exit the body through pores near the posterior part of the coelom (Kardong; 2002).  Amphibi in some adult amphibians, the archinephric ducts may have both reproductive and excretory roles, whereas in other species these ducts may be involved exclusively in sperm transport and new urinary ducts may drain the ophistonephros. The testes are unpaired. In some salamander families, new accessory urinary duct service the caudal kidney and and sperm are transported through the tiny duct in the cranial kidney to the archineprhric ducts to be stored. In the necturus, both of sperm and urine were transported by uriniferous kidneys (Kardong; 2002). Reptile In reptile the archinepric duct (vas deferens) transport sperm exclusively. Several mesonephric tubulus may contribute to the epidydimis that connect each testis to vas deferens. The testes are paired and sperm forms within the luminal wall of the tubulus (Kardong; 2002). Aves The testes were paired and located in front of the kidney. The testes will continue into the ureter, vas deferens, and exit from urodeum pore. Mammals In mammals, the testes were descend intot he scrotum thet connected to the abdominal coelom via the inguinal canal. In other mammals, the testes were remain in

Spermatophore consistS of a cap of sperm on top of gelatinous pedestal. the male posses a pair of intromittent organ as hemipenis. the muscle and hemotumescence force each hemipenis through the . armadillos) or descend into the muscular pouch but not a true scrotum (most rodents. sperm transfer is external and involves a spermatophore but the fertilization is internal. chimaeras. then it can be penetrates into the female. and shaped the sulcus spermaticus into a duct that receive and transfer sperm from each vas deferens. male turtles and male crocodiles have single penis. but it remains with the cloaca nad does not protrude in the female crocodile In lizard and snakes. The erection that achieved by blood infiltration is called hemotumescence. The male grasp female (amplexus) and the sperm release as the egg leave the female cloaca. the spermatophores are stored in the dorsal pocket of the cloaca. In the teleost. The penis of the crocodile is similar like the turtles except it is longer and farther from the cloaca. the sperm than shed simultaneously from the body into the water where fertilization occurs.the body cavity (elephants.  Copulatory organ In most water dwelling animal the fertilization is external. Each hemipenis is usually proved to allow sperm transport. the male evert the posterior part of his cloaca through the vent and fits it into the female cloaca to aid sperm transfer In male shark. In almost frog. During erection. squirrell) (Kardong. It erect while the special compartment of the penis was filled with blood or lymph. There is a rudimentary homologous penis in the female crocodile and also turtle. In the salamander. When engorge wih blood the corpora cavernosa enlarge and and protrude the penis from the cloacal wall through the vent. When not in use the penis is usually flaccid and may be retracted into the cloacal chamber. and rays the pelvic fins are classified as claspers. the fertilization is external. hyenas) or only descend in the breeding season (chipmunks. During copulation one clasper is inserted into the female cloaca and the terminal cartilages will spread to hold the clasper in place. the midventral penis consists of two parallel bands sinusoidal tissue the corpora cavernosa. logomorph. Some bird. killfish the anal and pelvic fins are interlock during spawning as gametesrelease. the spermatheca until they are release to fertilized eggs internally as ova travel from the oviduct and out the cloaca. some of teleost also have gonopodium that deposite sperm into the female during copulation. In the caecilians. 2002). The spermatophore is deposited in front of the female at the culmination of the stylized courtship. sperm should fertilize the egg before it descends from the oviduct. In the turtle. Before released. the spermatheca. Sperm enter a groove of the clasper and flushed by the water squirted from the siphon sacs within the body wall of the male into the female cloaca. When fertilization is internal. The spermatophores are stored in the dorsal pocket of the cloaca. mammals. The female nips the spermatophore with the lip of her cloaca to gather with the sperm. It is rough on its tip to ensure secure engagement when the male inserts it to the female cloaca.

When copulation occurs. the penis shaped conical and wide at the base. It bears a sulcus spermaticus along its lengthin the ducks. only one hemipenis inserted into the female cloaca (Kardong. 2002). turning it outside out—evagination. 2002). The erection is by filled the internal chamber with the lymph fluid because the lymphatic channels within the penis connects to the chamber. This layered was covered by tunica vaginalis. the tunica albuuginea which is composed by white dense fibrous connective tissue. B. the sulcus spermaticus spiraling along the tapering shaft. a chamber that receives both uteri (Kardong. Both of these membranes are serous membrane. In the turkey male and female cloaca are pressed together at copulation. Histologic Structure of The Male Reproductive System The testes are closed by capsule. Most of mammals have a single penis. In the carnivore. ejaculated sperm moves into each lateral vagina and then gathered in the vaginal sinus. the penis is forked to fit the vaginal of the male which has 2 lateral vaginas. The male ostrich posses a true erectile penis. A vascular layer are present in the tunica . In the birds. there is a os penis or bacculum—a permanent bone within the connective muscle to stiff the penis. As a result. while the retractor penis return it outside in the body—invagination.cloaca and balloon it out through the vent. there are two types of copulation. In the marsupials.

The rete testis consists of randomly anastomotic tubules. in most species it is at the pole of the testis surround the rete testis. This gland secretes white serous fluid. There are 3 ducts at the testes. the efferent ducts. The tubulus seminiferus were lined by stratified epithelium which consists of basal. serve a vehicle for transporting a spermatozoa within the female tract. The ductus epidydimis with associated connective tissue and muscle forms the head. activated the spermatozoa. lined by intermittently kinociliated columnar epithelium to assist the movement of the spermatozoa toward the larger ductus. This gland secrete a seminal fluid that rich in fructose which is used as an energy source by ejaculated spermatozoa. clear the urethral tract before ejaculation. the sertoli cell assist in the developing of the gametes. bulbourethral glands. The most primitive cells (immature cells) are located near the basement membrane (basilar compartment) while the tails of developing spermatozoa protrudes at the lumen of the tubules. In the swine and ruminant are compact glandula structures. In the bull it might be bicuboidal stratified epithelium. . The stratified cells consist of spermatogonia. The asseccory glands of the male include ampullary glands. The ampulla is only present in the ruminant. The gametes located within the smooth endoplasmic reticular which surrounds by the sertoli cells completely. The interstitial cells (leydig cells) were found within the areolar connective tissue and responsible to release testosterone and androgen . The later continue as ductus deferens.vaginalis. spermatids. dog. The vesicular glands are absent in carnivore. The lobuli testis consists of tubulus contortus and tubulus recti. and tail of the epidydimis. secondary spermatocyt. in the stallion the smooth muscle may be present. prostate glands. this gland was vesicular outpocketings. The septuli testis divide tistis into lobules called lobuli testis. vesicular glands. cuboid. In the horse. Together. primary spermatocyt. The tubuli recti and the rete testis are lined by squamous. The ductus efferentes connect the rete testis with the ductus epidydimis. body. columnar epithelium. and urethral glands. and horses. intermediate and superficial zones. Ampulla is an enlargement of the ductus deferens. The tunica albuginea is continuous with the areolar connestive tissue of the mediastinum testis. and spermatozoa. The ductus deferense have highly folded tunica mucosa and submocosa and lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium. these secretions will give a nourishment for the spermatozoa. and deferent duct. epidydimis duct. In the bull. basal accumulation of the lipid droplet may be apparent. It lined by pseudostratified stereociliated columnar epithelium.

Cut the testicles off with a knife. This causes them to shrivel up and in to the scrotum. Use a Burdizzo on calves that are older than two months old.and the glans. The bulbourethralis or cowper’s gland are paired and located dorsolaterally to the pelvic urethane. This bagel-shaped band cuts off the supply of blood to the testicles and scrotum causing them to shrivel and fall off. The secretion of these glands increases the spermatozoa motility. Press one testicle against the scrotum of the bull then make a slice in the bottom of the scrotum the size of the testicle. Use a spreading tool to place an elastrator between the body and the scrotum of the calf. C. If the swelling does not go down then unseal the cuts and squeeze the scrotum from the top to the bottom to remove the clotted blood inside. . or the testes and therefore it applied to the female as well as the male. gonads. Castration The castration means the removal of the ovaries. the secretory are high in fructose and citric acid. You must be experienced to use this method. the bogy. Monitor the bull for several days. The mucus of these glands serves to clear urethrae and may serves as an energy source for ejaculated spermatozoa. Band a bull who is younger than two months old.The corpus of the prostate glands is developed in the carnivores and horse while the disseminalis is developed in the bull and boar. the roots. In the bull. Expect that the scrotum will swell to about twice the previous size for a short time. Radical remove extirpates the gametes leaving an individual infertile. 1981). The carnivores and horse penis are vascular type and the ruminant and boar is a fibrous penis type (Banks. The penis is divide into 3 zones. This is a clamp style device that smashes the cords and blood vessels to the testicles. Drain out the blood then slice the membrane around the testicle and pop it out. There are several steps in a bull castration Step 1 Castrate your bull in the winter when flies are not a problem. Flies can cause the wounds from the castration to become infected.

J. W.html Kardong. Applied Veterinary Histology. Mc Graw Hill Banks. 3rd edition. New York. 1981. 2002. USA. Inc .uga.edu/LAM/teaching/mueller/castration/default. V. Mosby. How to peform Castration. Vertebrates. function. E. K. Available on http://www. comparative. and development.vet.Literatur Cited Mueller.

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