CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter deals mainly with related studies and literature

of this research paper. It consists of foreign literature, foreign studies, local literature and local studies.

Foreign Literature Fleck (1995), states parents have way of seeming like the cozy living room chair simply because they have been a part of your life for so long. You fail to see them as adults with a life of their own are addition of being there and your parents. If you have been never thought about it in just way before, you may discover some unusual facts about the kind of human being they are. Try to look at your mother and father calmly and clearly as an individual. They have feelings, opinions, right and privileges like anybody else and these should be respected. Capelli (2000), mentioned since we have grown, we left behind those first words we uttered. We now speak with ease and express freely what we want. We stop falling on the ground. We no longer reach out mom’s and dad’s fingers. We began doing and moving things by ourselves. Walking, dressing, eating and studying. We have a chance to make some choices and decisions for ourselves. We are growing because we are alive. We are full of life. Our being alive enables us to do many things by ourselves. We are happy to have a life. We are happy that we are surrounded by people that are alive. According to McDevitt and Ormrod (2002), economic status is one of the largest external influences on a child’s development. The income of a parent or parents directly influences the quality of care and quality of life a child has. Children living in

impoverished or low-income situations have their share of reasons for feel sad, fearful or angry. These children are, often times, more prone to emotional difficulties than other children because parents have limited resources to address the children’s needs and may discipline inconsistently. However, gaining higher economic status does not guarantee better child development. Middle-income parents are likely to project their own aspirations onto their children expecting their children to follow unrealistic development timetables. When the children fail to live up to these aspirations, parents may become critical, overly directive or even controlling. Nevertheless, parental employment will fulfil the basic needs of a child with the income earned, parents can generally afford to provide food, clothing and shelter, making employment a necessity. Every child has certain material needs and income is required to meet those needs. In some families, one parents work and in others, both parents work. In the United States, the majority of parents are employed. Of married couples with children under eighteen, both parents are employed in about two-thirds of families. U.S Department of Health and Services (2006), said that in 1990’s the majority of children started their non-parental care by the age of six months. These children spent an average of 27 hours per week in the care of extended family, center-based care or other systems. Between six months and two years of age, children were places in center-based care. Extended family members are typically capable of providing a similar loving relationship a child needs in his/her development to that of a parent. However, development differs when a child is placed in center-based care or daycare. Levinger (2000) statics shows on the reasons why couple file for divorce reveal a similar pattern. Lower class couple are more likely to complain of lack of financial support, physical cruelty; middle class couples of mental incompatibility.

Foreign Studies According to Mossalem E.t. AI. (1990), the results of their studies, students who are emotionally closer with their family, tend to be more successful in their academic performance. It should be noted, however, for unhealthy families, it is difficult to determine if “dysfunctional” family relationship lead to poor school performance or family relationship. According to Professor Smith (2000), from the Australian National Universities Department of Demography and Social Researchers, said fathers were becoming rearing method, but the study sought underlying reason for conflict beneath these issues. According to Bream & Buchanan (2003), distress among children whose separated and divorce parents cannot agree arrangement for them. This paper, based on large study of children and their parents who were subjects of a welfare report for the court following parental separated and divorce highlight the very high levels of closeness the children involved. Hartley Healy (2006) said that the legal separation is that couples do not have divorced but would like to live apart and decide on money, property and parenting issues. Couples sometimes choose splitting up for spiritual reasons. Sunli (2002) compared the physiological well-being of adolescent prior to and subsequent to their parent’s divorces, student’s well-being was measured in terms of educational achievement, educational aspiration, self-esteem and locus of control.

Local Literature Basbas (1997) mentioned also that it is responsibility of parents to provide for the basic needs of their children, to give them care, love and affection, and to make decision for their welfare. They have the right to discipline them, so that they will become responsible members and citizens of the community. The children have the right to be born, to bee clothed, fed and be provided with shelter. They have the right for education. They have the right to be guided and be understood as they go through their stages of development. Home Management and basic 1 explained that being a parent is not easy because there are many responsibilities that go with it. In the Philippines, we have laws that specifically define the rights and duties of parents. Parents have the right to the company of their children as well as the right to form relations with all persons and institutions that are involve in the development of their children. Parents have the duty to provide the child with affection, companionship and understanding. They should give him/her moral guidance and religious instructions as well as supervise his/her activities. Alanza (1991) said something about giving the child the place and time for study. He stated that the learned in school always has activities that have to be done at home. The child is instructed on how to go about doing them but if parents have not provided him an appropriate place for study and the conditions for learning, the extension of learning activities from school to home will fail. Lets (2008) kids of divorces have low self esteem. Kids in this situation are emotionally disturbed, confused of what to do, and have so much pain and resentment. They avoid to join or mingle with other children. Lack of participation in school activities especially if parents are involved. The pain of seeing kids with both parents supporting

them is hard to handle for children of divorced parents, they need people who can love, accept and understand them for what they have been through. Fernandez (1992) further explained the road to a happy relationship with your mother and father is to appreciate them as people. Perhaps, mother is proud of their cooking and the meals she serves. But you refuses too much and you enjoy hamburgers just as well or maybe father enjoy pottering around in the garden and it sum silly to you. They work hard and these activities are important to them as your own activities are to you. It may be their way of being creative.

Local Studies Daggon (1993) mentioned also that single parenthood is a difficult role. It involves facing problems and hardships so that the family life will be happy striking. He/she will play the role of both father and mother. Although a single parent should act as a disciplinarian at home. It’s also a responsibility of a single parent to provide for the basic needs such as food, clothing, shelter, education and love. Asuncion (1998) identified parenthood involves facing problems and understandings. So that family life will be happy and satisfying. It requires love, patience, understanding and emotional stability. The good future of a child and his/her prospects of becoming a responsible citizen lie in the hands of the parents. The factors to be consider in preparing for parenthood are home, religion and education. Cruz (1993) stated that family life can be improved or harmed with the way parents set the example, teach and mold right conduct and attitudes in their children early in life good manners, right conduct, loyalty and self control is a parent’s primary

obligation. And then should be done at an age when relationships are formed and values are learned and practiced. Ong (2000), presently we are seeing more and more diverse configurations of families brought about by changes in social realities. Our generation has changed a lot. There are more couples who are divorcing. They choose to part ways rather than taking care of their children together. As a result, many children today stepsiblings because their parents met other wife or husband. As their population grow in a family, their needs are larger and there are things that they should sacrifice. This things could affect their children’s attitude. According to the study entitled, Family Influence on the Lifestyle of Filipino Youth, written by Cruz GT, Laguna EP and Raymundo CM, families still predominate but a substantial proportion of alternative family type suggests a growing number of Filipino youth who will not be reared under the guidance of both parents.

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